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62 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No.

4 • Fall 2007

Sports Journalists Who Blog


Cling to Traditional Values
by Brad Schultz and Mary Lou Sheffer

Sports journalists who blog as part of their jobs


reveal little, if any, change of commitment to
traditional journalism values. Most respondents
consider reporting as central to their work and
blogging as limited in value.

N ew media technologies continue to change the collection, distribution


and editing of media content, along with audience access and consumption.
The interactivity of the online experience means that media consumers have
much more power in choosing, shaping and responding to media content. As a
consequence, traditional mass media such as newspapers and television stations
have invested heavily in Internet platforms, and online editors have embraced
the interactive, participatory nature of the medium to encourage user partici-
pation and personalization.1 Newspapers must get involved with digital and
Internet delivery to attract media users and compete with other sources.2
Pavlik and McIntosh3 argue that because of recent changes in mass com-
munication technology, communications professionals will change the way
they do their jobs. However, others would argue that despite technological
changes, mass media behavior has not changed that much. From a historical
perspective, Sigal4 notes that the introduction of new technologies has never
drastically altered journalistic work patterns, which are still stuck “in the 17th
century.” Deuze5 confirms that journalists have been slow to let go of the “we
write, you read” dogma of modern journalism.
The purpose of this study was to assess if and how newspaper practices
are changing in regard to new developments and technologies. There are a
variety of ways in which to measure change, including management practices,

__________________________________________

Schultz is an assistant professor in the Department of Journalism at the University


of Mississippi, and Sheffer is an assistant professor in the College of Mass
Communications at Texas Tech University.
Schultz and Sheffer: Sports Journalists Who Blog Cling to Traditional Values - 63

ownership, economics and content distribution. This particular study focused


on change in terms of journalism practice and function. How much, if at all,
does a new technology or innovation change the way newspaper journalists
do their jobs? What is the extent of that change? Those questions were applied
to one of the fastest growing new areas in media, the Web blog.

Literature Review
Nardi, Schiano, Gumbrecht and Swartz6 define a Web blog or blog as a
Web-based form of communication that includes frequent updates and a series
of archived entries made in reverse chronological order. Blogs often provide
commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics or local news
and many have challenged the traditional media in regard to disseminating news
and information. Forbes magazine publisher Karlgaard7 argues that blogging
challenges the mainstream media in that blog sites can become popular niche
offerings. Hull8 says because blogs generate so much comment and attention
from readers they can drive more traffic to newspaper Web sites.
As a result, the traditional media have begun incorporating the practice as
part of their Internet content, with reporters and other staff members serving
as bloggers. There is a bowling blog at the San Antonio Express-News, while The
Commercial Appeal in Memphis has a blog on pets.9 At the News & Observer in
Raleigh, public editor Ted Vaden says the newspaper expanded its stake from
a half-dozen blogs in 2005 to 18 a year later.10
If newspapers are becoming more involved in blogging, the trend could
suggest a change in work roles and duties for these journalist-bloggers. Gillmor11
notes that reporters are trained to keep their own feelings out of their content
and typically maintain an objective distance. Blogging requires a personal, sub-
jective voice on the part of the blogger. Although most bloggers do not conduct
interviews or document sources,12 their work often provides traditional reporters
with valuable tips and information. Kate Nash, a reporter for the Albuquerque
Tribune in New Mexico, says:

[Blogs] are changing the way we cover [stories]. If it’s a good tip, I know my day
might include an hour or two of casting about for the same [information].13

In their case study, Dylko and Kosicki14 found that journalists use informa-
tion from the blogosphere and that blogs could successfully push stories into
the media agenda. Lowrey and Mackay15 found blogs have affecteded the way
journalists practice their profession, including reporting, using blogs as news
sources and making decisions about the newsworthiness of events.
But in his study of the effect of new technologies on news reporting, Reich16
found a strong trend of continuity. According to Reich:
64 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No. 4 • Fall 2007

Despite major changes in the means of news information production, there are
relatively minor changes in the journalistic methodology of production.17

