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U S MARINES AT ..
TWENTYNINE PALMS, CALIFORNLA
U.S. MARINES AT TWENTYNINE PALMS, CALIFORNIA
by Colonel Verle E. Ludwig U.S. Marine Corps (Retired)
HISTORY AND MUSEUMS DMSION
HEADQUARTERS,U S MARINE CORPS .. WASHINGTON,D.C.
T e mention of the Marine Corps Base at Taenrpnioc Palms once emked an imagc h of a tent city alongside a drp l a k bed in the middle of the oppressive Mojave Desert ofSouthern~mia Su&animagemighthavebc+nuucofthefimWtiesar;rblishcd in 1-2, when the Mvincs m o d up m the high desert fmm Csmp Rndlemn. 'Way, hwmcr. rhc dosc to 1.W-squan-mile Air Ground Combat Center at T-t y nine Rlrns & as one of the Corn' most modern mining Wtiu. Tbis d u m e is the second in the suits ofhimries covering major Ma+ Corps bvca and mining a n t e n Thehighly-personalizednarm&e nor only provides a general kry of the b but coves the $roatth of the surrounding community. , Ibe author ofrhis monograph, Colonel Vede E Ia~dwig. USMC &tired), is wdl q d fied m write a histoty of Twentynine Palms. Colonei Ludwig, a graduate of the University of Indiana with a degree in journalism and of George Washington University with a m d s degree in international affnirr was conmishned a xcond lieutenant in September 1964. During World WP( U, he joined the k Marine Division in the Russell Islands, and then as a rifle platoon leeder, participated in the Okinzwa Campaiign and North Chiaz occupation duty. His key a.signmeno zfar rejoining the Corps during the Korean War m e : Histod Writer, Hcadqwers U. 5. Marine Corps; Commanding OEeet, &wine BPnadrs, Hunters bin$ Commanding Officer, 1% Battalion, 9th Marines in Vieuram; Deputy ~~n OtFccr, MMC, Sai~aigon: A AV Marine chai~ Amphibious in Warfare, Naval War CoUege, Ncwpon, Uode Island and, in 1973, Chidof Staff and then Deputy Gommander, Marine Corps b e , Twentynine Palms. 61oncl Idwig has heen a ~c~ Ibr mvlg pus. He co-authd the fim wllune of the hirtory ofU. S. Marine Corps operatbns in World War 11, Peudlikbtw to &addd , written numcmus anides for both the lWsrire C o q s has and Lead~cmcd, and has authored soenl short stories. The author retired fmm actiw duty in 1975 and now k d e s in Twenqnine Palms, where he teaches a counc in writing at dloal deges. Hs history of Tmrynine i Palms was supported in part by a grant from the Mpcine Corps Hinorkal Foundation. In the purJuit of accumcy and objcxtiviq, the Hiswry and Museums ~itrision &onus c m e o on the b q f h m keq partiuparm. Matine Corps &ties, o mn and invrrsad individuals.
E. H. SIbUdONS Brigvdkr Gencml, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired) Direor of Marine Corps Histoty and Muscums
Tnrn~c~c~mmu~andmiliPry)rasc,usomcthingofimonnsort~ ofitp daett, and baausemost residents-into a levt the mid-1980s-sought t a d j ~ to the desert rather tiun m conquer ir. I hope this book cdweyssomethiq ofthc human quatitics of this uniquemss. My nsodridonwith the US. Maine Carps bue g o c ~ back to 1912, "the moment Of crcntion,"when the dmm training center as an o u t p t of Crimp Joseph H Pcndlnon . was in the mnlebutt stage dthe k down by O d d c and u a young captain wmmandingarifleannpany, Iauaeupmthcmnniningcentcrinthetwowc+b prior m Chrisrrmsof1952mtakcp~rtinthefirst bigenrdsewiththe 3dbkrincDivih then newly m-bmeda Pendletca. , t lo 1954at&adq&MvioeGps, sftezIhadtKeamwattimedutyinKom,
I&da~~saffpplbowTwcn~ePolrrrJ,forbu~o8ticerJto~uptohuringsonGpim1 W. Thacpapcaofminenuncdupina&ofmaurialtheMarine Cop$ History and Museums Division sent to me when 1 began tcsevch for this book, i 1983. n I mnuned m Twcnphe Palms, for an ofikini visit, in the evly 1 6 s when I then 90. C$econdednthere by the k s Madoe) c o d e d Automatic Supply Disuibut t tion Battalion. Fwcc Scmice Regiment, at P e n d l ~ nAmmunition Company was in that . batplion, and tcchicaUy w thcrebre "owned" the Nuclear Ordmnu Phtoon (NOP) thcnattheNOPdteatT~~Palms.huingthisnipIdirarrrcredthcNOPbnilding some distzlKe out in the desnt from mabide was "plagued" by aickrs wbich a p patently likcd the buildings air conditioning. and the htinics there had requisitioned
lo1973,Inwnedfor~cmduty,fimwbsscchiefofsaffwhcntbewmmanding g c d was B r i d e 1 G e n d William G. Joslyn, then u the assistant commander of the combiacd k - k r c e Top command nfvr the late Bxigadier C m d Warrace ro H. "Bud" Schmid rephad B i i Jdyn. As this historid naa?tiw relates, Bud Schmid had been at 'lbmrpnine Wlms as a pung supply of&a captain in the wry early days. He and his wife, Muguertn, introducsd the ludwigs to mnny of the T~ntyniae ISlms oldtim~f~theSdmidsbadLnoanbscLintheearly~. PromthcSchmids,nadfWm wrmvlyncwfricndsmongtheoldriinm,I h a d thchumanstodaofthefwnding of the town, the glider blsc, and Inte~ Maine Corps facitiy. To thcsc &ends I owe the much of my undua~n* of the c m u i y and t e d m . omnt h h4anyofthmfri~hORmadc~y arcbitesavailahle, andhavctalhdwithme abut those early days. T h m indude Hden slglq, 'Ed and Mup Haps Ma Hatch, Sally Ince,Chct and Blamc F l s and Vinron H a n and his late wife. bs I gained much di, i.
mlunble&~~and~,also,fWmthmcdLam~to~dthisandodKl nenrbp dscm, Hvold and h d c Weighc and a from thaz newer practitioner of local h history, Art Kidwell. Marines who have been epeciaUy helpful in guiding me m an understanding of parriculnrlythcevlydapsoftheLnscpn: f i m d h c m o s t , D r . PrcdcrckH. Scpmlink ~~Coloml,USMC[~]),the~mmmanding~fmPlIvimsinthedescrt, and B n p h r GenedJohn S ' q . % " Oldfield. USMC (Ret.), who commanded nonFMPMvinuasthedcscrtWtyhccamcabnxinitsownright
Thoee Mildna who conmbuted sigdicantly to m m u g of the transidon y to the New Bdinrion indude C l n Billy D '%Billw Bouldin; foamcr b s ~ commaah ood . e
Major cenenls E d d J. Megan aad Harold G. Gfugw: and Major Gcned Robert E. b b d . A spsid norice of appmiotion must go to General h i s H W i , 26th Com. the m2ndaatofthc:MarineCMps.ThcNewMir;pioannshisida.originnnhtlwhcnhewas commandio$gwplofPlcet~flma,PsciGc,just~hebccpw~t. He sentp@ & valuable mmmcms k t this p k of the hisrorg of TmPalms w the Dirumr of Matine Gorp History and Museums, Bfipiiet G c n d Edwin H Shunom, USMC (Ret). . ottw help I un indebted to Cdoecl Pr;mdr I, barn,Jt,USMC -1. Pad to his~.efOiSE~~ma,fwrevem~wBillkapp~ntintbe~ofthisbiwo-
lick, USMC (Rrr), who s d here IS a young d e r g offkw, baek in the early yeas,
arraheroimahter,aadhpdsldansefulUauisboo~aaddumptaial.iilsohdpfulwasmtitdCOlOnelEeIphK. C ~ a a a r l y l ~ O a t i a r a t t h e d s w t b aand s, rrtind~roaCMsprStcffnZPOo~t~lRhaa~aaAnBp-eogioacr~tbedays~bcfan W d Wt 11, sum& the d m b the es~biisluncntf Condo1 F i d . hlso htlpful od a s o
haoebemthoeelqrlletkcd~,B,~~t~rgSer~i~Milluan8~laaGunnerp Sc$;Mut Dmg culbtmoa 8PJCconmdhggcn&~SUPed~Trrn~PilmJahileIwasaritiog& hhoq ala,h m Brmp i d a t l y helprl and snppomn Thcy were Brigedicr GenemL Joseph B. b m ,William IL Bmyte. and John P M o a h . An& "local" Mark o f s i p h n t M d f l ec was Colwel James E Stonton, who h puas .
desdpindK-Nen~dip.aadrhrnatamedinthe1980smsnr:s~hes chidofsmir.Hepmriddmucb~~immtdinte~oppc~~cnrq~. us0 puticutady helpful ha* bahMrs. Cvol Bobhwon, k&tq w rbc co-disg genesal, urd Segcant R. W. Alkn, a p a r h h d y cg5dcnt and && Mar& Pssigned to the promool ofKa. And~bucnotltlstnrnongthowonthck, Ia~+dchtofgatitudetomy OM fritnd andthe"dead"ofppubliEitltormadon&on, thc:latemRwlldR. Pnizer. Thanks to his &xis, the eolam?wls public Pffnirs &ice hm bound mcs of Tba Obm&Pol%theranrd.winningbrscnea?rapawhthbcgPnpubticPri~nophcntbe bass scpacaed from 6 m p Rndlctoa ThckBC~obranchtibr~rgioT~RIms,mda~ableEbnrgeofin ~andBclpfulchidlibredao,QMyl~~hPsanaarllentw1l~oSprirmry dm*-lbautmandb,goingbackw&ePdy daysoftheconmud~.Thisindudafilssof&w&~aemspppa,
hiaories; phiwguphs; and unpuWedmnnrwaipa, indudiag tbat ofearly bpe awmendu, the lace Wonel (Inter Brigadier Otneml, f e t i d ) F n c r H. 'Momeee iai Bdnk. In addition, I have consulted & I &commmd &es and d~ bppen toraPlrdcd to
mebgtheMvineCoapr~Cmm.llrneDnonyJ.~~hcadsthe~m c e S a d o n . d h i s ~ t , ~ R b kAq&na,ba~ beenu&ihgindiggiagup rr~
Jpshlrrque~a&mrAIsa~"~cll:'~dm~firabeen,fimddfaimdHmrg I. "&ld" S b , tsechicfhktorinn, andthsaWlnrlcrR Smith. ShoWo&and~un$ Irmrstronfrss.arCb0Idy~ My~dIlapfthisdaa$sr&daeddokRethe~~.OurWde retirement home O R ~ O O ~the bass, same 10 m i l e to our noithepst. Y m ago, at the S then-HlstderlBmmh at Hedquamis Marine Qrpa Inns co-authar(nith Bud Shat andone&) of t h e h s t u m e o f t h e Marine Corps'hisrory o f W d Wnr 11. But Ibrdwthoaghtof~titrg~lJstoryof&baseuadl,wc~in~l9Sj,
old friend Ed Simmons, the "ha brigadier," m in our dinuig room over bodfast and, 'but of nowherehne ' W e , why don't you do the hismrp of t&e boJe h?" said,
n K ~ ~ d e n t ~ c a & r ~ ~ . T l r ~ o e n i n g ~ , ~ ~ B o b ~ o
ofMnrinadthcir~,a~dp3mc~fdendsfromtoan.~that~~ing, w bad a few --a e bit of d e n t Ca&mia vine. The morning, at brcllhst, was a Elommt of placntm9. I sad, "D*."
Itn~sof~ouaemorewwktha111anticipatd. Oftenthcprojmmatferrdwiththe ~ ~ ~ o f m y m i r e m n t t . SoJineerhatmomingm 1983. I h d d Ed Simmolls aadalotdothcr people who m i k m (thcir tokreoa d c d ud he)
~of~hom~thcit.~hesp&dupthe~pmmgmPnbof~~withthc U S. hiathe Grps. And w the derm: ' . b c r thpt &c field of a had m n y is a 1 0 K d ~ p e r r h v l a f a t a n d ~ l mthatdmmgh~~tthearid d~, WcsttheAmcriclns have f&nd a smet ue~son.'~Bemsrd Debto, Tbz % r efD&: a 1845.
Table of Contents
Foreviurd ....... Preface .......................................
....................................... .,........ .......... ... ................. ..........................
Chaprcr I The DWR , ............................. ~ h a p t e ~ TIIC ~ m n n m i r...................... 2 y Chapter 3. Condor Field ................. . , ...
.+ .................. .... 8 ... ..............I....... 14 ....... . .....................
Chapcet4 The MPrinaA&$ . . , ... : : Chapter 5 The Eaxlp Ycnn.. .,:. . ; i. i : ..... Chapta 6 Base Staan ........................
.... ............ ........
., .................. 23
..,...... ....,...,.. 41
.... .... 30
ChPptn7 The 1960s................. '........................................ 48 Chapfer 8 New Missiq , . ... .......... ... ........... 62 : .... . Chapter9 T d A % j E & @ i @ y i ............ . . . ,. . :; .... 72
..... .............. ,. ............,.... -... ..
APPENDICES A.RM.dS m d P l w bkhidc B Tacnqninc 1"Jms Comtnm* ... C ChronOlogg , D. Honors ........................... E . L k of Fkviewe~s.~~...
Indm ....... ...., ....
...+ .-..+ ........................-. ....... 87 ............. ............. ............... 97 ............ , ..................................... ............ .... .. , ... 99 ... ................................................ 101 .............. =.. ............ 103
.! " j+.... I
List of Maps
nK Cdikmia High Desert.............................................. xii . rhcm Glifpmia, Showing E t c of MCAGCC. l b xm Twnqnint Palms ..................................................... 27
a1d Camp h ........................................................ 36 Mvine Cotps Air Gmund Combat G n t e r Twntynior Pzlms.................. 71
Main Cvnp Area ....................................................... 36
Twentynine Ptllms and its surrounding high dcsen in the eastern portion of CaUo~nia's Motongo Bvin would seem an unlikcly location for a major bue of an amphib'mus and air-ground mihay hm.Perhaps
dim trails.'"** Hr -, the oasis settlement was md, and wc do not have cnough evidence to judge
the &n&cmce of its "whed" among the region's original cultum. itllsoseemsanunlikd~loutionfbrnngthio&iodudEven in those American Indian days, one had m be ing the &which m t c d the p h . 5 which gaw the in T-n-e r l its ;s 'bnpurpose" so place i a namc location, as some ~ ~ w o say. Only they, say k d rhes Marines, can be here by auidcnt. It raks only "Off the beaten rrach" has betn an apt description a surprix set of orders &om headquanets. The imof the area throughout all of its histow. Apparently plication is that all ordm w Twentynine Palms come evly mpl and lat&the American Indian mbn known w a surprise m the individd. And, ofcourss fix cady t history after the arrival of Europeans, lvgely o man and h arploms. rnounrain men, and d e s bypasedthis seemingly inhospidc n z g b by using pushcts, a dcsat is a place m be avvided. a2iLF either to the north or t the south. Early mutes o of empire llso went far to the nonh or to the wuth The late Major G e n d C&ucnce H. "Bud" Scbmid. of thisregion The ncarcrt-still some distance to the who in 1952-53 was the fm bw supply off~cr at south-was the on-to-westward extension of the San- Twcntynine Palms, and later (1974-75) its 14th comta Fe W. manding general, uscd to say in his orienration talks with new anivals that no One except the MPrine Corps The dixwcm dofs Peak, Zebulon Montgomery Pike, i in1806 began ~ ~ ~ N andCmS d v c n ~ e ~ ever came m the desert to get organized. DweJlets in n I h rhe area, he would say, are much Lih the -tion whldr later, as historian N d Hulm n o d : e here: they seek and require distance, one from the prccipiutcd i rhc csubkbmentofthetrail fmm St. loub n other; they have a serene beauty of their own; they roSnnnPc;mdshistcnninurpmPalwkrbe~ u e great and helpful neighbors; but they have sharp ofrhc iMnhwesum mutes m the Pncao. Prom tbnr s d nw thorn or other defcnsmC measures if crowded or NosMedcPomnn, theGilnnilfdloatddonnrhcRio bothered thoughtlesrty. Gnnde w rbe Gila E m along that rncnm w rhc Colonv, do.audrms908~~rmdWyoCZsPremSao I h g o . I b c ~ T m i i i c d ~ T n s ~ . Then he would say the roadside dexn Bower~ parches and spots of p a t beauty m the m e aficksrhcG~nodSoierRiraswthcViirmdCo~. mdbywsyafrheMOtaveDamwrbeGjonP10md doofthedesen-werr~erdbytherracsof~c Iw A&= n. wivsridingintothcdesrtforthetiSrdmewiththek husbands and sets of t o e "surp~ise" hs orders. But afThese mtn skirted t o e regions around T'wtntynine hs ter the howls of laughter and the applause would die Palms and its Morongo Basin* d m , General .%mid would add: "but think about Evliernnmsamundtheuawerrrnuchthesune. t& u you begin ppur duty hem there are floaters on Those foIIowing Pike h n the old Spatush d m both sides of the road." of the Smta R region and on m the W c at San The desert d o s not, in d, on cmpne who grm D&Q o r b s Angela m d y tnaRd along the easiest mm hae-ikmnady, most early and some later setand mon prominent routs of the Native Americans. den say. But it happens often enough that by the Rexvrhera agrce that the present Twenqninc Palms mid-1980s both t m and Marine bw w ~ growing c oruis likely was d e d for anda prior m the arat a rate consided alPming to somc of the earlia &aI ofwesternEmevidence llso indicatesrtLv the location was "the hub ofmcrd wdl-traRkdIn-
Scrvicc Phoro 275-412
The high desert o southern Cdzj.orn~presents f rugged mountains, vast expanses offlat parcbed earth, sparse but picturesque vegetation, a n d a varied animd popuhtion. settlers who never wanted to see that much organization crowd around them. First "owners" of the oasis, later called Twcntynine Palms, arrived after the place came into pretty much its present geological configuration. They probably were clans of the ancestors of those California and Southwest Desert Indians called generically by early Spanish exploren (much south of Twcntynine Palms), the Serano. This Spanish term, meaning merely that Indians so-called were from the mountains or highlands, apparently found its way into general use in Spanish America through the field notes of (among others) Padre Pedro Font, who was with a Spanish expedition in Alta California in 1775. As h u been pointed out, the padre was not close to what has become Twentynine Palms, but his descnprion apparently was not unsuited to the Indians which frequented ti oahs sis. Font said the Indians he saw in the Alta California highlands were small but strong, and "friendly, gentle and of good heart."' Later tribes and clans which visited and lived at the oasis for various periods of time included Cahuilh. Chemehuevi. Paiute. Mojave, and probably others. Some of these endured at the oasis into the period of the Federal Indian Reservations programs. After the United States' war with Mexico ended with the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ceded Alta California, along with Nevada. Utah, most of Arizona, as well as portions of New Mexico, Colorado. and Wyoming to the United States, the westward push of "Manifest Destiny" settlers began to pick up speed. As we shall see, "real civilization" did not come to the oasis of Twentynine Palms until after World War I, hut the American flag, followed shortly by the Gold Rush (which started in 1849). soon began to touch even this desert region. Non-Indians began to arrive-on purpose. At about the mid-point of the 19th Century-give or take a few years on either side of 1850-a San Gorgonio Pus cattleman named Paulino Weaver apparently established a route eastward from the Pass through the Morongo Basin and Twentynine Palms. There is uncertainty on the date because Weaver kept his route a secret, since it was a business advantage o for him to do s . His route got cattle to markets in Arizona quicker than did competitive routes along the lowlands to and through the present Indio, California. Indications are that friendly Indians had shown Weaver how to manage this route for his advantage, when desert rains of fall and winter w u l d have provided brief grazing periods across the way.*
*Amidst early gold mining and xrdmenu in rhc m a . pam of the prcrcnr Joshua lice National Monumcnt arrc uscd for c a d c nnrhing. This pu later rhan the Wcavcr route pcnod.
mulmt) bevs N 51 d e ~ ~W, g : a m a i l duster ~ and of Cabbage Pllmctras bcvs N 27 d e ~ ~W."*+ ~g: b y u~to~hcn~omc6tdyawmredandwf2919J niahpalms.ttheoisirisnotdert. ~ C i r y r y o r "Palm Sprk@ appuently w s used for some time. a Palm Springs, of ca nu a name which later stippeddmmhill, t o t h e s o u t h w a t . a d ~ t h e S u l Afl~fiult.TbenamcM~ra,orMarah,&isat~sRnl6omd~tkMo~Tnil&omthe p a s s a n d t h e 5 a n ~ o a r c l t o ~ M o j a ~ uibutcd to the lediaaswhom European and Amcri~w c s o a p b f w J n d u t h c & , butappamidyitdid rhe ColoMdo ( n w the pmcnt toam of Necdkr, nortindirswayint~anyoffkdstatusosansmcfor W m i a . ) With iourPscd uad, thic we bccune e the p k pa~t-~ndian m ~ n t s . Tems of de bl e P t h#mo as the (Zwwritnt Road. From Twt Mojave, "Palm Spriags" or "Palm C t " rtrr sometime3 cieditiy it d Adzom to F Defifil~e, on to Santa m and ed o a b , r h e M ~ n ~ n , ~ w i t h o t h a U St a s u m y a p who came tbrough a pu after Asmy fixw, matributtdto keepisgarell butenacle Wi&iqmn but loal binoriao M e Weight finds aowidenccforhiswof~a~. awq h m that wt-of-thmy region of Tkmqnine This 1856 s u m p i arps Ales P Gmn, working far . Pnlms nad the Mwngo Basin. theU.S. to addtothe Wadkpmsancg. Acthetime Gmaing r r s p ~ n ~ a US.&ens to the lare of by d d and m the new rc&m wonftom M & rcquircd ofhis surrry, Green n o d
ingthewwithMaico,hchidbeenasmutfoithe M o m o n ~ w b i c b o ~ " e d " a ~ n d the Gila b u t e to the Padk" a ahieh later @mid mncd ad opentcd fmn the Cajon Ps. a6W Iiprlicr, while somr elements of the Mmman Battalioniprriaomd the w o n PasPIsr rfie US. csthan m w &, sfoge route. howcw. g , and Ncudkcspticlgsthclpgthrsthc~dha~ing . k & W e ~ ~ ~ " s r a a d ~ m t b r w e h r h e basculrivad~thclndimr.. . ~ ~ e 9 c t b r l u f ofthcp.lmmfer~b16LrO.~~.ct~.AlgYadthc Mojm Deffn put Thmpine Palms, the &ded sprisgstscrrisagmathd-dwhichthcIo&~rmh h e n 1 LPnd OfIiw began m hire prime mmyon urasforrbnrhon. to cstab1'i bench matks md other &ace poino
~ o u t t h e ~ a u t h w c t i t . ~ b i s w u i n ~ ~ v v i o n f LindaW.GrctncinhaWinorieResMucesnrdyfor or theN?tiomlPutScnrice~rcfclmamthe~vnz mere camplne sumy for nilroad routcf, an urivity "Palm Spriags," into the 1880s. but ako tinds the begun in 1853 when Ca~gres authodzed hmds for theArmyPrpsofEnginee~~tobeginrh~swegs.number "29" used with "Palms" or "Palm spriogd' OM of these privlte sumqon, a Plonel Hcilrg a cady as the 1870s. And Miller, in his M)KE ofzb8 W d g t o n . in 1852 fixed thc San &mudin0 base Higb Daert. says "the name Twentydm Palms was 1'inefmtnapain~nropMt.SanBemvdiooeastand i a ~ 3 m m o n w b y 1 8 7 2 , b c i a g u s o d o ~ t h c ~ p tionofamiaingdaim hg McKewie and Genmk~'' west ~ ~ r n i Suchlincspmvided the base a . in i e forthe e s t a b l i r h r n c l ~ o f ~ t h ~ ~ t ~ m d b ~ hthathgcu. dividcd land into townships, &om, and &a poObamtions of Gmn, the scwrpor, that Indivrs titical *6. r 5 at the& had pscr &the plotunder cultivation may her, in in1815, Colonel Washington anid at the b an ic n that the oasis had become a more oasis at Twentynine Palms, and provided the f~ ~mtsmlemcntthanitmigbthnebeenindays of r ~ m ~ d o % teport ilbout thic Spot. &% rd f when subrhncc d e p d c d more on hun&g. 26 May 1855 sap: "Rom this corner, an Indim WigAlrhoughthedtivabofmPiEe,banr,dsquoPh aam(neaasptingofgo&waza,sup~to6ep- wupnnicedin&NewWoeM,beginnio;$inthe Mesican highlands at kast by 1500 X, by rhe time W f ~ ~ D O d ~ i n b i p ~ q t - ~ @ b Lof US. ~ v r v e y ~ the West, IndiPns certainly had k & in p,E.ap:"W~~f.awr&thc~Butnlim,$nn~ pichea up additionzl mp and skills fmm the SpanantcmPorna~drbrInRsnndW~~* ish, th& mkbr65, and l?nl apIorea and d e p . ~nadhuntcda~mucbd*SauthwtHconrLMlo H-I, it seemed thzc becylccofirs runoteh11Imthc~oeP~.~~himnkg~cicitircn, a s d o c r W r t c n ~ ~ c i ~ a a s i n ~ ~ b e . q m t t b c Ldoa,the oasis at h q n i n e Pllms supported only srt p l t s d h l & ~ * ~ 9 w f h r t h c ~ I f i s t ~ a l l i n d i a n d o ; andinylgevanmmtdemt s n ~ thc~B+rinatldppnmcclsgratTnntgninc~W l ~ b n m u a d ~ t h c I n d h n s , a n d ~ p s W e n ~ ~ ~ Indiaus seemed to hu remained wanderas. foUowirbg
~~mcteodofbciegaLcnmit~6k~Mior ~ ~ ~ 6 B o a d f d l a r e f l ~ € i S ~ a r t h c % L , & r ~~~dim&arIjaemtoryhd*~~WtOthcCdrmdoRim"
dwbichseparatedthedirt, d .
rock. and ga, aUowcd the heavier gold to work rdand
i s way to the botmm dong with other minerah and blaek sand. Fmm this the gold then would be emnnedbgplnningorothcrmedds.Hawever,mostd
statted againwith another quarter-amo. f * Dcpending on the r i b of the intche~, proecss this
waskeptup6orquiteanumberofrllgbetomthe amalgam ofmercury and gold was dug out of the erevia and sepamed. Gold usually was rndted into thedrymunuygddmilIsofthiscrrlypciMdwhkh bas or iagots, the macury coUnmi for use a+?Q Modem ertirmtes doubt that even strong men and dcaItwirhquartzRins-uwasrhc~mundT~sawg bums could maintaina an-a-day pase dopertpnine P a l m s - 4 the ~f~ftarnethod. used whkb ations in those early days, bcfom steam engines and lesswrmpermnddiR.* larger vrasnag appared on rhe m e . Xnd if $100 per A yield of $100 worth of gold pcf ton d tPilings tonwasagoodrcrummtheT~~1tyninePdmrregioo, wrs considered a good return from an vrnstn in the a yield considered "bad" had to be a judgment d l . TwentpniaePalms region? This estimate pmbably did W i Cermain, who had filed on a dainr in 1972, nmholduueformvqrafrhemines, saymodern-day sold our in 11176 to a John Dorc for "25 dollan cash local amateur miners and studens of the uaft The and one white-faced horse valued at 20 doks.''" price o gold in &we days ran around $20 to $23 per f Thiscrrly~flunginrheT~tpniaePdm ounu.Themrkwgetthataua~cwasprodigiolraObscnusin~evlydaysaidthatzbout>00pounds region mbsided bp 1883, and rhe hc f e g h was cornparatidy qaict and m a d e again.'. D of gold ofdhgswntintoeach baccbforanwvulsome h u n a spring eternal,though,and m n n wnrinued iig 1 fref in diamcrer. Grindkg then urob from &me 0 atDak,cutof~~Pnhns,andhotherregi~ to four hours. M e x q uas added in amounts bwd a day or rwo awq by freight wagon Marginal mining on wdnmtcs ofthe richnessd t h e quartz B might. y in the uep continue&off and on,into modern rims. min+ts used about 25 pexent more mercury than exIn the 19708 and 80s,after gold d p again bcp~ted gdd. Neu the end ofthe griading, about a uune legal for U.S. citizem and gold prim for a t m ie dozen or so buekes of warn woufd be paurrd into roppcd $800 an ounce, major milling operations the m a , and grindiog continued until a beige rcnunedto the region, using methcds mom sophisti"paste*' was achimd. Water and dudge were then dthanrhemams. bfikd out. or run off quickly, and the whole process Dapiteallofth~6evisitsofthewhiternan,$ome *Amrrmt,fmarduSpDnkbarb.~-m&mts& In& r d e d around the 4 on into the first qparmtly o r i g i d m quya-rdodlidrggin d q ams dM& decade or so of the W08, but most dri€ced closer to vbaethcmascuhc@Jieg,anwla,~~~~mmmoa.(Andin h & U S . ~ g i n t h c s o u* ~ ~. ~ M c q v e m l y a p a the gmwing population centers ofthe San Gargonio e Pas region where some work was available-mdy d k d a "~tr+") m ~ ~ n p r ao yk ~ d~o r i it: ' T k c Asa s u n t t h e m a a p d m i d * r k i o d d ~ E o r g d a d l o b q ~ ~s. nq on farm, w h s and in orchards. There WLua True, m c e, +tendent ofthe Banning iodivl Agency, m a p parcntly &%em and com+ate resewaxion programs. She scnuf in that role from 1908 to 1910, and may have been the firs Indian Service employe m visit Tanmynine Prtms?' She is credited with beginning oftidnl m r d s and repom of Indian life and occupation of the 4. she tricd to am out the and dainrsand u~ulter-clahs the wraundiag lands on Mthough the Indian Gmdsioner had resentwl the oasis uact for the Indiam on 16 September 1891, Southern Pleitc Railroad dnims,and those ofothers, a p p d to enma& Clara Trut and one of her d a r e s at the Agency in Bsnniag, Wfiam E Johnson, inJuly of 1908 fled . claims on land in the aren.to e r n e that the Indians were not edged out of their homerite. T l pmbably arcrc mining claims, which induded water righn, and tho mpefinvndem obviously was uying to help the Indim pmtcet their rights to their uaditied
land. She andJ o b rigncd ava their d i m s to the lndiulr,ashmdbEcadKirinaot6mmthebtghhg.