Singer18 observed that journalists were resistant to the change associated


with new technologies because of ingrained habits and skills. This supports
Daniels and Hollifield,19 who found that newsroom professionals react to change
with resistance and negativity. Giles20 argued that journalists resist change
because it threatens traditions and news routines. In their case study of new
management strategies at the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Gade and Perry21 noted
that journalists did not evaluate the changes as positive, although they had a
greater stake in managerial decisions.
Similar to the introduction of other new technologies, many media outlets
have begun blogging without knowing exactly how to do it or even how to
define it. According to liability lawyer Chad Milton:

I think publishers are having a little bit of a hard time figuring out what is
different about a blog, and do you treat it differently.22

Reporters have also struggled to figure out what goes in a blog and how
to manage it effectively. As a result, they recycle existing material, which sim-
ply reinforces existing work practices. Research from Schultz23 and Downes
and McMillan24 shows that as the traditional media have moved online, they
choose to repurpose existing material rather than develop new strategies for
interactivity and personalization.

Theoretical Background
Much of the theoretical research on blogs and blogging relates to uses and
gratifications. Many scholars have applied Goffman’s25 rituals of social inter-
action and self presentation to help explain why people blog. Nardi, Schiano,
Gumbrecht and Swartz26 found a wide range of motivations for blogging,
including expressing deeply felt emotions, forming community forums and
documenting one’s life. Kim27 determined that bloggers played active roles as
information providers and communicators in the participatory media.
From the journalists’ perspective, according to McLuhan’s28 technological
determinism, blogs should have a large impact in terms of social and cultural
change. Specifically, McLuhan saw a culture in which new technology would
create a fusion of existing media into a different media hybrid. The birth of this
new form should have a corresponding effect on media practice and perfor-
mance. Trammell and Keshelashvili29 noted that 51 percent of journalists now
read blogs, and 53 percent get story ideas or sources from them. Pavlik30 also
argued that new technology alters the sociology of news production, primarily
by encouraging journalists to move beyond the traditional norms of objectivity.
Schultz and Sheffer: Sports Journalists Who Blog Cling to Traditional Values - 65

Such changes seem plausible, given the nature and content of blogs.
However, Rogers’31 diffusion theory suggests that older journalists are more
likely to lag behind in implementing new media technologies such as blogging.
This could also include active resistance to changes brought about by blogging.
If journalists’ habits and practices are ingrained over a long period of time,
change would be extremely difficult.

Research Questions and Method


Although the relevant communication theories are well established, their
application to blogging is unknown and therefore the theories continue to
evolve. Thus, in this exploratory study it was more appropriate to use research
questions instead of hypotheses:

RQ1:
For journalists involved in blogging, what specific activities does that
require?

RQ2:
For journalists involved in blogging, how have work roles changed in terms
of gathering, reporting and writing content?

RQ3:
For journalists involved in blogging, what is their perception of the impact
of these changes, both for themselves as individual journalists and the profes-
sion as a whole?

RQ4:
For journalists involved in blogging, what is their perception of how their
work in blogging is affecting their audiences?

RQ5:
Are there significant differences in terms of media outlet or reporter demo-
graphics in regard to changing work roles and/or reporter perceptions?

The research questions were applied to newspapers at the local level, where
journalists’ work habits and patterns have become established over a period of
time. Local reporters were chosen to assess the impact of change at the grass-
roots level. It was also determined to focus the study on sports reporters and
journalists. Sports is one of the top three categories of blogging, along with
politics and entertainment.32 The blogger demographic (mostly male, white and
18-29 years old) is the same demographic associated with heavy sports media
consumption.33 Sports has also grown tremendously on the Internet, both in
terms of content available and revenue generated.34
66 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No. 4 • Fall 2007