l k r s i d e County ShcriffW q Wilson,WgfbllLLdWiBogpftcrhchmdLiUcd
smdfnmilicd remained at the &is, and i 19U, the n Bat the only things cndaogrtcd were the rrschpIan afthtstpmbablyidt, bawre &Med p m t l w h & i n dtbeesm-hnndcd ~ ~ p o l i c i s o f C l m ~Shcwwforrrdtonsign. h . mentinthatp~dIndian7Rnter~~beause o non-residency?' f &,minets,dmdmilropdMbEtiRedJhears m~inhetiatetpmari~ndftbc~htsdfthethe- sdll dLMt, still d&rhc beaten path, Tarcmydhm and oE the boundvia a & g d to their lorwls. nine Palms nomthclcsr wu on the map. A new b m d Mostofthercm;lininghdhmbcganrodriftaapy ofadRn~andprospactorhadurivcdaatbc~ren~. from the ovis at T m n i n t Mms. A m s y deal ua PiDncercatdcrncn&gantoscMcbup"tank"d adobtandtrocltstocatchpmi0~EPjdaIongPwllw d a d 31 JiAy 1911 s%ed M e w the Tetynine &dm8 ILscrvationfram the M e r n Acific RPilmPd Vhvcfs old mad. In Trpentynine PllmJ more and marc people were showing up-on purpox. to the UniFed Stotts. The foMowing year, d 9 fivc
oMthavtof~somemineswirhsuchco~nunes Although dte cvly gold milling activity near the Twcntyninc Palms a had damy by 1883, & as the Iost How, the Dscrt Queen, and the Gypsy Queen. f p~mstill~~~~rcdthcunuragsidc,andandsomc- North o the sprawling ans of the PI-t porcnnt new finds were made a ikw miles east of the W n c Corps base, and south ofthe 4 town of oasis.Bythattime,ap~a?medlouCurrishad LLdiam,where old Route 66 formerly went by in days &re and afrcr World Wu 11, gold and copper mines found placct gold in erosion cuts somc 15 to 20 miles of Camp Roehestu rcpo~edly produced somc of the ofthe old Indian camps. 0 t h rmde addition~ ~ bmmumrofthisdesenregion. O t h a d e i m i n e s , alfmds, andsmnadwasputdownat adiglak siteforan~uawhkh beganmmillforminuswho n o w l o ~ h g a c e ndottedanasofwhatisnowthc , m i d on the scene. The community of Dale, and Marine base. Jatet anotber &led New Dale, grcw upin thesc ueu While thee mining d~stlicrs spmd considrnble ncnr the pment Twentynine Pllms highanp Although d&dt miles from TarenrynincPalms, the little comappmrly quite small, thesc communities p d for munity beside the olsis continued to grow only pery boom toamsofthe "gold tush" m the earIy daysin slowly.Wagons with &eight for the mines came &om this region.A s l d mapofNcw W i nR n l Dean Banning in the San Gotgonio Pus cvlwvd up the oad Milk's book shows two dwos and a red light disMomngo grade into the high basin, past Warren Well ua A Czlifomia State Mine Bureau report of 18% i? (site of rhc present of Yucca Valley), and lists mcral gold mines in the region. through Tnenrynine Palms to the Dale dimin. As gold mining operations in the late 11800s and Another mute came down from the north, generally tbe early 19006 bmmc morc ambitious and sophisti- along what is now the Amboy Road; and still another ma. l e r t c & s o t h e ~ a n d ~ ~ e ~ . H w serving the mining dkaiitssouth of Dale, came M.Spell, who ume to Tt~encphe a h in the 1920s up from Mecca the Coachella Vdey near the SalP tonSr+).AndarhileDakandsomeoftheothciminand Jater married n former miner, s+ys in her book. iag camps were livdicr than Taentpnine Palms, the T Tm@& AJms Smy,that her obscmtiirnr~ & in httsr's oasis remained a majaw magnet for the endre this@^ aadhCIIcsePrch-~medup"~dEtlt k r c c o r d s o f ~ l p o m h a v i n g m a d e s u ~ area. ~ from these early venturn.'* She adds that Jatct, unAt the t u n of the century, most Czlifomie cities scrupulous promoters pmbably rmde much mom nearthcmdststillarucquitcsrmil. buthornthestan money selling t~orthlear mine stock than did any goid d d m in ti new saw, menrlp won fmm Mexihs so of thc mining o p c n t i o ~ ~miner from the 1911-16 co, and so quickly t&reafter iuspired and dazzled by A ~ period told her. " l we didn't m&c much-maybe d, a gold rush, were incunble explores and I&. 'Ilxc fifteen or nmnty t h o d d o h all t M ; and this mines, and even just the descrr, armrred dreamen f m a rather &cnt olpenabn for this later periods n &r gold, pmspcctivc &rs, sighand h dayfmnti~drarmiagwholmowshow~vdtkter maps of the mining d k i a around T e t wny icties of the "what i' dirrms which spread Amerif nine Palm indkna. to the eu+ southcast, and muth canshmtoshioingsea. of Dale, districts with such names as Monte Ncgras, Eagle Mountain, and C M m 4 C1o.w m TnentyA bBX-dq ~ ~ - t h a S 6 ~ h a t ~ l h X h & ninc~wmtheoldmining&&nProundthcol- became. T i d basin of remote d m , off the hs & d e d the TwcntynincPalmsD i . South of that beaten uu& became a throwback w a period long imo what is now the Joshua Tree Natmoal Monument since poac elsewhere i the United Stares. far eold. n - . lands neu the bo&r b c t a ~ n Bernvdino and San for adventure. for health. for k i si for pimy,the ro i. Riverside Counria. arere the Washingtun Mining Dis- settlers began to dribble i . It was a wonder of dewn trim and the Gold P & Disaict. South and a bit a lation, thii hd-scorched by a relentlear sun glaring of the Gold Park was the Pinon DGuict,and then through air so pure it could not nop the days heat
with the "hg&-thaK
with lung ptobl&w from
tion t i Gcacr~l u d d ' s Ler otscmtion thp ~ d desert dnllerssought pknty of space, Wee the creomtebush,andthntndwdy$aRGdKMarhR~~ ~ ~ m e t o d l e ~ t o p ~ ~ a n r r t h c m j n
Burif~crnudeurrllat BiUCPmpboUwaconeeffhe eVly ones Inul hisrorlPo h d e Weighs rtwh:
Pnlmrs~pLrrmL9Mor1927rhcoJrfun~abk inIltn d -MI took p k hem. W r . the p m
EiEfof--aauadinthase+had to be a q m m r - d o n of innd-160 urcs. Tho fivem haancsvad did nat m e until much hm."Jackr p b b i r " h o ~ ~ W c l E ~ $ " W
homesders, and they w e to t o e Mcnt rhings dtheEmt Duwshn. pao old he^^, whobad m "Dwiag rbc I%&'' and "in the catly 1920s" are p h n s a c t u t d $ e & ~ I n W S p d l i n l r r ~ a c d - like hathona pbms baought om from the big f k i , Inn &tle k k , Tba 'ZhwpidtcWat+Stoq, to s- from shc "iinideeeUr" U M thcarlie.tdogrQfsetdmentforthr&of k homes, H m l nnnod in 1 1 , "Encrdened with ill 99 ~ a n d t h r ~ g i l i t r o f u c i o g f o i ~ t f f a r m l l l lBaglcy rcponr, there aere maybe only 50 to 100 settkrs in all of the Morongo Bvin to thc Ddc Mining diildcen." in &we "early 1920s:' Swll noted: group& h & q s muld be died D i d a , and A fn dying hommad=m b n d rbc w i n d i i sandy a vihg&'? In 1985 Hdcn said: mnialy for the miners in m m h d m homc sites. This r o d 4 s into dw and abe freighplus ~ ~ tourism exploring the n e d I I O U C u, ~ , Pddc fmm rhc fm mnm ud prospxrors dwa-and spmc of them were hdth-wtcts, too. Hd~d e d n bd. in 1927 hff m ~ h then livb ing in Orepn, sent some money m hnghren their ftrst And when Prank and HelenBagIcy d u d ta say, in a fiR dcdlY in TwcntgniacPPlms. fkfall of 19' wirh thm sens' bill:' Helen said. She and Rank used the m o w to Bagley wrw: mst themselves and their three son^ w Chfisunvdinncr at the Gold Park H t l She said she did nor oe. Tbereamrrotmdanotid+rond.Ddortimpat a t , ~ m ~ ~ ~ I C h O O l . p o s t ~ o r ~ . remember the entire menu, but it stayed in hex mind lbeGoId f a t k H o t d , t h m a a d t h c o a & d M p R r d d ~ f ~ ( ~ ~ e d that the table was bright with red candles. and &at
~ r h o h a d ' ~ m ~ ~ l f ~ W o s u r p & ~ ~ m u l d b c c n l k d a ~Apo~uionditomfdtyroaas . b d frbxoha
*lvcdrcsi~quiraocneonrheuq~*tiona as oppwd t weekending which the "jacktabo bits" wukl get by with, dmr newcamcEP I& a bit
they had red JeUa
h u o d d ~ a r r s ~ h ~ w m t h I W s misiegdrsain,sDdfiamthedqlals(prramMnahebrr ~ l m t h e ~ , ~ r a n ~
L ek V%i&t np4w thlt E E. ui . Chapan dbuilding the h Gald i 1925. if t n
~ wwtoftheOuls,acro6(&omthcpresmt~1m' r a v ~
V ~ e a d ~ ~ p l o s p m s n i a t h e t r i f t i . ~ d r h c ~m of the National MMwnent. It wu a o m r y r m t k r r r m ~ . i a d ~ d t h ~ m r c f f * c r m a r fplrncstruma fiPoLFd by m e cabins wh* gm u ofwd I. ft was* fpostkr ~~mmitairp~~ could say. The lvaer buildinghotrsed the rrsPwnq
M e Weight new tbat although she bss 00 q w rrl with Helen Bagley's d ~ - p t i o offhe town w b n thc Bagieys arrived, it be wdLw poinr~nr that &GBLdPnrkHotcl6emdirppoa&efrolm~z thar4mridthr-fallof1927,dbaEdtodwas the@a-buitd'ig. The Gold Wrk cook on a branch tibrarp in thE fouoniDg spritlg, oisa
a d a " & m m ~ ' ' -Q&CL cwld pa9 as a lobby ~ or lounge room. Laer, the Gold WrL migmPvd west"*np
* I r ~ & k n a e d k e ~ r ) n t i a d K & 1 ~ . a 1 ) ~ ~ r m ~ buik m c mls cnt d k t p i n c pplmo. a sign &I HI to Rplcnish&ir ludm in rhoac m i g dagr b c h an &gunre m n m i s q cmbli\bcd kill hta."going dw kbr" bwPmc h ib n Muim.hnicd , "msuop" Tbk as m d y ~ a n r u h r d i h e ~ ~ . o k ' T m ~ rhir.a.hnd:'a"~pl'm&msrmp,miIaIW
**'Inrhrruly~.ontlnrio&n~Rlm,usdchcrrrm imidc" Au &ng rh+ jarmrg back to " c i d h b a " dong rhccanr.MucbLp~Mp~~~nthebPPd@d~~ dnbmmT(rrooppoocd to"gmhgrhc Muc.")zndmrdqro "pdmnbdvrtobnbht~pmdsupcrmutm,drp.rmnu~ nnd ~ b r liberty d &d Schmid rnid &at in 1952 ad l
w.ud and became the present Twentynine Palms Inn, a complex which remains, friendly and quaint, m remind all wmers that the pioneer p i of this niche ad of desert was not SO m long igo, y
On the Founh of July 1965, when population on the Matine Bage w s beginning to thio d m because a of units h a d k g for that new war in Vietnam,an old vrreranofWdWluILoo$cdattheTIRemgninePalmJ folks assembled to dedicate the mmmunity's W e F'ark, and claimed for W a n d orhen of his peers. the B.A. degree, beraw+ e 'p here hcrcAny'w l r '. thing." That was W kJ. UnderhiU, who a fw yenn a€ter his "BR days brought t e fimliwtype mpchioe h into the high desert to found T6c D ~ J M d , the T mts -y ' h fust newspaper.
Bill Underhill had been among those many wtein the 20s:' they joMgrimly to each other later-came o t to Twentynine Palms to u die, and then spent some 50 or mole mostly very pi-tyears~atoroundrnitThedmertgave
credited with &ding them their desert and its new lease on lifc for them was Dr. James B. luckie. world wu 1, D~ we as -knt physician at LP Vina Sanitarium in Pasadena. Pemns with consumption, utbmp,and othet lungptoblems, had been sent into the Southwest b r a number of yeats. A dry, hot dimpte with d m air bendited most of them. %merit fot such pntienn, in then smogfnt F'asadena, was the &dty of LP Vina. During W d d Wat I, DL IUChiC s e d a an Army m d c l s eia oftinr. He knew wbm mauy ofthese men had d%ed in Fmace during gas iftPdD, and he was we11 mare that tubecntlosL of thc: hqs-coawnption-had spreadd~1yamongsrvirrmmbilletcdindme quaneis dudng their militnrg mice. Many such afflicted w s began turning up in F'asadena st em fa the w ~ and Dr. W e , dong with an American . w o n pan in that city, a d their pmblems with with vigor and comp==iQn. As bas been noted, the precise data of early settlersencoum&byDr.LuchicdAmericanIrgion k13uenotatM,butitisdtvthata.rerpwidc
R Keys, ose oftbe wnly r e # % ofrbc big6 A # u)nn#q,pores a# bis fixer# s n d H m e , now pari of fbe 177,IMo.BcT- '--b s c . d Mmsrmt~#. T%e N
o ?mi Bernice, anivbd in ~ o f t h c M o j l n a n d ~ d c s m s w c r r o c p 1 o r e d The Donndk, N 1922, u did George and Mildred Michels. Donuell fonsushademc~tsiabyDr. iwkieandthewmr m d r of WSt 13, Joc Davis, who himscif d h d W, i the west edge of "downmwn" T~wcntphe from t u ~ o s i s Final5 ncnr the border bcmccn P+Lms, is mmod for Norm DonncII; and Robes . Michels, a brotbtr of George. has lived with his wife those ma desert e o n s Bedah on the Mid&' h o d in liaenqaiuc O n e ~ ~ c r m p c d t l o d n t h ~ W m d into . & O p r b d ~ i n r h m o m h y D I . ~ n i h d ~ ??dm themid-198% In 1923, W i Q Smith inmthsudinc.lbcdr~lbcc!n-&nrmdghi and his bmthcr, HPrrp, h a m d e d ; h , a bhatrruldawthrimmdlbch Bill Smith &ped rhc Smittr's Rnnch cwnpla on ~ ~ b p b w m e w m k d r n x r m b Adobe Road. A h g c building &re, f m a r e Inum~nhohrdrgaforbuur).dmbrudfnm shriog~ink,Inarwa~dbyMvin~intherulg ....Andinthir~,ammmuldhomcsrPdiqouor1950s as a gymnasium h physical tnining,and for r rctiondBadmd&ab!me-~~6nddum mfdtbc~trhilehenlthd.Dr.krcLiebcp Special kviccs events. A &vein thcaur-open m a l l ~ . ' ~ ~ o m ~ T a m t p n i n c ~ u d f i k air-rcm2incd an acri~ on put of t e oxupla into h modern times. Also in 1923, David and Anna Poste JocD2VIS(brwhutbc1cba~m~&inh ancidmammptarevivlloftheViDalemint. tynincpplms)didfilcmahomcscdandwmem had monq and lcgd problems, left, but m e back T~tphepplmswithadearmulofcnrskrrded l a w m become important penom in the urmmuniwiththe~~~~tCdmsrvthis~~b'm.Arhmtirn+lpvr, ty. Danl%wcbcvawjuSriceofthepeaec,fot.many his aposurr m a dcxrt rain conm'buted m his get- terms in that mle. and both "manned" the firs teleting pncnmoaip. and he died only a ikw months af- phone ucbngc in theu home in Twentynine rer he had Wod ar the homestcad. But in the ->a** meantime, his Amuicm legion post bad s da m m ' m h o m e i n t h t ~ a a d ~ t h c f n n o f l 9 2 8 , On the f&h ofJuly 1965. F d and Helm Baglq took Dr. ltrchie and his daughtertCI Moon, "for Susan there were enough verunas to create a Legion post of a picnic in the desert mounnins where yuccas were theu own, Our Post 334. blooming g I d w ~ 1 yHelen repom t a the doctor .~~ ht Another Irgionnnite, P d Ma+ mok over the was then "an old man with a bad heart." He was to h o m d of Joc Davis, and i m p r d on it. die a short t h e later. But on &at day Dr. Luckie said, fn 1930, M* decded LOO acres to thckgion post, a Earlier, Bill Campbell had given 40 aeru of his "if they should m r want m put a monument to me homcsfead to Dr. Luckie-eithtr becaus be was the in the pa&, I hope it will be a simple boulder with d - who had scnt him ta Tvmqnhe PPlms in 1924. thee lines: "Hen fu from noise and turmoil may o or for lawr services-and Dr. Luckie, who made it a brotherly lm prcadl:'14 Then Helen doses that chapter with t k e words: ~ l not to h q c disobied orterm fm his scnices, e gavcthislandtutheLc&mpost. AUof&klaw became the legion t s home, past hcadqet and l w temporary d m l , w 4 r y hall, and-a pora tion of it-the wtk which twk Dr. Lu&s name t o ~ome~hathehaddo~forthewd~ Then~enrliasenlcrsinT'~~ntpniucpplmsthirn So it took the disabled veterans of WorM Wu Ithe "lungeism-to k d h Dr. hkie's star i t the d ~ = no Dr. Luchic's~.In1910,BiLlIkgsvdRdto& and found a me m the communiy. Pahaps they t~ andtofaundamnch, afarnily. andalegcndofpidid not anne w the descrt to get organized, cithcr, oneuing which d is tnllrcsd about in Tncntynine Palrnsandatthe~lingsircofhis~chhoux h u t ~ b c E P m e a n ~ y B o u t b o R s s a h n c d men, m s of whom had ot of less than $100 in what is now the NItioml Monument.* a month. Thus, in a remote dcxm where om d d mtcely nniR by saidmt, "community" d y auived
W t "
that m . y
IF organization and "gwemnent" for the community of Tmntynine Pplms began with the formtiion of rhc American Legion post az Dr. Iudric's "health camp'' in the fall of 1928,most ofthe &ements of modem civilization still were a long m y &. & one old settler has said, the Wl Street cash a yeu later. al and the Great DepresgiOnwhiEh followed in the 1 3 5 90 hudly changed anything in Twntynine Pnlms. If the entirc nation got badly d m at the heel in the Depmsion, most dwdem in T~ntynine Palms just m e d pnctidag a bit earlier for this sort of life. Popuktion did increase slowly, hownrr, as the Dep&on dr0P.e some from the dries into the daawherc they hoped to liw more wonornicplly on a jackrabbit homestead. or by trying tbeir luck with a s d gold-mining operation. To reponon the s l o w u r i n l o f t h e n i c & e f ~ l i zation, William J. Underhill, who had b m an early homesteader (in 1928) with friend Les Euenfiiht. brought ht linotype machine into Tmntyaine Plltns and in Apd of 1935 founded 2% Dm& W , fim local ncwrpaper authorized m accept kgal advertising. Bi U n d d , who lam was to claim for himself and his Legion friends the "B.A. degree'' h u s e they were in kntynine Prlmc '&fore Anythiog:' WPS fox psrsa6Miliusightinthetown.mkhgnotaona~elopcsandodKr~ofpnper. andmwp~>hem later into m s stories and kanucs directly into hot type at h s linotype* i Until 1936. the wxy in runabed deses madsrutted u c in the decomposed granite "sand," with ab numerous rockc and an invrmined natural content of adobe ~ropidinn what Iirutnar there w. That vear. sPn-&mCMlnvd dQt -1 wodmsh i the first 10 o f & ~plms y from Whitewater easwzd. Not ytt the later " b r t mS' which ueared elm@ an vphdt ot "blarkrop" road, this oil metely helped lay the dust, and &d the dobe in the sutface a bit
h r . T w t y m k $ot the road up the Morongo Grade. and m the &st plateau ofthe high daert of theMomngoB96inStillaheadmthecmwpthencxt long grade, up to what is now kcca Wey. Oil on this &e, and &en the finner desen mix did n t o come along until a fcwynrs later. In 1952, when Marines k t came to open the bw, blacktop mad the still was but nx,lanes, and it stopped at Twentynine Pahm. It was not until 1959 tb?t hard su&e m o d asmwd beyond Twentynine Palm and the old M e m n n community to the Colorado R k .Now fouriig land all the my &om 1 1 atwhitewater w TRntty-0 nine Pnlms, the b M m p remains only two lams on east to the r i ~ rBut this does not keep it from b e ' i . a welaad and holiday IPCCCOUIX fat recreational vehida (RVs) and boat pullen sueaking to and from the river. Improved roads alnays are a mixed blessing for pioneers since roads aften bring an unwanted rush of "civiliration," and pUCh was the case for Twentynine WLms. Yet somc ofthe "problems" caused by the imp r d roads also brought the community a new neighbor, tbe quiet giant oftheJoshua ' h e Nariwal M nt owhieb sprawls dong most of the south edgcofftKMorongoBasin. ThisistheNatiollllPark Service's huge "island" of consemation in a desrt which e looked a bit w o t t h l e and lacking in m l claims for its rn ti& and s u n i d to rather a lot of thoughtlw and umrupdous sg e m and Mher enihe ploitw. Ebr a h e , as better rods and wtomebila allowed m m d morc people to aplotewhat in their oe view WPS the Iand nobody owned, it appeared mast desen plants, including d c 4, might be uprooted and taken to d m gardens then lxcomiog all the rage in the growing dtics and suburbs down mwnrd the kkprimvlr champion fat the forrmcion ofthe National mmtion which the
daisprramwncrrhipw~pnd~mrionridcch.iaOldtimm it k nncrm ?a mah fuo .far Bi[l Undahill undahill k e dI tacd rod rrrncnrd ~ d d c 4 ~- e n
J&ua T m Nariod Monument= Mn.Albert Shcrman Hovt-for whom there is a .meet timed in Twp-
o ~~h c r p ~h t a &cn ~ y i n ~ - p in- i n ~ ec & F o f u u the Civil Wu and later, she mnnicd a W t h y New Yo& surgeon and m d w GlifomL in the late
After W d d War 1, during which d e losr an iofent i sonandi.lmhahusbPml~*~rrdand
China &+st, o f t
4 d t n t s o f T w m ~Plrlms-as w t e ih h e ~ Butasha5becnaoted,in t ~
mosrt other U.S. atiz.=ns-conthed to siruggle out
bccarne inrerested in thc CalifoEaiad m . To publi-
cite the pligbt d t h e daen at the hands of thought- Tknqainc Palm, it was d i S d t m ail wbm the ~b h ofDeprc&m l e s c o ~ , s h e . u a g e d d e ~ x ~ p l P a ~ h N mof pionecfing left &and c *
~andGngkodisncllasinthcAme~weot. EdnscbadbetnbutmfQUph~1~~in911ofthe In 1930, she bmcd the M o d Deserts Consmation League, and throwgh it hegaa to put focus wmnjuniq prior to 1936-wW was the cue-this
toherplanmha~thcN~PUL~ac adescrtpa&ins~ithcmCal@rnkTheNcw Deal and co~scmtion r ~ F D ~ C C B Ehidcnt F I I U ( mk Of II1il D. bamdt brought about c d t i o m whkh caused the Crrrrion Of rheJbshua Tm N a u o d Bdoaument on 10 August 1936, by P r c S i d d prcdamatiou. Tho area w d appfmimady 825,000 acres; TwentyninePllnrs d d laad a r d the oM cnds farpa&hcadq~1~n;andinthehllof194O,Jama E. Cdc came down from the N & d P & at Yaea mite to bornme first superlntendmt of rhe sprawling d w n lcrcs ofjoshua ltcc.** Thc +on, nith just a Irw ampgrounds and picnic amas, rcmjnsearendly an unspoiled and u cf - s p tes descn piwm populv with Marines on duty at the bPse a# relllgltioo, hiLing, and dimbing rouotrg. Eor t o e Marines not hs famiiaiththcdmnpndtheAmcric+nWcsf the N t o a Monument prwida a wonder of new exoinl
vhadbeenacaptedaspattofthefrcts6fia~r. c Bur w w in this b r i c p, pioneer PranL Cody Bagley led the appeals which cwsod the CaJ&mia
Wateld?ilephoncCompvrytos~n~thc teiephooe scrsics w busiacsws and homes, T6ir i s
~hCllthCtd~phO~arrhvlge~~t~p~th~horae of David und h a Pose. At h, sariuhhd the could handle five conmdw. Dipl phone did not come along until 1953. when a new building went up to housC the i m p d ouvin. Utl thes telephone ni usersulaLedforccnual,andthenerkedforttLGwnd o n they waatnd. ftwasatdisswiub~tbaturly rrsidcntBlanchc Rlii me mning had to sit and &ently follow through on her "number, p l d nspaw w iacll phone EnUs while a man and w& brought in hy Canstable Paste bccawt of a domatis squabble, and shadded to the Postc couch, prctty #ell shredded the dothim from & 0th- in fmm of Blanche and her -li-"rr swid~dbard. &che aiso adds the fobwing m the TheJoshua me- d y a member d the lily filegend of thc Joshua m c she onn heard a woman mily and not a "ucc"of ths annual-growth-rlng ofhe~acqulintancetdla~ertothedcrat that w $ t name, prohahly, from d y Mormonb in - oits "the Joshua uca a ten thousand and ten pus old:' n the Amaim West. Thcg thoughr, s ia mg go% o s o r r "Hw can pw be so pxak?" Blanche wked h a later. that the plant-at l a the pung oms with two "Because: 6aid the ainamw botany reporter. "when arms-~txmbled the bibliul Joshua, imploring the w came out here, somebody told us they were ten e hcavcns. Older Jashua uw (m grow to 10, 20, or thouslndgranoldandwe'ubcmhcrcten)cus~." morekt tall with a magdkcnc Epnad ofspiky. conIn 1938 w e the U.S. S d Tat An, whkh rc dlimbo. plwided bor the fiR.aae "jadmbhit"hamsadsand (hatidn of the Joshua Bee Ntoa M~ntment, hunched a "flogd" of nov daimr which beforr long oinl improd surEycc for the Morougo grade, and thcndotted the d*m landzupe with proa-up abins. Old dlantidccr of progress-expanded tdcphone service h e m considcrcd thcs something of a blight b atTwmtyDincPlrlms. made t e 1936abnnm~ i d u q quircments hw mon relaxed than had been one. indeed. BCPdilc in Europa Hitla pnd Mussolini thc ow: when h d amounted ( W y ) to a signed dIeifJ3crGn-Bomch i s alliance, and in the Pat quamr d o n [a square half-mlle mevurcd from a E wJapan wntinned to stir uaublcd waxers at* ths satkrn-~i.*Fvschimineadapa.omlKCd
aapom .she had
Numerous TG-2 gliders appear in /ine near the hangar at the A m y Air brces'glider training frlcdify at Twentynine PalmJ, Californiz, during the early years o Wor/d War IL f peacetime military conscription in the nation's history and were soon going off to military training camps. President Roosmlt in November was swept back into office for an unprecedented thud term. The nation was ready to do its share. More aid to the Allies became possible in January 1941 with passage of the "lend-lease" bill. U.S. military forces, with their new "draftees," began locating and consuucting new training sites. In November 1941, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson reached out and touched Twentynine Palms. He signed authority for the U.S. Army Air Corps to start a glider training school on those old dead lakes north of Dr. Luckie's health camp, where the World War I veterans-and a growing number of others-were learning to Live in good health beside the Oasis of Mara where you had to arrive on purpose, and stay with conviction. For some time in Twentynine Palms there had been dreams of an airfield nonh of town. In spite of the fact that aviation had played a role in World War 1, and that Frank Bagley and had been a part of hat war-time fl*g had to suuggle find the war The adventure it promised conits niche tinued to attract experimentation with new uses, and part of the Twen~nine Palms idea-in 1937-was to show off the desen with air tours, since automobile tours had become popular as a means for dryfolks to see the quaint ou&ack. l-he town Chamber o f m e r c e . sparked by Bag1eyY Earle H. Nicholes, and Colonel Henry L. "Watty" Watson, made application to the U.S. Department of Interior to lease a large tract of land north of town, at a site called Mesquite Dry I&. Obstacles bemeen lease and actual airf~eld were many. There was no road to the dry lake, no electricity, and no resources for meaningful construction? Flying enthusiasts hoped to get help from President Roosevelt's Works Projects Administration (WF'A), but this was not forthcoming. By 1939, the plans for the flying field crumpled in for lack of wherewithal Next notion for the dry lake was land yachting and sailplaning-gliding. Early settler William B. Hatch, Jr., a water sports enthusiast in his pre-desert days, organized a Twentynine Palms Iand Yacht Club. Lucile Weight reports that approximately 100 penons attended the fmt meeting, and that in following months many land ychters visited Mesquite Dry Lake with their wheeled "sailboats." And, according to this same Local historian, national gliding champion John Rohinson "brought his ship here and talkd of the possibilities of a glider school: That was in November of 1341, Air and later that month, as we have seen, the got to jut a s&ool in Twentynine palmspa glider which would send airborne troops into World War I1 batdec-,,LIC,".,.
Earlierthat year the Germans had given a grimnew
*A pdnrc entrepreneur. k o n u d Whoff,brought in gecramn i 1938, and over the n gclr began swinging an clccuical grid n ro homa and huskfmmhis gasoline-pwred opendon ncu
rour Cornen. whkh
is rhc iodn TwcnojnincRims High. ~ ~kcpr -ficrprinuE '-lightplmu:. d fur . rhc communiq\ firrt eiccrriciry.
tional Swing Contest, at EImh. New Brk. The to glideis by using them in their 20 May SoPtiog Society nrs inwpxatcd at ElmirP in 1932, innsion ofCrete in the eastern Mediterranean. h n i math uto-doagwith TarenryninePalms-wont d y , the f k m a mhad pioacrred the co&on of o f t b e p h v y military glider schods estabMed by gliders and the devclopmct~ milirnry tactics for of t h e s e m o t o d m l i r c r a f t b e c P n s o f ~ ~ t~h c U ~ s a a s ~ t b a f f e a d y d a g a o f ~ r L 1 ~ ~ 0 n t h e m i n t h e p m t W o r I d W a r I l t e n t p ~II. The other nrs at lockport. Ulinois.** First order of bushes for the new airF1eld wu a V a d l e s (1919). Gliders wm: sonomicPl (and 6 the 1 pnrpet land surpeg. Bill Hat&, who eadicf had orGcnnam, lqd) &lames. Gumrn students at the ganized drg hnd rpiliagin this dead lake area, volunUnisasiq of Aachen in 1920 built a spotdag glidertdfbrttdsgao)m.Hptch,asurueyor,anuamturPl the Sduwzet ?&@/-which bad hen designed by forthis. w e n d i t r , ~ p s ~ y ~ ~ u g m a n w i t h their prdimr, DL WoEpg Klunpurr (ahom we s h P i l m ~ a g a i n ) . T h i s B l p E t D d o f f h C & y p ~ &i. ts he had beed weekending in TwenMc w s u 4 & n t wftofitsdcsign, ahdOthCI6Iate1, Fdms when somebody cane m thc Inn toolring %I thcarneyorwho~styrpsedtobein~.hevly inspiltcdlnrge-dspo* rpmfb fhroughout Germaq and s p r d gliding inm many other wntries, saiu had died. Another d e r had given a plot of hndfot a cemetcq, but nobodynrs quitesurc ofthe Muding the United S m . In 1928 aud 1929-at a about the time T~enqniuc Palm nar getting or- location. If Bill H & could find rhe pmpn imd, +ed arwnd its Am&w Lcgion outpost-a kw fiends of the d d could burg him. Bl Hitch il Getmnnpilatratpe$ida~atCnpcCod.Aad did,dtheydid. NowSIPtEhCBUCdonrhehnnywith i t n r s a ~ ~ . ~ H i n h , v h a i n 1 9 3 0 r a u g k E L Whyen, who wanted to build the gIider Wy t r. gliderfaa3aboutdrmn?ltaadplVcd&6eyAtrrthe Lsvrthnt month-Nmber 1341-the Amy CMps wide-sprcnd useofthevviomaaahich"rePdsc'~ oflhgheerssentout a m n q t e a m o f i t s u m thamtls fir the $ pilot.* & I ln~wssTshnlcPlScrgtantS~ven~,who H i d " rd d *e n thcrmnk, arcofdiog to the Soorcmcdopm h t h e 19th ~ i n e e ~ % p o ~ W S ~ Bating Soeiny of America, in 1930 at the fint US.Na- d o n in Wnlnad, picked up some additimd pnsonMifmarFtddCanpanyX,&minOmnside,and *Tahaicnnr.$&wbadacldgdDmardRibhtagIldsd aunc out t t e desert-aboui ahakfdozen Army eno h r a t b c f i m r p p l l m o ; o n d t b e " m m u t m ~ . " A n ~ gihem in all. Zrmr who la* weat into & Air trn, m~ddr.~rornodt6esppninm~w$jchanLspossi sDanidcd~mnmamlaruidkuqicr~I&ul-aita&Arherrher ~ , f r o m w h i c h h e x c t h d a s a ~ r , r e c d c d i n m p l k 1 . ~ d a a r m a i c c a u d b ? t h c ~ o ~ o h r r t i n g o f d r r 1981 thot to beat the dacn heat, he end his anv ~dmorr~tdthebipouPeatsboutO400, dothcir a n h ' 6 s r u P t r s ~ f ~ ~ g a a i n gamd-, c b c X p i b t m n ~ & % s ~ d m m d ~ ~ ~ m + mro)oioe. dththmu.nbout 1 5 0 0 h w d ~ m t h c
lbeyhada~~~in~we~c,~tthefin behiadthrm. Zp - g s ~ t m p a , a B ~ i r l l '
didmMgindrruicmoumcsc~dmnlsa~;tbeup. dopo~ifrmvEhuaanhr*wtdnmJwgaanr~pddirioa-- ~oooortw,abcpfound&eplace&ed%& m ~ ~ D a u U t r n t b i r g d ~ ~ - thelildiaontheborsf~obmdthemcntwod~p" ~ w b ~ r c ~
~ ~ ~ k
domnoa d r
i k ~ nnbr,In d
r dq.aC didem, dr. wfi-
r o u n c c d 1 4 m r h i L h m m ~ w d O a t o k s b m thectcsect,rtMltditM-,,,dhptitioan nncdWtbeorhan~brll.%cwdWi$iaemi~aia - * ~ - l + ~ ~ - ~ r k i q b i n d ~ eiupyWenmnah~bar.~~BuctlPad,thc
Indipn, s o l d tlrt problem o f p i n g the midiem up
"P~tomrhcnoi~,wcar?ealnaysgrrmdby'~stbcddoedt~a~ch+tinallsomeU10,000US.troops ~edhereduringthcnrt.Maptafthem~hm mndc~&ysvoundrtreircenoindup aimintnplitt~Framth#wtkofZPOnarmdhis and dona nmpq mms. EKn now in the came multi-colored q o g q h i ,-q c mid-lW& flying over or &kg rhrough with a a n d t r i n a g u b t i o n - s t n t l o a f t i m w h t h ~ c n - hlPgCdvehidc.&ese~thaW?)aftocbtxnbesa~ ginccrs &re able to locate the light hacoos for the ~ n still in idcnce - a h a& somc fieldstone durs d lirfield. as well as other stuvcy reference points. and 4 in the form of Gothic mbcs whcm wious od ric. Alld&iswasbringingrhemilirPlgm~ty&e units ha$ the'i chap& a a w wtdoot xvc s g ) Plms, t n t h a d y this mant the US.Mnrine Corps. T h e and a ( n ~ ~ b t m &antic mlicf msp about the size: of a football field, buiIr m represent W e there is no wly to p m it, probably the Mar i n c C w p s n c ~ a ~ h a ~ m w t o T w e n t y & thcspnwlingaues~the~cenect,ucauthat e .~-Wlmshuditnorbrcafarrtris 1941dccisionraput rermin. Early in 1985, the Needles ofiiccof the Bwew of the glider base h e in these ded Ucs sitminded by their b m hills of thermals and upslope lifts. Land Mnmganmt s p d the dedication of a wm~~laimunuQttr,rhb~militnrpnpiaT h e mu by then an air brse at V M e - n a w kg , G a , r g c A i r F a r r r ~ . L P t a , ~ M ~ c G o ~ s t l y , & at uid and windmepi Chidaco Summit, tkdn'mr autd~~~uwehousc d d it B?tsma, just OEfaOute I-I0 and near the outh hem mart bar& in the n h i n d t h c M a d m C o t p s A i r S r a t i o n a t ~ ~ a m e of the Joshua . K National Monumenta wm the Eagic, and Omnopii Moudtains scowl m b e a s a d t o f n e c d r b r ~ m ~ c y h d h g s i t cotto~ inlandfmmSauDitgoafid~r~undthcim~areydown at m&m motorisD specding along in aireoadidaned&.ifIftho~~quintintheVkinityoftbeSllmnSca iakjy into the h a t d h m e afthe brown and deso~ ~ And thca for dcxn uaining on the ground (somelate dwn, stillthey will see nothing to remind them thing the Marine Corps might bavc inherited later). of thos days of uaining. Not even a sdf-respecting up for grabs after World War U might haw been the ghost would d Out ofsight from the mommy, . great, Gmling aurs of d e c o m d granite EBumed onlydKreiid1q~thckmdyaltars~4ong upbyGcnaalGcorgcW~stanLs(and~of with~~ofiOdg.Afu~~rtifhiC~md~t,~Clf. others d o fobwad) rrst of h t y n i n e P+Lros and n a in miniature?** These rows of d c m fidd stones ~ on over into ewa@ g h d y uru o Arizona. D m f led, intheirWot~toNonh Afri~atoSicg; Wetm Training Gnw, it wu W.It ammnud to some no, to Nia, to Normandy, to victory in Wodd Wr U. a 16,000sq~aremiksofd~fmma r u s t o f b u Mter the decisMn in I341 to locate the glider traintynine Palms, and then d&mughut m uh of mc ing center at Twmtynim Palms. one af the advisoa the v c desert bcawen what ate now Highways 40 aw whoVisitcdtbisdesaamanumbetoftiaKswuDr. (old Roure 66) in &c no& to 1-10 in the south, thca %lbw Ktcm~cfir, d-et of thu fvwur amis the Colondo River and into a broad Arizona ~~~dbuiltbyhis&nin~;lrhenmore descrtateabPmkctinthenonhmYmain the then 20 pus earlier. He had fled Hirler's Cmanny, south. P d a n hgpn mining his ranLeh then in the and by this time. wu a rcsmch cagimccr fbr Doughs sptingof1942, andthcnIeftinearlyfdtomalvchA 8 Ncrvcmbet 1942 lading in Nonh Africa with h i Aid. 3dand9th~xyDisi$mn~aadhAtdAnaocedDi- Orhn visitors wen equent, since gfidcrs and the dcsert both were oddities which attracted attention. 60% Id& Madaw Hut, a Rlmr rehidem who TniDing fot anh unirs and individual soldiers u m came home ftom San B c m p r d i ~ College and went rinwd in the ~ m i a ~ o rrcrs until 1944,lad n a too t oinathe l e y o S f E f c at the field, r d s &at w k B ~ ~ e ~ ~ o f ~ M ~ e n t ~ n n e l w h m m oncday~spr-andbythcnlicutenant-Jimmy SteRPucflm i n t o lBOk theplva cnn. Mn. Hut
said danothcr dmc md plxc. 2 rmn could nuc a &.
urhepung~~~crTorrbcHnrLvhciliqin1955.ndam d o i m a mM bm in m i q mug. w t an dm plunked in. ih
Sgt&ctLuld.~hrBlrtBmrlytbcm~.tncrtbupnotulnruc noc dangerous. Rcpubirely nuy t morr ofus.bur nuc d p o ~ m y + o
tdedinlg~5dwsbcwsorhrilledattheplospsf of seeing the pop& movie star that she immdiafc.
uclmmldnurml,dhl.gedrmghgng&~. am dthm up m 18 fm 4 smdq on end d Pmaged io .