Related to social networking theory and interaction, sports is also a good


area of study because blogging is essentially a technological extension of sports
talk radio. Sports talk radio has succeeded because of its ability to create a social
community through discussion and engagement.35 It, and by extension, blog-
ging, has replaced the local bar as the center of sport community for countless
audience members.36 As such, sports engenders the passion and commentary
associated with blogging.
The research questions were tested through a convenience sample of local
newspaper sports journalists currently involved in blogging. For the purposes of
the study, blog was defined as
a type of website produced by
a sports media outlet in which
commentaries and/or opinions
from both local sports journal- In the rush to get
ists and audience members are
displayed in a diary fashion. material on the Internet,
A key feature was feedback blogs are often unedited
and interaction with audience
members, which eliminated and contain contributions
several outlets that hosted a from readers that are
forum or billboard (forums
and billboards allow audience factually incorrect,
members to contribute opin- which many respondents
ions with no journalist input). A
professional journalist associ-
see as a direct threat to
ated with the local newspaper responsible journalism.
had to be making contributions
to the blog.
The researchers used Inter-
net sources37 to identify local
newspapers. When these news-
papers were investigated, it was determined that 462 sports journalists at 143
newspapers were blogging at the time of the study. The second week of January
2007 these reporters were sent an electronic mail message inviting them to take
part in the study and directing them to the Web address for the online question-
naire. The online questionnaire specifically addressed the research questions in
that it asked reporters what they did for their blogs, their perceptions of how
much their work roles had changed, what specific changes had taken place and
their perceptions of the impact of blogging on their profession.
Although the use of online surveys still possesses some reliability issues,
given the nature of the study, it seemed the most appropriate method of data
collection. Some journalists either had no discernible e-mail address or blocked
the reception of e-mails from unknown senders. Those 15 journalists were in-
vited to take part by postal mail. Initial returns indicated that seven respondents
Schultz and Sheffer: Sports Journalists Who Blog Cling to Traditional Values - 67

did not fit the parameters of the study and five no longer worked at the media
outlet. This reduced the sample to 450.
Follow-up e-mail reminders were sent to the participants three weeks after
the initial invitation. Data collection was cut off the third week of February.
Final response was 28 percent (124 total responses).

Results
Respondents were asked how involved they were in blogging using a scale of
1 to 5, where 1 represented “no involvement” in blogging and 5 represented “total
involvement.” The middle position (3) indicated a neutral response. Therefore,
a one-sample t-test with 4 as the point of reference was used to test whether a
significant difference exists between respondents who indicated involvement
(responses 4 and 5) versus those with no involvement (responses 1 and 2). The
standard significant alpha of p < .05 was used for all statistical tests within this
study. The lack of statistical difference (t (123) = -1.58, p = .12) from this point
of reference (M = 3.89, SD = .80) suggested respondents were involved.
Most respondents indicated that the idea for their blogging originated with
management (52 percent), followed by themselves (27 percent) and someone
else in their department (15 percent). This was important because there were
significant dif-
ferences between
Table 1
the group moti- Demographic Breakdown Of Respondents
vated by man-
agement and oth-
er groups. The Category Respondents Percentage
group motivated
Gender Male 98
by management Female 2
was more like-
ly than other Size of media outlet Small 4
groups to view Medium 39
Large 57
lack of blog train-
ing as a problem, Years of professional experience 0-4 years 10
F (4, 98) = 2.30, 5-9 years 22
p < .05; was less 10-19 years 33
likely to believe >20 years 35
that blogging Hours per week respondents use
had made them the Internet outside of work 0-1 hours 6
better journalists, 2-10 hours 40
F (4, 94) = 3.82, p 11-19 hours 24
>20 hours 29
< .002; was less
likely to perceive Note. Size of media outlet was defined as small (under 25,000 circulation),
positive blogger medium (25,001-99,999 circulation) and large (circulation >100,000).
feedback, F (4, (N = 124)
68 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No. 4 • Fall 2007