RePipbf chsmonr insbwch'on in tbc pn'm$ks o n~fwlessfigbt f was* qftbefigrwee& cogrse in~oIPrirg bo~rsf fl g 30 o * wb&b q d @ d p&n@nts m g/irkr pilos.
rkpzuulait d De&w
Phm (us@ M 1 3m
T h e m i l i side ~ 17thAfW Airb~a PlgThe War DtpVUnCf't Put ing w g inllbtKid.~$fimfeatucc-kngrhfilm.xzr out a press devc on 27 Novembec 1941, to amounce the asking would begin on or about 1J a n w 1942, nm a ~ t a fs t f the glidu b u4 p. with an i n i d dPB of 12 students. Taro wcks l t r ae
main&. md open= the glider M y for r h Army Air h s President of the firm, and the on-site m. v. F. R. mc F i m-ding ya of the A r m y conringcat was Captain Lmw C EIcrs; l a t e r c a ~ kfulky B. e b e the corninadingo86ccr.~the1niliutyst&~abouf50ofikets and mcn. including night instructon and co-pilots who rode with the d e n t s untit they were ready to solo. Some of the flight iusuucrpn and KO-pilots h a wmavilians.VitonHnn,ancurlystudcntlucky emxlghtocltchIoisMulmontherebwodffomhcr
1y a c t i d her once-a-daychore of going from officc to office with mail 4 in hepcs that she would en, counter thc tieutenam fromHoUgnoad. h Mh stop t she managed just to miss him, and ir her final mail call somaMe pointed out to her S t m a t ' s plane specding down the dusty runway for takeoff. And Gwyn Keys-a daughter-in-law of that old pioneer and &dminer Bill Keys-one day W E saw o+ a popuh of stu dpy, j d e h , gM but m l psispnce from on a a schedule foulup cawed her to be the only worker on hand the condor ~ e l cant*. d who had p l a d the o i p b 4 by *lie choptin
shattering mpcricnce of bciig stood up by Jimmy St, recalls that in 1942, there w c perhaps 'W ~ a dozen" E n i l i v l s on Whyefs' d,a mall ad&and tional number of civilians in a security farce. a maintenance &on, and s forth. Major Zvonv o runcmbe~d 1981 thzt when he and hi rrcw surin vepd and rnaPKd field in 1 s . them aepcvcd ckili~ thm wore same wrt be only a of a " b m -nt" ornament on theu caps, b t u had tank designations equiralent to colonel down to
nKTe-Air-b adnssof18xzrto-thCfow-&c-.nlerewith md
after, said the Wat Depactmcnt, dwesof 24 pawns , wa -fled & be CPerg two -ks. ~~1~ thog had p ~ O U S mIIPh
*w, rneady IHZ a a m par rftishtefiim),sid % &tkdaherdkd~-tddf~~rhca&itk wkb 3Kirdmidmob Lhmssdifwdl,ryd ibca d v d i d~~mOadrhomacrcinrninin~beawt~M~makK%ht~camcdprk€C~LkcmcsbcrorcdXrsrSPhuc& uniform,&m Vinmn hC lDULl
i f i , lon&rPI! , , ~ , , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
werc to graduate after an aangc of 30 burs 0s inm c t i o n in gliders of the two-place TG-I and TG-2
land on a desolate dry lake. and then dto forget that he w a there. a But gwuiedrogetthelnsruriniogBightrofthe types. Tbae were the m e Ftankthzt and Sthwtim models m be used & lu tht primnrp glider s&ok b y , Haasaid.Thengwgortosrnyupabitlonger. nElminandLafrporr. F m time. almost. And you could catch thmc upslope Atrhispw,~600pilotscddbegrado?mlpcr lifts dong thosc little mountains which are behind where the rmimide buildings ofthe Matine base now pu,but local records and memo& ue not clear on this subject and mired records, nmv in the hands of stand. Ym d d fly those lifts akmg the ridge, and then turn back into green air and come back along the Air Rorce, are w. There was aot almys good the ridge again and again. An eternal "wave" Sumrs weather. even in the d e s n d k h had been a health camp. Characteristicdexa winds in some of the cool only dream of. Harz remembers om day.when &re were 12 to 14 months hampered operations;and descrr tabs, which can hit with violence in the fall and with slittle more ofthem soaring along that ridge. &whet day, he anr uptoatmoat 14,000fecrontherrmlsbdanhedcddnl even temper in winter, sometimes made the old dry he had bemr get back down to the hot and dusty L&stoowa~~tnlreaffsandizodings. But those mu heady days-Wy getting t do o field somerhing which war preparing to get back ar Hider AheUofawnytoptodVintonHandidit in Europe, or the Japanese out rhm in the M c . three tm , and t h e n m e back to Lois and to T m i a Gliders, "a hell of a way to go to war,'' said the Twea- tynine Palmswheretheynisedtheir~. Foratbe, tyheP?tns basc dtiefd&inthe ~ummerofi%5, Vint had a service station, and then he joined the and he a prirate pilot and a glider s p o r t u a v l in the Pmtal Service. b r a number of pus, he worked at bargain. &epost&ceontheMvinebase,andthenhemd Vinton Hux. b g h , d d d not say a bzd word to the main o f f ~ in town. Oncc duriag his employe ment on the Marine base, be rdd an iagainst them. H e was here from summer imo %emng rcponer beroft942.Putof&etimehewrorknithcLinktcaiaer from 7% O b ~ e d tPosf &at he newer met a Ma) for the staff. a job he'd had at the air b;*victorrine he didn't like. "But,'' he added, ' I dose twu 'came villc before an o&er theu sold him on the glider deal, or three times.'' He mired from the Fxmal Service in because it would make a flight officer o& of him. 1985. Originally from Minnesota. Hut was strongly eiigiforty-one years prior to this Wstal Service retireMe for gliders because before mltr senrife he had iiay menr. in anothe~ spring, Vint m-piloted a glider i t no earned private pilot wings. Normandy. It was a big British H o w cvrying someVinton Harz remembers the &g as many mot i g like 39 mops and equipment. They crashedhn with considerable help from the Gcrmaa defenders. ments of exhiharing flying i n t e n p e d with hot drudgery and some hmrating times. One ofthe la€- It was almost dark nurirne, doubledouble daylight saving tlmc still had not saved them enough, but ter occurred when someone in authority told him to
bright flasha of fire h m theit designated landing uuscmvincedthemthnttheenemyhadwmemwpit for them there. The British pilot turned for an dternate site, but there more enemy fire, and then tall p1cs put up as counter-landing obstacles. Vinton Harz came to on the ground. the Horsn on his back. A near-hral way to try to get along with a Horn The flight &cer ftom Tncntynhe Pdms' Condm Field could not 4 Mnr much pain and . odw misadvenm, he was and evacuated but across the Ghrnad to England, whm he recovered in a hospital. Ear gating ncU again, he got to fly his own glides into Eindhmn. Holland, in September 1944 for the hdarht Gatden operation. Inter, the Dutch gave him an a m d f r his put in that. Then. in MPnh 1945, o he flew h e r glider inro the Wesel operation on the Rhine. The United Stares by this time had &en up aying to salvage gliders h e r such operations. 'Em ofmtmobympped. A f n r p l a n d e d , p ~ frombeinganArmgthghtofEcertobeiaganAuny ground o B k . hfvr the iPoding at WI Vint did -. the required thing to h s b troopglider-which was i i g something like what yau did for a horse with a b m h leg-and t h e n l e d a g r w n d ~ p c r o a r a f i e l d ~ a trec line where the Germans n a i d Ibr &attbrrt. he got a Bronze S t v Medal "Glidingwas 011 right as long as 1 got to be the pilot," Vinton Huz said in 1985. Aftw gliders. Condor Field beame "just anorhcr" ArmyAiiCo*@htainingshoal,wirh~~~powctedplnns.Byudy 1943,thegiideruzinin$begantowinddown. Therehad beensho&ng&nce in combat operatinm that gliders too often were scrious clashes waiting to happen. Parachute opemuons m e d out to be more &&ti% Dirbome tcdtniqucs. March 1%3~tohavemntkcdthelastmonthfor
glidw flights at b & x Fidd.J. Cam4 after World WarIIahnddacloperandrealgatebrolrcrinTncntynine Palms a d the Morongo Basin, re& thar he cnmc to Condor Field in those early weeks of 1943 to fly motorized planes; and Gwyn Kcys, who with the one-timc lsristPrree &]die Coogan helped operate the canteen at the field. r e d s that 111 hands were inviudmtaha@derridebE601~thosecnftncrccnted fbr shipment e k d m e . Afterthat, the 17thArmyAiiIb1~aPlyiag'IiainingDeucbentc~tirmedfanbwtapunithndial engine Steannan &en. 'Ikcn, a bit later in 1% the Navy took over. Great e x p e s of the darn, ftm the Mexican border nonhanrd wrc $unmry and bombing aqcs fbt the N q .It bad fields and aruilLrg fief& fram rr Yuma oodnwd dong the Salton Sea, and elsewhere
TheNavyhungoninT-yninePalmsundlsumma of 19-45. when World Wnr Ilmdal.
Arsc, aftu that, Condot Fidd ncnt into enre& status. Then, b e h e the year was out, the place wpr given OPU to San Bemardino county. Ibt wen ycafs the dent bvddiqp stood vacant bcside the dusty old aidield. Gdd miners began sgsin to t a p e h m g h ris the d e n t h w n hilL; and rrropos. Nonetheless, it
lookedaifthedesertnouldfinaUynin,&aU.The d m and the dageodana of Sergeant Bwbnd's mantula which once helped thc militpry enter thc numsocialdofTwcntyniQePalms. And the nrrme, Condor Field? Did amdo& oncc mar along those bmvn hills in the upslope W? "NO." said an old rime glider man. "Not tbat nc know af. We named it &at because nc admired thos bids. Best flying machine ever cmued.''
The Marines Arrive
of lohn W. Hilton. dacn Prdn and a u k whose &*ltaafhn;bammuch~t&bgttmre whocometoLnonplclenjoythedesa** She gat E dr&85. Other actors aho had uwnccdonswith T m q n k &t&Ild6mte".,~,. Palms over the pus included Ralph BeUamy, W i Wtr&m&&w&u& &gem, Jr., and snimming and m a k star Enber WilAbdsf&nbaabr, ~whosebrotherDilRWilliamswssforpus Is L@&m T v r y r k r *! I eve+dy's favorite plumber in r m until in the late 1970s, Dave and his w& Virginin w e lured away m Well, World WarIIwasaw, and you hadtosing thebxightlightsofYucclVaUeyV i k p t a b r a n d r ~omahing. ALlie W ~ b l and wife%nd~, dong with c of her travel bushes in Twenynine pplms,hf -. young sons Robert and Thomas, =re living in the Lxil historian luei Wewt ftnds in her research on Campbell house, that tao-story fieldstone showplace Bl and Bntg Cvnpbell built after Betty came into rhe lam-day homesuadhg in the area that in 1345 il Ronald Reagaa-lam m be g a ~ m oo W r n i a and r f h e ~ h r t n e One ofthe bop m t e d his father to i eiac. n then President ofthe United States-was indudcd in write a sang for an PO.at school. "After aJl, dad had a batch of Hollymod types who filed on a lvge tract done the score fbx Wdt D i i e y ' s Swg &the Sovtb east of t m where t h q hopcd to establish a flying ["Zipadetdcdab, Zip-a-dee-ay. M 0 My,what a y dub nnr an emergency landing field. This feId later wondedul day"] and dozens of other w e U - k n m him of the early and lam '4s." And thus, published in k a m e a San Bcmvdino county &field, k n m loullg as 'Tkenynioe Palms Inuuruiod.'' The p l m 1947 by the Freddie Mvtio PubWing Complny, was o f r l e a g a n a n d h i r ~ e s m c s ihmtvu, ba;rusc , born The Lady from Twemynine Palms." It bmme of water problems. Iater the Knon Family, of Knott's a d y hit and-said S d y 1nrr~'really us on put &nvFumfame. establishedaskvrnrknotfitwest the m."* of& d m vrss ofthe * . L d in the 1911~. M* that song was a the bigha @ Rnf SW- was a hqnent kv ever was. but it illusmas the point that there had Palmshad been for hir Tor a number almmrnhmpbctnabitofa&owbuainess~~m ofgevsladhcrmotherdhadabmehminthe Twawine h h s , p* e bawsc oftbvold Lgion mld-19&,
Sbrk 5 YH YD Ya-fi-4r &, il . .- ~-r;;a'i@oft~,rt A& r$! Yyl ry)-&bJ & Yb ! lpaitnar,he & s ,be dm, tdr kd
oootin~ena~sodaseroHoll~urd i k w l B ~ t s h c r r t h c ~ i n m z n r g ~ u pXnd llthough we tend m "naine dropPP names ~~ the of enundnw and puMk &a, ofthem m f e most Cpgnq had a home in Tnurynine Palms from the
19308 into at lest the mid-l%&, ?Wough by 1989 he had n t visited for some time. Cagnq rna friend o
in a d, n-
~~PaJms merely m enjoy the peace, quiet,
**Fuhnps W ' bcsr-taam boDL mr S c m m S M B BoQI mr (Nm Y& b h m i k , 1947). ddirps republished in 1966 6g e n r w ~ ~ ~ b ~ ~ . P n l m cabmia.rM.nyofhicnrrlDear lent cwly pain* hang in TRntpnine Rlnao homn with fnmiIksrbomJobn~~Rithrw6bmbam~ga~
ing their times here to "get m y from it all." More meaningful to the community which was to become something of a Marine town w s the pcmwar arrival a in Tmntyninc i k b of Dr. Edwatd limdn Smith. a New E-nghder by binh and a phgdciPn by way of an education at Ynle and then the Hvmrd Medid School. Dr. Smith came to the d c ~ tvia a =-time t stint asaNavydocmr, duringwhich h e d o n G u a d a l d with the im MPtioe Division, and mote specificallyas surgeon for the infantry baraliw commanded by one of the best-known Matine Corps hema of the period-Lewis B. 'OdChesty"Pullrn* 'Dr. E:= hc was known by most ofthc residents d' o f T w c n r y n i n e P a l m s f o r ~ o f o f ~ y e aunts til he retired and m o d away in the late 1970s, was 0neofthefcwwhoewrgottoTMmpaiacRLmsby accidmt.** But he stayed on purpas. Mtcr mumingfrommctimedutyin&~D~Smithanrcd, mong othn pleces, in rhe Navy V-12 unit at the Univerairy of Arizona W t i e s in Flag&£ After the wu ended, he came bpck to P1agstaff to visit friends, and to pop m into ~ t o e s t a b l i s h h i s d r cal credentials there. since he thought that someday he would semi-retire to a small pmtice in that mte. While in California, Dr. Smith was *lilred into visiting Dr. Luckic in F'asadena. T-tyninc Palms desperately needed a doetor. The very sort of a d l Hippouates must have had in mind. Dr. Smith opened his practice in the dcsert town on 4 Dmber 1346; he ntired on 1June 1979. Mcauwhilc, llso in December of 1946, Dr. William T Ince, DO., came to Tmyninc Rtms with his wifc Sally, and atmut a year later launched cooJuuction of a dhospital-a memorial to bis father, Thomas H Incc, that pioneer Hollywad producer who was . an wly amciatc of Ma& S n m of those one-reel ea d y films which became c k k . Thomas fncenlso proddthemorriecaued'~0n:oneofHolly4 s fim k a ~ ~ l c n g filmr. (There also were th others in h19 dl&g&hed Gmcr.) i&tco* phpsicim, which Iaams, and wdi-
d doctors, which Ed Smith was, somerimes did not b quite how to deal with each other, but by about the time the Marines arrived in town thcsc t docm ton were cooperating with each other, and the Incc hospital provided much valuable gemice to early d y a MIdneses of course m the community a a whole. and s A D e m W " P ~ r o g r r s Number" supplement ofJuly s 1.3 lisn William T. hce, D.O., as adminkator of 95 the hoapmrl and EmpMtLincoln Smith, MID.. as medi d dimtor. Meanwhile, as 'The Lady from Twentynine Pnlms" jangled along, and with most Americans not watching intemuiortll affairr, World War U wrs not @ring tidied up satishctody on the ft side of the i
Pacifk.~nmpsand~torsinNonh KoreaandsimilPrUS.fimminSouthKo~hadrahen over that formerJappcrrsession, with a VieW to uniting the cnlnug (split admidmthdy at the 38th padel) aud Brirtpjngk intorhe United Natbm. Russie did not want t i to happen, and it st up a puphs pet government in North Korea and mined and equipped a u a t k military force. Whm the matter ei Korea's mug into the United Nations came up, EmEi stopped it with a vcta Mter nearly four years ofposnw occupation, U.S. forces withdrew from thc south in the spring of 1949, leaving only some a d m i i r s and tofan military unit$. About a pt later, on 25 June 1990, a North a ry Koran a m ,R u s s i aained and equip&, assaulted South Korea The Security Council, with Russia's delegates sulking in absendn uver the mu-seating of mainland Chiaa,designated North Km the iggroso sor,wgcdacevek, andulledrmUnitedN*tioos manbetsmunite~the~ofpaceinKoru. On 27 Junq President '&man s m Amnlcen f m e o into action, and duonghout the nation the ancient and hononbJe pcukion ofurns kgm again to look toward mobilization. At Camp Fe. n cabbmh, in the northern ~upurwvdSmOn~~andthatSmatl white sntcco town of SPn Clemente with its red tile 6the old W d Wac II tent crimps rcdy~ncd. Soon,ncaMviacsandoldaonsfiwlrsef~stntus &mnd&~~t-~~rtl-ni~ht~aknlfa~ullcrmdb wuo I$* theninto mq waJ&hcs in w. tho8 bman summer hills. Mlinside looked like a '*Xcmwcdnw, t o & t b c P n n c i s m B a y a m . u o t ~ hcdidanhkc~PPlmraodthcdercRbu~.rhc~ boomtonnagain.TheKholeplacemssobusgthere ~ p ~ w a p k u bccnarckLarbispnricrwdbmgarndn . were almost no imueu remaining for d q , ing.ouldjusfnncrsopcnllinghim. And-letrvnsnidbythis whkh had grown larger, or for rocbrts, which wuo dedierr.d pwf&aad-beu"se lbz toc.ht d " I , oorcr. in this gmw& into miads. %I O r c r y m a , an 'X-Sop" at *.aop~mrharcullr
Marine Corps Historical Coflmdon
The main gate o the new Marine Corps Training Cente~ f locatedfour miles north o the f smddesert community o Twentynine P h ,bouseda 70-man detachmentfmm Camp f Pendeton tasked wirh preparing the base f i r the complement ofpermanent personnel. Horno Ridge was about as exciting as finding your starting notch on an a c 9 dueq board: Searchers for better training areas scouted far and wide, and soon up jumped that weird hunk of desert where gliders once soared, and where Navy fliers later strafed and bombed. In early summer of 1952, whispers from these searchers and their motor transport driwn began to go around Pendleton: Buy Twentynine Palms! This to brother Marines-officer and enlisted-who individually had about as much money as those early gold seekers of thc desert. Buy the sand while it is hot, one wag suggested. The base-to-be is about the size of the state of Rhode Island, with Narragansett Bay squeezed out, another early visitor said, and then he added he would not give $14 for all of it. You've rrot to put on gloves to open and close your car door, or you get blisters. "Twentynine Stumps." some salty old wmior from Padfic campaigns dubbed it. And "The Stumps" it became to a whole generation of Marines who couldn't quite imagine what the Corps was going to do in the middle of the blankblank desert! But barracks banter did not dissuade. On 20 August 1952. Base Headquarters at Camp Pendleton issued Post Order 343, and some of the 930 square miles of desert, more than half a million acres-Rhode Island squeezed dry- became a Marine Corps Training Center owned and operated by Pendleton. It was quite an acquisition for that once Marine Barracks. Santa Margarita Ranch, Oceanside, California. And for the Marine Corps, as we shall see. Major (almost at once to become Lieutenant Colonel) Frederick H. Scantling was sprung from a job with the 2d Infantry Training Regiment at Pendleton and put in command of Camp Detachment, Marine Corps Training Center? This outfit fmt set up in the
'*Spnchg. aWodd W u U menodthe Pacilicumpaipwith the ist Mlrinc Division. saw action on G u a d a l d . Cape Gloutesta, a d Peleliu. Rbap thk trawl, courvsg dthc Mviae C o p , n plw his pmtiag to the mange and fascinating d m bas-which he +red cxrMive1y-rpuled his inrerm in geography. At any mtc. &r his retirement in 19-53. Fred Scantling mncd a PhD. in gcopphy ar UCLA, m d taught that s be t from 1966 until u jc 1980 as aprofewr it Loog Bcvh Sute. Dr. Scantling m d his wife, Nanic, whom he met dudng that gmrm o all World War U duty. f in Mclboume. AuLurmliz, rside in Long Bucb
"T-Sop" is pronounced "as-sop" by d ~ q m e nThelr mmt . frequently w d btr of jugon. Thc ictrea nvld for r e c o n n h c e . xlcction. and mpation dpmition (for firing). Thus, what n rifkmm probably would nll a "field C ( E I C ~ ~ 'or "going ro the field:' ul n d e q m v l would nll m "R-Sop."
'Ihe exercise proved that Tmntpnine Palmswas going m be a g d y upchilphce. and that live Wigartilleq ova the rincmen and &-would bring the mops to &ti= m n i n g much quicker than &mulation which frequently lacked stimulation. It also taught the Marine Corps a lot ofamazingthings abuut its n e chunk of descrr. At night it w bitter cold, ~ s W~th Lieurnam Colonel Scantling and his d l a little spitting of snow p d tkaur. A raw wind detachment in p k . and bpnallws o the 12th Maf seernedmbkR~youtofthe~a~~Itd rina scouring the hills and culyoas, the 3d Marine taluawyalitttecofl&efireifthe&ewasmguudDivision from Pendlcfon put together an ambitious d i n thcleeofa bitofa hillock, or behindatrge to&.Sha.inpacvn~an~l~-ratheranm l h a r u e B b m M ~ ~ ~ a i o S ~ s i n t h c ~ , ~ dproduct as that the-dried so quicWy in the dcsett rfat a ~ u ~ f i r i n g e m u s e o l r ~ I n e r , l o a c p i o u wind &at Marines trying m shPR with rhir d v c r c )~ Hidplso-sm dromms. orsol,dhg, ~r a Smia e e r rnyht all too soon scrapkg and pulling painfuIIy through has~allafi;uitbcair~mcntdth.~c tobeawhirechalky~~~coaathefnre. * * A s t h e b P a g m r i o t h l P n k , ~ ~ ~ i p o p u wk-d Lr~rucBwMrdncracd~fEQilim-pln*rLoddarta with p t w b l e lnd othr bcilido. hnu dng Myinep u- a
12 Area at Pendleton, there w get organized for later transfer up the hill to the desert. T i evnc about for hs Lieutenant Colonel Scantlingand his detachment on 15 December 1952. The Marine C o w dispatched them m the old h y glider base beside Condor Keld to keep tahs on things while a large civilian constmction finn-Twlitr-Morrison-Knudscn-Maccobcgil to build a new base fw the Muins. C o n s d o n w s a under the ep of 1Nanl Rsident-Cffker-in-Chugeof-Consuucron (ROICC),Lieutenant Commander John P Mapcs. Scatling's detachment numbered . about twu dozen Marines. Scantling recalled later that the coasrrucdon company, and Mapes, had surnd wwk in June or JuIy. Mapcs, with his M y , lived wmewhere in the v c n iiity of Smith Ranch-that old mUer rint l t r to beae come a gymoasium, with drive-in mavie alongside. Lieutenant Colonel Scantling m d h s family up m i the desert in A q w , and commuted from d w t t to Rndleton u t l the detachment umc up in h e m ni bcr. Meantime, dements of rhe 3d Marine DivSon's artillery q i m m t , the 12th Marincs, a h had been commuting up md down the Momngo Grade to 5@ore and fifethe Corps'nosly yquitrd w . Commanding~mofthelZthMarinainthosedayswas Colonel Iconad I? Chapman,Jr.. later m kcomc the zotb chmiundant. Usudy, in those days, the artillery whicles turned no& off the h i g h y a few miles short (west) of the pillage of Twentynine Palms. and droR into the uaining cenw toarand a s m d lone mountain then &led Pinm* The units frequently m up a c o d post at the oasis cded Surpria Springs. neat where water wk ha= been put down o w the e to provide for the ever-increasing needs of the growing bw?*
Iive-fire expedition to the new nainiog center. The ist Marine Dvso,traditional ouupant of W e m n a f iiin ter n m members of the 'Old Breed came home h m the Pacific at the end of Warld War I1 and ocmpation dutyinNonhChina.hadgo~offmthatnewwu in Korea. Wer, a Pendleron. the 3d Marine Brigade t had formed, under command of that fiery warrior, Chesty W r , who already had made new combat mvPs in Kamt, and was M ~ O a brigadier general. M' ter Praidmt TNmnn admitted he ought not to have snidarlgintheKruculpsiod,thpttheMarineCorps was sort of the police fnce fix the Navy, with "a pmpagada machine rh?t i nlmon equpl t Snlins," s o
~hadgkntheMarine~anewmonpcnsa level, and Wlesty'sbrigade was a&ed to p w m division size. CMnmnnded by Major G c m d Robert H. Pepper (the sssisuot division wmmmder was Brigadier G e n dJoscph C. Bmgcr). the dwislonamt up to Tmntyninc RImr for the twu weeks pdOf to ChrisMos in 1952. As a 1 k - h exercise. it was nrhu a stilted affair. compared m eombincd urns exercises 30 and more gears later. But as tomeone onee said about the nallring buE be not erltiul of t e gait. but nth h
mane1 rlut he srands at dl. The divisian was brand new,with a lot of young Marines and old ntrrads not yet shaken down into a smooth and measured &. S a h y mevures and amrme caution righdidy ruled.
This. for lbcncynke Pnlms and fr the 3d bkikc o
whmfdbunimgmkto.rachhct&~pb.eo*c ouis *rr a acamcc &. Snrprirc Springi died with a lacrisg ~mblc.berrapg6xth.nmpa.nnd*rmrrhLhm"Idsaoop to hghm l i h y rpw
Division, was FM-1-Field Emeke I. The Gumanmightsnilc.Rdpigaataqurimouismi&mmnh;&rhu " ~ o u t a o u t h 0 f ~ " ~ b u m m h t H e r b S d v m n u r dd p o t o f t h e ~ ~ C o ' ~ ~ , M a j o r ~ r p l S h i n m n p w e p r q r u l v r p o r ~ e ~ 1 b M r h o m c . B u r 6 x a r m H p Joon, came out t wch. Aide to Genenl Pepo
per was Captain Paul G.Grabam, who came back to Tmrynine PtlLms in April of 1971a$ B w e r Gawd W a r n , loth commanding genenl of the b;rsc
whlch became an independent command in F e b ~ ug of 1957.* Meanwhile, lieutenant CQloncl Scantling's outfit was growing SIowIy, and he was tryingto p& hcnlth and mmfon ~ a ~ o d a s i o mkik h s wwhilc for i the new coustnxxion grew rlMth o the old Army f build& nur the main gate and the eonud tow^ building. %r a time, hackingback m fnmtier days on Amy pons, M r n s with fknilia could make aie c c u m k q - t y p e g m e q puxham through the subsistence supply system. The command set up a s d commirsnty in thc old buildings, and made a luge
meashall-type l r f d g c m amilabk. The store opened for bbusincss with pay limited stock-staples, meat, l and eanncd goods, d in rather menger choices. In d ofknrpnine PPlmr in r h o s days r i m w Colond Suntling d e d there were perhaps duct small grocery markets-Pnak and Helen Bagleg's by-now rather b i i r i c market on the Plaza. another on rhe highmy mu where the diagonal rand w n northcastet ward m TIRD Mile Xoad, and then ~ CM e gmccrg I on the main stem down tow^^ perhaps a couple of b& l wcsi o f h Comes. 'We wctc saictly on the hxal economy." Iicutcnant Coloocl Scvrding malled, '.and thm wun't much of it." A mcsshd for unma~~led Muincs-and for srch civilian works who m d to buy meals thereu ompied one d t h e old Army buildings-a long nurow building with long nartow tables, Scantling mailed. Marims elscnberr had known more primitive aixommodations in pcxerimc, but evcn thc simple fmme structures at Pcndlcton seemed most modern-md they were d y mu& more spacious-compared with thir little b e put up by an ad hoc avitian firm for the Army's d glider school.
Gcnenl Pepper came to inspen rather carly on, too-long-ago pioneer mwn founded with a snwg Licutmvlt Colonel Scantling said later, adding tha~ leavening of yeferaas of World War I just plain enthis ms perhaps ahout the rime of the field mtdx. jopd s e n the miliury come m mwn again. Citizcas eig or maybe just after the ft of 1953. The command- had likd the glider school because it dowed them h ing officer of the d m outporn said the genenl a means m pvcicipatc in World War ik and anyway, " s e d appdcd at ~onditions:' He did not blame so soon nfrer the end ofthat wa~, military still wu the Scantling, but he dklikcd seeing Markm in what by popular in the land. hnd Cd&rnia dwellen, apenow1~)kcd~armlrrshifccamp. t m ~ m e s ~ ncialiy. knew about the Marine Corps' share of that war af yeaa of neglect. An old China and Haiti hand who inthcP,i£ic.Itwaahappy~ofbkinaand had been in command of a dcfmsc bmPlion at Pearl cpnn,one which has endured to the prrsnn daym h o r on th?t *ous 7 Dccmber, General Pcp- made only a bit more distant because botb sida have persccmcdtoMitwaasbamechatSarncIi&sMagown into marc wphistlcnted members of a more cines bad to inor: Rndlemn for rhir-so manv weeks modem and h w world. and lwnths ~cfore new and 6ditia would -a bit ofa problem, haug,,, ,.imbe ready for dscm in the dsen. rcnaat Colonel S e a n h r d c d ha+ m do with Butfromthesran,MasbsinT-~c~ t~ntn.Hcmsquickui&thattheprob7undidnor enjopda-thofkdlininesshmddze~softhe seemtocomchmcmbaJalthcT~Falms tmn, a doscnm which ofan was lacking from big- commuuiq, but from outlanders who had desclopeplsces-ormnin~d~thcnarotbcrrmall mentwfortbewbandkdthattheMamwn itself. Tbcy made for the only "induarg'' in the h e Corps might soak up too much water. W k c w dcscrt, and they were r c of the "oueide" ~ this faaim oune h, to chum up a wate~ ~ it tried to still-runote k t y n i n e . Into the bargain, this wpanic. Big cirp newspapets dawn below rook up the
Tlw m & r l n j % ~ ~ r s o f #dc&m& &trstbma&rff ~ n i m l Z s k n r w r t bo T ew &m h & & ~ go tdc fbmrcr w d d wff f n-e?dh y & k s 4Ud N r &Id
a hidden bas& rim doan 80 m 400 feet. It offcrcd cause, which usually cxprwcd &cIf in the fear chat rhemiikvpwnparouldtak~plsiarswucrh u p . i % r h c t a p p i n g , a p r o ~ ~ ~ o f m a r the~~~mm~whkhWlongbcensuug~asmmanyMilrinesasmddlitrlybchcoughtout gling for sufficient wmr for thcrdves. Edy,the hen, said thc Mogle Brothers, for the nen UIO w, problem wrnt away after mta exploradom pre9cnta least. ed widthat the Morongo Bvio mc-don uuineJ put d i e s e l - m pumps at these a lot dmwtCI rind the &he C r s op & , rind ptshed rhc through loog 12- ra taiacd bg thc militatg, muidn t seriody draw do pb ~ ~mn-15 l-he d be-. thc table gaafasrubupanrerpipcsfordtbC-etedab Whenthe~afimurntdin1952,thcir~ a b u c ~ C I C m ~ d ~ ~ , m a a hl nonheut il the mzin p h , sp1pp1pand hadqunrmf buildings, chapels, Sevltling said he did not m b n w k c wll ~d h b . ~~d ~ i b l ibitfa ~l of ~ T h e b ~ , ~ ~ t d O W f ' w ~ @ ~~h e n ~ & & j & o f t h ~ m ~ o f M ~ ~ l%l,atllingwnwc11-Lrmwtinoin~thcMaptcBrotbera. Richsrd Magleslidktcrthat&fum New. in the T'n~niOe PlLns dcsat,bnd thcre hod h -ed by &e Amy in tbpt gcpf prior to t h c g l i d a k g o i n g I n , m d ~ W ~ ~ b""Kha*.Thecoatsuurrionte auppiio: 86 . Thc hsm came back k io ~ * ~ t l t i 6 n n r p ~ m p o u r ~ ~ d i n g r & ~ ~ m q u e s r ~ f r o m ~ c r M e p e s d&~mioas*~g~g*=tlrcgrauad,drhcndurp M 1 s ~ p a i ~ i n ~ ~ ~ * ~ n ~ W c s t &enrugwithpncumPticsuctlon"alps"atthecads ~ ~ p r h d & & d ~ ~ ~ b f m h c q w a d i o g ofnrsiculnrcdnmrs.mdriitabdd@up,nx$slabs t&andall,IilreagnrrmonnerJa+guprmscrctcblodcs. rine W q .
ThcMda$rauadfiuJnliocwhlchdSutprisc dxsr,b*dcfgr'aflbruarr.. . Spriilgswirubbkupiatiat~anoeds,duld& . . .. g r r r i c c ~ oldOnsisofMrromfannafrrshpondtRhichnucdledsf&-fw4 ~ ~ ~ n l n e p $ m k , ~ a n a q ~ ~~ V ~ I J T U V M ~ ~
J I & ~ W
The Early Years
IfErrdSfantlingandhis~Mvinesroughedit inthoseeVtydaysatTwenynincPaims,inthc~ dGencnl Pcppu, it was dl a m t w it d m payrh hl ment on space and upiniag wets w i h amounted hc tothe~Carp4sniLLigitrichinawnyonly
quisition amounted to hss d m 590,000, a t c h i d and cgnnirrn aaa aune in at about $343,W. Srill niegorig on the b o from funds wthorLcd by COngICSP fix ob additional &&tics wmc about $2.5 million .for ammunidon s w ares. I and pisrd ranges, two t o & cniniag taols, some p m t d obscmtion posts out intheinditrctfin~,pndatherrcquired&&-
thc d m . Odgioally coneid as a "low-mt" range for indirm fire weapons outgowing the cppWries ~ * A U A U m a m o r b ~ b n d g e r t h s a a n g ofbpptsthc M v i n c ~ ~ u s l y t h o u gdha ts evcr had in the desrr, but still a "baralmost boundlas, Tnenrgnine Rlms &om the evly gain basement" undetraking is mitiruy bus went, pws,and on into the final dKodesofthe 20th Cenevcn in those ycan. tury, continued to deli= up unapected values Although still awned b Cvnp Pendkon, Twcny fyaine~carlycwbcgantoscemidallysuitcdos Conmuah by pre-ce~t,tilt-up concrete dabs an d l - p u p s base far h e e Ttoops units fmm pmffdquick dkicnt, and spcctPrulndy economical. TbcmethodwasuscdelsewhcnlaterbythcTwaits- throughout the Marine Corps. In. thc fill of 1953, Camp kjntne, Nonh CPIQliDp, needed to ~ICC up Mo&son-Knud~~-Mam, conmumh comppny, and ~eb~anduaining~fornfour~~kinMhers, but i 1922, 1913, Pad 1 5 , the p&et st n 94 ~ t y n i n e P P I m s ~ t h e h g a t s l c h c n d c a ~ difidual~tiytrPiningprogrrmiai~edth~r~for ~f~~ g up boor camp, and to undertakcn.SosaidthePordvrdCEmcnt~rtom young Mafines just w k c q ~cplaccments Rowing to the Koreul sector. So in the N m b u 1953 h w R s c o r r X 9 n a W a d c p u b h t i o n ~ t h c b d d i n g & k L I a i t a f t r s t Ofcwcnt same rOne Trmps units fmm Lcjeum, onto shipsatMm~CityaadthrmghrhePaclPmaGoal incmwmt,. thc Mzkc Gorpd pmjm at TvRntphc f w h d h g a t SanDiega Wmd byawnvaggrins Pdms proaided permwent living space for appmxiup w the highdexn. mately 4,000 men, ai a n*it-pn-man of $600, n svOne who made d~ trip with the 2d A~~ti-Akcdt ing5dn6out5900pcr~naardiogtoco&on Artillery(-M3--Gunmry compuu&dthed.pA%W~enSergeant Charlie E Mla who spcat m c of& K. il , uh gimtr, W h B 3radfod who had bcen iawkd . rmindaafhiseyret*Twcn~~**%aac inthtT'~ntyninePshns~.szidino24Much 19~3icncztoPraidcarEirnnhoatrthuthisnmd ~ ~ a n b ~ ~ p m k S o m B h d a a d $ m d t e c o m m i d ~ m e t h o d ~ t h c M u i a e h P t ~ t b c m ~ ~ B u l d h n r b o h d 0 b i t ~ i n ~ r n p v s n c n l l t b r m ~ ~ d t h n t d Corps to establish pemment housing Eor the usual )ustmgh~BoVgbw8~1k~m.4trpx~d& price of temporaryt quo--hut-type wmuaion pdo&ColollclJdntSOld6.lb~.Ibc'ta~tbefin~ nhicbhadbccnmuchinwgueinthchtxerdaysaf mkopndnc~redthit2.5I1)oraenacdtbepmlA ' W i d Wit I1 and immedh1~ a f t c r . k mvrrlromadditiearstbcbpor."