116) = 3.25, p < .01; and was less likely to believe that blogging had increased
audience size, F (4, 114) = 3.34, p < .01. A Scheffe test confirmed that differences
between the groups were significant at the .05 level for the variables of better
journalists, positive blogger feedback and increased audience size.
In terms of the demographics of respondents, one area was heavily over-
represented in that responses from men was 98 percent compared to 2 percent
for women. However, this response was consistent with the census, in which 97
percent were male and 3 percent female. But because so few females responded
(2), it was not practical to use gender as a variable in the analysis. Other response
categories included years of professional experience, size of media outlet, pri-
mary sports covered and the number of hours respondents used the Internet
outside of work. [See Table 1]
For RQ1, respondents were asked to rank their duties associated with blog-
ging in terms of which was most frequent. Editing submissions to a blog site
and producing/overseeing a site were the most frequently ranked top choices
(45 total responses each), followed by putting breaking news on a blog site (43),
updating scores on a blog site (33) and then putting commentary on the blog
(32) and engaging in conversation with audience members (28). Respondents
gave several items the same rank.
When considering RQ2, the respondents indicated their work roles changed
very little. Respondents were asked to assess how much their work roles had
changed in several areas. Their responses were based on a 1 to 5 scale where 1
represented “no change” and 5 represented “total change.” The position of 3.5 rep-
resented the middle ground between “some change” and “a lot of change.”
For each category, the means were significantly lower than the point of
reference, suggesting little if any change. This included time spent on the job,
t (107) = -15.55, p < .001; the way journalists cover events, t (95) = -15.20, p <
.001; the way they write stories, t (75) = -12.92, p < .001; the way stories are
researched, t (60) = -14.23, p < .001; the way interviews are conducted, t (53) =
-15.67, p < .001; dealing with story sources, t (55) = -15.11, p < .001; increases to
commentary and/or opinion, t (112) = -4.53, p < .001 and perceived changes to
overall job duties, t (122) = -5.86, p < .001. (The degrees of freedom varied highly
for this variable due to inconsistent response). It is worth noting that even at a
lower benchmark level of 3 (some change), almost all of the p values were still
significant at the .05 level. The only exception was increase to commentary/
opinion, t (112) = 1.09, p = .28.
Since respondents did not perceive much change to their work roles, their
perception of the impact of these changes was also minimal (RQ3). Respondents
were asked various questions to assess the impact of blogging using a 1 to 5
scale, where 1 represented “totally disagree,” 3 represented “neutral” and 5
represented “totally agree.” To test significant differences between respondents
who agree (responses 4 and 5) versus those who disagree (responses 1 and 2),
a one-sample t-test was used with 3.5 as the point of reference. It was chosen
because it signifies agreement as it was above the neutral position.
Schultz and Sheffer: Sports Journalists Who Blog Cling to Traditional Values - 69

The negative t values and significance levels to these questions suggested


very minimal impact. Respondents were asked if they thought blogging made
an important contribution to their sports coverage, t (117) = -8.53, p < .001; if
blogging could eventually replace traditional sports journalism, t (66) = -13.07,
p < .001; if the role of blogging in sports journalism would increase in the future,
t (117) = -4.21, p < .001; and if blogging had made them better journalists, t (98)
= -13.34, p < .001. Again, even at a lower reference point of 3 (the exact neutral
position), almost all p values were still significant at a substantially lower al-
pha of p < .001. This did not include the role of blogging in sports journalism
increasing in the future, t (117) = 1.71, p < .05.
Similarly, respondents did not believe their blogging had much impact on

Table 2
Comparison Of Responses Based On Years Of Experience

Variable t M M M difference
<10 years >10 years

Worried about effect


on credibility -2.61 1.63 2.25 -.62**

Offensive posts
are a problem -2.11 1.76 2.23 -.47*

Blogger posts
are unreliable -1.64 2.28 2.62 -.34*

Colleges should
train bloggers -1.70 2.12 2.51 -.39*

Blogging has
made me
a better
journalist 1.04 2.32 2.11 -.22

Blogging makes
an important
contribution
to our coverage 0.88 2.82 2.64 .18

Note. Results based on independent samples t-test comparing group with 10 or more years
experience with the group that had nine years or fewer. Questions were asked on a 1 to 5 scale
with 1 representing the most negative response (no change, no involvement,
trongly disagree, etc.) and 5 representing the most positive response (total change, total
involvement, strongly agree, etc.).

*p < .05
**p < .01
N = 124
70 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No. 4 • Fall 2007

their audiences (RQ4). Using the same 1 to 5 scale where 1 represented “totally
disagree” and 5 represented “totally agree,” respondents were asked several
questions related to their audiences. One-sample t-test results using the same
reference point of 3.5 returned significant differences. Respondents were asked
if their blogging had increased the size of their audiences, t (118) = -11.83, p <
.001; if their blogging audiences were different than their traditional audiences, t
(110) = -12.11, p < .001; if their blogging audience also consumed their traditional
media content, t (115) = -12.65, p < .001; and if their blogging audience came
from outside their traditional coverage area, t (115) = -11.22, p < .001. Again,
even when the neutral position of 3 was used as a reference point, all p values
were still significant at the .001 alpha level.
When looking at the questions of how work roles have changed and attitudes
toward those changes, there were few significant differences for the demographic
factors of outlet size, type of sports covered and hours per week spent on the
Internet (RQ5). However, there were important differences when considering
years of professional experience. Previous research38 involving professional
experience has used the dividing line between nine years or fewer and 10 years
or more. Respondents with more than 10 years of professional experience were
more likely to say management motivated their blogging activities compared
to other groups, c2 (4, N = 124) = 7.51, p = .05. There were other questions on
which the differences between this more experienced group and the group with
fewer than than 10 years professional experience were significant. [See Table 2]
The group with more than 10 years of experience was more likely to be worried
about issues related to credibility, ethics and training and less likely to perceive
that blogging had made a positive contribution to their media outlet or made
them a better journalist.