& UC C&I
o 1912. f
$be end of 1953
( f o c l d r ~ ~ W l a d h r m r t a ~ h ~nidi i p ~ t h
sir bandion-siatd anas lad other hdqunften uld
u*tvhuikliogs.-*Is.and~fdI.B~ then it = ---or p n h a a l i d less-its initial argtt i acmmmdtion~. n
*114.5*'dks~ntbp1Jmu~ 1954-most ofit for the d o n project
~ G u m o * ~ ~ ~ t b . & s r - * b .
, m ~ ~ ~ & g e r s t , c r r r r h ~ l e d ~ ~ i n
m i d - ~ i l u - , i a t b e ~ g l ~ r p ~ d ~ ~ ~
cashng yard shows mu
the ftrst uoop into t h e new, come@bvncLs," OunnyMillcrssid H e n e p l l e d d r u w d m ~ ~nctl. Othe&, mo mu& d t h c h v y aggregate setpaved, nod that no parade grounds ("grinders") were rled~thehnmmdthcpour,rcsultinginhwcgpavcd. Hip unit a d d , pfter that nip thmugh the combingatthebonomandarrnlrnasrtthempBut Pmma (kd,in Oaober of 1913. Mess h& w m in this m,thc m a c t o r poured a bent all at o m . in opefation, but there m s no sickhay no& o the f and &pa d e ths u)cnpmy remove the bad aunt. Sick dwent in individual uoin,and if some- work-moaly by hand dupping-and do it again. carbodv had a r p r h oroblem.be aor sent down to &- &i?. dlc&n. Balboa N& ~osp,t?l&I San Diego, or to a ~"othcr problem which Swtliog rcalls fmm the n a d hospital then open in O t r o California. nai, early days had to do with thc new power line which up fmm an d&ical substnrion On+ncw~onaetc~wasdividalbcnrccllus: had to he b&t o*lrwhatis~larthe'SWknvPclamThiswasnardcd PS a temporary &bay, with a fnu beds at one md, becpua thc adable elecrtial power then in Twentyand a s& NCO dub m the o i k Mglria pfso were ; nins Palms was not sufficient far the g~owing bzso. ~owninvari~lbbsurPdrri,Gunny~said.Thtbig The first power Une conrractor, Scanthg said, "died theatefoothcbasestillwsnat5nished,andthey n onhkshasel"bcfonhcgortotttCsunofthcMorwgo ny d e d that the contwtoxs had some uouhtu grade. He had not adqwmly mpmcd the Wr c -o k &em. nature of the duixt below what zappixed to be easyWhat the uouble was. Pred Scanrling & Iatec, I to-dig "wdl' Another tonactorwas found to tidish anwuntcd to the conuaftots pppndng to pull c+ hst the job. one on the Navy's convict ~pcmisot,Licutcmw Map, fad getting caught at it. k a u x of its size, In thew cDdy yaw, Lieuteanot Coloncl Scantling thc thufcr had to haw a number o taII pillars ( 0 s f also had dmies which perhap hdped him to h m be"bents" as the contramu d them)tb ~ p the p come aprc$eaYor ofgcogqhy lle M&c Corps did u~nsarrsefriomcpfthedbuildingwirhitshighccil- not quitelmowwherr the bouduies ofthe new bas I d . hn* and some Ofhis Marines, bg hg;andonthesethemOSwouldbeplPfCd, andthe WCIC s i d ~ s l a b s ~ b c h u t lspdi*dcdfOfrhe g. jeep (wd m~pmnLing they exploredl Iwrtcd ps d b e n t s t o b e p o w a d i n m g e s , w i ~ t h e & ~ ~ boundaries, and in thc proms sauted aad mapped ~s
far the ywng uoopcrs, Scantlingsaid. much ofthc special services-rypcfunctions and physical educuion tnining,plus indoor spom contests, centered around &-includbg some old ordnance from Navy SmithS Rznm, whae an oudoor thntersu* into the mid-1980s. There, in the early pars, wcre movies, bombing days. Iua, into the pcriod when he became ereeu- dames, and "soda fountain" sodal W. But then on and aie ie uve &ca to the mw commanding o&cr, Colonel 7ncekcnds. the pung M r n s "mok off lk shots," Scantling said. UsuPlly for 'LA:' Francis R. (Monte) Brink, who arrived in mid-1953, Scantling aud young supply offtar Bud Schmid ScnotliRgputhisLtMw1edgeoftheminatogooduse for the n a d a a b b e n t and tbe f e d d g i - (who in those days also had to pass 6oI what Iatcr came to be called the f d &er) thought t h q should m a t . To get clear title m the v m d a ofthe b e . ~thehdarlgo~mmarrandtbcMvimGrps,U.S. make "swooping" (a lam term) easier for the pung attorneys bad to go into fcdml court and fomlmc Marks, and so rhey set up a "bur" ghcdule with such on old mining claims, many ofthem "officially lost" motor warport trucks PS tbcy had? The return uip n i n d r m p d "Butclaimantscameoutofthewood- vehicle from Is Angeles left pt a spdkd time and p k M !hkd%ty ~ wo&,"Scnatling+ed~"Ihhadtoscout outtheminearus, mbeabletosaythercwaswevinK Marks by and large ignored the service. Too d c m of rccrnr work &ere With me as the expert witmucb regimenration fot them,Scantlingsaid hta, afnes, US. attorneys nen able to dispose of most old ter duty all 4 Tkq would much rathct thumb to . dainx." liberty, or drive old clunkers that sometimes got them Moaofthoscn thebaseinnrlierparsrccaUmore there, and sometimes did nor So the rmck nips mrc good times than bad. It seemed that Sergeant Buck- knocked&. A A e h d c d f o r l i b e r t y h a l w p p land and his tanomla hld done a good job warming been a most e n t e r p i i individual. up the mmmunity fr the miliuty. The isolation o While kindingstayed on tor a time as second-in~edtie$inthemilitarycammUniy.PSIthad command to Col0del Monte B r ' i , he was soon off done j s aft- World Wt I for the dv*m commuut a to the Senior Course at Marine Corps Schools, Quannity. Tbis camaraderie spread from one group to the tics After that he did a mur with the 3d Mvine DiW town and military into a saoog new other, and l vision in the Far E (Japvland Ohwa). and then m W d p . Schoolsand many other activities. official retumcd m Tmntynine Paimr for a three-yeat tour and u n & d , bad to be planned and mrhed out starting in August 1911. togethec B rhe end oft& tour, mast o f m a k 4 e w a pmy On 10April l953, Nonie Scantling. t h o t W War ry much as it looked by the early l98as, and the MaU bride from Melboumc, kurnalia,&e &d in at tbe rine Palms housing m a was finished near the main Ince hospitll in Twentynine Pnlms and deliwrul the gatrButbefmcthat,muchmorcsandquneopcrtbc Scantlings' third child. son Frederick H. Sranthg, Jr. u1osom. YoungFredwpsthc~Mnrimchildbomintbat Thc ody quarrels rslilaMc on IJaouvy 1954 community hospital. w i h as had b n n ~ t e dwrvcd hc , irmdudul34 defese m t a l ? (offthc base) plus l dcpendeou from the base ?s das Mprina in cmer316 trailers and odKr "fc10catables" near the main gcnda. gate. Some ofthe 34 mt&off basebese tarn down, since As Gunny Miller noted, and as Liemenant Colonel included a dustc~ w the pnscnt post oEce in Twenn Scnatling espbed in some detail, N v hospital ay tyninePalmti.~datcdtoWbrldWarfldays,and mrpsmencnmeupwicbthosefimMvines~at- unully d e d 'Wavy housing.'' Orhers ofthe &(iKd at the bas, but Rillwere no d m o a Dn. basehousesnnrthosebuiItbyconnu~nftaMvioa kandSmith.outintm~mrctheneattstatband. t x g a n m V r i R a r t h e b w e . H c l d q ~ ~ C o t p knew,ofcourse, thm there w not much familg houss Mothm of young cbikkcn frequently f o n d it
mutes by whicb units could get to and from the selected making arw. And along the m , Scantling said, y he mapped old gold mina and orhu hazards to
tough to liw all d q on that pionea d e t i e , Scantlingconceded. Iaundry fclu wcte m e , auaiia tonutie mathinu mrc almost unknown, and, anymy, low wate~ pnssure often made it d X i r ro use such facilities as were at hand. And if you ran out of-, you ofren bad to do without until gw or a neighbor made a m "down bcloar."
* r& Ocoml Oldfkld rcesUcd m tk mid-199as rhat 'the Bi a m a i o m a d c o f ~ t r n s p a ~ w f m n T ~ ~ ~ m S p n Baannlinoradother~Eonsureddaooldcivhbos w~.nrrrtimdm~~~ThCT.*cltlpniasRlms~.Mast d the dnu thb: bus n w out o& f, o if it d mm. it r d at a p i & $ y slw put." ( A U M s aae:Thir mr thc ''Johnny H& b14" which linkd thc dQncomnruniy with the wmdc dinthosrudgps.)
1,000-~sanr 6 M u&r nu 1
#be m e w Barking den#n:
b g left from Atmp Air Corps and Nay days, nod also thlt the s d 1 community of Tmntynine Palms bad m y M e rend housing ro o& Major General W. P T. W, famous-&I-w. that manyyew Quacwmastex General of the Marine ~ ~ d a y h p ~ > 3 c ? U e d ~ ~ ply o b f q G p h Bud W i d "if1send pw money autho~izatiw." Schmid later d e d the word fram Hill, "can y u m n ~ for house to be built in o k the town of Tmtynine Palms?" "Te,' said the 'hn' @ x e dfrom Washington, "pu can t t n or sell them ~ m mpried M&s PI W y quuros."These became the houses of the Sunpld d d o p m a t , dong El Pwo sweet which M from the hack o the county f libmpesmad w tbc a m ofthe presenx Twcnynk Balms high school. L w there were d m buitt. a , Bud Schmid was willing t do almost ~ m g r h h g o to
ofmugh, hot, and -etimes windand-rainb k work whieh the early gtider pilots remembered, bur wirhaurtheairhomcfuaof~ngalongrhoschilb b the up-slope currents. Thee w s much nei&borIy f& thenand latcr, with mwmpmple who could make p ~ s u p apartyoutofwatohingthc&shfloodsgo~,orhnv~ k g a pknic in the national momment or ar Swprise Spdngs. Fred Scantling g ~ t make the first dial tclt o e p h o n e d from T h q n i n e Palms, in 1953. Dr. Bill Iace had a small cnnnon which he d d fire on "stare occuions."*Life wasn't all that bad. Excepr far the Marine with a surprix s t of d e n , e and over the years, orders to TwcatyninePalms always seemed to come as a surprise. ticst i m p d o n s alwzys seemed pnnp much tbe same: a hot, dusty, desolare milirvp dmp in a w l P d E d and lomly outpan of a town. The officerwho was later (inJuly 1953) to
sratt~rkl0ftlrcarcanikDand"re~ks'fim- r e p l P o c F R d S F l n ~ p c c o m m a o d e r ~ d r c p ~ h mobile mobile homa) mat rhe mnin gate-units tkmght of it as aU of rhe a k . This was Colonel which together m o u n d to s o m t 316 Eunily quart- Brink, who first rode up to Twentynine PPlmsin eady as whac the Machew&, maoy ofthcm with young 1953 with the Ekmlhsn depuq commander, chilh, hadto l on thatcmaadak and low a ~ t a B~igadier k General Jamrs A. Stuart. And what was mcrre, as a 1921 graduateofthe U.S. Naval Academy, prraurr p k u s c d with girs pibt tigbtswhich d d Maw art d d n g dcsut d. Bud Then Monte Brink belied the amphibious M?rdne Cops Schmid and his srPtfAfarines~u1d m go aawlhave had m d e a &tic goof pourin$ fun& inw a spad ing p o n amid sccupions aad blvck w d w spidets rud io pile so fv from its assignedelcment Brink wrote Iater unda~mbikhosoesmgetgas~hcs*errand ofhisticsttripuptorhedexrt: water h e a m going lgzin. ~~'r~bgdmtisaw.~encwcampnclrhiMostofrhiseadyliviagwaskeepiihwscforintzratd~cenanutedmtboGmpR8dtrrollnm.
dirrcrfireiircwhichnhicbetotheddcscforbrieffiting arcrdsm, and he1ping the c n m m watch o e oc a vr
~ y b ~ o
0 w arac&d ~ a p mhd ~ r
~ i r ~ d ~
s m ~ ~ ~ b t a t . o d d a d ~ r r ~ h i l k m i b c&mega n quick promLe bole Radlnon im addirhd ~ ~ n s p k d q m a r k .ouM~bntaoaunmnaftcr& m d ~ r r a m e r r n ~ t . T h b ~ t ~ h nnalihrdqpilrThcdrfhkbcdmthcWut~rpacactuarilinOFoobarbmrhcrmrmdrpmormclrm red with nlhli. 7hc low cement b m d s r r m k i n g built ddfdthepurionmdarWbntnth~1hdcr~-
" a dSpSlEyfor Matines a n d d ~ w o as anil authodztxl m eat W. Colonel Brink turned
gcn~wcowup~~~ioothcrimpeaioa That did not happen. though, a General %per writ s offtoa~Pgignmcnt~hccavMTisitil*tntgniat lstmr
~ i c u a i nc ~ l ~ oh tll i a g . grid pln~ed t e thu insphdan a d g i July 1953. Scantling's c e c ~ h I s n
Cdone4BdDk~~(#itinucdtoptaskmon q m &I dqmkients. The Sungold Tireb, s p t v k d by Sanding and Sebmld s t k that &phone aufrool~W,~tiai~SOhamtria1Pa ~ ~ of 1953. Thest. W by Veterans Ahkkttafall
tnnfiapociog,sotdoolyto~~@~~ tiom rtnfi: NCO tilm$h tics-t mioael, &r
m d )1O,OOD-& f i t d mmmQn p d r p a in~ % ~ t h e r c d r g a ~ r ~ eI d ~ b~u .f ~ Wt to* bcdmoros, d ] r o n c htho&a&$eEOT garage PDd ' ' 6 f ) ~ M ". h
A s'mibrr aart. scvr the Sun& m& adable Modicr58hcmcsofthir$pc~tkcodd19)4.~
&&e new b hcwwtehtu, he brgul.tourr, d t a s n n d ~ e d p c p p c r p ThedriliPtlroncrs~ tgytmhadmknrnrrquitealotefthc&, m c l g e ~ W b fIYlYil glider sehwl and law daps. Piht odcr t ofb~fa6Lnptwcdmtierd1wM4edBdrr-
~rhcHBmilron~m~loO~,alwgairh the d m and-r l c acar the mpin g w ,pmvided (ht bulk of available family bwsing until the Ma-
geb(wKLydGaatn),ahkbthc-m r w p 6 ~
rinc juniors had put the meager mwn nhwl building f d i inm nrr-capacity. Even rhcn, thc M p a ka wasmt&an,anddoubled~badmbeheId in those schod moms* Byluc1954anumbaofthingsrnrtshadaar~amird T m n i n e Pllms Monte Brink neared retirement. Gdoncl John S Oldti&, fkaic Schwl C k of '35 . ~of'lbmIvcy,dupbismurnscmnrmnding &r ofthe rtth Marines in Korea, a d needed a new a.&nmcnt. Commands at Pcndlcmn wmcd themcstduyunitsatthefimmejorstopcastof Korcn;butforanst~o;mYtillag,allroPdsmwled m 'iknrynine aims P c n h "seconded'' Bunq Oldfield d Tnrntynine Palms, &some leave,
ourintown. Aldmughmuchofthebasecamucth nonwu~donn,at1Ca5tinit5fifstmajof~ment, there arrc ata pt muchi m p m ~ m ain 00-bur t hou&g, Cwmwion ofwharlnml~~sw became the Mvine Palm$ homing area had just matched the desert, and so the milem and re1oeaabks remained. In the mid-l))80s, Ol&d realled that there were then, when he rvne on bard, h u t 7,000 enlisted MIuiots at Tmntynine, the bulk of them b e i Tm o 'hoppcrm~d, h a bn0tCd. nl0re housing hr wnsavailableinthemwn:and inmthebprgoinsow slongrdinthcmrrfkcrrdtbeboorttolocnl eu#lomgwhichcnmehrhebaganditsgroning population. mUrrrLPainlg54.**Andmmmhitc,aithwmany Noring this economic Linkage, the Joshua Tm wm coast PMF units now up at T ~ n t p i n e ' b F a . Monument N a t i d Beak. a mall, privately held Brigadierj Earnshows command at Pcndteton bew bank "&"with its main high d m fsrility in TwmganmsermLonciy.&dccidal,howcvcr~not m m m tynine Palm, o p e d a service branch on rhe base. m the desen, but the h c e r slated to reptw him in on ~o]anuug1955, early in the tenure of Bamq Oldthe summa of 1955, Brigadier Gmeral Thomas G. 6eld Bank m a and prsideruJoseph P.WasaburgMWand (then lssistnat commvlder of thc M Matr came m the base for c e d e s , Camp Rndlnon rine Division in Japan) thought he might morr his base rommanda Genual Seldcn cvne up: Colon& command post w Tnrntgnine Palms. Old&kl and Ivcy %re thcre. With General Sddcn. AIso, atlboutthctimeCokmelB~pRpvcdto pomncting tbiogs m m e for Twmtynine Palms, was Coloncl Randall M. V i t y ,then lssistnat hase comlea=, the officer d o had r c p w Scantling as exkas a btigdagcacral, Vic, mander at autive officer, Lieutenant Colonel M& R. 'Ray" tory became the sccond commanding p n a l of the Pilchet hcadcd for anosaK and wkcment. This ncw bare at Tnrntyninc Palms*foliowing commandpmidcdanopeningforWSczmIing, soonrorcturn ing genetal numbu one, Tom MWand. hdutywirhthc3dMarincI3iPiSiOninthelZarEast On this day, welcomingthe bank facility t the bas, o (in mid-1955). to become eYrmriw o f % b b y for ribbons ncrc cur and hrid words of dedication and Oldfield. It provided a tnm which made for a vcrg ~ v e c o m m a n d a n d ~ t h r o u g h & ewelcome wue spoken. SMiCe,security,progress, cornmunity moperntiw, mnvaiencc, all were W e d or masidonpedodhlatc 1954 tofullbasesptusfor pmmid. No more did ciri+em,mwn or base, think 'ikntynine Palms. frontia or a &$en &on of the d d The Brink-OlWd c h g Otmmrmod d plrsc~ t h d ~ a s ~ west. But in a bit lcs thVl six months m e the in&on 29 l k m b t r 1954. Calonel Brinkwmt back d m maus Twentynine Palms bank caper. Ndrher a JCW to Pendleton where he prcpated far r&mcnt, and James nor a B o d e and Clyde ?&lir, the mnt Colonel Oldfield and his wife dinto a house nonetheiess caused an c g l s ~ n d n inconvenience for g which Tom ivy had mangcd to be availablefor them a number of days, a subject for Bosrip and spceulation for months, and a water shed episode which 'McSchodmPnninfiRorpimPsLnrthm.padtorm~nppprr both6Mdafcdduhc.vp~Ha~,adrdslishtfitlpadscbo- formr &r seplfind culy-dzpbkha (and tonasW o l d ~ d p l n i o a l L , g o c d ~ . n d l p ~ s m r i a r H s p p k ) from thosewho -later ahen civilixption, lmucdinthcrmd-l~thyhytindupoaWuM-Wat-ndnp no doubt h u t it, d y nrrived. be$rcQMilrimdmtinI912.SonBmfsnlia0~rhrp On Monday morning. 24July 1955, hase and town utingmduddhneunparrdQEbDdhdiitiaforTamtp a but h P a l m r . ~ i t d o r n . ~ , ~ c d r r r a l k d T hrte~ p a d &er a scmingly unmcndul '~eehmd, t dial dephona r u c ~ m c s s r d m r i r b P P o d ~ & ~ o ~ v - a t v y i i a m c then almw a once the --old b u i l d i q s ~ l b m u ~ p t m v m g t t h q u n hi ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u e s b e f f r n m r i o g o f f t h c ~ a d s nbah arts. B u t t h r c ~ ~ s r s c d d u p l n a Z n d u ~ ~ ~ g c d d ~ r ( a n d ~ p 1 e w nmcmbadlcday. Ta i ho saidsnid In town and on the b w , farilities of theJoshua Te re * " f h b ~ l s p l ~ w h c n ~ c m e d M d f i e M ~ a r t n n m eMonument National B d - r h c only bank in th d gemcp"Ifmabmurdriaroneadyauur~~c6actr"l~Sba~ O ~ " l o a o u t m s ~ ~ d u d n C . t b c B n s k S c h n r l U communities-had becn locked up tighter than new pa boMs by Federal bank aamhm. Sl~omgu figured d 1935.
rine GKpd Tnining Center under Camp Pendleton. to go over a hPlfmillion d Im r oI , had i t (Iater &rial aard put the d&t at $678,000.) And the FBI Also in the I&-go&on department, on Thursday w8s looking fix rhe %nQnine Pllmsmanager of the of dm werk dthc bank+, Colonel OMdd and bank, Roscoe D. <;born. T k y nron found him, a &&dthcP.I.W~CmnpvrgofIoilftBeacb 47-year-old $6,000-a-year man, at Dci Mar, diat race cut the ribbon t mark the opening of the Marine o tack down d San Diego once ad&d l an q PPlms h o d area. Tficse were home-stgfe vemions e + ownef, BingCtosby, asthe thewhereomentudmms of rhe eoncrete ritt-up tcchiques, wd Wl c and is g nuf. InT~~ntyainepaamS.Rsux B e q Caons and w q m y brought in 483 u n i for just a bit under t4 ~ ~iwdonamodm~~ AtDtl*, tlpePBffoud million dollus. M y , the c o n a ~ ~ a for ws f them at ththrir B dr R Stabla. Rwcoc Wlls not rmly $3,9SS.OeO and imluded satco. s i d c d b , 9 c na played the @acr owned a fipe-hed cluxch of lights dong the m er and. ofeoufseufseh homes, be er in t e them gian~rauapca(,i~ontheIocdsfotdcscrf&mndimd-eMaafn*&Pmfinwethc*fora~paeamburb. mmenient days, with no way to WE& Jltelw or withA1Pmcammandkg~nnlatT~ePllms, drsw mouey. scorn mended d t to Marine surq+&arhat p~ognwi d mw&t by c mid-19705 t k families aml tcnvmpwpk alike. Thc frdual Dcposit wbmdtebaregvtanewnuncaadancwmiDi~n, IImmnce CoqontiM p 1 C ) soan set y,vmponry callcdtheplPerofthedyg*trs "aJlnWlitde arshop 00 &w dqmimn Wo aecm m limited fuads td dllEtp~."M~npMpriMsof~p~~wOubdpp f i x h t s t t h d m m f o ~ i m u s . N o t l o n g ~ t h u , r h e after kim nith aiming&. F ~fbm sleepy, the WI C i ~ N ~ ~ a n d ~ B P n k o f R n e r s rillerg people 'kore out the tubes" t&hg on their i d e ( I a t u ~ b y t h e p r a e m ~ t y ~ B a n k )w ~ o f d c 5 g ( i n t h C ~ d a ~ O h t h e K M F P f l w was antho* by rhe l%deralputhurities to open Warperiwiwhmibudgersand~g~still pecmcrgracy~esonthcbascdinthemarr.E- m a k d btaithy. Nor was there mu& mppiqg for d y , on Wednesday, 3 hugprt 1933, C i Tnrst CoIonel Oldftc1d's b w Ma&m "houstkccpeR" far 'c-o@ chu once p d J & u a Mcmmem N t o - an em-expanding,"house." Mow thcn wne dubs m ain al Bank b r a d on the base, and things got back to ~ . a p a s r ~ ~ r a c m , ~ p w a norrmL* thr*rer,spcdolswhewkitim bawstlbIcs,amodst f(mcoeCaonswasin&edbyaEcdcnlgnndiurg I mb s lrhkrk ptqpwn, ranges, nnununirioo n - ae on 21 September on 25 coums o f c m b c z z h w ~ He b h , bare maintenmu, new t o d o n bidgevcnndypkadedguittyroeightmmm aidin A@ en to j+ and supervise, mearbdls, i n & and o f W 6 w a fmJnd guiltp, l i d $2o,oao, d ! IU d dental ikiliries erpanc@g, and coo^ ~ mt m rhe m20pusin~Ifhisraceho1~~8CldOIBhnishEd civilinncDmmuaitywhereschoolsforaepcndartsdnn d, did he. Broken inpd and hesfth. Ros- E d d "impact" filnds. neither it ~oeCoansdicdnmlongnfrerhcwe~tofftoprisan. InthemidsrofallthLs,andeadyinlPS&~crhe Mevmrh'ie, in the ank before the baak dwb Ieasd~&y ddtlbol.~unq.O*tdaodFrcd
B ~ ~ T h o m a r G . h i I d h d P n d m o K dSeadw-pluranumberofathasnt'l%mfpincd ~ k k p ~ C O m m S f d ~ f i o m ~ ~ ~ atEl?bm AIthoughthe"nadt0knorr" Listwashept t o t h ~ desem. On 1July. he had @aced Jae Euashnv u wanabspluteminimum, ~ r n n o o l l e ~ e d theannmsnd;anduhnrbmtMaal,haddcrrnnined a plaque wgbt to he put up, a daip&on m ~ t itwastiraefixthecwlmandmfollowthebulLofits ~tofactheciwtmrghtha~becomeCThcT)ity
units-nrpst dthem ofthe a d e r g &dy-out t o Twcntyninc Rlms. CoSoncl Oldfirld mnainnl e o m
rtrepBe-MmCdfheMa&:'In*cldgm daps, mmyfiangaeaiFes bcpnfiom bkwscour
nearsorprissprings.IfacatrwgauneupfrmPendinoa,itNmedn&antheS~~9c)medisnace aest of the toan of Twentyninc Itrlmr, and hcednd inm Ebase atea gwetaEy t r ~ adlone I U moun~d3endedeinro~Therrwne
~tLIOun&intheiprr~thefisogletimscall~ thc fit0 Mamains (plunl).Thes d y ncrc dxe
Bullion,theShecpHole, mdthcdgwdthePinm Bwin,theIaftc~OOtlllU~inememrcachesofthe Jcshua k National Monument. On the day in qws-
to court the Russians with a cotton-hr-m deal, power was & n h r a number of thiags.Excellent signcduptheSwi~wbuildbishmdam,sand ldership had k n on hand from the outset, but e rec&zd Conmudst Chiaa-a mom the U S .. o f r e n c o m m a d c n ~ f o r d t o h ~ t o g e t b y a n d~cn the &capPClearly tec w9s greater p o t d a l in this ttitd t~ tbm whx h it mdd. Zhm, match dmg b ~ w t ~ ~ a f d e s e i t ~ ~ W m w l y c b h fuseI & British and French on 31 Time k d comef camplea mmmand wmnomy, t m o we 19% f b r i wli.&- thc sucz ia ~ iato an attempr totoprent a e m h rumingback rim^ M ntt apron strings h m M p W c m n . B y ~ m d d 1 ~ 6 t h e E Q a t i a e ~ ~ h a d ~ matd. A moiq dUS, w t e dccidto mapof j tt ~ liked k andtbattmilimy b bcsr bad p r c t y d & e W E d n g ~ d h S b , C t c . e % d,*,still m g d p The bile,sli&duqyphky d h Xoreari b C h M w ) ~ T ~ r o ~ n War began t4 fade from the.dvUn memory. C e n a e t a c ~ ~ P r t n s ~ t o h e a n m In the M i M c East, P d e e t Nasstr d t began M a b e Corps k.
In c ~ e t i o days, C o h e l Monn Brink, comn manding officer of the base side of the hawx, and Colonel Thomaa I-, then commanding such d e r y and other Force Troops units as wm in the high dcscrr at Twrntgninc Palms m o d their rspative command and staff organkariom into the new headquartas building at the top of rhe parade pound in midEebrusty 19%. As has been noad, Brink sersed ander bas commnnd of Camp Pcndlemn; Ivcy commanded undm the tlag of Brigadier General Jwph W. M a w oflbrce Troops, Pacific, then in headquarters at Camp Pendleton.lltc hcadquartcrs building at Twentynine Palms had beto planned fbr the hanging of mo hats, a %IEC Troops command at o m end and a bnsc command at the othcr, with the strutre connected 4 the middle by a d y port. mces lined singk comdors in e c dircctiaa a suite ofcomah mand space ended each corridor at the fu ends. At the postern side of the cenrral breezeway, an inner courtyard shaped up, for additional offices and for co&unication ce&r buildings. Looking WtSWXd, the d y port framed the parade in the $reground and the sweeping dcwrt vista bepwd, sucahing in all its subtle colon to thc mountains, often snowcapped, at the San Gmgonio Pas. Emcpt for the verg modern pn-clst cwcme consuuction, it might bave been a US. military hrt of a century earlier. Into this building, at t e Fwce Top end, the new h ro %KCTroops. Pacific, commander, Brigadier General Thomas G. McFnrIand, had moved his stiff and flag in mid-July of 1955. On the lst ofJuly 1M5, that big, a-football player-from The Citadel and from Allhivine t a m in the ipzos-had ICPW ~rigzdrer General Jknsbaw in command. A bit more tban a piltand~laf~~ForceTmops, Pa&c,andthebas asliRn~Pllmshadgmwauptogeduxintoancw age and a new status. gressman to make that kind ofa tfip, with that kind of news. Earlier. this same friend from Washington had championed the N v Depamnent's request for ay a mohmriurn on the filiak of"jacktabbit" h o d neu the base. Tbis wps in the daps when Fred Scantlingworked so hard to help U.S. attorneys dare out ail those borhersomc abandoned, and ail but forgomn.mining claims which d a d the -tion. Nan,by late 1956, all seemed to be in order. The logd slvnstrcscs from the Mvinc C o p Supply Depot in Philadelphia stitched up a new @ for a new corndthe day for unfurling aas soon at had.* Ma, rine Corps Base. Twentynine Palms,ume.into being on the dsen On 1 Pebruaq 1957, a 1330. Major &ncd &t orge E G o d , Jr., of Camp Pendleton, gave this new flag to Brigadier Gncral McEirIand, and thenby gave him aLw Pcndlcton's former "desut training center." General Good also "gave" him Coloncl Barney Oldfield and the remainder ofthe bax side of the wmmand. Now,with one officer owning both ends of the COd buil-, the sncral officer at Tmrynine Palms ~ t r borh &- commander o f k 'hops, e Pacific, as well as Marine Corps Base. T a r e w e
Colonel Oldfield ppls there for the cenmonies, as aere other offitem o f d and su& And on the parade ground for t e ceremonies, and mushing in h review to the m s c of the new command's band, were ui Marines of the ist Medium Anti-Aircraft Missile Bartalion, tbc kt 75mm Anti-Aircraft Group, and the headquartets command of the new base. About four months later-neat the end of May 1957-came a jaw-dropping ncws account from Washington. Senator Alan Bible from Nnada said that a Senate Public I d s Subcommittee hearing in the nation's capital had found that the Maine Corps
up dudng the remainder of 1 9 5 and most of 1956. At thc end dMay 1956, CXihrnia Congmmw Harzy R Sheppard vstd G e d MeFarLnd and C o k l iie John S. Oldfield, bclriag the good ncws that some $15 milltoll in ncw funds were bdng made d a b k for the bue. Thingshad to be looking good for a con-
comingahero nllmraffaiala the early daysofthe Korcan Ww mired Major General Gregon h. Willivnx and serving Btigadier Ceaeral W W W. Stidmy, them Deputy Dinaor of Marine Cotps RescaWs. I t n v Gcncml M W s final big show as his ncw command. Aftrr all, he had d e n m r Potce Troops in the final days of its b d l e t o n stay. and bad been on board in the high dese~f siaec mid-1955, when he movcdhircommmdpa~intothenewheadq~ building. Naw he s p ~ s being succded by a anoly promoted b&dergeneral, Raddl M, Vicmrg, who
Chrisrmas;andofeaurs~tbeywcnth~fimttwinsborn to Marine patems at Twentynine Palms, even though theonJymcd;dfieilityupmsuchatasksdllspLsoff the bas, intheInceHqiitPL Io the mid-lW, mized Colonel Raiph Cular Jlid that although the medical facility on the base sdlt amounted to only a small dispcarvy, he and his wife had decided that she would stay in the high cksezt for the b i n b of the enpccted twins, and depend on the Ince hospital. ?heir eS born, a daughtcf, had bccna bit* t h e y c h e m ~ t o a toplmahrad p m get m the hospital nr Bendleton at the pmpcr t h e . hadbeenpseminT1~1tynhePalmsonthcfarrful o r t h c b k ~ e o n e a t M a t e h AirEbmBase. tithtr. Bcsidcs, Colonel Culva said, t e werc in the g d hy day in January 1955 whcndw ill-&red branch haak apcncdonBrowoRoad.ThenocotooJ.hehadbao and arpcrkndhands of Cheny Puller's h c f batt l o surgeoo, Dr. Edwrd lincolo Smith. &, ain EhiefofstnffatPenb. General Viewrg. a vctenn of Saipaa aiid Tinian although chat provided a.?mnmCC cmugh, thc Iace (Xegiom ofbferit), and I Jima (Bronze Stnr M d l m e a ) hospital suff frequently was augincntcd bg y ~ u r g Navy doctors &om the k, "moonlighting" in theu aSandety&andbe&leWWIIu&m offduty bun. in charge ofthe GMWs "Horse Myims" in Pcipkg, China-among many orher duties &ore and Colonel Cuba2an attorney, in 1952 had becn S-3 &t-accepted that fim-month-& Tacnttynine (opennioos offke)of ist Bpttllioa kit Marines; then Pllmsflag firm General IkJ!adand in cetemonies on h e g o t ~ ~ m T o t c e a o o p S , P a c i £ i c , i n M a t c h the parade on 28 June 1957. 1957, a n d s ~ l c u p m T m q n i m P a l m s m p i n t h c AUinall,thefintyeatforthenmbascaadits fone TroopBase legal stnff of Lieutcannt Colonel tenane had been a busy one. IBc Obscrp~nbrr o t Ps GeorgeP.Blackbum.Jr. With the new flag for Twentouched such highlights is the spring triumph of a rynioe Pniims m e ajro g e n d c o u r t s - d jurissinging gr031~ m the 2d Anri-Ahaft Artillay Bath dinion, and other such allied legal duties and nlion (fuat c d c d the Tloondodcm" and later the r ~ b i l i d c s f w t h e & ~ w i t h h i s whats. "bw P l " , whkh first aon an 11th N d DiSUiCf am) In e v * except medical hJlities, the "frantid' d e n t conrest, then rhe All-Navy fir&in New 'yorlr, dags were w.Drs. Smith and Ince d d take care and &en on U May 1957 reached the heigha ofdame o medical n d - hacked up by hospitals at Pendlef days- an appeamlce on the Ed Sullivul TV show. I n mn, M a d . and San Digq but law and order was 'TVZ somcthingdstsgb,aaddmKbe"farmcdow"* Ocwber, Tbc 0 k ~ ' P r qmted mt o Muggs, bue mnsEot, vms back on duty after doing a During the days that he was a major and the asrlssmtchinthepound."~and~om~~~~ tant legal &cer, Colonel Culver d e d , both the not spelled out. Early in N m k , the ist and 2d lmmm AawIrser Batteries ( t d ) m e up fiomthe posr oochaogeand the commissay were s u b d a l l y upgraded-thepst&p i the "business di.suict" n 11th Mvlnes a Pendieton. and incepted into the Ist t Field A m i Group at T e q n h e Palms. And in December, individual mail deli&es began fr mio dents in the Marine Palmr and the Tmilers housing
Then,regoning orher som of delivcries, 2% 0 8 0sewhnPr,rt is bimrh cokunn d t h e 2Jpnuary 19% mt ~urriedanhimtidltoreofsnme~enfinrhis fashioa.