Discussion
The data suggested very little change in journalists’ work roles because of
blogging and a negative attitude about blogging on the part of the respondents.
This negative attitude was fairly consistent, both in terms of qualitative and
quantitative responses, which suggests that respondents were actively resist-
ing any possible changes associated with blogging. As noted, the majority of
respondents began their blogging at the suggestion of management, and their
attitude toward blogging in several areas was significantly more critical than
was the attitude of other respondent groups. “I would not participate in sports
blogging if it wasn’t required by management,” said one respondent. “I prefer
to focus on my actual reporting duties.”39
According to another respondent, “Lots of it is mindless. I do it because I
have to.”40
This comment reflected an attitude common to many respondents that
blogging was superficial and not “real journalism.” Part of that criticism comes
from the fact that blogs are not treated the same way as other media content. In
Schultz and Sheffer: Sports Journalists Who Blog Cling to Traditional Values - 71

the rush to get material on the Internet, blogs are often unedited and contain
contributions from readers that are factually incorrect, which many respon-
dents see as a direct threat to responsible journalism. “I think [the] practice
of hearsay journalism is creeping into the mainstream,” said one journalist.
“Hopefully, the traditional media can get a grip on blogging and gravitate back
to substance.”41
Another respondent noted, “Editors want three or four people to read
something before it gets in the paper, but don’t care that no one reads anything
before it goes online.”42
But the strongest response came from a veteran journalist:

It’s the worst kind of insidious, stupid-creep to have ever infected our profes-
sion. Blogging blurs the lines between journalism and pajama-wearing nitwits
sitting in their mothers’ basements firing off bile-filled opinions. Newspaper
editors and managers sit around at meetings and wonder why their circula-
tion is falling and they have themselves to blame for lowering all of us into
the foul-smelling muck of the blogworld.43

The last part of this statement reflects a strong belief on the part of the
respondents that media managers rushed into blogging without a better un-
derstanding of how it works or a dedication of resources to make it effective.
One respondent noted:

Our management has a unique take on blogging—‘do it, but don’t expect us
to check it, read it or even edit it very closely.’ That has been frustrating.44

Another respondent commented:

It’s a new field and there is a huge learning curve. Although management
wants blogging, they do not market it well. Why bother doing it if they won’t
let people know it’s happening?45

Although the quantitative data did not suggest that time spent on blogging
was an important issue, some respondents viewed blogging as just another
way management could get them to do more work for the same money. One
journalist added:

I bet 95 percent of sportswriters who have been forced to blog don’t get paid
an extra penny for doing it. That means we’ve added an extra story per day
… with no raise at all.46

Hull notes:
72 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No. 4 • Fall 2007

In an era of dwindling resources, shrinking staffs and buyouts, few newsrooms


have the time or the bodies to edit the avalanche of online content. Editing
blogs, with their constant updating and reader comments, adds another two-
ton pile of work.47

The results of the study are better explained by diffusion rather than tech-
nological determinism. There appeared to be active resistance to blogging,
especially from the older, more experience respondents. One journalist with
more than 20 years experience called blogging “a waste of time,” while another
said that “it has no relation to journalism.”48
One respondent from this group noted:

I believe the same profound, immutable guidelines I follow in writing for our
print edition also apply to my blogs. I guess that qualifies me as a relic.49

That older journalists may share this attitude was recognized by a younger
respondent, who said:

Perceptions of blogging are a microcosm of the perceptions traditional or


‘old school’ editors [have]. The editors are often dismissive, as are veteran
sportswriters, viewing blogging as a cheapened, fast-food substitute for real
journalism.50

The response of the study was heavily influenced by older, more experienced
journalists. As these people retire from the scene it could affect the findings, and
it may be that technological determinism may yet prove to be a better fit.

Limitations and Future Research


An obvious limitation to the study was the somewhat low (28 percent) re-
sponse, which raises questions about reliability and generalizability. Every effort
to increase response was made, including follow-up phone calls. However, the
researchers believe that because the response was almost directly proportional
to the census population, generalization is possible. In addition, news managers
and journalists tend to act mimetically,51 so the habits of these respondents who
blog could be applied to local newspaper journalists in general.
There are also questions about using the Internet as a source for creating
the census. It may be that some newspapers were not included in the Internet
listing. However, every medium and large circulation paper was accounted for
in the listing and the links for those newspapers were correct. If a newspaper
was too small to have an Internet presence, it was obviously not going to be
involved in blogging.
It is also important to remember that the study is based on the responses
Schultz and Sheffer: Sports Journalists Who Blog Cling to Traditional Values - 73

of sports journalists, which may not be applicable to the journalist-blogger


population as a whole. However, even though sports content is specialized
and obviously distinct from news content, there is no reason to believe that the
results of the study apply only to sports journalists. An obvious area of future
research would be to expand the study to include general news journalists.
Because the results of the study seemed to point to the importance of manage-
ment in blogging, that is also a logical area for future research. A questionnaire
aimed at editors, news directors and other media managers could help expand
upon the results found here, especially in terms of why outlets are blogging and
what value they perceive from it. One of the few areas in which respondents
noted any change at all was a possible increase in commentary and/or opinion.
A follow-up or case study in this area would be interesting.

Conclusions
Almost everyone in the media industry admits that blogging is changing the
nature of information presentation and distribution. One respondent noted, “The
blog defies the traditional definitions that are the guts [of reporting]. It bends,
melds, expands and augments [traditional] newspaper staples.” So why does
that not correspond to changes in journalists’ work roles? The same respondent
continued, “It’s forcing newspaper content to evolve, but I feel it’s important
that newspapers retain their sturdy, reliable standards without tumbling into
a race to out-blog the bloggers.”52
Even as blogging changes content presentation and distribution, those
involved in it appear to be holding to more traditional notions of gathering,
writing and reporting that content. Some of these attitudes may be related to age
and experience. Others seem resistant to what they perceive as a management
directive aimed at getting them to produce more work without more pay. Much
of what is happening with blogging is coming at the direction of newspaper
managers and owners. Dan Conover, director of new media development for
the Charleston (SC) Post and Courier, wrote:

Media companies of late have been far more interested in adding new publi-
cations and products [without adding staff] than they’ve been in improving
quality. Squeeze your staff and production capabilities harder and get growth
out of new products.53

Perhaps even more important, many respondents did not perceive a value
in blogging, in terms of increasing audiences, contributing to their media
outlet or in their own professional development. It might be more correct to
say that even when journalists saw value in blogging, they believed that value
was offset by additional problems. “Blogging is a two-edged sword,” wrote a
sportswriter. “It creates the opportunity to provide more news content, [but] it
can create divisiveness and lack of accountability. To me, that will only increase
74 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No. 4 • Fall 2007

negativity to mainstream media.”54


This is not to suggest that there were no extremely positive responses to
blogging. Several respondents lauded its value, calling it “a win-win situation
for [us] and our readers,” “the ultimate form of interaction” and “not the future
anymore, but the present.”
That last comment makes an important point. If journalists’ resistance is
related to age and experience, blogs will become much more accepted as the
laggard group retires. That could lead to more changes in journalists’ work
roles. Even if that is not the case, blogs are here and they are not going away.
According to a veteran newspaper sportswriter:

We’ve been told that in order to survive we have to meld print and [blogging].
I don’t know if it will work, but it’s something that has to be explored.55