2 Wba-sxm EWphNeill,uihC1jornodM % B.lph 3 r
Alsa,intheintemt~f~,aoppcuulce,andkgalit. thcmniagucptupgndcdintheseculyk y d a p ma ColomlCulscrsaidtheoldgaa,dntinghack to glider days, wa 90 imlisfinguiable that dvilizo
Jebn ICntMth, 80 Majot and Mrs.
whK C ~ W L p
dnddcourac thqwmtwinsons born onboth sides of that midnight as the new blse neared its lirar
November Cenenl Randolph McC. Pate, Commandant of the Marine Corps, commended Twcntgnioc Rlms for its Uwtstanding support" of the mcm u i s nt. That began a long t a i i n of such suprdto cwexpandingTo help support such fidd mumrrrer~, the hastand GenenlVktofygorthcgrutSpsialSeRim"Fathcr ingofmcmcunif~Tornining.CompaayDofthc fundinWPbingmn,D.C, toconnfwthwithagranc 7th Engioee~ EktDJLan got a permanent trader up of$25.000 with which wrrr cammcad (withhdp h thehillfromPcdnwmthedccerr.~dsa,and the cidian community) a 'IT crmshrlntay d o n from~~nrr;lralw+pmrded~fromthe atop a "mounrain" in theJoshua %cc &&mil Monura~oftacticPI~candofflash0~ andother ment. This provided two or three signals ( d y the ~ r k c h a m e l s ) m v i ~ n o n t h e b a s c a n d i n t h e facilities wcre needed Some of it was i m p o m far considmdonsofmMaleinthedesenwhmclioingstill community.' was harsh, nnd liberty a long any &. Picnic aad parkThe NBC network was the fim to a p p m mcption and rebroadem of its TV signal here; CBS h - &faciliueswaee6nsm#rcdatSurptigSprings,and l in the planning phase w r pioneer-type impcowce h c d Jhonfy, b t h in early February 1958; and the Myine Corps &change began xUing TV antennas mentstiuafKidevnpfor~csenzuniuaswcU@Gting &vc duty units to w w i e on board for special hl and conveners which Marines wcrt lllowed to mount uaining. on their q u. The A X network soon was on lim. Evly in June 1958 came the Pits Annual Navy Still, and as always, fun and TV waxhing wre not RcLief Cvnid. This was an outdm extmvapnza the main orders of the day. Nnr the end ofJancksigncdto bdnginmoncgfor N ~ v y R d i d andto 1958, the k Field killcry Group, c o d e d bg c faus a t n i n on the nnrrml, na4--* teto sobicColondWJ. H~fiathefimtimenamok iPrion~thisfundtRhkhisd;lrr;m~w~ t the &Id as a unit and staged a five-day field firing o withalEarpasonncl.TherdLiafionindlac&gnr cxcrdsc. In addition m Headquarters btcq, firing ~ ~ i n d u d c d t h e l s t H c a v R o c k a B a t - bmughf in nearly $20,000-or about $3.50 per servoig uly,thetn15SmmHawiac1Bumy,theist.2d,aad iceman on the new bare, some $6,500 of it c m n &om the -day cunml. 3d 155- Gun Ewa-ks,and the &xaad 2d 101mm This mnd-smec, cpa lnrgcr in size, continned fr o Howiacr ~ t i e s . another 15 pus, until &dip tcmkatcd in a more sophiskatcd y w h f i n d E w and con* l n p d d i t i o n m h ~ 5 . ~ ~ h ~ ~ m n a i b u tm b o r ~ t m t ~ t s d i d ~ y w i d , s u e t r ce cdmrhcMW&,%hdidmuchdthfddcn~ r m l t m g e t a P u p ~ ~ r h c f b C t P ) ( U k t O l l j t + m d t o e r uflld*Ua)mmunir).w'Mmdrp, t
motorists frequently wcnt whizzing by without noricing that the gate h o w had a militpry senty. Also during there evlg pus after the bas opened, contractors t l e up a converted pre-cast mc&aU itd building m s m a an & s c s a' dub on the high ground a h the headquarters building, and found awnyalwmputina"aniniagtanL"Idjac~t~mtht building. And-civilbation indeed for the dcsrt-
During that fim full ycat of basehood, more than
2,000 Marine m a v i s trained at Twentynine Pah, mostly in the ha& summer mths. In mid-
thcoquipmcmoampButaaa.IljwiWinthnnmcd& mntinma~ic"&u~aadbcumemdypk d ~ t n t i b e t i r a a d t i a n r d T w m y n i n c t h l a u &~rwisdng.Thegood-&,pnd " ~ a t e l ~ a g m I * l , i n r h r m i d ~ r h o n l g n f m Wrrrpsnsible citizenship kept W&C pemonnel con=n - @ g o u p ~ ~ i n - * t o ~ w
base units. nnte~~nn. nd 1 - p d gamm up m Kcgs h d o o L a d i n t h c u a t i o m l m n ~ a n d p i c k d ~ r d c r i r i m r i ~ w r d t h In many ways it was a simpkr age. In mid-summer *lhoarhcbd*ahkhmocdm*@~~~~ of 1958, in atuwer m querirs, The Obsemdotl Pan ~ f i U l c . ~ f o r t h h e ~ d i t n U , a l d o m k a l n i seffwth~O+chvgesmpni~pus6nac~~to sionhmratlrdt6uIlalnathcmtetromofodaioionnum-
~givcuphrthe~ousrppesoffncilitiesthcnavaila~ ~ ~ ~
b1ca2-bcdtoom,~edrniitfoutmvthermin mte cost $39.60 ~ )month a " n l d i c " isliphdv r
mmjnuimme.butltillit-hYdhratbit.~hismtbod. doa ad ~llvuclphinn~n v d d a ril~polfm i ~ nim-
h d r p u n u i n ~ m i m . ~ m ~ r h ~ , $ ~~ e r m & ; a 2 - & , & &b ~ p m.intnia th
-9 1 9 m 1
tbr~k""ag."~fmntbcbstmntirmalmhclp rind plmriunmDLmnin anil up Sunburst honsc out in t m S5S.W Wheng housa , i n g thc b( w e P a h X Z-bedrooUU,$86.10 ~ &&i~c.bk-amc h.i h I o b* d
per month fw NCOs and companygmde c&xm $98
fiu,thrbwFchiM~eciuer-sponacllrdbg~ W C O l a d ~ a i e e s ~ p d r i D a s a ~ shop-debrated irs IJl aimivmq. ldeamhilc, dre 4th e-indl Hasiaa Bnany,
6 %&a-o& t h &t. mLdhs. In mid-Ocrdu, Honc6t~mCtto~~'Rartg.IliruPrim4inh
I)ckrGluiao&rrpaltofan~~ ~ ~ a c c o c e d t r g G a k w c l ( r d a ~ h Q tbtPkldAaillagOmup.bs
n g r v n e H U S - l ~ ~ * r n ~ &l&radthel.w~mhen'rrorPad-iQe
~ p Q s i r i o n r r p n r t 8 9 W ~ ~ BItfremdd'famtgfliae'famtgfliaeRlmdfrtrr~~
mem), and again lnta much upgmdcd for T~nrgAlsoin rhpt monthDonnaRpbinso5, thcaifcof nine pllms' new mision. S n p n t H . & R o ~ o f ~ t c c h p bcnmc a , In May 1959 two cpidcs ihstmtredhnrmawlua 'Queen for a Day" on that dm-popular NBC N
w i t h i n b i h p . AbAbotcbn&dtdMe.Vm- s h o n . n n d n r c i R d m ~ * g i k r - ~ ~ c a t r F . ~ a l o n g f f i t h r h d r ~ m P s, r i n t h e b m i l y ~ e t h c i l l n e s s ~ ~ ~ ~ fmmadhomcoaMo&Rmd,mddejtrOpcd d a n c ~ r ~ ~ T a o - p n r s d d D o n a l d B o ~ a r r ail theh dothing and o k & . The Nnv). bittcnbg~,nnlaDoErmprthcfimilyhomcinYuccn a Rdidolg&ab,thminthe&diaahPfuadValleg.His~-otdbraher,W.squ~his rrtisingddv€mtbetnse,n-ouQmdtbc~nnd b d u x ' s um above the bite, ~ s h c d goang Dw to m o d it iom one ofthe relocatabks mpr the main t h ~ m a t h e r , a n d ~ d e d b g ~ n ~ s a v i n g the~bog'sl&.Butitwasnota~thiog~93tbt. The othu toud&g episode inwlving a MYinc ti1 tbe T-qitbc RLms bece hospital ambalnna C Q p s f r m i l y ~ t o d o a i c b t b e ~ o n ~ 6 M a nrshd hboy rcrths A i r b 4ospital n March Air y 1%9, af Mi Fmton Field a a Link League k b d l RKtG BW.Once back home. p m g Donald needed s fiekloathebece.Miktknton,tbegoungasonof mbcinannircoadirioecdrarmaadtohorher @aids.Ihcaicwndi~nndokitcms ad-lmonnMvinefimily.hadbeenk&dinthc Battle of O h in 1945. Now his f t n rtticcd Nnedupforhismothududnghadgn+p'yruCm hh, BrigadierGmeml~Lf(mton.audmothaMPlg hfa riay.'Y** Elizabcthbtea ncfion hand h r tbe dedication of In Au$uct of 1959 apprarcd the Bcdcp missile, thcfieId;~oalrowasMibc'sbrother,tbenh~ ~ n z r m h m c a h o m c a n d a s c h o o l & i t r e l f u Colonel Pnods I. Pcnton. JL, and his wife, EloiscRo- Twentynine RLms into the 1970s. It put the age d wan & n m * ~brmaon~.manlaPdforthch(lcimpt,~ Meanwhile, tuining Eontiaunl, u i s d c m k t d nt wuldgnitto6ollorishcat-secbg~ d c h m g c d , o c n ~ ~ o n k r s o t h m pidance "mindd nght "up the rail piped of a speedarmtthewyofslingsandumars,~othaMYine log air'%& Or. ldorc d y , a tqa drone uaiDsniledswryfbrU~t"durgm0kinaI Scpcmber (things stdl getting named and orn a r . P i r s t m g o w a s t h e d d L n A n & ~ ~ a y~cnthencnb9s)tbekrminatbkricfieId (Automatic W a o s Banalion, which had been at epn) below the ps office and the bank wn was dediatot Twcntyniuc since the somma d 1933. Now its d n edasViFi-nmxdfixRPndnllM.Vaorgaod 40mm guas mounred on the $141 Wnitcr Bulldog ilopdayfor~fDaM*bg~mrmGenaPl lightrmlrdnsishsdbemmemuseumpicas** Some Vinoqwonhandtoacceptthe~fromGena?l ofthempawent offwith awntingent of 200 Marines to O h to q b c c pasonncl t h othen k t . ~ i n t h i s ~ h c ~ w a c f n r m t b e 4 t h & l n c h Andastbcppr-andthe&-ended.Mviacs conldlooLbackonnendyeigbteRndulpl~~inthc Howitzer Baney and the lsc Heavy Artilluy Rodm hi& deem. Monte Brink dcndg had been wrong-it Battery. hadm#baaa~brtheCorpsmnmp~soht Near the end ofJune,awda ofnoadas, the long. p r o m i P a d a n d m n c h - ~ s h n t - S l c c l c ~ ~ a awayfrmntbera N o r w n s t h a c p n g l ~ d o u b t n about putting tbe &odu days behind. upbeath&rc. It would be at ash Jnks rhorrly, said As if to celebme-and perhaps to gild the Myanvtidcinmob~Port,d~es&orarmrthe Mndnc Base wmt out and bought 44 mature palm ingthiswiumofuaifomrnctcspdledoulblar i o a n ~ ~ i i g u u d ~ n c c d o d t h m~~.Gi~m44fortbcroad,mighthPRbeenthe i s order. Armally, tbc wny it happed, base baud of itrm more t h thcg. ahndmpkgcon-rdcaringwtanofddatcpalm
gre~nolrWo,andhceouldgktbe~eCorps d h k ~ ~ ~ G d o f r 6 r Corps (Wat&@m H k q and Murconu Did- agooddul Souptpnctbe44pnlms, mlineDel V l e Drh.&a if pu wrncd counring hrc. when Pl doo.HQMC, 1980)p 18,rbLhecduaimaphoCDgt.pbdMq BlhrbRh R1m6-wich 5A ob Hops &a--rr a "Gay M " you came back in inm libaty, probably gou'd still get y n i k h e Q p r a d m N a d ~ i n I 9 4 Z . r b m h r p ~m 2 $ ~ . m d t b e o g w h p ~ 1 b a c k ~ y o n ~
~ r d 4 ~ d M i k e ~ c m ~ 9
Now the nmlty was gone-exmpt for each and aety Marine and dependent who came ro the desert for the first time. But &ciaUy, Tahntynine Pllmr aras just one in the list of " e m clime and plaec" categories. Regulars and r e s e w t&ed and fikd the we&ngly endless ranges out across the huge base. The n m Hawk missiles entered the inventory, and led to the organization of the lst light Anti-Aircraft Missile Battalion (LAAM, for short). General Bowser did the honors at an activation ceremony in May 1960. Commanding officer of the new outfit was Lieutenant Colonel Armand G. Daddaziq the battalion sergeant major was R. E. Winslaw. A second LAAM battalion aras formed here later, and in September 1960, Marine Corps Base. Twentynine Palms, joined White Sands, New Mexico, and McGregor, New Mexico, along with China Lake, Calibrnil, as one of four surface-to-air missile ranges in the United States? Meanwhile, Marines with the fmt Temer m i d a at Twentynine Palms were trying out the new mnge there. T i was Bartery & 1st Medium Anti-Aircraft hs Missile (MAAM) Battalion commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bertram S. Ryder It was a new age. In early fall of 1960, recentlypromoted Major Gened Bowser used a welder's torch to cut a steel "ribbon" to open cbftddy the nearly 15,000square foot Building 2000. In it, ist Force k v ice Regiment Marines and civilian &men pcrformed fourth and f i t h echelon repG work on Force Troops and other Marine Corps cquipmcnt, which aras becoming e ~more sophisticated. (A few years later, r a larger repair f c l t was built bepnd 10th Street, aiiy and Building 2000 b m m e the Bw Supply Center.) Shortly ifm the ceremony. General Bowser went on to duty at Headquarters Marine Corps, then to commandoftbcMvinc CorpskatLejcune. Afarthu, and d o a w n to thfce.stu I& he commanded Fleet Ma&e krce, Mantic. Brigadier Gcnenl LewisJ&s n "JefP' o Pie&, and h h g & d vdllety &cr
from World Wlu II bartles ( G u a d a l d , Cape Oloum e t , and PeleIiu), assumed command of Marine Base, ~ ~ P a l m s ibrsc Troops l?dic.from and , CFcncral B o ~ e r M Se~tunber on 1960. In other highlights of the fm year of the new decade, unit transplacements continued betaren sateside units and combat-ready units on Okinawa. This went on until the Vietnam War began in 1365 and soon took almost all units from Wes Coast installations to war duty there. That year, the 3d 8 - I d Howitzer Battery went to Okinam to s m with the e 3d Division's artillery w e n t , the 12th Marines, and to let its sister banery, the 4th, return to the States after completion of its transplacement cycle.
Late in May 1960, a Twentynine Palms rifle team won the W?mrton Trophy at Wmem Division matches at Camp Matrhews. And, in a less happy no& in late June a violmt daert wind and rain-& swrm-for which Twentynine Palms is unfortunatety a bit infamous-cad the base w hunkcrdawn and hang on as best it could. There was much damage- the Stpff NCO dub said $1,500; the Exchange said $l,OOO for the roof of its "outdoor store." Fortunarely, there were no serious injuries.
At Christmas time 1960, Brigadier General Pidds wielded the ceremonial spade to brcak ground for a $2.21 million pmject which in eight months or so would begin to provide new quartets frMarines and o dependents. This was w be thm swank subdivision by the golf coune (later), out Berkeley Road-Ocodo Hcights. The D&L and OdJ Construction Companies of Lrs Angela said they hoped to have the f a 150 quarters ready in approximately mid-summer 1961. In Janumy 1361. the ham radio station completed its fint gnr in opention on the babe, and Ivlce Corporals Rohtt W. Kimmons and Robett . Bennett I computed that they had patched through aver 13,000 telephone calls berwcen -mas Mvines and their families in the States. And in anocher department of vial comuniution, the Bssc Communications Section, a s k e d by thc Mvioe Corps AItrilivy AidieM from Yuma, Arizona, plus technicians from Marine Corps Air Stpion, El T m put up a ncw. pottable towo ,
VlbcmgsilcungcprMdhpr.NcrM&,rasntbcrapan &Fun B h , inEl Pam. T m .But i ulemathc border inw New t Maim.lacH"kMuinahomT~PnlmrfiraM& miraitS there i Seprember o 1W. Genenl Barar n n dam n f ct thae m obsrsc
praised the Jan1962 issue of the W e C@ Gas#& fDZitsspCEial issue on guenillpwdue. Also, the k newqapei announced that Majot G e d Vicror H. Krulak had been reassigned from Commanding General, Mnriae Corps Recruit Dcpor, San Dieso, totheJoiat CX&ofS*rff. Depmment of DehquspdA€&tanttPrrspd~.'Ibae hewouldvarlrwitb W i l l Raacon,sacmmbc thc Army's youngat major gencnl. Beforr ta,many
as a Marine licumunt tolohel, he was pilot of the 26 N m m h e ~ flight of the space shuttle 'AtLods." I985 ricu-t CoLoadO'Catwr's Ppnots (kis mothn, Helen, had been a Nay n 3 reamed to k t y nine Palms ibr mtkement in rhc wly 1980a In the spring of 1962, the new age lodged a new test on rbe supply s p t m . Some little d h m a from rmiasidr TwmttpinePalms, $rdKr mto the desrt,
o ~ w c r c t o p y ~ , ~ ~ W h o I C B d t h ~ h isnfdol - c t r d g u e s a n d l o c k d ~ m k e p ~ ~
intheRLitle.totakepinspccid&inSourhi View. On 20 Maah 1962, i n d e x one ofthose h storicssntypid oftheMnrineCorps-perhaps ofail American servicemen, w h e r m thy ate-& seeing-
pnotiaentiutheirPrignedtasksofheingablctobnnd k nudnr rounds 61 anilkry, and nurlenr c k ~ @ forthe engiarcra Duties mre sciend6c and er+ainp. on the equipmutt with w l k b thy trained. W e a h , and dua from w a n t W, amounted to potend enemies, so Marines at thc i m p a i r e d ~ n i w ~ m u p k k M r . a n d M c a G 1NOPsitewottheody~naonthebascm~days Schneider, w the hm w & d y thank Innce to havc fdly s i r - u ) n h e d wcs-NOP ?ifarkcwpontJ& W. Sawxkrs and W i E. White. and crickets. Thew black,chirping fiddlers, which arc The ran, Marines h d met the Schnddea at church suppcwd t be on the hearth,Eked the air conditiono d c e s out in m n , befriended the couple. and ing, too, They m o d in with the NOP Mwines and rhcn had Mped the couple get a a wing-eye dog. hegan to thrive. They thrived in d i n g mpsrrs, like h d m and Wbite did not undetstand w h t aU the bhulr b d n g tugby balls in c o r n ofrhe NOP pufiraraasabwt.hfferall.&eheSchoeidsrshod~ sagarays and wark spaces. MMarincp roith vacuum to them; and t h w M v i n a also kaew thw the seepera slurped them up and eremofed them in GI Schneidershad beenheIping regularly at the US0 in cans outside. More c r i c k came bark. They &ed underfoot. In despention, rhc NOP Marines rcquisitown, especidy af Cbrisnm time when tPrr ninepus %had been btkgingandy mdmoLicsto Marks tiatKd e b i c h : &ckensoah 4 - U . . for the holidays. Earlier, the Marines had sneaked in some chickens, The pu 1962 also m a the stan of a communiand the &ickens ate the criclcets. Their requisition ty m i a x projett which the hm was to sponsor for seemed logical to them, but not to the supply tgpcs. The "d eountcrs' were arre amused;no chickens in msmq years w m e ; and hex it was m tole on a spec i a l p & g n m q f o r t h e ~ o ~ a n d f o r a k c o r n - rhe system; not "out o f d ' ; n e w in stock. The POof mandinggaKnlandhisfarnily.Now,intfrisfigtgcar, lution, such as ir was, called for a better &g it WASthe Southan CalifaniaImlndonalChunpionopenings through which ctickets could inful=, and ShipBasLctbnll-an, a n d m m e 5 0 0 ~ - more rescvch inw anti-insm spraying. Neither murdrcncarmupwih theirccachesandwucbilleted on we wss ammplete success Over the pan,the cricket t h e b D s e a n d f e d i n t h e ~ I l l a T h e a m z z i n g ~ pmblembtspcaiani,buzm,longerdotheNOPMaofthcwholethingstdfromrhefarrrhotthcec tines have €0 endure the plague alone. Other airchatn~basketballers~frotn~dam conditioned spaces-notably those in the ComrrmOithrough tight. A "sack of eels" tPrr m n dedicated catiws and l&ctmnics School complex-mtlso arrnct ay MuiocstPrra=y, S1Nde~ n d ~ p o n n a ~ rhr innea.S w i n g b the "bugs and juices" dcpana . y h o m d i d n o r h a x t o ~ y r b e ~ e s ~ q 1 0 bmeat of B?se W c M a h t e ~ c e $ ms lafa W e oruiyd~tpwdeddcrhm itarasdwrrhit. much more e&ient. hmwe~. Also in 1962, on 5 June, the bse hospital h e m InJune 1$52, the I , and 3d Light Anti-Aisdi s ad, amher expamion. It wm expeaed to cost abwt $1 W e B d w , *hi& earlier had shifted m the opendod w & of the 36 Air& Win$, Rect Mamillion and add 32,UM) square frrt andmuch-needed new ficilitia. On 12 June, for the ftM time evcr at EincEbru. PaclfiC b u t ~ i n t h e d c s c np, t a liniaw & t on bovdT-tynine a Palms in the perT r t n n Pnlms, Matimes ofthe 3d Heavy M e r y pnyie a n of Calonel Thomu ]. O'Conadr, a &&& k- Rocket Battery fir& their Honest Jobn missiles. On tor. Wirh the O'Connor W y came son Brgvr and 17June, rsm ofthe summer u*ining cyck m d rc inm the pytamidal cems and other fac*tiawhich bas whet of&pring. In 1964. Brpnn O'Comr graduated f r o m h i g h M b o o l i n ~ ~ P i l m s , a n d i n 1 9 8 5 . W n e s and workers had prepared f &them at Camp
his second Legion of Merit and Bronze Stu Medal, plus an Air Medal. came In lca than two months aftcr General Ston baud. the Cuban W e Crisis of October brought the mount-out o many Macines from Twentynine f Palms. Most of& individuals and u i s ane home nt again k e Chrisrmu; but it amounted to the f r t is taste of a war-time footing fr the d a r t base. To o o young and underdndoped, for the most pan,for the
KorcanWat,nowthebasrandirsforceTmopsaovlts could be counted on to participate fully. It was a taste of things to come by middcude, when the V' icmam Wnr came close m mmingthe bast into a "ghost tcnan." Thos who mounted out for the Cuban "flap" induded the 3d WAM Eattalion; Bamrg L,4th httalion. 11th M h a ; plus some 500 other Marina of Hawk missile units. Just in tiw for Chrisrmu. George B Lloyd, a base . civil xipice worker, eamcd a record-sming (for then) awud for a beneficial suggestion about how to save a lot of money and time calibtatiag thermostats for space heafcn in base housing areas. Expem in Washington figured that this suggstion would savc, xrvice wide, in one year alone, $20,952. &I that, ! h r g e Lloyd got for hu record-xtting 'Eknay Sugg," A ycterds o t Karean WffC h i n Rcsmoir canf k something a bit under $l,&l~. O m the yeus, TwcnPIIl;S% BGen Joseph L S t m , a r w d M T R I F U ~ tynine Palms has becn blmed w t oumnndiog civil ih o :be base and&m Poops in the wmmm o 1962. scniccuodaswha,ofteniikeMvina,mustbetwicef f wluntcers fr thck duty in the d e x h Fmm 1966 to o Wilson, our by Dead Man Lake. On 26 Junc, addiW tionalMarinescameup~GmpPendlct~ntobaf 196% ~ r g e L i o g d s u x d o n t h e k a t Guantanmo, Cuba, where his w f , M r a ,also worked ie a i n up 4th B a d o n , 11th Marines to full battalion sire, for civil senice. They returned to Twcnynhc Palms and t a ~ ~ use e their 155s. And on 31 A u p , a m of after t a ,and George finished out his service in the ht Brigrdier General Joscpb L. St, in change-ofd , redring in 1970. command ceremonies, took the reins for Base and Ibrcc Troops, Pacitlq from Brigadier General Fidds. In 1963, it was pretty much business as usual at the Pidds had brm selected for pmmotion m major genedesert base which was getting down m a mutine, and al, and he was on his way m become Assistant Direcm d d no longer c d itself new. On 8 May, Vice Mtor of Pemnncl at Hcadquslrten Marim Corps. minl Ephtatn ! Holmes, commander of AmphibiF ous Farces. Pacific, camc up from San Diego to Joseph Lemr St, a three-laer athlete from &ally open the Twentynine Palms golf course. He Aubum Uniwuity @ a d d 1937). aka won s c h b tic honors there, as wdl as an Army ROTC commis- cut a ribbon. One must not say sliced. Thenhe joined in a muad of golf with General Stand some sion which he traded for one in the Mvinc C o p . others. During World Wu II, S xrved in the Pacific at-among other places-Saipan, Tinian, and Iwo Then, on 22 N-ber 1963, came the announceJima (Legion &Merit and Bmmc Stat Medal). Durment w i h was to do more to mvlgc the a,hc rp ingthcKarrmWu, hefoughtinthePugnapaimeta permaatncc, and life blood ofthe base than vlytbing with the ist Provisional Mvinc Brigadc, took patt in up to the mid-1970s and the "new mission." Headthe Inchon In. a* w;ls d v e o&er of the 5th qumcrs Marine Corps said it would bcgin steps to Mvines dufing rhc Chmin Rex& campaign (Silmow the Corps' f s e t growing school, the Comats ver Stat Medal); and later commanded 3d Battalion, municationsEIecuonks S c h d Badion, from San 5th Marines in fkhafightingi Knra By rbe time n Diego to Twurtyninc Palms. It was a new y,cornhe camc back f o Korea in Junc 1951, he also had rm m ~ g r m e w m c a c s o p ~ g o n e ~
Eadyin 1 9 6 4 ( 1 8 M a t c h ) a m + a o e n ~ tam*^ aoops. G t n d JotS~an~"sdTtoHadq~Il[nrincCa~rn
Z h C
7illkK"Jones.plbr"BarcPlatc~k~madCI$of.thc CO@J nh0 %I-
larcdbis~ofwidommplain~Pmgui4Be. ~ ~ ~ ~ s hcl.carsthe~romm?adiog~widlwpn?sio t a d u y a s a u ~ ~ ' A ~ o b J o p L i n . ~ souri n o d a ~ t e a f t b e U ~ t q o f ~ (1937). he entend the Marine Corps via a C&F laaffp~andrhcPIata)nLcPdChS~In N o R r n b u ~ 3 9 , i f m n n ~ C d ~ ~ Course at Qumtico, B i i ~ m t joined the l BatraIs a
ion, 6th Matina, and srapnl with that infanag batt l o for thc next six -. ain This included duty in Iceland, then inm fhe Ppcific for Guadalclllal.B Sepy tember 1943, he was a major and commadng the badion. In that q a c i q he led the b?mlionon ?inwa (where he earned the Silver Stac Medal and a U d promorion m lieutenant donelk Saipan (Navy Cms); Tinian; and the Okinaw dimrionvy "landing."In Korea. Jones das G-3 (opemrions officer) of the lt Madne D i d o 4 and later as rtgimental coins manderofthe isthWnts.InKotea,heeunedthe Bmnsc Stat Medal. After a va&q of other duties in the h m 1950sand the eady 1960s.Joncaanspmmafcd to brigadier general in October of f%2. Afm a
Matine brpr,jones ammcd coPnrnand o f h t g nioe Palms. AtlbnndlftimeGtrmplJomsdiotohLnew
at Tmtynine Rims to be left bebind suddenly by husbands and Etrhen who mxid hum& and unexpected orders to deploy. One such entire unit from lhmtynine Palms d y m o u n d out in late November, and d e the depamue was common b*oothebpM,itwasnotdkb~ 1%J that the unit's m-ent was aanound publicly. Thisunitwasthe istLMMBntulionwithitsHawk missilcs,offmpmvideairdcfcosciot~aircnFt units going into the fhNang a m ofSouth Vietnam. ~ d e d b g L i e u t e n a n t ~ ~ E " & n " CDotthisb.+rtnlionindudcdsmneMMMarinc5ofd riots, plus a N v d m aad eight haspid carpsay m n Cansidering this fimf~jof e. mount-out to Vietnamasaharbingcrofthingsm~ame,bascaffccus slcupaEMily hssbtanrroffice toaiddqmdI& W d . Manyofthelactcrstlpdonboudthe
ba9,ifqunmn~rmilabk.Ininaepriol:numbm, o E c e , t h e I a t ~ t " b i p g u t d n r i n i a g ~ r c h e g o c qmm ~ e r amilablc c inmfuUsaiagonthcdesm Some43.000rrgulorMaAt h u t the same time, Hmdqmers Matine rinesfmmthelstMPdncDnisionandtheMMatine Caqlspaaxdthe~dtbatbfarins~81SC.lhmtyninePnlmshadfmthefounhrorarmtiR~~prnhn AirCEPft W n ,plus Prtillay units from the &ICC ig TR)OPS d w s dwellers mok pan in this one, d e d the annual coIps.WLtC honors fOf the high- numWinter Night. bcr of most valuable and p x o d ~ hn&dsugp~ @ns.Thetnsewasmwinthesunedthc In April 1 % . three Mnrincs and two Navy hospin, tal corpsmen (notm be outdew) hiked ffom b- ~ p u , i l s a , a a d w i t b r h a t ( ~ } w l h e r a1 W a k e M. Gmne, Jr., Commandant, xnf d~ng tynine Prlms ta Lu V e p (291 miles) as a a m ~ s a y i n g k e w n s p l n s c d b y T a r "high n~~ m o n e y - f d n g ~ f o NltiodHeahh Agtndcsand r state of mode:' thc MusnrlorDpoaophy Asdadon. EatettabcrDanlomanyways. 1 % 5 w a m o m ~ p a r a t T a n c n ny Thomaainvitedthefntonstpgeduringhisnight tynine Palms. r n d y and with a q i * u & pe, dub pCa0-at the Sands Hotd. ~ t s w c r c the V k m m War gor undemy; M h c s bqan m F k SniFpnt David H Stepheat, G u m q Sup;cylt . leave the bnst, on individual orders of with mi u w PnnkFond. andSeraeaetEsmbndMc&idef%rthc - . .- -.. . . units mounting out for service in Southeast Ash Ibe M-~; & the kav, ~ d s p i * w d GordonJohnsonand&spi~F&t~&~~ B " ~ ~ ~ * d ~ h &rehtc.~~n"~tcac"Snphcnsl~crntircdm~--~f0milicstoughedirourasIhn.p. I a ~ r . ~ e ~ w o r h n t f m f o r ~ E o br e~ b ~ i g h i s p a oGdonclViWBanning, StoSefimsandlaDt~dirrctorafrheSaaBa- s i a c e ~ ~ 9 6 4 t h c ~ t m d a o f T ~ p a p r d i n a ~ o u a q p r r k a n d ~ ~ *~Palms,gocthenwdhchitdbKnSckaedfor i n Tmynine Palm. pro~'IheEcanwaJanew&ingintheEMily This 1964hihcstartedsmnetbing.&rmos&gc~ls o f ~ G c n e n l B i l l J o n c s a a d n i h ~ ~ f f e whenthdr~tucamlrrsmnrded,andGMnag thercnfm, a " S q h n s M & a was pur of the loal ~ t ~ e B W l a b r o l r : a u t t h e h e ~ ~ ' ' Pioneer Days evitiw Steve hited in tlrem & ytm. u n t i I l i h a l l ~ e s , t h e h x k y n i e s , h e g n n g n y (whlchhehndcmhatded and painted) m& cbe ~ p a n y u p t h e h i n 5 x a ~ n t t h e ~ instrpiceandb9dmedmitmbcingpanoftheold bmd.Inthedd-19805, S r C R ~ f r O m t h e p r r k e l u b ? W i R s a h o s t l p d o n t h c b n s c ~ a ' % + sic" Prcrgrpm (Iadics A d i a t y Spcchl SuPicc Inand recmtion dbmnhip, ttoa
the $%kernFkifk-ausd many Mprioe dcpendenu
d i v i d u P l E n d e a v o r ) m ~ m r D p c c h l ~ a n d IdaEnddejBuahmna ofP1SPdcnq %as-thchrstm Twcncyrb. She r r a r n t i o n p ~ u , r r p l P c c ~ l c 1 V i n g 6 M ncr W e MPrinc &ed
d U y i n v i ~ * T h u c ~ ~ ~ morriedmaaauiaek- i ~ a t t h c t i m c . t S d ~
h ~ m n n ~ y a n d s a d a a r . ~ ~ c p o ~ ~ ( bHeg p S& SQBcanc Robert E Burrhmnn. who raa c was n t . to m e in from VIemPm;and, one night in August, the base photo lab. thcd-~sonofBillendChPdocrcJona Thae acre the &p,going back f o m 2 when the died in an aummobilc &dent on Ondot Ctuve. mititoly molr b NCS b m c o c d ~ o n a wllcga. l T b u s I f u g h M . J ~1 ~ , ~ o f ~ , ~ P t M f h C I ~6 whuefmmthc~t~~OsticLLdthcroled"parofthegrimst&tics(dthorcuiainthcdonthe moonthcczmpus"foryomgladicsroomingand waymthck boding m y from home. At T e + Pplmr in The lay (d the land, the cdguration of bpsc 1%~.thcr+wasno"scnue~0r0~tyhouse"suchasrhe boYnduies,mgrmmbaofocha~of& t o r y d ~ p z t t r m c p i n g b d € t o e n d i c s t d a y s ooeatPmdle~~endsomrorhap~whmmendfnnnthcbrrikILy~*lwn~andi~ in Twu1tyninc F % b led m thc c~carion endutand PaccofCondor~.inboundtwiacdthcbns, du"inthcpmonofa~ebiafine&r(tidedbyastnffofnamcnMarincsdbyduyNCOs Adobe Road h& wssml the west side ofthe little e always keeping an egc on the doon.) ThL sinration akfkld. A adjusanent is needed m & the main n continued at TRnfpine Rlmr antitlate 1%7, or early gnc,whichisaeprthc~sideofthe&fidd.Soat I&&urhIndiari~.CondorRoadkginsirskzycummthe 1968. U d then, from -t~-bC -t manonaotd.almmanM?dmddgtrpamylcmcast,andthenabitif~againmaaaightcn m Tncntyninc Wlms only if she arnc 0mgOingnarthrvdmaildrbegw.IwLslibcapLcc ly &ed mnnicdtoam?kMvinclssignedcochedaer~or of cake. But nx, &en m r the pus, M h e s and ro a male Macine &ally mired thcle. N a y nurses odmshavtmed mdoit toorqidly; or,thinlringtbeg had nrdved in 1961, ofcour& but they were, after all. ue dl but home,rhcy have dozed &-often with fnO S a l 9 ofthe medical p&on. Nursa had 5uRd dd m . with thc military, includingw m h areas and foreign Hugh Mdndoe Jones d e d "Chid." was born in shore. from at least 1814 when Britain's PI StakhoIm, Sncdm, in March of 1949, while his htha Nightingale aod her orher "lamp ladies" m of£m t w s therc with the fimily ar naval atctche duty fola the Crimean W r At Twenynine Palms, the Nng a. loniog BoM Wr I. M a r tiis f a d accidmt, fhcn Pr a i wlra~dalmaxforHughJoaaatthcCltholic nurses had the wherewithal to nnt homes in town. ~ o n 2 4 A u g u s t 1 % 5 . B ~ f i a l f o ~ a t A d i a go r t h t m n k m h i n t h c i t o w n p ~ s p ~ s i n officers' ~ c o u n t r g . ton N P t i o ~ Crmetag owidc wadlh@m. D L The&, those annual schoolbog b a s t c t ~ murB early 1968. with a s p a i d building set aside for y namcnrshosredbyrhcMPrincsinTRn~Pplmr them, there were about 20 womm Marines on board lvae knoan an the "Chief Joncr ,lhlrnamentS!' Twcn~Rlmr.MorewarondKway,mmplllnmAt thc end of 1961, n d y pmmotcd Brigder ly 30 by the end of that ppr. The senior woman &G e n c l n l V i W . ~ t o o l r o w ~ G e m r a l rim in Pcbnmy 1968 was Master Scrgenar El& R Jo~sanawmvlding$manL Jo~swasoffmVict- Smith Kirhy, recently promoted to that rank by Lienm u n , w h c r e h e s U R d t b i s d m e a s D ~ r d & e tenant Cdonel Charles R. Kucharski. Jr.. oftice in charge of Sub-Unit 1 of Communiarions end ElecComhat Opemiom Center at Hcadqwna. Military ~ C o m m n n d V i ~ i n s p i g o n tois School Banalton. Elois Kirby by that time had .rnc bcca in the Marine Colps for 19 yeam. She was in ~ h c h a d l l d o f h e r ~ p r p i i n V ~ chnrge of the CdrE school asting scctioa indudingtbe3d~eDnirionasampjor@. Asalinncmm$emcrl,bchndeaElmMPrineFola, At about dlh SWIle IiIDC 1 6 . LiCUCCnult 98 Pacific, in H a d He & I 1 Scptcmber 1972. Colonel Paida. A. Maas came to TRntvnine PPtnW PS ~ l G-1. ~ h i well-known vine C& name~ e r And, lasf bur not least for the hlnodcol etnnts of hctpiog ro i m p t o ~ opportunitis for women in the 1961, on 20July 1965, there came on hoard thc bast Cmps. PPt MMS wa5 the daughtes ofMajor G Corpr end aw~fromCzmp~withisctof01dm .hdroSbythcadhrhc6 o r ~ d u t p 7 ~ t i n t h c d c s n r ~ n l
RepaR.MtaduyduringW~IdrpJMd~ . G a a d J d x s ~ r h h ~ d i t p r m r d m o ahad s e n d in Congras from 1926 until 1944. Rn of ~ his duties in the US, Congms put him on the Naval ~ t h . v k m p m ~ h r d a b i t ~
m Committee, and the~e originated a bill to he allow women permanent mla in the militvy xmica. Generd Mans retired from the Mvine Corps r s m ec in 1952, with by then nearly dl of his eyesight gone. But for many more yevs he championed the caux of the Marine Corps, and ofwmen in the Anned Fomc. By this time, Pat Mans had s e d in many a dime and p k . Commissioned in 1950, she hild brm on duq at Pcndleton; Bmton; Lcjeunc, fErwaii; Wsnhington, D.C. (whcre she had becn commanding O&CI ofthe Wman Marhe Company at Henderson W1that barfa& a~rarr street &xu Headquanets bfathe rine Corps); San Franekcj and Quantica She held a bachelor of a degrec in social sciencs from San m Fmcism Cokgc. It was ptrhapsfittitlg thatmore women EAvims
up such programs for the duration of the Vietnam
wcrearrivingthatgeuatTkntgnincPahs(andclsewhcre.) Women Mvincs counted 1968 as their 25th anniwrsvpyear, and in San FrplKisCo pt a convention of women M u k , the U.S. Post Office issued a commemoratiw post card in their honor. (In another w o n of reckoning. it had becn 50 gars since Mrs. Opha M. Johnson enlisted for duty in the Marine , Corps ~ N C on 13 August 1918.)
On the fim of Apd 1 6 ,the basehaspinl (which 96 has never d y brokn all ties w t the N a d Hospiih tal, Camp Pcndlnon) celebrated is fifth anniversary t at Tknynine Palms. h i o r mnlial &I wrs Commander Arthur D Junes, the chief Nuae was Com. mander Maty C. Monrague. SpcsiJ nokc llso went to Hospitalman FIm Class R. 0. Cartg who, m y rbody a g r d had "comein with the lumber" nhca the hospital started ia lifc in the dcsat That Appd the base hosted the doolboy basketball tounian~en~ 740Jchoolbup shosRd up for Some this 8th Annual Twcnyninc Rlms InvitationalBasketball Tour~amat, which was d e d (so& umfXd, ly) the "Chief Jones" tournament in memory of the mnofGemrPlandM8.J~.ALroonhondairhthe schoolbop ahre act61 Frank Sunon. "Ounnuy Sergeant V i e Cuuf ofthe 'yjomcr Pyk, USMC rclo k n show: and Burt Wkd, "Robid' of the "Jkt Man" tclcvision xries.
rine Corps begvl dvxs at T w ~ t p i n Pahs,with e 43 students. Gnnmandiag officer of the school was CaptainJohn W Spi~y. 9 9rcmbcr. the £ifst . On Eternal Fuhcr. gnar wr pmy, dass graduated. Thimyfivc =dents made the &e; To.UMprirur.hnb*~lod&,, diplomwwm presented by lieurcnant Colomi MerThcmury,hoooSmsthmdM ton R Iw, commadng & of the Mvioc Air Thcirhadmsne.ThgLwfulfill: k m Miiile W n g Dendunat of E Tora Also l Be lbou dx Shield f o r - e s a . m ~ From mrgpuil rntbecorpa on band was Ira Sykes, an c x c a a k of G e n d DyChaplain Jw Emmcu Sam, namics, manufprturcrs of t i . "the d d ' s den hs liLI1Commuldcr. fXCCHC. USN guided mkde'' i n k t r y mppon weapon for air Thiswasancw~seforrheNayrHymn,affidally dehnse. Another visitor fmm Gcncnl Dysamicsnor orh& identifed $ B e Ob$&ff POSFadopted, and it was perhaps appropriate that Tbc Obume nlongas~spcchlgusr, cvm though he had smstion Port printed it in the 4 Mvch 1966 issue, worked on the Rcdeye brecd since 1958, he m r had and seemed to daim it fot special ownaship at %enseen one fired m i n e Palms. This new base, &r d. was entering its f m wiu under a command flag ofia own. M d i ide Then, at the md ofJuly, Genmi Baaaing dcpsrrsections of the bax newspapa began to be dCPOfEd ed for a two-ycattouf with the JCS Joint W The . wMviocCorpJnrwsfbornV~;morcand~ i l e w c a m m a n d ~ n r s n o t ~ o t l h 9 o d . T h i s ~ quattus on the base were ormpicd mkly by wive and Brigadier General Rqpn Fuller, a mipicnt of- Silchildren; that lssJieprogram which GeneralJones had v Star Medals for combat pehmunrr on Guadalw inauguraud the prorim gesr bmme mon andawre caml.Nnwhcwaswinding~patowinVicmanx, signifkwt. Now the ladies "manned" spedd K N ~ C where he scroed, among odrer assignments, as chid "shops" sueh as the bpse theatu, subks, cecmio, o s& of IU Marine Amphibious Forre. Mtandme. ft libraty, k h g alley, and golfcou~se. More mlunteets +E had h a p p e d between Gcnenls Vlaory and were needed, and krtetsanrt going out t 1I1 dcptno BoPEscr back in early 1959 (wheh Calends McGg and dent women of the wmmand. By this time, General HcmphUfilledinfotarimeat~and~Tcoops WpUW M. Greene, Jr.. had heard of the Lassies of mpc4wly), raro colonels held the reins until R e p Twcntynine Palms. From the &&ant's &, a FuIBaaniRdThac~GdondHentyM.Wdlmur. mcssagc lauded the women of the dcsen, plus thc Jt, for the base, and Colonel Nat M. Pace for &rce wmmand,andGrrrneurgedM6ermmmandsrot?lrc Troops. Theg filled in for a b u t t months, until m
CplBemmdLse, a&@e aftbe R& e Misri/e Stbool,rkmonnmte~ ntirsik'r o w the ation for M 2 n e Corps Conz?n~nckm~ Robert E. C#shnran, Jz, in the fall o 1972. Gen f FuUer arrived and assumed command on 3 October 1966. In the fall, the f increment of consmaion for m the Comrnuniations and Elccm,nics Schwl was about u percent complete, the contact supervisor, LieutenantJohn A. Gunther, USN, told The ObsmritMn Post. This amounted to eight new buildings, plus r e n d o m and additions. w pmvide some 59,000 square fmof space induding labs and &smoms The R.J.Webb Company, Inc., ofRiwrside. was doing this m k on a contract amounting to approximately $2.3 r, million. This phvc was to be completed in spring of 19-57, At the end of the yeu,H n Wdlman went owr ak the side into retirement from the base chief of s d f job. His replacement was a Medal of Honor recipient, Colonel C d L Sitter, who as a rinc company coma . m d e r had come out of the Cbosin Resemir with the lst Marine Division in the winter of 1950in Korea. Earlier, in World War U, he had 4the S k Stpr Medal on Guam. Another old-timer retired at Tmqnine Palms rhat winter. T i was Staff Sergeant John A. 'Tack" Murhs dock, and h s outfit, the 5th 8-Ioch Hcrwiuer Battery i (Self-Pmpclled) did h m the honors. Jatk Mutdock i came into the Marine Corps in Podand, Maine, in November 1939. In World War II, Jack Murdock fought with the lst Marine Dishion at Guadaianal, Cape Gloucester, and Peleliu. At the end ofthe war, he was in the States again, on the color guatd at the Marine B m k s at Eighth and I Streets in Wishington. He did specid guvd duty at President Rooxwlt's "Shangri La," later named "Camp David." After that, Murdock left the Marine C o p for a time, but then -ed for Korea r l othat war, he had a number of duty stations, had been at Twentynine Palms in 19-55, then went w Vietnun where he served with the 3d Bamlion. Uth Marines. Now, with that Navy Wave he met and married after World War 11, Muy L. Davis of Marrim, Ohio,he would retire in Twentynine Palms. But time marche$ on. The 0 6 s e ~ b Post at yeu's n a d reminded one and all that the p o d ZIP codes would be a must, efkctive 1Januuy 1967; 92278 for the b e , 92277 fm the town ofTwnynine Palms. But ra w all right, because by mid-year, Macines did ht not have to remember their old Mpine Corps *rial and file numben any more. Henceforth, fm both o5cers and edsted, the Social Security n u m b a d d do the triek. Early in 1967, now that a number of Mafines were returning from wurs in Vietnam, FofccTraop d e r g units began to be rebuilt at Tmtynine Palms. Now called the 5th Field Anillcty Group, this unit started in Februay with four &cers and 27 enlisted Madna. Lieurcnant Colonel Andrew E. Hare w s the coma manding affker. Captain Vincent D. .%my was commanding &cer of Headquutcn B a n g ; Cap*
Marimes-off and on-fought the fire; at one t m . ie early on,they fwmcd a human "buck& brigade and passed gasoline tins out of adjoining warchousec. Doug Culbuwn rcmembcred that Smedlq Butler himselfwas & in the bucket brigade. Among his many Jouffnin, in addition to a sharp and vivid munorg of rhav days and others, Gunny Culbenron had a photograph of Butler, and other &fern, at the Rue COUISC Timuin, Wpidng for in somc visiting dignitPrg to Vrnc in a Iight plane. AU s plona~Lightinthosc&ys,DougslidAnd~ he retiml in the sunset patade. as one of& Marines depPning &anight, Gunmy C u l b n said the bnse finruti@sh~andattldrCdtheblPB.Whahexw 5mafkkingamundthegasolincmnL,hcaaw1ed u Twntyninc Palms then owned morc momr anti rmd~andfini$Kdputtingwtthefirc. 'l'bus," ~tbPodidtbc~~GNpsarbenhcfibbcd rcldhismeritoriousmzcitutbepmmotioncuano- (abit)nbouthisagcandenlistadin1927.~Dougny, "saving major damage to a $3,000 truck." h Culbcnson, 209694.US. Marine Corps. He stnpd in Tmynine Palms. in a ury snug hubor ofa home In March, April, and May, %st Coasr Marines, p h intheIndbCORam.HisIjS,Nao& b a n d s t thc1R~eB&tivmHa&, PctiwcdaSth and member ofrhe local Arc Guild. Marine ~ t i o o v g Brigade. commanded by At mid-yur, the Communications and Elcctmics Brigadier General RgPn Ma.Ibe brigdc held a SchoolbeganitrmopeftomSanDicgoupmthe co~past~.rhcnalandingonthe~ea is atCampFhdicmn,foUaRdbyafield~pthore dach Frt to make the m m WPI Linttennn Coloncl ChnrksRKucfncsLiJr,,nithhisMvinclinkalDaa Fbdcipn, in addition to b e bps and the HawaiianBrigade,ineludedtbc5th~Dividw spntmsMain~scbooLHcbroughtapppmimnrely1OOMa1incs,toger&edBorwhztbyInt~1 (a Vietnam anr 9)occupying W e m n . and rhcn c l e m e m s o f t h e M M P o h c ~ W i n g ~ H I ' I b m inthe~matobeanope*schwlnith400stu''brcise Allipm Hide" it was called, m uke dents. Thrrc more schools were thcn on tap to m m Opcrpriws and CommurmreddKfictrharoniasucbasthescdy~e up kta-Bode HIecr~~niq akations; and TclccommMain-. outofthehideofaMarincCorpssaghavily committed in Vicmam. ~hcfim~m~tofbuildingandpreparinghad Sad notes nme with grcptcr rcgulprity from Viet- £inished, md,asthisfimghoolwasmdytomume nnm non. A "more than typical" one came in carly dpJICs in Scptunbcr, out came the ribbon cuttm. Jtm.OncMarineWlcdmVieanmrrsGuMapSa- ~ J e n g P m i s , P ) w t y s a f r k r r d o f t h e G r p s at 'Rum* Rlmf. snipped the ribbon. Gcned gcpnt Rnlph w. Smith. Be6Dlr he m to Vicmam t hehadbecnatT~eRlmssina1959,andhad ~ a n d o t h c r l d & a s w a c o n h a n d , a s w r s bem a stand-out wlunrm for the Tmmynine Palms ColonelJames A. Bbkdy, the commadug ofticct of C&ESchads. upfrom SanDiega 6 r b r o ~ t b c l i t r k ~ t h . W ~ Scho$bqr BdctbaIl 'Ibmmcnt, and the Dolphin logiss,t h ~ ~ ~ l o g r l ~ w B o h e p t t h e % o m e ~'I&Erl.GunnpIlnlphSmithwassonisalbyhis hns~"atspccialsnsiccsactivitia.eadcdrhe nifc,BarbPm,and~iRchildrrn,~hadItmPimd pubyhoeorlngMraV.L.Cnltmnn,oneoftmorigiin lknyninc Rlmf. Ilplpmkipano, asPhep+todepvrrhebPce with h a hnstmnd, the W s ~agcnntmajor. A Ibtanothcrdddma,the~ummad1%7 broughr monogrnmmed brncckt was p-ted m MIS. adcpamm ofpllodmron-normal h t £ r o m ~byGcnernlRrllcE,andhmRcdthat&had an on-&, &-again Matine Cotpau n m which inlogged some 325 roluntter houas. d y as cnrhiu dudd Saoia with Old Gimlet Eye himfflf W e r at t h c B a R T h r i ~ . ~ e C u l l m n r u ~ & t o d u t y G e n d Smedlcy BufleZ in Ticntsia China, in 1927. Gnmny~tAkonD."Douk"CJkmon.ttKn onGuPm. a g w a g ~ r m t L a r g w t o f b o a c ~ m p , n m c m - MePnrimc,Mn.LionctD.Rogeahwbhadbetn
bclsdmtGcntful&ybclo~~Chrisaaps1927,arbenthe ~comdioamrBmappshadbccnnpLccdbyMn. bii~sanedattheStPadnrdOiiPlvltontbcbnnLs F-I. ~mn,Jr.,~waslioingon boardtheh
Victor R Snider commanded the hddight Batmy and Major King D. ' i y Tn" Thatenhum commanded the 7th l5Smm Howitzer BaNery. Soon the 5th 8-Inch Howiuer M y commanded by Major Robert D a , . Jmaon.joined the p u p . Alp0 on hand at Tmntynine Pnlms at the time ma the 9th Cnnmoniudom B a d o n , commanded by Lieutenant Colonel MiLs M H . , JL, and in midMarch this outfit had a s p e d promodon ccmnony forLPacecMpodR.RZiolLwki.ahohad& an heroic mute w his corporal saipes. E d y in R h rrg.~.add~a,nwdaMatincCorp vchldc burning alongside a road. He grnbbed his own
of the Hai Rncr in Tim&. k foru dagr, 2.W t
he muld begin to cmimc the nadon from the unpopular Vicmpm inwhcmat " V i e d o n , " thic health suon forced Ellie Enton to give up the b i c plan began to be cnllcd. More and more, it w e d job.* The ptogram cotldaued. Mrr J a q b A. Malluy. thewat~~~mtheSouthViuMmesc,llldatfhe~~me . .. J r . . n i f e o f t h c b n s c L c g a l ~ ,becamechiefcooltime drmlnLIhed US. mPnning lercls m eounny. dillator. Strength of stateside imtnllptionr begncl to innrye Nenr the end d 1967, Bur Fi C i Stewart D hd . as indipiduats and units left Vicmvn for home duty again,0th units wue " out" i Vietnam, and dn Knight signed up for a one-pnt civil &e hitch in then reorganized d e . ViatDaNang.andGmdRcgmPoUaarmmmdcdhiminasend-d. Eadyin 1%9,mastoftheMacin~kim'ARmyT b m c y n e a ~ e n t t r n n s f n n a t m o r m c d a t nim Pnlma spcnt d y a ncck helping neighboring mmmunkiesdigoutfmmundcrahuvy~ and d. In the M, l 2ccouaubiliry for those 100 "reloankimrrmdandddcdomohomes,roPdr,and bk"housaeenrthemaing~rrpnsrcdt0thepro~ .. P d r m n u a d o n o f f i c c o f t h e ~ ~ e n t 'strmrAnnyampsh~Irnin3ronararhluld, ~ asnarAirTo~~~pmonaeldNoltonandMYrh office of B E O d Oppormnitlr, washgton, DC. FmwcU &agile pilot lights, and the swrpiom and Air Pora Bases. M e n Z state, and San Bemadim Countg~nacclllcd~pcmfornlicf.IIvdcst blaa widow spidus rhenunto paraining. hitnacthewmmaoitiaorueuofBigBar,YuaiIn 1968,u the Vietnam Waf mndnucd. the bas at~tynineRlmsnotedrnoreandmmpanici~- pa. Mount Baldy, and IomP lin& Shortly afrw the stotm, Brigadiet General Carl W. tion hmcmonhl sewices for Mviau thugbut the
~unCnliEomhvcphndditiosqmmandmorc parades aue held fot the pmcnation of medals and awards camcd in Viemam by Mncioes liow rrmming m the desert for duty. A note of comm&ble enterprise in the spring abddmili~manwasbroughtintotbcd
with h ehildrcn whilc husband "lle" send i Vina n nam wt the 3d W e Dnision. U&scunately, ill ih
HOmmnarsumcdmmmaodfromRcgmfuller.A111tncofOmnhn,Neb&andagnduueofDnh B * C d K H o b uccebtl the mit c h hum on
~onthebPssufberingkimahartvaclcMtcrbewascvcdforbyNavydocm~.rherrdwns anad60rdorcmwimringofhis~ Soph$dorcdcquipmartwasnotathzmLbutdatondidnot
wlnttomo~the~toalvgcbospiddonobeh H o s p i h Second Chsl R. D Smith and . . HospitaImanTL Ganmacaauupwiththesotu-
riggcdittomcnsu~thedatronicimpulxskimthe @eat's hem, and thus pw doctors a beam "fir" onhow thempowas doing. InthefaU,thebaaschidofscn&ColodHoavd A. "HHoe" WatphPll nent OfF to Vietnam. and his &, Namme, stad on board and became the new ~~~~dinacorforIvsi~~~ColonclBannrdM.Bmscbe-
3attalion~~mebacLfromVi,andjustbeforc chhnas, Stew Knight came b c from D Nang Pod ak a resumed duries u Bue Fin W . As the final pnr of the 1960s began. much tightingluonined6mMuimsinVi@RegcMgon, Virginia Ridge, Pipaone Cbpn, m nvne a fca of che opemtiw), but 1969 nlso was the pnr when RkhYdNibeumep*€onthepromig~
UniwsitginDcsMoims,lono,GdHo66mMcnmcd ing when he pmtmcd rhc Internatid Smlem~lt thc~eCorpsinmuchthcspmcfnshionpsdid kTi& back i 1927,might h a ~ e n sno& in dcriBl Jona.TRmgniac's c o d e r in 1964-65-via il sioa~ulducncatminMndmstolift.apialrywhik the cokp-ode& P h n h d m Clvr @'LC) prodining in tho9ficiliries?(We nnr nll to be pleasantgum. Dncing Wodd Wu II. HoBtinan fought at l shodpd. i thc 1970s.when the "Holiday Im*buy n ~ ? i a w l . S P i p m . a n d T i i , w u d - ndcr amc along!) ed*,andcPmcdthcSil~~StnrMaLlon~ GenullHoffmnottllra"mosing"smrgiboutthir
I n t h e g b r r v l W a r . h e d e d t h c 3 d B a ~ period: lst~andlnaastrsedonthc&(AasislPm Ibcobrknad6praadirj.mailmendamlhilkkr G 3 ) dthc 1st Marim Division. He m e m T m y dau~Bnbrnre~fidsl~irmrmiac1 nincPal~~~from~anrinViemPm.ahaehed nsthc*fdniPioneommnndcrdthc3dbfMine ~atcoppcrarouneinar~mshmrttbc~eapa ErmmandhrgllmerJdWfinXHaod; e. a n d I a t c r a s ~ o f f k u 6 D T I l I ~ ~ b i - SocnrrhuldtPilcdpbutrxmdjectazhhr.mc
r o r ~ t b c ~ t r x f i r h i o b p n d ~ .
ous ICE G e d ~ ~ t l i c e x a c t i taskg n
dgPthuingmumitlgGatasatbePolmrand beginniagpc?cedme~prognmsandegdcsd magain,*
~ p ~ w c t h c m ~ w d b u i l t t h c k m
GcnanlsH~andPulluhadiacfhat,aadcd pba~~anemanmViemamandthc3d Marim Divisroa Polly Pullu, his wife, d e d in TvmtplinePllmsdhaamecootdimrmdthattaFsiepmgr~mnhifhdwa.sneedcdunrilmorcMarin~gothOmeilgaintosr~midc~. Thcbrraeplrpunlhtheghomocomings.M~ balk 2. 3, 5 and 6 uad. n spiffy tmsuwic indoor9utdoor~fmanMdU"dPilLation,"colodulfircproofdrrpa,snm,rndc~ fiommgslcriws~oum~. w t h e g ~ n t o N becalled "dining balls" (lanr " d h q faditid'). Old %nny
l?ut~nwldpa~Porcbc~?kci~ili~ycoq pPnidea tbc moecg (1(60,000.1 think).
AfnmoarhskoatbeWebabrcrr~at~ ~mdtkdarrt&mpompTBcdmearript mdcdioaQhilinrithmrm,avi~
~ t k ~ ~ ~ h u b c m b b p c d b r ~ o -
compkr'Ihisoae~~ inthch?radtdthtllihn ~oo.~dLtWar,EPUedborthc Icmarnl d 1 old Bmler buildiryp bctnrrn 8th and 6
Jn1969,ancw$4millionraraaactiOnimrrmcclt . a l I d ~ S m o o l kwh*-
umurre buildings, ewh of which would prwide some gevlt David Butler, who had been editor of the OP lw 31.000 square feet o f clasdassmoms, and kbon- during much of the a d - w b i q )=ear, f e from Vtemm to Wiamsbwg, V to receive the taries h the ever-expanding shoal. r Navy LieunuantJoseph M. Srmm, now the k - a d ThcahcflcwmTwentyninePalmsmhnadthe i dwt Officer in Charge of C o n s d o n , wns not & award on m General HoEhm, who commended him Pnd the current sraff of the paper, ovcrsceiog this lorgc conmet, but soon he w s able a Then.atyclc'sendrbe~iwYtime&such aswenrovla~l~p~60l~andupgnd~~thC5thFfedArtilIcryGroupandComp~ngDof i a g o f r b e ~ ~ . ~ ~ c o n s m K the ISthEagincer Batdimchaagrd their names. Aftiw Compaay of P a h Spriag was going m do this ter tniling o f into individual 01dm from V' f Utmm, one: cost was a b u t $452,900; and planned compleMvims ncce showing up lgnin m beef up stateside uon was in nrly 1970. units undaold familiv n m s t ist Field A d l e ~ ~ ae & Anotherpleasant-andwilcksmd-mpzk. M- Group and Company A, llrh Engineer 3adi&. l~ ter -Id-wide judgiag, The Obsm& Port wls S o m e ~said Afarina came bpel[ from Viempm m
fw 1968, d o n -tent, layout, and makeup 5er-
n v n e d ~ ~ I ( u m o d F o r c ~ 5 l e t t e r p r r s ~ ~thedaatm"kalpeieh~a@h"agnia"BdaFtlg pcr this made 6or m u d happiness.
As 1970 began, more and more Marine units were preparing to leave Vietnam under the provisions o f President Nhonf ViemvnizPtion plan. There was much fighting left, but with less and less participation by oersmaller Mvine fofc~', although, as a matter offut, W e aviation and communications units were prcscnt to the l u t , and Marina of the e m b q detachment in Saigon climbed up ?hat ladder on the emroof and into heficoptcts m rhode final hours i 1975. But Sor Tmtynine Palms, manning levels n were on the imrrps again. So far, plans tor Tmtgaine Palms amounted to more of the same, mostly an nrrillag bas, plus its C o m m a md E l School, and the lsrge hiningarcafortcgulprsandrese~ h e d ~ e r t b a s T certzinly was not going to go away. Here in the fm year ofthe new d d . $800.000 came on line for irnprovcment of the base water system. T w new wells were put down out beyond Surpiisc Springs, with electric-dtiven turbine pump in t o pump houscs w complete with new chlorination equipment. Thcrc were new pipes put down for collccdon lines from these and older wells, dong with electric controls for those m k Then, Enally, lo mils of new 20-inch water main m maimide. The new cornmisary store opened~themaingateatea,toutedasthe"~cwnmiwry store consuucred entitely from fundsderived from profits.'' The contract had been let t e previous h spring. lo the frill of 1970, at no cost to the government, a new United Services Orgylization (USO)building was dedicated in dmnmwn Twentynine W hur Corners area. Mrs. AUene Hoffman, wife of the commanding general, cut the ribbon and General Hoffman accepted a ceremonial key from US0 Comnkioner WWamJ. PPTkins ofthe Western Territory ofthe Salvation Army, the unit mponsible for the US0 at Twen-e. This US0 m a i n c d wpular
In October 1970. a couple of artillerg units came
back from V i m to rejoin the k Field Artillery t Group. nKse wue the ist $-Inch Howitzer Battery (Self Propelled) commanded by Captnin Thomas R Siggiar, and the 3d 175mm Gun Battery (SelfPropelled) commanded by Cap& Cul W. NNda Hot scoop had it, also, dclt the 4th Battalion, 11th Marines a h ws on its wag Gom Da Nang. It had left a the dccm in 1965 neat the s a t ofheavg U.S. b l v e tr ment. Nav it was bringing back, along with men, ampws,and geu, a Presidential Unit C t t o , a iain
Meritorious Unit Ciration, plus a South Viemamese awud-thc Gallantry Cms with Palms. At about the same time, Lieutenant Colonel Richard 0. "Owen" Gillids returned to the desert to assume command ofthe Field Artillery Group, rcpiacing Lieutenant ColonelJohn A. Hamiltoe Owen Gillick had been at Twentynine fmt back in 1914 as a 6rst lieutenant; he gemd as orecutive officer and later commanding officer of Battery B, 1st l55mm Howitzer Battalion. Now his rank ornaments and pay had i m p d , along with i n w a d responsibilities. but his new office was right bask i thnt same building n be occupied during that 1954 duty.* "Old home wedis" in a vaticy of form5 and viaits continued. Among those ofthe yearwhichinduded. ofmany,ombymat6ormgduymanofthedam, G c n d I r w v d F chpnlan. Jr., now Commaodant, . w;ls drc visit in Decemben ofIdeut-t Genaal William K. Joncs, who was commanding Plcet Marine krce, Pacific. He retired on 1 September 1972. General Jones' replacement, Lieutenant General Louis H. WilsonII an idea abou the base at Tmnhad tynine Palms. Eventually, that idea not d y did a great deal to change the desert bas, but also changed the way the Marine Corps conducred its air-ground tactical aainim. -
~~e~matcamecopaso.rimcmar~~on~r families for some five more yeus. Then, chis we. one that longest climb up to the desxt e m logged by of the last m ~ r m i a i n ~ as "base side" IISCk [the ---- ---- ,--other was someplace in Montana) was dosed. along GillicLa hrem mleod in 1971, his , with that other one, as no longer supportable from ,d d~ luffof caucgc dh~csclrh acoWu~ w o (t the donations from a grateful citizenry. tnin College).
----~- -----------0 -
depot mdcr rhc namr G?mmuaiatibm.El&ics Mains-those cumnxv&w and e d a r l a o School htulfon. repair t & h of rhe C m o ms and Efeca o n i c s s c h d o l , N o r o n l y a r + r t h i b C & E ~ f r ~ ~ Fmn iEt "modcmcm (from the 1950s),rhe school drtKS Diego to Tahntynioe F'aim$ s l d somewhat by the bad grown from an m u l l student population flow VieWar, but it was slowed by the fkct that m- d5~m8Wm($thedmemajoruniDgottoTwcnn k l m i c a ~ a n d ~ m n ~ u e d t o g m n l m o s tynioe Palms in 1971) 2,000 to 2,100. t begodall technir+lboundswWdKmovementwm PhveII ofthe CBrEcomtmction finkhedinJamilnd'xay. ~ t d w c o f k s t k AbghpmLin. k ary 1 n and some 700 more of tbc school smdc9cs 9, coinsnidheonre~dinthcwoodsastkkoo o a ~ ) k s d i t c o u l d a o t l i c ~ . T h c C 8 & b ~and their huuaomume up t the desut. The com~~1~ mandmg & I Colbnel Charles W *Bill" Blprh, & . . uohyawcowMnotgctaboldofk;and1I1dutiqg came up for i ribbon cutting on 20January 1971, a d thcVicmamarir,allimiIs~fwmoreandbep. slid thae wcfc some $6.8 million h t c d in the ncw ter equipmat aad upeft Lhrines t we it. o MtiesarTaRMyninc. OnZFcbruary,hc-back ap with the school ctdofs and d c a pmen~cion rn thl c u * om l $ m d Hafhnaa. f c Czri , Jmulrp 1%3+ it hemme the Pea Signal Bamiiym at Theshcdrbenrnkd thenmnamc, Marine puvlrim,inOctoberofrbPtplr, itlao~dtoNcw Corps ~ ~ t i o ~ u - E School. By thm, l ~ i c s R n n ( c . a m p f i e ' j ) . N o n b ~ r o , b c r o w r h e it &ed 33 &orp o c c u ~ t i o d specialtier 0 ~ ~ T n i n i o g C e n i~n r 1 d y~r p n a c~~ ; a n d t h ,g e d w c l r m o t r ~ ~ l ~ ; t ~ t h e S ~ $ r a p l h m , S p e c n l coursa, studme, d staff m ndz ttrc LWW lam ~ ~ , W e 'IIPini4gGmcmrad, Clmp LeJcune. In Auf o San Ditga. rm gust and kpmber. 1946 it wcat wat m Camp PcaWitb the Vicmnm War continuing to \Rind down, dkwnwherei~srtledintheDdMupndongwirh t h e R a d i o S c h o d f m m M e r i n e ~ P h i l a d c l ~ . and there beingtimcfortheplaaningcballsomof grim -yY a B-U ocnaal C. Esu growingt the fchod I Pendbn in 1950 far & d rhe & dmcn place in S o n D i c g o , n h a e i t t o o k u p ~ c n u ~ r h e ~ Olson, who d t
W m i a . the "pp1y bapc at Bamow, said m Carl and reasonable fDI tbose who used i t It did not cost H b of Tmtynine Pllms that he thought the much f i Bancow and T m t p i n e lMm to maintain d e s e r t ~ ~ ~ O U g h t t 0 g 0 ~ f f a n d suntil the winter of 1973-74, whm some more o f d m t~p a summer-winutrsrudon a m in the mountah at bnd weather came along. Then tbere was mad wo& Big Bea~ Desrt hcpr a mode problem? Go up to aunpsitewoQ and, pedn~becnwofall thewmr, the cool mountain. Fisb i the wmmer and lounge n the plumbing began m & amble, mo, underthetaUpins.Skim~,and~infmnt Brigadier General Scbmid, then at &mow, d e d ofthe 6re plaocr in eight ntttpftivc "A" fkme "Alpine" Brigadie~ General W U G. Jdp ~~e at cottnges built by Company A of the 11thEngineer BatPalms d*, Bud Schmid put it. "an o o&r can't ns f & talion. The M r n s & built a aie and preplml G a e d ceMnl had had the "hqh-paidavip h for ampem a for h m Non-~ploprlaad d x SpeeialKhieefuorkprovidedthe~andlrserfm ~ w s * a t E l % m i m r r ~ ~ d K ~ ~ c a m p az Big Bear. N t onfy did t e ham a greater pop&. o hy added to this. A low-mst lease agrwmcntwas worked rion, but it was easier to "sdl" n motmain t or ourwithDonR Baua, wpavhrdthcSan&mudiaskilodgcmMnrinesnhomuldspadeRningkhrty no Nitional %test. kt wu d veq pleasant, and much w ~ Uredbv~aborhfmmBarsmwandfiomT~n- in biigbt l i g h ~ h c a e thcg wanted. tynine'lMm, u well u other Madneb and military Inthesp~of1971,CadHoffrmn,whobadbeen 1ennwa-p m a qsc-adable basis. Hwcsy marEddformajor@(lodwrsp~atthe ried M r n s with pang h i l i e s were the primvg c h a n g c o f m m m p a d a r r n u m g a n d ~ a $ o M r t ~ r aie urcnIlo~MPiincsfmmTwemgnioeandBatsmPs i n l i e u o f a d k g i m o f M a i t f o r b i s ~ M ao t mlodiatadantfotawecLottao-or at~~Rlms)rpsaffmeommandtheacruit a month-& then go look at a reouatain on their d?KKatPIIfiSIslaad.CBmmPndat~~ time & G k them the lights of the big a r k ! . to Brigadier Cmeral Pzul G. Gnhr+m, thu lang-ago ~ecampatBigBcarwbichbqanopcraci~~~~in aidemGeneralFeppanfLohadbeenmTacntgniae dvtJlof197l.hungpnfoIahpyxItmasplolgane F a l m s i n ~ ~1952. As ariaepla~onleadi n
m w M , E N $ e n T s p c r p u . ~ ~ ~ l ~ t d about 2,WO m o t in 35 6 4 d ns
corn. Qn 15 .%?+8remba 1972. p m d w a broken fox a ~ww-concep~ bawrks fbe &ed Maritlg-h so. d e d "HoIidny Inil" kc&. It did 2wk mom Wrc a
lprBemctulrhramgmilifvy~~crd$ aMsrkr0f~ages. Eplirr(mbc~3BApd1972)thcboccnt
~ ~ ~ a t t h c w a i d r h e r a s o i i t 8 . m
hPdbrrntnppsdf&afm!Sigious ~etHcsd. q ~ ~ e C m p P . T f r i r ~ M P m t ~ S c r gcnrrrJune # Aodlcr, & I p X d chief m C%E Sclwol.Shenrsurbethstl~llr~dfift.orr)Sopmt of T u M a i n ~ ,&r$nm B d i j &m Andle4 e&m of&. P d Minnsorn, itad d a, hadatineGerpsin@dl%*R6uLdrrpk %rgvaahkjoxMabeldROnen,whohadhddthc ~ ~ c r p D o l i s p a t ~ 1 1 9 6 9 . E t p ~ r wharken$ndlstnachqxine6fJmskap~r, d d W r h c q & ~ m & e D i n x mr obliaomcll b i &
On 17 October 1972 came another change of cammand for BaselForce Troops. Replacing G e n d Gnhsm .WU Brigadier Ccmral KennethJ. Houghton, just in from Hawaii where he had been c i of s& o hd t f
nmMvinerwcc,Pafific.Anener&candfcirtyinfanny unit commander, this San Frnocisun in his e v n r commanded units in the 1st Marine Division fbm the Reconnakncc Compuly in Korea (where he enmcd the Silver Stat and Brona Stnr Medals); to
the 3d Eatmiion, 5th Marines in peamime; the 5th MPrines in Viemam (where he raeived the Navy Crcar, h e r S i h Stat Medal, and his wcond and third Purple HeamX and, Pfnr Twentynine Palms, commanded the division itseff at Camp Rn&mn. During World War 11, he d i n c o m b on Tamand sipall. It was not all Gcnorol Houghton's doing (Gcnenl W a m had shepherded much ofthe planning), but
wyhclikedit-ooitrtoe~andpumhingdmmghmy savedasa&companymderandinmasbat&Mad c l a p a A b w ~ u m f t o l l l y w u u n d a ~ - ulionapcruiomo8Sccrwirhthe&~nn rines. There he earned the Bronze Star Medal for don, w r 6th Suecr from the end ofvktory Field; or e o m h pzdhwcc. Dudng the Viewam \1Pn, Joaa new M h c Cotpe hfhangc store wu under mnsuu~onBmBondbetwrrn>thand6rhS~nms; I p n s e r p c d i n t h e ~ b a r ~ ~ t w i c c - ~ ~ ~ ~ i n t h c 196% period, and later ia 70-71. On that ~ ~ m n d the scracr~ge mamcnt plylt (hadwlte6oflakc Bantour,hehadbeenchiefof&fFofthe3dMarineDidinijvia being i m p d ; mother $3 million on handforraanbuildingforthem~,theea- vision, andlatrrrhief0fsraffofrnMAE Dudng this mpr in Vicmm, hc:aapstltDedibrforoaoato lisvd"H0liday Emr" was shaping up; a d and b&&cr gene&. Within a psz BillJoslynwusclcnsedudcd (mat rhc derml facility) new " d c n c c " wsr ed6mmPjorged,andhc~1~onhiswayagain. b c i i b u i l t f b r ' ~ ~ m e n ~ a , immorcsersof md quvtcnt~minthcaotbbrthehillsideabo~that ~ d m t t o c o m m a n d t h e 2 d M a r i n c M v i n e ~ f i m M a r i n c C o ~ b u i l t ~ o n e , M a r i n e ~ Cpmp Icjcunc. . ReplaJng Jmlyn was that iwg-ago Grsr mppIy ThisJaucrpmjst,tobeCPUcdShodarPMountain,wu offiwatCampPen~5~CorpsTniniog a $2.3 s d k m pmjcct Ccnar in the d m at lknPalms, Bud S m individwal Marks (plus a dependat wife) o e Schmid it ww p a fintisg that Bud Schmid had &p also were "on a rl. Prime F r t C Susvl Chester ol" is l m ~cdw~thc~~Prlmsdc$crt,vhichhe ~ c d a t t h e t o p o f h e r d u f i n B a s i e E l ~ a n d b i s w i f c ~ l at aboutthe timeit d atCdrESchw1;andwhatvps~,shcwpthewlp wutobecDmca~~cmm"agah,thirdrocfor Mvine in her l5-M-admc o u ~ ~ efinisharithout hzr- the cntirr Marine &ups, m ingmrepcat a&gIcpheffofthccou~s-aSrtm Ashadha~p~nrdatimcwtwubalore,thwcnar &~iirhcdinthatprogmm.Next.shewmr a bit ofu&d+' ~ n J o d y and Schmid Durn on to ndu sch00I. ingtheninedaysbnatenJodyn'sdeprunueon1Mrrp Mrs. Ritl Nasui, wf af hdnjvr Anthony A. N d . ic 1974 umil Schmid'~ -rim of c-d, the actw a s s d s r c d T ~ P a l m s ~ r n r g W & o f t h c ing commander WPS CdondXlben E "W" &&cn, . %at a j o i n f & ~ d N C O v n o S hmdieon at annnilkryo&crwhohndfuEtu)~~a-~in the Staff NCO Club. A nur~e, N v S e f d u n n ay the dcsm in 1952 with lawnrd E Chapan's rcgitee& md a Sunday Smool teacher among other acmcnt ftom Pendieton. CoBxa, a SSunford dawnate tivities, Rita N& sam evwd "Al#matcW ofthe & ofBillJoslyn, had beenJoslpPs asisant rommpnder. Y d in Hudqunrten Marine Corpsjudging. "Nmv," Bythistime,Li~OEmEPLIaUisH.Wi s*dRitawiJIgoodh~"ncrybodykidsmenbout had been in command of Rm Maainc bm, Ptcific bung a number-two wife." sincc~eprunberof~~7z,~ahchodbcgunt~dcsise And then-Pemspsone ofthme "it muld happen aplantodmorceffidmt~ofthc~dam
onlyinthc Mvine Corps"epbdes-inthe fall of 1973, 'Top pim Sageant& I. %& t & leave and went home to Wcsf~n Samoa to get in vchicfofhisuillage,Pu'aPu'a. Earlier in the spring, his mother-in-law nominated him for the office, and n m h c ~ 1 ~ & w i t h h i s w i f eRUf4 anddaughvr , Elizlbeth,to be &&idly indlcd. 'Top '&" then 44 pvsofagc,saidhethoughthcddrnin to this home w n office when he left the Marine Corps. Mgadier Gum4 Houghton got thc aord that he hnd beur selmcd fiu the rnok of major gencd, and f h P P i # ~ & ~ c O d t h P ~ J f ~ ~ B r i p i i e Gn#nl William G. Joolgn, anothet san Emndscan,took the c o m m d paJBcd on by Houghton. A football playa from Stonfod Uniwsiq, he berune & p l e m leader with the 2d Marine Division inthePnciGcnrhccndofWd =II, andarent inro Japan nith the &Ision on p-war ompation duty.Lptcr,duddgtheKorenaWar,asacaptain,he
todRelopmgiinecdfit~mfor~~yemiorhcViernnm a * - -- '
Bad~in Hawaii, G c n d W h n ~ d i n e d his to his (3-3, Colonel M y M 'W Hd. .