Notes
1. Jane B. Singer, “Stepping Back From the Gate: Online Newspaper Editors and the Co-
Production of Content in Campaign 2004,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 83, no. 2
(summer 2006): 265-280.
2. Merrill Morris and Christine Ogan, “The Internet as Mass Medium,” Journal of Communica-
tions 46, no. 1 (winter 1996): 39-50.
3. John Pavlik and Shawn McIntosh, Converging Media: An Introduction to Mass Communication,
(Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2004).
4. Leon V. Sigal, Reporters and Officials: The Organization and Politics of Newsmaking, (Lexington,
MA: D.C. Heath, 1973), 192.
5. Mark Deuze, “The Web and its Journalisms: Considering the Consequences of Different
Types of Media Online,” New Media & Society, no. 5 (spring 2003): 203-230.
6. Bonnie A. Nardi, Diane J. Schiano, Michelle Gumbrecht and Luke Swartz, “Why We Blog,”
Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, December 2004.
7. Richard Karlgaard, “My Life as a Blogger,” Forbes, 26 December 2005,< http://search.
forbes.com/search/ colArchiveSearch?author=rich+and+karlgaard &aname=Rich+Karlgaard&
date=2005>(12 October 2006).
8. Dana Hull, “Blogging Between the Lines,” American Journalism Review, December-January
2006/7, <http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4230>(13 February 2007).
9. Ibid.
10. “Blogs and the Law,” Editor & Publisher, 14 August 2006, <http://news.yahoo.com/s/
ep/20060814/en_bpiep/blogsandthelawexpertstips>(18 August 2006).
11. Dan Gillmor, “Bloggers Breaking Ground in Communication,” Global Issues, 29 March
2006, < http://0-web.lexis-nexis.com.umiss.lib.olemiss.edu/ universe/document?_m=eaa8481ae
5f7644d216d888e859 c774b&_docnum=38&wchp=dGLbVzb-zSkVb&_md5=58b0f4bebe266247d8
53ca3b3805dfc5>(12 September 2006).
12. Chris McGann, “Blogs, Journalism Have the Potential for Great Synergy,” Seattle Post-Intel-
legencer, 3 April 2006, sect. B, p. 3.
13. Kate Nash, “Blogs Have Changed the Way I Do My Job for the Better,” Albuquerque Tribune,
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14. Ivan Dylko and Gerald Kosicki, “Sociology of News and the New Media: How the Blogo-
sphere Transforms Journalism and Changes News,” (paper presented at AEJMC, San Francisco,
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15. Wilson Lowery and Jenn Mackay, “Journalism and Blogging: A Test Model of Occupational
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Competition,” (paper presented at AEJMC, San Francisco, 2006).


16. Zvi Reich, “New Technologies, Old Practices: The Conservative Revolution in Communica-
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17. Ibid, 564.
18. Jane B. Singer, “More than ink-stained wretches: The resocialization of print journalism
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19. George Daniels and C. Ann Hollifield, “Times of Turmoil: Short-and Long-term Effects
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20. Robert Giles, Newsroom Management: A Guide to Theory and Practice. (Detroit: Media Man-
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21. Peter Gade and Earnest Perry, “Changing the Newsroom Culture: A Four-Year Case Study
of Organizational Development at the St. Louis Post-Dispatch,” Journalism & Mass Communication
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22. “Blogs and the Law.”
23. Tanjev Schultz, “Mass Media and the Concept of Interactivity,” Media, Culture & Society
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25. Erving Goffman, Interaction Ritual. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1967).
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27. Eunseong Kim, “When the Public has the Press: An Analysis of Bloggers and their Blog-
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2006).
28. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. (New York: New American
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29. Kaye D. Trammell and Ana Keshelashvili, “Examining the New Influencers: A Self-Pre-
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968-982.
30. John Pavlik, Journalism and New Media. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).
31. Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed. (New York: Free Press, 1995).
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33. Walter Gantz and Lawrence A. Wenner, “Men, Women and Sports: Audience Experiences
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37. “U.S. Newspaper List,” < http://www.usnpl.com/>(8 September 2006).
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39. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire, Web-based survey distributed by
authors, January 2007.
40. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
41. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
42. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
76 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 28, No. 4 • Fall 2007

43. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.


44. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
45. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
46. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
47. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
48. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
49. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
50. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
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What You See Is What You Do,” Strategic Management Journal 19, no. 10 (fall 1998): 967-988.
52. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
53. Dan Conover, “Invest or Fail,” 15 December 2006,http://conovermedia.blogspot.com(7
January 2007).
54. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.
55. Anonymous, newspaper sports blogger questionnaire.