and rhc head ofthe aaffopentions5estion. Colond
Robat E Haebei. In addidon to rhc d e n t training which Cena?l W h n envisioned at kntyninc Palms, he wuld se a m y to imp- ualr mb&q bynoctingtheb~inHnsaii~totherrpdincss and " t m m p h = n t " cydc, and u y k g to Lap Marina in their badions for dme-pu %oms.dduring
butatanynn,therewwavmpornrydehyininw~ a r ~ n r g ne. ln~ While d E plvlniog continued at Hawaii and at T n e n q u i ~ ~ Iicutcnant G c n d W i i menPalm, tioned his pha to G+ncrPI Boben E Cusbmm.Jr., . the 2Sth C%madmf. "He seemed to think it was a good i Wilson no&, "but:I n e ~ did heat nny w r moreabourirhhim, andasaresulrofthis,Iwas mnvincedthatinmy~pratPnc,Iwa~notgoMPMC C a p H i m - + -. I ing m get any s u p p f o Headquarters Marine rm BGun Gkeacc H. S c W tkc cenf~r'~t ~ilppij Corps,either f i 1 y or phil~~ophicdly''~ as fi Ean
don G~ oftbe
base at Tvattysine Palm-at l w t by his MIC-wide commpnd. In this c a p i q , W h , of coulsc. mmmanded Bud Schmid and his Iiuce Ta p at Tvattyro nine. W h n had been to Tiventpine Palam &fc.
the fmancial whem-i&zl: "so as a mult it languished for a while."' What mi& ha* happenedto W M s idea to de=lop a new mission for Twentynine P h , if in fin hc had been in his f d M a e Cotps job at PaC, is and he mumcd tndy in kbmid's nurent tour. He ofcounem"iffy"qucnionlominaworldrhiitnmx thought t base, as a mininguen,had mom potenk was. In larthanap?us€terhis&it to his "sleepy ripi rhan was kn mlized.l* ig little d n y basem at T+ne PPlmJ. W i b advancedtotherankofgcn~andonlJulg 1975 beGcnenl W h n . who earned rhc Medal of Honor came the 26th Gmmadmt of the Marine Corps. In the midat of many o k exorring d u b which indudedthe need to dean house oftoomany high rhc impmsk mining m n d d during theKorean waI(~enwilsoow?sanopcrpu~offkcrforrhc school dropouts at the fk-adkme5tI d drhe MalineCorpsdrJlatmbmmt.Wii~ed~ st Marhe Division) on what wns dim G1UCd "Night"whmIwnsSdCCfCdmbetheCommandant,Ithcn mare R n e ' Glond Bob Bogd *m rbnt mn$e, Wilag.' dcrrrmlocdrhetIwugokgtomzLetheT7~ntyninc son~ed,wberc*ugunio:WofftheIinc PahsBase, menluge its mission m k l u d e [ r i tan roulduainacarmcnandshvpcnp.acnasinaliwidgaf]alllhe[tactlcnl]uniaofthcMntincCorpsP f, kcombined-arms cn*imnment. ColonelBoyd and his&theanould~objCaive~enaonrhe Byrhis~~BudScemLIbadbcenselectedfor~ pmhmnal pedkamm of the ~ ~ m m a n d going morionm major general,and he was offro command er~ thmugh the tnining apnietlcc. O e n d WilsOn du Marine Corpa Supply Aaivity in Philadelphia. thwghcrhisspceialfniniograngc"wntalongway There, aftet a &on time, h d t h problems bw to t p k e him, but as the d d W at Philadelphiabet y '08 %July 9 8 1 . ~ a n a e A ~ h l t P P I C I C ~ W i l gan m be phvcd our, Bud w?s able to mave t com1 o ronrgnrrlwithnaeul*r~~h~i!wnsid~trmhetnp mand o the BInrine C k p fogistlf Support Base, f back t & he "dud indeed" thl& 'lknrplioc MUM beo d hzd m m s ' k Z s k c p g h t d c ~ W n i t h a m u E h ~ c p l m r h l Atlantic. in Amnny. &of@& He fcmained thm untilJuly 1977, when hs fight w t cams&& i ih tkat for c~nbincd Plms t & u &
hclcavetba*~dX&ofSanDiepo(bom 2 Oaoba 1921), Bud Schmid had himself oneuPtcd fivmAlbanymBzlbolNavalHcapinlwhich~ thcPrdfichhishomemaa.Hedialthnrm23hguJt 1977.
la W&b@on, D.C., the new W t , GenculWilpoasrkrtcd~erOenml~&fkid, Jt,athcpcnanhcdrogow~Pnlnrc andrcaivc that ideaforanewmi&nEar the b m . General Beid who had beta wounded and captured bythtcaunyd*theKOm7IIWrrzndthenhcld forn~ydrrrrgnrsepaPO\1P,~asnasthel~~t n c ; L c m ' 8 o m t o t h c ~ f o t ~ M a rineCorps.~isajobhW~himsdfhadarhea h c W a s a ~ u ~ Ai.sotoTwcntynintP;ltmJmgrrrup~rrhencw missipn wem Glonet Billy D "BWBddin, nn avi. atorthcnondatyacElkwiththetsrMvincAircnfr Wing. H rcprcplzrtd the asshut d e r * c Cobnd Verlc E. Ladwig, who retind lbpthct this
gd-&~OBRcidladBozadibncded~d CommUld-t W i i s pw for the d m . l
Ccmnltoaurbrphto&T.jptMnine~ acombinedpmtsmi&gmtnrfixtherfK:luluincCorga wrstheMedfarnnodcqr&ur~atthebase.1Bc oldfitldpcuthem+Ln$ne,mmKhIcInadcnad~nrrhwled, md &rig back slmDst to glida drys. deady
rOBrnW~$.m$dmtircir~~rtrrr, $ 0 k l C O O P P L l j O f t d m e ~ 6 ~ d $ l s .
ahokpian.HewPMOdm~Mdmyfmm maictrkk~fmmnny,~bdr~ofthc~l~l d T w e i a so&zeddbeaodtitd ~ ~ ~ umoplainektbntpkticMaoiscwasa~. a r s o , ~ d a m t B c ~ ~ * ~ W i k a n SnhiheeouldsatheflmerbenthebfarheGrpr m$shORmuscTncn~PllmsmtbefiU-brmcL po&on fmm 61 PIO-andP~P* cveo k
Mhtlbk to main. ~p-Pndrbiswsjwbrrhethetr&@ ideo-("tenrFWWiboasnkf:"Ididnw~ua~ afhfpp"bbiariueapintiononrbis,initiollybccaPsc*chQughtd&wly~sachorrrhichmuo~~
doat~~~dmEosia,Waadhcsumwsignif~hlpfiomMajsrGeacnl~HMilkc, Jr-, who had b c m w ' i ' s chiefof SPffpt'W Pdd
wirh members of his FMFPlf staff, laded in a C-118. Thrg wnr met by GcnUnl Reid, Colonel Boddin, and forthelocPlon~tbatitbccie106eaoughwprPnned &I munbcrs ofthc Tmtyninc Palmc staff. Also aninitls;creDigs that if be "cqahle ofsuppodng the onboPPdthePMERcaktaftwithMdrnghlinnere cxcr&cs in a real uurld tanid ensironm~nt."~0 Major CmunLr Chnrla D Mixe of the 1 Marbe Di. s vision and Andrew W O'DBnncU d the 3d M . & The du seleacd vms wu Camp Wilson, that hitMftwing. austere f i d t y for rescrac~and ~thers undergoing dexn mining, which had been built by engincas Mewwhile, o cnuse, ~ f n Palmr was not ~ e b d in the eady dpps o f h e h The l d o n al- & y r t i n d i o g d ~ k u i t s n c w ~ n a n d . its new ahfieid. Binds which had bcuxm a d a b k lowcdforan8POO-fioot-y,it~ncarthethcfor the "apcditionay wmpld' included thosc for ing ~ R P ~ Cgrid and far enough M e the bPse T boundub r0 rbat 50 W i e i i f pIOblclas d d r c w i k k g the sofr-wpdcsat madw the Camp Wilbcbotarrn. Plus,BiUBouldinsaid,afnrhchadsfout- ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ m m a k e i t a n a l t - ~ t h e r b L d a o p m u t e + a n d edoutgrrntunsofthedesert,ksrerhc&Id~~dld moneytoimprcRctheenmp~?lhirinduded,fim take odppneagc of temin whirh nu situated ideally & ncw heads m *lace U old eight-holers w i h hc pmrmumly dotted the campsite, and whkh had m be in rrfcrencc m p m a i b g winds." d~dytco~pi~duginrhepnwad.Their Cmmnmion began inJanuuy 1976, with Cdond flimsysheds,bovdrdedbgdesrr~m,wind, and Bouldin as the *general contractor" &u the pmjccf. blwsingsmd,&en had wdkronelprtsaultfrom Bwldinandhis~guidedbyBrigulia~alRn:dsmissMnasignmmt.andrdncdinbydghr visiting Macines wha had had their aggnGvc spirits sharpened in a less than $mted mifonment and by budget remi&, put mgcthcr a work forcc whkh hdudedMvinaofCompmy A, 7thEnginecrBat- s p i d t - v a u h i n g f i d d d a o f r e n d t h c m tllion:other Murine engimxts from Pcndlmw plus w want m &one lPIT comment about the desert Scabca (11ad connruction h d o n units), both before they saddled up m go home. Afm thex new hcadand~~eswaccofnp1ctCd.soonceme regular and reserve, from Pbrt Hncncme, CaIihmia.
snrled on a G5A-capable ~ t i o n v M e l d y "~omewhcre in the desn", and the central sim out Most ofthe land preparation, g d q , and rigging of the aluminum &g vms donc by June 1976. P b could land, but much work d wns needed befoa the facility wuld be d y for C-141s (om landed on 13 August 1976) and C-5As (& fan30 August 1978). &me ausurc buildings and other &&ties remained in the planning phase, although fundsfor for construnion bad bccn rmde available for the "Marine Corps hir Ground Cambat Tniniag Centd' at Xvcntynine Palms. The new d d d be 3,000,MK) sq frct of aluminum matting, with an 8,m-foot n m a y 150 fca wide. Also provided wns a p a d e l t a x h a y plus a kgc Marine linnft group (MAG) parking mmp on t h e ~ s i d ~ o f t h e f i e Iadn,d a d e t p r u k i a g ramp on the other side for aircrPft of the Milimy hi& Command (MAC). Here the G141s could unloadandloadunitsmmingandgoingmandffom C I C ~ & ~or they could lift tactical units fox tnining or aewd operations anywherein the world. A conuol mWer WU COBSNCtCd. added cluer 4m ~ t h s "ac c p dtw r type hnagvs and maintenance x c ii a y suwtutes. often test or temponty buildings provided by the Dewlopmcnt Ccntcr at Quantiw. OBtieill opening of the field came w 39June 1976 when Wenant G+aeralJohn N.EXEfnughiin alwg
pcrmv~nt~strucaua,adbutddePX w c and a U.S. Mail h d i t y which mrintnincd an r, air of kn a battzlion mad a n t ~ ~ ~ ~ e w hthe e ig at e t
edgeofacornbatzone. Also,somcthingontheorder of a "poor man's' Quonsct hut. 4shelters were built.twiceulongassqundtcno~,and~ ~serhead corrugated d roofng stood up on end by mmmaccnunlrldgepofepabaps 12m 15orw &ct high. Most units sill had m set up some tents m make Camp Wlo d pmpaly for them. isn And while this work condrmed to prepare the expeditionary a~ca thc new &on, monq and effor fommMinued m come m g d a forthe rcIoation of theisr%nkBa~mTweargnimPalms,andto that end planning and progmmhg for peonanent tank pvks and maintmaocc Gcilitia were completed in April 1976. This, too, wns a product o f h Wad s thinking when he rns at PMFPac.He b d i d
~mp~~uenbrdhea,thetndidonnlum~~~uniL. The 1W1MatincsbadbnntheRadkmnlnillrnnaimenra
Camp Wihon, on'ginally composed of squad-size tents shown here, is the summer home of thousands of Manne C o w reremits who undergo their annual training at the base. then that the mechanized resources of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific were not properly distributed. The former head of General Wilson's Operations Section at FMFPac recalled: "he [Wilson] thought tanks were vircually 'hostages' on Okinawd @or training areas), very limited at Camp Pendleton (cross compartments, etc.), and that the desert environment at Twentynine Palms was ideal."'2 At about mid-year 1976, Gcnenl Reid retired from the Marine Corps, and he was replaced on 30 June by Brigadier General E d w ~ d J Megm, just in from . the Western Pacific where he had been assistant commander of the 3d Marine Division on Oldnawa. As he came on h d , Ed Megarr steppcd into presiding over the 1st Annual Planning Conference, already assemhled at Twentynine Palms. of major Fleet Mvme Force commands (both Pacific and Atlantic). Here dcrailcd plans would be madc for the Combined Arms Excrciscs (CAXI of battalion landine teams with suo~~- ,parring arms and to arrive and train at Twen&. nine Edms on a xhedule of 10 CAXs Per Year. %a rs e , of Lou WilNighunare Raoge, from the son and others, was now reborn.
Earlier. in the fall of 1975, the Force Troops staff, under the guidance of General Reid, had drawn up plans for a Tactical Exercise Control Center (TECC), the rationale for exercise control, and exercise objectives.13 All of this remained straightforward, and not unlike similar exercises which had gone on at various commands in the Marine corps for a great many years. In this case. however. General Wilson I& no doubt that these exercises were more significant because they would take place before all the eyes in the Marine Corps-and many more throughout the Depanment of Defense. TwentyninePalms was to be a permanent "combined arms exercise college" for d of the Marine Corps." The lessons learned had to lead to sound guidance and doctrine for all.* M~~~~~ ~ little& ~ ofa desert i *it kit S,here it
*I" h,s rommcnc, of 1084. Major (;cncd b c k l mid: . . ~ c n ~ r . aI Wibn's vlrion from rhr bcai~lna la d I h h a maim tmn~s ing bc+w =r T-wniw pal&. & d i n e the md &amre and gilin rhc full potcnrid o rhir i d 4 mining bw. f lml; & ry * md r& hk ii., coompl md nd&
thourhc, . . . it ir zbrolutdv v n v i n - that with fnv aceorions his a . idcv and conccpis haw kcome d i r y : '
Joshua Tree National Mounment
oucpost b c m n its " h t slag heap" of hills and rhe 'o alkali dustings ofthat dead kon the long-agoglider training field, with pt another new luse on Lifc. Quaatico might still daim the title as "Crossroads of the Cop" h~Matinu urtlriog books and wahg spit-shinedshoes; but here was a new aossmads, for
Matines in combat geu and putting to the test all those things they lamed in the books at Quantico. Genml Wilson's vision had been the better one. when he decided that Twentynine Pnlms was "frankly thc bcs tnining m a in the United Smes. The A m y had nothing like it what~~1."'5
Toward A New Century
Couunand;byMayofthatprthcmmehadebangcd While tbings wuc getting organized fOf the new m 7th M a r k Amphibious Brigade. Afar that, gcnamission, the Macine Corps at Twentynine Palms and al &CUS at Twentynine Palms were designated Comciscwhere throughout the world pauxd to commanding General, Marine Corps fi Ground Combat memorate, on 10 No~mber 1975, the 200th B i i CenmIGmmandingGenenl, 7th Marine Amphibiday d h Corps. 'The b i c a m m d of its uncommon re ousBrigade. Twntynine Palms. Inthoxfirstpusof palof' said Fkident Gnald rord as he staod beside thenewmission, TwcntyninePalmstounditdfbuildCommandant Iou Wilson in the rain at the Marine ing its credibility as the "combined urns earrise colCorps War Memorial on the benlrs of the h m n r * lege" for all d the Marine Corps (as Colonel B i d Then cvuywhuc thrwghout the Corps-in oag B0uldinhadcadiertumedit)andfindingasda dimcalKlphce-~mcmonies60Llanedthe mission h itseK in the capabilities n w a S @ e d b y t h c 1 3 t h ~ ~ J o h n ~ - strategic-& er kjeme-"Old Gabe'Ltbu kvncd and h t Ca- of the brigade. h r quite a number of years in the dcxn jun who in thc 19209poinud the Cotpsmsplrd a community-since at lcvt the age of bumpa modan arnphibioua mission. A toast to yorr md to stickers-there hu becn a detiantly cocky little sticlo w Corps, wbicb we arc pmnd to serve. cr which uks: Wbm tQr he4 z i Twe&ynine Pdm? In the 6 August 1976 issue of The Obsm&o% Post, A bit later, as the age of the 'T' came along, shirt Navy doctors follwd by news reporters rushed $ they.too, vLcd that question. In the mid-1980s. p u whercpcchapsoolyaogelsshwldbe~tod couldbuysucha"T'shirtatthepostachPngcatthe (as Alexander Pope did not quite say.) Reported the Combat Center. Major GcmnlJohn P. (Phil) Monabase nmpapc~:N lRegional M& " m Center here han said somebody sent him such a shirt when he got hu re@ a record 39 b i i during the month of thenod,intheSpringof1985,tbuhe.mpsm& July, nine months after thc Corps' manorable 200th command at Tmtynine Pnlms. mnkusq.'' T o d births nearly double a n o d Evly in thc new mission period, what the rat of month, said Navy Commander H. E. Guner, who theMarjnecolps-~ym~rnscheduled commanded thc medical facility-at lcvt a 10-yeat to send Marine Amphibious Units (MAUS)to thc record. lhttg eight mothers g n birth to 21 gids nod ~ 18bogs,indudingasctoffuumalRsiar,saidtbc dcxIt "cokgC'-vLcd nu: W h the hell ir Twmtynine Palms? Colonel James E. Stulmn, who by the commander-New Mission Indeed! mid-1980s spvlaed most ofthe new mipsion period, During the time mvlpd by Brigadier General Ed M e g u r ' s u r i p a l a t T ~ P a l t n s o n t h e l o s r d a y said tbu at first it went down a bit hard with wmc that they had m come be tested and judged by a "pack of June 1976, umil 20 March 1978 when Brigadier of deocrt rats" of unLnown crcd&.** G e n d Harold G. Glvgcn replaced him. command IfTwcntyninePalmsinrhodeGadyncar~ndap srmcaucs made some mops which Lou Wilson had had to take much of the whmwithal "out of hide:' emisioned from the birth of his new mission idea. Ed it soon h e apptuem,Jim Stanton d c d , that M q a u to& oar MPrim Corps Basclhnx 'hops. ~ddmtlongrcmainom~them.Nmtcd TRnyninc*. hepPacdontoW Ghgmcomwerc &ms ofmture and aaeuent cldatiaI.5 in all mand of Marine Caps Air Ground Combat Gntcr, T ~ e P a l m s . W h o t ~ u s l y h a d b e c n F o r c c arms-infanay, nrtillay, nrmor, nod air. Thesc came dong. as did new range&tiom. It ws one thing, a 'hops in the dcsar, going d m back t 1912, an 30 o on Nigbmovc Range during the Korean Wac, to put A d 1980 became lmclan as the Combined Arms p Mvinathmugh~~ernJgswithintheswnds
* ~ t e k i o n a ~ t o d ~ i n d ~ ~ ~ . t h ~
o f ~ I C d ~ ~ t % t l l ~ - ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ -
drnagc~didmpermitsolneoftbe things which nmted to happen if miniag was to be
Ukimady,h d c p m c Ncrrnngcrcguln~ tioosmPiaedsrfnginaoDbutdacdfor&. ~norbaigrdecommandcrsandrh~irrrprrsen- Aspurofthtmhnaadcradgs,pesLgminc£idds t~tiRsf~m~fiOmbothawmandHaaniiforanan- ~ s i m u I a r o d , d n d i o b a c r P t i o n ~ c o m c o u t "from khind d & l b c c - l d d&'l and crnnLad nmlw&muemplnnthdrnnits'putifipntionm intothc~scrmepnctirpli-in~thcComWdrms~(cAx)inthcdaa ingjamming,clcnranko-,andthe* ~ P P l m s ~ ~ ~ m m ofcommunicariom discipline and ndccfmnic countumandstofinenu~phaa~dPaDBPr~grcw lnaauea n c a Unirs scheduled m tnb: pa^ in an emcisc sent ~ Geornl Glvgoar said of this p e a : 0ktonaasumpirrsforahaunits.MmBnion lcpomandcdtiquts,nfar~omceady~of bdng loud and suedid, k c MePnbIe and usefnLs And from w b m and w b is Tmntyninc ~ ~ho&thc&~A~~mmlwiholl.dodthrtrbaclld came the time when for P unit d c r . "doing oncrhtugram.. ..Warpcci6c-m1sew a CAX at TIcntpniae Rlms bcrpme a Marine Corps"Hot, mybopisdtltrrbuildrbrfinammbincdpmn wide badge of hmor."a mining center in rbc nodd-e place whue ~ e M q & Iut g r i p were the iiflanen. A l a o vary ofcom~ p a l c n m t h c b m i c n c h u i q u c ~ d f i -~ ~ a mandpo~tfit.tandindirrctfirrphilasoph~~from In'sgnaorirtrit. ktnothingbc~~,arIdEJlmc ~mr+ncharrLddmctwrpoupourcdoiog.~ tht~ur,thcgrrrnasaiditsemedtothemrbatrhe Bcnire was simply a sbwtsbwtan. p fw a d k i y , a dusty u G o i i into the last half d t h e 198% rhe combined tarfortankslllldlightd&s,andah amrsaacksrillhadmtbcxowthc"docLarorL"~oquick moms and popnp~ tbc airdala* for lution sometimes envisioned. Budger considendom At about this time (eady 1979) G m d GlnsgoR mmnimes caused sow commands (notably the ardeomdonbormlColowlGaaldH.'Euiq,~ brigade in M) to fwego part of their scheduled h m to replace rhc dcpaningJim Stancon as D i i z i periods as tht combat center. At other rimes, things of OpaadoOs and Paining 61 Combat Gnter, tbc ~ T ~ ~ ~ a b o u t s o m e d c l a y s . and mgd~er prntg much whipped this shortthq The p p p h y oftbc d with f d t lines NncomingofthcrmcLcsaa+dowbichsemedtokavc ning b g h it, remainsmgsmiousin mnng ways. T l u riflemen in rhe mle of neglected tag-dongs. Urged o n b y ~ ~ a n d J c r r y % d q , r h c c o m b a t ~ h i~ h r d l o f l a a d a b o v c D c a d M P n ~ , w b e ~ B i l l t g bUiltbrmhrcomphDcsdotbg~"pr0bkmS Boyldin built that d d d , dnclopcd the amazing habii of"pumpinp" unda r q l m d hadings ofheavy and put than into the emcisc. ~.Moisturennuallyarorhdiawayupunderthe C+nerpl Gl;rrgaw has &@cd out Cotonel Turley's conaibutioasforspcdPlprak.~hadbadraeivcd duminummuriag, andcPusedthcsurfaceto~op some kgukities and some sodt spms. okdmmTnen~PPlmrontberaomm&on of his fwmadnision ammndu,Lieutcnaat Gcnenl AnumbaofthiogsvmcPiedtoconcctthe Kcnnerb M. McIennan,who ans the chief of staff of problem. By summer of 1986, d the matting was up Headquarters Marine Gnps. Gcncrnl Glvgoar said: again,andamwnnb~pmgramwasundc~wly. This4m0undto~inadustingofammtwith Tud*rrr~idalmmio+~hrd-m ~ r i r b ~ p m n i n V i n s r e l l a s j u n the desert's dccom@ granite, dmpming and ~ m m p t t r d n o y a r r i n ~ ~ d grading for-it was hoped-a firma subsurfus for H d e & d coinbid winiag muars ior LUX, MAU. e the matting. d MAB units thu ndrticd thc dthe bo n u l s n r . ~ m u o a m r a c ~ d ~ - Earcisca continued amund this st& but it was a slowing finor. The problems rekindled dmms fx a i I n p a b t . t h e a p r i p s r i a d i f i 3 6 r ~ ~ G a b n r , ~amaae field. But as thc stature ofthc combat center b i n 1919.Sec~m1mc~abyCIpPiDTcnmtcP.Yum~inthc Junnrt1979G.uftr.arIdkPiarA.J.fFsrd;lininthc and its progrnra grew, more division commanders ported diligently m makc k apuiencc a m e J~W79bnr.Ja~,inthc~1979iatc.CPpdnPh
A line ofMarinesjiom Company B, 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, Z d f i n n e Divirion axsau/:s an enemy-heldposition during a winter training ewcrcire in the early 1980s. said. 'This is the best exercise we've ever been in. Stay tough and teach tough.' "7 Pendleton and releasing them onto the vrst desert where their training would be virtually unrestricted. He also sought the modernizing of the Twentynine Palms command structure to make it and its units more to the Marine and s i o ~In 1977, the 3d link Battalion arrived, followed . by the 1st Battalion. 4th Marines, an infantry unit.
with any eng program, ,-hang= alwayswere in the works, being thought of, or being tested. evitably, the divisions' problem of paying for the lift of the ,,,,its to ~~~~~~i~~ meant they would palms send only the bare minimum numbcr of This, in ~ r ncaused many an infantry battalion com, The 4th Battalion, 11th Marines. an artillery unit, mander to believe he was being thrown into the fery arrived in 1979. In October 1984 it became the 5th furnace and asked to do the work of higher-level staffs Battalion, 11th Marines. In addition, in 1980 what (in fire suppon coordination especially) while those used to be called Force Troops became known as the officers stayed safely at home and practiced-as the 7th Marine Amphibious Brigade (MAB) and it riflemen has always thought of it-philosophy.* "owned" all the Fleet Marine Force tactical units on ~ o ~ ~ jot ~ K~~~d( ~ i~ 9~ ~i 1 ~ ~~ ~ 1 8 1 l 1 board and arriving. For tactical and contingency purPOSCS, aregimentalhadqumets, designated the 27th 1983) and Bill Etnyre uuly 1983-June 1985) worked Marines. came into being in 1981. C o m p y D, 3d Aswith the notion of brigade-level combined arms a e r sault Amphibian Battalion formed in 1982, followed cixs. ~~j~~ ~~~~d thought E~~~~~ would make in the year the 1st Light Armored Vehicle Batfor greater economy, and would provide training for talion. more staff levels? Into the second half of the 1980s, this had not become standard, hr -. ~~~d staff These and other units made up an element in a levels sometimes were added, however, to meet more joint, all-Service command once called the Rapid realistically the scenario which made the MAU the DeploymentJoint L k Force, and now called Central maneuvering element of a "large force." Command (CentCom). Then came the 7th Marine Amphibious Brigade designation, and a deployment has been noted, parts o f ~ e n e r awilsonVs l ideas the NearTerm Pre~idonedForce (mF). plan about the new mission for Twentynine Palms includThe latter soon became the Maritime Prepositioned ed freeing up tank units from okinawa and cmp Force (MPP). In a nutshell, this plan called for heavy equipment and some 30 days of supplies to be on *In rhlr ~ g a r d see Major Dennis C. Lindcmm, "A cawfor , Brigade h e 1 CAXs:' niivnt Corps Gmette. April 1984. board ships in areas of concern; the 7th MAB then
Gould~aQdrnountoIltquLklyfompayup P i l l w n ( b g l r m t . ~ - t h C l R O r n C B ~ l 9 e. w i t h i t s ~ a n d r p p p k f w a i c h e o n ~ a c i * isidcrthctcrar~f,tbestmauntacmbltd ns mipht & a s d dAround thc . walls ( -
The 7tb Brig& proRidcd the c o d element fiwthhMvincAitCltoundTPskk~.~
eIcm~MPdntM~7QCODndkdtht& oaio attachalar;racringwiththcCnSLSolro. Supplies PndlogiatLcsrouernbc~byabrigodcPtrvte a u p p o hBSSE7.Inamnnna~f~. ~
thirlppra"piEL.IlpPmmhoundatliRmgoiac~ CuDpPcadlrrrm,ElTo14rmd'8rrtin,Cslifivnirplus Ytm*,Adtolu.Buth&end**
tognhtzdhmOUOtOd6uta~~baofdmcsrn joinupPndaoani&i69o&gsuppliesnad ncnpons.~tsrrndiaearirasrcd~~it~n deploprPpidEgoompkckrthcdd. hisah@lyp* fwcc ofstm~ 6 5 0mtines-or cnn 1,0 bedjdinriaSohsudrtnrlrtotarr~d
UcprmnunOt Wcmc P
f k ~ ~ s w l e n t s i n t h e ~ m m d E l e~ - q r r p d d w ~ ~ ~ ~ p c tronia~ml,dnmnaOnthebasethenwereicrr- ~ c n u f o t t . ~ t b ~ i n g i n B z P e ~ q ~ a n d S u v i r c ~ Ahagetberrhercwereafn*terSthzn130mme1i, h~of1977,fhcfim~wnae1qunlifUtdoo d&efdenliaed,rhen~'IkmtyniaePnlms. t h c r j f l e ~ ~ ' I k m ~ cw i t b thc bf-16uMm a d Snppo~t BatIoA~ofl974,t~,wome1tkcemethefimat fk,both from b m &.c61poI9I~Mctdnclc~~,goring -PalmsPsQfgnedm*arithFara'IhWps221, a d PPC Mpca findanndmnsa,aid, 203. These were Prnates Fiar Clvs Viioria Bullvd uld By autum, two women were serPiog in the & I dArClmtbia Soutinuonh, uld t tooL them Wag Gmup of h e bps. First Iieuwwt Carol to pmipionpl mm hrn and to a. &om Pirnbtwgh and a gradwe o f h cllibmte fire coaml hrumene &I &eq units. V&a-rua&wteofthe&Cdmn. q ~ ~ ~ * ~ @ ~ P p ( t hryBmin$ez a ~ ~ o f E a b l e , I d a h q r u ~ ics mune at l k n + e anda test inmument repsir t te &ef ofrhc herdqumus bamy. ni shod at Ahmy, Georgia Cynthia Southworth m s a~ofmiorrmmemnppir&atAbEl.deen Bu~thwe~tsdidnorLsrlong,Jpidtbc I COmaP* w o&et of theiomter lwmeds cornP ~ G f o u n d Mnryland. , Aboutapulater, Headqu~ersMvineCorps~n- ~ a t T a r n ~ I n ~ S e p r c m b q o f l 9ElaiacAn71, noudthatonlyfwrmilitPrgoampa&nalspedaldrrsh9mPrrkdhfa~mHollPndC.W~and r c (MOSs) were d d m women These sere: is by the time dthescas+mots ofthewamcamtbe
a t ~ C i t g t 0 m m m ~ l d r h e ~ ~ W t C oinEuuy,dUeq,umor,d&aire.wsinmmbar. mpulp.~Hoarnrz,tw~ltrdru&ewomm h w 7 , j ~ ~ ~ l i m ~ + f di m their nm r e s i k , the c ~ m p ~ a g n was 4f r ~ m & d k fhc wtb dGarrved (Onl5 Mny 1974)dtbcwomn! @ F& A. Futrell nnd Jnnice P Cl-n a . got ordm to ~thcunitSin rbeglcnull~wotScdThegm -e Air Squ7 a Cunppendlw; t h u d t Eve in thek new tcside~c, o to ~ i ~ A. my J~ ~ anno,
~ g r o ~ p . ~ e n u a m a j o r a n d W m S - lmtheMnriacCorpaIn 198Lmamajor, shchadlcft d adpt~~ltofBaseHeadq~dSupporrBDtpG cntynine~for~eam.DoriogthatDnusbe R M a ( I n n h i e h ~ d K h a d n o t h i n g m d o ~ ~n u d d f m p r o m o t i o n t o ~colontLIn e t Pssignment of p e m d to the d a y g o p ) r u . But 1983and 1984she scrpad on Okinawaas the G-1 (PUlhme maignmcnts t ~ u e dose to the field l e ~ 1 " s w m t ) ~ S h e d t o ~ ~ a u d "too ofPrtillas:~BoadensitidlPtct to the C&F. mipatent in mid-1984. by mid-1986. th+rewuesume 1 5 ~ m ~ n & i a ~ N o t a t T ~ e P n h mburfordldthcMndnc , d350romcncnlinodMntinaSariOgat~ Co~ps, the in d 1978 Cdonel Marguct A. B - b a P n c t h e f i o t ~ e h f a r i n e ~ ~ , nincpplms-arlclrtcnLemmanyasn$cncapPin G c n a l ~ W i l s o n , t h e C o m m n o d a n t , ~ o n Elaine Andrahtl; aaivcd in 1973 to command the ~MndncCompany.Batktkm,~young~rhc stnn. aud BI~J@CI G c n d Brewer h e thc Dimtorof~rioeThcnabourapnri.Etr,ia ~t,BarhPmCok,cpmemthebate.Whikinthpr ndg summa d 1979, Major Bobbie Wnaa am+ ~ L i e u r r c l n m C o l c ~ a ~ a ~ ibg ~ i m ~ ~ d b m m c t h c P u ~ A t h i r ;s n t h c m i d - l 9 8 Q ( s h e ~ b a c k n s a ~ a n d Officer. ShehadbrrainthepbIicinhmdonfidd adjutant ofthe combat center. Sergeant major d t h e nu Scrgcvlt Major Thcrrsse f o r s o m e t i m e , b u t t h i s n r s t h e f i r s t t i m c a ~ school in the mid-A. MnLrtrom, the &st womaa to hold that position. of&cer had the a s i p u e n t at Tbaqmhe F'alms. Aftu 19&6,nmwnMplinastoppcdha~iagabiirthThen,m coilegcs and uokddes had done some & y o f t h i r o a a , c c k ~ o n l g 1 0 N o R m b a m ~ time ndia. the Marine Corpa at k t y r i i n e Rlmr aU Muin-. A loog my, indeed!
m o R d t h e m m e n o u t ~ t h a t m a t l i a l e ~ s d o r - As has been noted, what is now the CM School u 'bentpine Pelms had a long md djoumq mitoy!' By this t h e "HolidPy Inn" bamfh werr in to the desert. The finnlascent from Sau Diego slowed opaatiou Brhclor E l l l i d puntars (BEQS) they a t ~~theViemvnau,beePusemotcmn&, urunlly thret floors, motel-tgperoom "suites" cumadon had m be put on turning out more Mamuch like thmc of the women's residence building, ~forthatwu. Intofhaemdrhehe~&them'~d" BEQs. T h e arc lutes. The m e n often hPR floors, schook at the By the mid-19801 thcn wue &om, or bolls oftheir own. And h r dl, no booze. ~ c m n p 1 ~ 1 C o m m ~ l a d E l ~ O p e r n o p a r t i e s , n o h a n k y p n a l y . ~ d e s d t o b e ntionsSchoolprovidafonoaltniniaginbothground morc ndct than rhog at colq-p and mksitics.* and aviation communiuti~1~. It h40 secriom Il which hnndle ndio opuations, communications, ad Sohonisitall~ou~'3ingglcmeninbarracksdon.t~intoplPnasainci~KiplingsnidaIong s e n i o r M m u l s a . T h c C o m m ~ d E l c r troniOMain~SchoolaainsMnrinesfor25 time aga Nor single mmen ch it i m be a%umed i a s t specialties l € w c t ~ ~ t f h e ~ d e d o n a m p u s m d ~ in 31 muses of insmaion. 'Ihe Air Sdrool ina~ll~EisiliZCddadultforhion,dotheyrespoad ~ e s ~ y e o u r s e s 6 b T b O d l 5 a n d a lisred~mauAirDetmscTrPiningSecdond ndU mAbsupplhinitlgsation.Iaau,~caKE In lm,Iiemarvtt~ElnincAndrcshnLBar- SmodwhkhCPUsiFSeKthelnrgarfoannlschoo1uundensaidshcthooghtso.Elainc,agrsduueofaRo- pluintheMatiaeCorpa.colldum44~courss manCPtboltschoolfiorwomen-Mt. st. May College of hmction fm 38 di&rrnt specidtie. in Mikmk-said that ar lcmt if rhc Maine C o w
(andthcotbaSasices)dhoaaeddlarthcgMcdcd wanon in the mili~rp, oppommiria had m be open
sRcla GoiiintothelntmhaKofthe 1980s* the a u d t m t m e n t h a d t o b e P d u l t d ~ o a ? L a~usesarcrc~mo1ctban6,@sntdentscPch " W i r h o ~ f d l ~ s a i d E l a i n c , ' 1 k w i v I d d n o t ~nndrhestudcmpoplllnaonzsaagcdnbout2,400 students at d times. l be here in this job."
In 4 1976, when the 'Ihiaiogk r c k Control Center (TECC) $4 the mn d o n , its nu for fiot &m in charge wm Licurcnvlt Colonel EninJ. CtPmpton. In his honor, t e ohvation post overh *Sorbo~ortbnr~~liidc"W1Bor?"~1~dghcsmi01d a N C o r . W t p e j n a 1 ~ e p u r o l d W o d d W a r U 6 m ~ c looking rhe Delta Corridor whae the amicics run w a SOddOg h one drhae NW named OP Cnmpmn.
On Dmmbcr 1976, the dcpcadnbk nea MnclrgcaenL @rlgdier e m r nIW OW, rind bu~ l W ~ ~ C w p W ~ d r h c n talionromrn~dtr,liwtcnuuColonelThomrcF. c n ~ d~-hmwhicbrtitrhuaedhiad.gJof~acld Ikbaa. h n w d the sqund at ncerrmoniPl for.
Attheeadof1979,nmproud~licu~p cdsome40,000quarekd~eshopaidd rHc~~~.batrcnwa(JiristmypmTheg-W1- space, plus more t h I&CC t h a ~ dutdde shaded in liam J. %ill" Bqlcy, asaismnt plmmt mrashnl, d pu~.'IhcrPntparkmkabir~aycumbuild Gu*hk"Fnak"~MLdhBatralirm,4th and rosr &hdy as^. $3 m l i n TnakP never had it ilo. I&hs, b o t b o f ~ ~ g f p d W l f e d O f T h P t ~ U I $anrd. known Bgs T m in O m & , Nebraska ('He pin't By m - m~ i 1 . d O Igot w h y on 100 arw I B a q , h t k h$ mg ba,therCTn) &rps %n, e ' niftcf sxrtsdqpartuswthofShadow Mountninqurnas ~ c y b a d w o n a & ~ p t o t h c U n i ~ o ac?prdacrmia$arc.bInNaarntPcr-~afwuzoms f C u r d ~ w c ~ ~ r o h c U ~ q o f N past-abigUSOshosp~~mewthcblSeandorntinto otl~ D n m e o a a N a d R e s e a e O f f t n r ~ 0 , t p s thefield to amrtb u i swho had to spcnd theMant S h O W i p N o a ~ t w o ~ h a d P n n r t g e d f w rir# C w Biiday out in tbc dsm. o These indndt b e 3 o y s ~ F h o ' ~ m ~ a m ~ ~ r h s b z s c tei d t h c ]~ t B n r t a l i o n , 8 t h ~ f r o i n e V n p ~ , wa~ 5 AgmashhitforillhPttcndatJmtrbitofa-phauairafIemEl~(JICIfPbint.dPcnh g k ~ g rthe hearm ofBag1cy and Cknddyi2 as* t O n a ~ ~ , t o t h e ~ t o f a U h n n d s , nsnllotk5ahahra~nathu~m3Qicwith zerorced rk Ilg AngdcS Rams chdedus, wmh, S p w t lhEy and MidPeJi lbmq. singem. dance^, and magiciuls. OM timen could squimd~itansBobI-£opeuptbacwitb InScpcmba 1980, p.ncwston~ buiklingncnrthe . nutingra~clrdieandis&he~nttsgnMa~)dol a t ~ u p e i n t h n t a m d d k b k b I M i g llamldtiw a Marinc l i c u t ~who larr his &n in S&utkV i m C d o l l ~lwrence R. Gnbollds , t Iitiapingmslkrgcpaplsfiutntheotd~build- q. who commanded rhe 8th Millines, h&ed the ing wbid~ burnod on that site inApd of 1978. This troupe m shu.the birthday dinnetwith tbe Mathus. was Scaond licuwmt RichardJ. bfmcwn of PamThe 7th Brigade's units and rok-slmisrions have mouth, Virginia, a 1976 gduatc of Thc Cirndd. bcen mufhed upon. OBtidal day for the heactlvvian of Altbough arsr$ncd to I i r o n , 4th Mviay s thc 27th Marines w w 17 Darmber 198L Thc regiFAme50n had bcen seutnded m hc Counterment was hrSf pnivafed at camp Pendkton d&g inhelljgnce '&am housed i the old frame m c t u r e W W ~ ~ W Y I IwO ~ n ~ n r y i w j ~ p u t o f t h ~ ~ ~ n ( ja which dated bark m glider bas days. He died of time 5th Marine Division. Thc M&e Corps a ach m k e inhalation wfi try& to save CIT and N a d d p a a d a t T ~ c ~ t h e ~ o f B s i g a d e hwstigati~ %mice (MIS) papera fnw the fin. On Senice Support Group 7, and Marine Aimaft Group dedication day. his patents were on hand-&. and 70 tat EITaror MaE.J.Mnmsoaplostwobrothasandasisar.Thc Glonel Lnmon-B. hcfienry commnaded the newWybtonghtapwtmhOfRiJlnrdwbichnwbangs ly Pcrivated regiment. A i d on 15 January 1982, Main the new bui&ng. rine Gonunandant Robert H. Bvmm m e to 11 April of 1981, &d Ginsgam, who had bcfn x Twmtynihe~mtcviewa~ulpamded p-ted m major genenl, departed Tnmtyninc to pnxns historic cob to Colond McHary. Bade PdmforQuantitonl#rc hcmokolra&tbeDp s m a n x ~ ~ h w b rWarXIdnaad in thrdmfc ld m a t Ccrm. During his t a lhntynine Palm, win& alongside rhoa from V i m where the rcgiGlvgon had hmed the o~mbiaed arms &fOf meet aersed as pan of the ist W e Division. d the u ~ n h a t m , a n d l tbe iofinuy units. In July 1982, Colonel Frederick E s s c r e p k d . ily aadhadd~nnmnndofthenewsrmcarrcof Md-fenrg as:c u e &f+r Ofthe 27th. By lPa TtK btigaae. W h 1984,camc w & Thnr Pred s j d q had been o InZotGlasgowansBri$iduCtnMalJwephR ~ f o t p d o 8 m ~ e 1 ~ a n d h c Kaom, a bii idinup affrcr from Ww Vh'ghh, wrs~oonofffoxailjobwithtbeEurage~Comn h v c b o h a d b o c n a ~ p r o : ) ~ c r a c ~ S t p o mand in S~ttpi*ct. C &i@ le. iWc came a T n m ~ Palms fRlm @anti, e Luer ta N 2 ,a+ 'wunkd,the '?PStQatowhmthehadrobamnad6d.as:aWtheOfiicn sir,"opcmdbeiowtheggmnuium&delWe chldidnn! C~UDE. Drive, and M u h could n w buy bambwge~s and Joc KnotfQ roon welcomed M bad Le i ut other~bwdsifhungerpvlgssrrud:~mells a~the ciining Mtiies. T h e mw quuten,dubbed L3ulad M e w w. oF.~'~an[~tu of PMPPnc, who Eut t h e r i b b t a . f a r t b c w ~ ~ ~ t a n k p n r L S r L i c S~ ~ ~ ~ o P l a ~ e , n u e ~ , l a d ~ t h c h i g h unsfl ColonelJasepb P Sebula's a a k h d i o a It P o s . n pd grod4ban:th~lnedial*kamed~6or
man&, he nmed the Sl SPI Medal in the fierce im bntde for Hue City in Viemam. Tar in thc cgc d e p u m a c In D-~CI of 1983,
So where docs the Marines' own mtch lead Twenrynine Pahs. n m that the pu 2000 i dosa rban that s day in 1952 when Fred Scantlingm e up from pea-
the3d175mmGtrosaltfitnenttothe~fbrthe dkmnm-chavarhcbcginniogoftherrhcnmdufinillrimrIt~astokno+edimoan8-~ tionuytilr-upmastrucrionwhkhMManv howiaerunit I n m d s, .& 4 B W s little saung-out uaining center alongside irs d e p I a y m ~ ~ t h k o l d O ~ ~~ r~ m I. L a . h r i n t h ~ ~ ~ y o u n ~ d o ~ o . orgmbion at T w a p h c pzlms in Augua of 1957. W d WU II, Vinton Ham and others rode thc endThen it went to Viernun, to Chu Lai, Da.Nag, Ao kss surf of air in the @dm? 'ThethnmintheMPdncCorpsnowisao~ Iioa. In 1970 it CMOC back to Tnmrtyinc. Nw,inm and orpaad the combined arms training, and therethe hills of the descn.G q o r a l James Spinks, "plug. e gd' fru gun three, got to & the nen-mthc larr fon to enhance and b p m ~ the Combat Center." So said majar gwcral selectee Bill Emyre in rhe spring 17$mm mud. Then thc b stround, 6 1 ncnt to t -, of 1985 as hc was about to relinquish oommand at Gcncrnl Bill Emyn. l k q n i n e Palmsm Brigadicx GtncnlJohn P Mona. But then, as if Lighting the way for Tmntpine b. eontiwncy ~lannbg & mon sophisti&mwardits newcenfu~y, I &T y ~ =v, ~ e w i h greater spndg e b l e in world-wide a telephone switchboard mwse rmdent ac c & E mpom times, the Maine C b p saw a need to get Wool, got to ung the Olympic lbrcb mward the ofthe 7th Bdgadc up to the dcxrt for gama m J-.+-~ 1 jdY 1 9 ~ . 9 school d . more elbetter training and for more &dent mount-out if juuot, F& E-~ -A. thought o f t h e i d ~ ~ e o u l d b u y a ~ ~ l c i l o m e ~ r N na o r d a " ) s e . ~ m e m t a n i ~ ~ ~ d * o f f" the good ofthe c m C8d!studeats donated)3,000, a . and their depcndm at T m w e w, ~ d ~ f & & y ~ e d & - ~ & n g H i &Sq i,d t h c g ~ m d ~ d f h ~ r c f o ~ ~ 0 1 1 o f t h e C O D I a lncuZom~"~&rsvadsaffmembersncnt kc-=. &GencralPhilMonahancameonbovdthc up to w a d , to Ehm him on. and m m alongside. His torch came back m Tkntynine Mas and into center,there t ~ l abour 35 million d o k mu& ofcons an honored ~ p h Cnse in the sch~01's g hndqWft~m. strtKdon nndnwzy inpbnning. By the cnd of 1987,
BGm W i l I bR Etnyr~, right,
xer w h h uvu &d
t lact turdh
a 1 7 J m re/jpmpeUed boulit-
ro be retirrd@n &aim Cwps d e r y m e d i n :be mid~98ik.
One o f s w d ~ ~ & ~ d n r c r ' s bdtwch, pmt ofm & h j @ f & h ~ i n a p w m n t p m C I I ~ & b&g cowfnrcted st fk Air G r o ~ m i r r , Conbrr, Cmtez
thewessideoftIuoldnodsmallairEeldd~tcky history and now questionablc d u e . and rcnch dd Vaile Drive at about 1st S m t where the new main gateareaarouid bc built. Fwbnaranftlcflawson boardthehter. plans&oCPUfOTaUlooproad"~ go up ist Suetr, nun w e d at &out Griffm, to sene the major row of IBQs and other facilitiw. Also l s e as "pending a& posnic," but with itd fundingnotyctinLcdin,atesuchthingsasanew p e d on board the Centa: 775 in 1986-87,696 in haspid, ocw dental diniz a mace d m (and 1988,625in 1989. IJIh fnu-yrupuiod, new units i s schednledto~hthedcsatiodudedfhe3d~t perhaps ~ollfzancd)child w e cenocr, m e family o * (phaps coatmad for with a dviliaa sup~ Y c h i d e ~ , r h c 5 UthMa-~ h r h plicr and manager), Pnd an dcmmtvg school buildrines (sdf-propelled d w y ) ; and the 4th Batdioa, i n g m d f P c i t t y ~ d r h a t a d & ~ h o u a i o much g, 1 t Marines (toaui adkiy). 1h ofwbid~dbeiathevi.Cinirgofrhe"okl"mzingare. On the eoncmretion griddle for 1986 were mon Abitfvtherdfrhcpagew~sdxhoped-forproject bacheIor enlisted quvrrn aclmhhwdan d e 10,000-Zaot c001xfe m m y out in the mining buil~(ioJudioga~~~headq~emfortheCdia a m m r e p k the Expeditionaq r wbich, as school), a phpsieot fima center, 100 mare sctsoffahubctnnd,m~meosalotofmniotcmna milyqwmrs. andanewEMILIILibsPIp.stixe. Ibr1987, f $67 million would buy mcur BEQs; odminisa- money by bocoming wobbly m its tdl o descn roil abmDcadManLake.This*getstoncdhl989. tive,mnimenum, a n d t d n h g ~ ; ~ a d 3 9 2 ~ o family hottgts. I 1988 ($pb million), aill more f n l mid-1986, the officer who had his ffrngu on all o . . k buildiagr, unining and main- chereprojmranddou98swa5~COdOnelTedBE%, adrmnrmPn dyJ.~~rkrPndhoudogof&er~tIucaucr. senance hjlities, and ai&id improvement. And a ncpsmaingare! Hespohefraroorhercom+dMnrineaschedulcdtocwretorhedesert~tkeend~the wy,thrtJmvmaiogueislaninlyiixthepurccmurppose ofgcttiag rid ofthat d&dy deadly Condor C m w h dudng its long pm,has dnimtd too u , ~ These, to boggk the minds d old timers. will be m n liw. And into the mstly toll must be added thtoffica~llldmen(1$OUt1 M ) p " p k f o x t h e ~ ay ~nlneumigcsandalotofpropertydamapz. To c0m~)whoWinopcatc"RcmoadyPikttedvegn rid of the Condor, the appmch to t h ~ Ceacr =Th*ic~becPllod"bmanmbddPirpkoa.koa. WouldreJuain wMotKRoad, gosaightinalong Con~fmaathe~d,thesBWrdflyat
anather $67 millioa wls "peaed to have been spent
for thir consrmnioo, bringing the 1986-87 coasrmction to a bit o m $100 million. In 1986. the w population of the Combat o w Center amounted to pppraimattdy 8.W W e s and 1,Ooo civilian emp1oyees. Gunring dcpudcats, the size of the Marine family came to h t 1 , 0 . 500 Projected t 1989, d y 2,000 mom Madaa wecc uo
about4,ODDScreboRrhebaalcbddPnddbEct ' I V p i m u a t o t h e ~ d d u . ~ e p ~ i n t h e * t f t d m y a f c ~ ~ b e k h sn~vrisoncrTbccaprmtyariasBorm
mcommanlatcwithrm~bombt~prejeailea dmscndthetnprrcLdyonro~ra,bcloa. On 13hfay1986, at 10D8onaabp, b&bt&yw
~ ~ ~ i t g r h s a e w ~ i n i r s b i a a v.W i r h t h e d n m d b u g l e c o r p s o n t h e ~ t ~ rhegatmdCdsou*naosrtheprrnde g m d C23 Schools Ikgalion; the ceotcr's Headqu Badion; D&at A. Ist Rrce Senice 'ybuhndtobcgoodtobeinchis~011.Young S n w Oroup; a coiqmitc color guntd flrnted by m~nwhohadnotscUetitomrbmughhighPchool oqpharicaal color% 27d1Marines d the I the , s need noc apply. Your milimy "IQ," G T ( h a chc C Badion, brh b f G hh% 5tb Bn*n, 11th Maa1 C I m n Tea), had to be around 100 or betrines: rhe3dTankBattalian; nndcompany Dofthe rcr. Y o u ~ r o b e d c ~ n a n d m y d c a a YWhadro 3d Adsuth Amphibian Banalion. pull~~leun,iadhoplenmiog.?hcrcoraa CbmgeaFeommmdtiraePgPIn. forthefimtime no drop-outshere One old dmerin thc sandscould ~ , a p ~ b . m ~ ~ ~ 0 1 1 b O o l t d . Ma* GmanlEmcsrXGdcJ~Some,ofcolug,hadmndc w t r c m e m b a k t r a l o n k i n g ~ ~ r h c & p tmstnanbilcAPrionedinthcdesnasPhilMona- n h e n t h c i s m n e d c s i r c m w i n g ~ ~ r h c m ~ nrhos , I J a n ~ j u s t d w r . b u t B m i c C e e t a a a t i w ~vigor, mdidcucc, d ~ ~ t i o in W dlumpinrbe4ma1 dapsofnntioaaipddein Warn. W - South~~djartiafromTrPininga1~6MnriacGxps,a~1~mnpi p4~ldthcd-goniaeimpotPmdttK combat anTcf, thc 7 h w,d Lat Wilson's an t miarioo,warame10gcvsimoluamwsvaI~~srill
CHAPTwl THE DESBRF
1. Milk&& I
db High Ixmt. P. U. t r
B r n n c h d t h c S ~ B c ~ ~ L ~ b r Y y , R o m l d ~ ~ , 3 Ibid. maS I& &S& W (los b e Iar b g e l a C o d . 1978). gk 4. Ibid p. 17. ~WLr.~RddDcmMala,Mnruoftbr~hDcwn 5 Ibid. (Glen& Is Siesta Pas, 1968); Nal Hszlow. "CUihnk Gm6. Ibid.. p 18. quad." in Wa aad FWcd a #& , 1&46-1810 @ & : e+ 7. Ibid. a 2s. Unkdq of Oi6mnn Rcs,1982). bctdt% Hylar, ""GliTol"How & n i a c O n ~ ~ W . G E c m + H i r a a r t & ~ o ~ ~ ~ : A 8. ~wile~cight. r Docmr Became Fnrbcrd29 Palmt." l H*DaMt 7ioil. 1976 RoaaDPvs SwrenirEdition, 1 (kr 1976. Co4 t m ) o f h d U ~ r * ] a r 6 u r 2 i r c N ~ M ~ ~ pica m i thc h q n i 6aIm Bnnch libruy. n Rtt Wee. W3). hacdtcl Grrmc. hbhm RcmvM 9. Hazel Spch 'Bz T-ine MIXIt, p 11 S* 1. snurr;kIanylamsW&Bq(BplbollsludCalifomhr~ 10. BagIq, M a MI S k p 3. P e s 1960); Rick Edekmn. "In &id Pursuit of W rs. & Boy: The 11. Ibid, p 86. k t M: -' Yucca Vnllq, ClifannHi-D8&Ska, Gmbmkc 12 Ibid pp. 170374. Edition. 20 biay 1983, nnd in&m w t I d hismdao W c ih 0 ~ w l m a l r o ~ ~ ~ m h e r ~ i i l 13. Ibidn pd9 . u a 14. Ibid., p. 91. WIitingsdgthcateadTao~~. 1s. Ibid.
2. Ibad. p 8.
t o . T 6 a E a o f D r ~ :1846f8urmn:ImkBFammdCrmpnp, I%3L 2. Hufo.. '7XSxnia Gmqucrsd," pp 41. 42. 3 Miller, h. 4 Ibid. 5 H.rI010, "Cnlifomin C o n q u c d p. 246. 6. MiIier, 7. Gtccor, WIIC RWJYM p 39. 8. Miller. Mmz 9. Ibid. ur.J.D.BonhricL.quMcdiaElirsbetbL~,d.,T~ ~ ~ n r ~ S n t u ofAbumrd6rabgy.On i949.~bmtlcthrrbrmrc-iemd orcnl dws in c i i a ; f 2 . W to 3,mO mpiea. dtoro 11. Mas, k~, p. 9 U.Ibii 13. Ibid. 14. Etktron, oh a . i 15. Miuct, h.
cHAl'mR3 CONDOR FIELD
n;,tibnry pdmslymmttaM4 Hdcn Baglq's h d r n My Sbos
for this mppar, in Pddidoa m thasc fmm the rmnmu-
and the Lmdz W. G m e %tom Rarourcl S*, indnde COP mpondcoce nh Mai S ~ l h n m USAF(Bcrk -o& t . n= intnsicw. w h Bureau of land Management &&, @us Wilt la I Undcrtdll. BIancb Ellis. Helen B& im . a, A& Hzrch, V i n m d Lois M h Hnn. ~ l r d t c d wcrc tbc o . mpprr Cwdorfiield filer fmm tbc U.S. Ah Fmc v r h k obm
h . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~
2. Ihd., pp. 375-382. 3. llwmpo A. Bsller. A Lhpkmom Hrrtov o the Amman Peof pk. Nmth Ed. (En&& Wiffs: Prcntim-W. 1974), p. 715 4. U d u Cbaplin Pmductkw. 1921.
Unlcsr dmwes mtd, vwum & ti chapm, m addinon to hs thox listcdfei Chapter 1,indude Hekn Brglq, WnMy Sbae r (Tmqninc Palm%CIlrco m. 197%); Eliabnhw Croracamp. bdl. %DW Wr How (Lo.4&0 e n W b t c a k Pnrr. 1%1);
nodmmasuioar*ithHEknSBglelwd~ortgrenbsinTIRb qninc Rlmr, nod cwchlly w t Hvold and W e Wright I d ih In addirion to mtcri& frm the m m m u n i q libnry, o u r nf om tn6,rrnation for thu chapter indude fkulqupmn Mvlne Corps d m rchting to Tmnqnine penonal expencorn of te h author wbik onduty w t t e 3d Mmne Bwde and later the 3d ih h M & Division at Gmp Rndlemn m 1951 and 1952 while phnr forthcuuningbra.intherlesmwckioghr~~~~ad,pndpnrtiupation m the fktt lnrgc field m o d d at TMtyninc
~ i n ~ . D . c d. I p c c%clv&wPorr. . other rmminlspr~olJistnnccdudagtbcprcpvraonadmb*mIiDchdclaoERiols,~dmdm~.aithWfma GatoubHWkWC(Rcr),DdriGcnrEmnrdJ.Mrgm. USMC,BobntE~M.USMGdrbehtc~HSmmid.
munin, ti* -usaim
'Spila m H o ~ x b s h " BGm mdaicL & ( o c ) bs Nne
USMG(Uet)endtbe~dy~tqtbelutborm d 1974, 1974, end EJ71. P b a k IhWp
tdca tbe unpblnkd
1 Ga, Iouir H W . .
%@I84 ( O d H i d d . MBiG,
Wabqpm, DL), hncifar W
rrspmdma.a+aodimmicnrirh~.~m~.~.(~ud) Scbmid. USMC ( P n A BGenJohoS Oldfidd. W C @a). % ' 3
fbid. 3. mid.
m' 1 L
~ u l * e w k z u s a r c ~ ) , n a d . f m m t t r ~ P a h n s m m . I . Ihid m&q, lkd H a p and Cbn SJk 6. Ibid
RLmslh hopa bull&
1500. M), dt d 1975.
12. WGaRebc~fE.H&d, mmmcasonenculu~mond
14. BDlddin in-
W r inm. io ln
CHAPTER9 TOWARD A NEW CENTURY
GWPTER7 THE 19601
J c E.Stroton. Blpiac King. ma
and o P Dwr. d. LtCoh eLurM.Badmd*J.Etall:pboMo.MMh.~Pul*r
~ d f i n
d ~ ~ C o r p r G a s ~ h 1 9 7 ~ ~ 1 9 g 6 . h c l d t q t b e
h i .*-it
Roads and Places Mainside
Since the base at Twentynine PPlms began as an artillery outpost, it is fitting that the "main stem'' roadway from the main gate dong the wat border of mainside is named for one of the most famous Marine artillery officers of the Wodd War period. Lieureovlt General Pedro A. del Vallc. Thnt is "del Vab-pa," with the Poft Span* sound to the double "'" (the general was a natirc of SanJuan, Puato Rico) and not, as many ls
modrmMvimsiarinoncallingiUdelW"llle~enlwasanalld~~ as wcll as an artillemman of distinction. He enduated from the Naval Acadcmv in 1915.
landedhthe&thefo~~pu,nn;i@ci~intheclpntnofsoab~mio: p City and the f o U e ampaigm in the Domhkan Republic He served at x in a the 'ILmac (as commandu ofthe Marine Detachment) d& R d d War I, and lfvr that SMd at Quvltico, had morc sea duty, and thcn was aide-de-camp m Major G c n d
Joseph H. Pendlcton -the one for whom is named that smaller Marine Corps base down by OEcaoside. In command of the 1 t Marines at the outbreak of World War Il, del Valle took the 1h d e r y regiment wmsas with the lst Marine Division. and d throughout the Guadalcanal campaign. Mtcr a brief tour in the States, del Vak mumed to the Rcitic in April 1944 as Commandiog Gencml, Corps Artillery, III Marine Amphibious Corps, taking part in the Guam operation that summer. Nan, Major General dcl Valle took ovcr the 1st Maine Division. He commanded the division throughout the O h opuation from April m July 1945. Mtcr the au.he s e n d fim as Inspmor G e n d and later as Dirmor of Penonnel at HcadquarrcrsMatine Corps. Upon his rctircment on 1Jan1948.he was pmmoted to lieuvnvlt general.* He died 28 April 1978.
Jw above del V Drive, and linked to it by lst, 3d. 5 t h 6th. 8th. and 10th Streets. & is Bnlrke W.named for another artillcryman, who also "ran dongside" del Valle in much of World War II. This was Lieutenant General Thomas E. Bourkc. who was the 2d Marine Division's artillery officer and commander of that division's artillerg regiment. the l t Marines, from 23 December 1940to 10December 1943. Duting that time, GensOb a1 Bourkc pvtidpated in opentions on GuadaJcanal and 'lhrrwl Later he ssrvcd as artillery officer for the V Marine Amphibious Cap. At war's end, be lnumcd command of the 5 h Mviac D i n . and took it m Japan Br mupltion duty in Septcmber of 1945. t D Born 5 May 18%. Gcnctal Bourkc gnduated from St. ]ohm CoUcgr, and wrs commissioned a second lieutenant in the Maine Corps on 5 Rbbruug 1917.He retired 1 Novcmber 1946, and was pmmoted to the rank of lieutenam general.
~ d e ' s r a o n busist utup,afier del Vallc D, is Brawn Road, named for perhaps d & the most f k o m and colorful d e r y &er of them &-the utdleryman's d e r g man, Major General Widbun S. "i foot" Brown. He fibbed about his age to enlist Bg in the Mvine Corps for duty in Fraarr in World Wac I. I the summer of 1920. while n he was stiU 19, the Marine Corps k h m out to accept an appoinunent to the Naval t i Academy. He I& there t m y a l a~ to rcenlh in the Mvine Cw He wds commisv w o sioned h m rhe naks i 1925. n T-ty-cight yrrrs later, as a major general, Bmna rerired and entered the Univcrsiq of Alabama where he earned the Ph.D. in htitory, and subscquentty b e a m e d e o f t h e ~ s h i s m r g ~ . I n b c t w e t n , h e d i d i t o lSrrducg,sch~)k,the"bauana l. wm," com#nd of d e r y units in Wodd War 1 , and command of an infanay ngi1 ment (the 1Jt Marines) in Korn in 1951. The nickname 'Big fear" camc about amidst much heckling and joking duriag the Nhraguanumpnigasofthe i92Os,whenkh&~a~hadrorir&phimapnirof sizc 14 P shoes to replace thox he had w r out on jungle patroI. The pilots i n i m y on dropped only one shoe, along with a nou saying it wwld ulrc a saond Dight to bring the other shoe. Another colorful episode in 'Big Pootts" sea evne duriag the Okinawa campaign, when he commanded the lrth Mvines in Pedm dcl We's l ? e a* Dmision. One night Bmwn put t+r a 22-botnlion rim on nget (Tar), whi& not only shook up t e h enemy and much of O h w a , but nlso that old d m , Dcl W e , who did n t o bthcpatandsuddendclugedroundswrrrcomiag. Somewe orrc quoted a h u b "Big b t " h e be apparently 4 often wirh "visiting firemen" who WCE gokg on to a ~ ~ ~ r cummand, p q back m Headquvrers hcr d s Marine Colps-"my bctlo ro ~nyonc rcmembur me fnmrabw fbr a long dtge to who come,thntshouldbe&ee&MarineCorps.Bmr~~Roldisfhr:t~;lymgato~t placa on board T7~~nynine Fplms-the past uchange,the bank, and the post & .
ehqpeirit6thand5thS~.Aaduadnc~hous~~~inbegohdMvinepptmS. SturgisRoadhadnophcemuchmgobqondlstStmt TbcroarlisrianudfbrCo1ondGnlacMillerS&, anlauyotitiCerwhosecommiss i o n i n t h e ~ C o r p s d r r c d b a c k r n ~ r l d W rH .e s p a r t t h e a n t u p u t d t h c 1
mn. He 62d sea duty on rhe Ariwsaftom 1922 m 1924, and, i additionto maay staten side billets, he annl in Cuba, China, and the Pbilipphc Mads. Duaing Wodd Wr 1. Colonel Sturgirr occupied *scrim ofiocnasiagly napoedblc po1 s i b He comrmndcd the ist Badion, 11th M a r k s from July 1940 u d he h n e theregimaMirvcudR&erinNvrh194t Hearolreonuuandofthe1SSmmGroup
ofthe)thDelinseBPttPlioninApdll~2,andcormMQdcditmuiogthePflyampligminthepycifdc.C o m m e n d o f t h e 1 4 t h D c h n s ~ o n c p m e t o b i m i n J a n ~ 1943, b ~ t i l l h e n l t h f o m d h i s ~ o n u , t h e U m t c d S t a t a i n M n y o f t h a t p r r . H ~
spentthe~ofWbddWnrIIintheSaoDiqtodr.pnP~uru,primnrily u a mcmbcr of a gencml court-martial b d His heal& remained poor, and he mtired soon afterthe mdofWodd Wac U. Cd n Sturgisdkdin 1963. iod
At the wp dthe mnia gtid dsaeers wmpridng&dc offhe base is the mad named forvmthc~"oMszlt"hrhcdllcry,B+adierGcmnlRa+dGriBso. Lih dl the others Eor w h these arrca arc named, GriBso was born during the 19th s u m , 1894 inhis eau. (Bight Bmrm was born in 1900, but, techniully qxddg, the 20th Ccntwy did not sarrundl19(11-othawix the 19thCcnnuy w l nos havc bcen 100pus b. ud %) Griffin did his Wodd War I time in the Clvlibcan, later xnd in the "banana wars:' had dutp or sea, went to the proper whwls, nod then uwht in some of &em. And like the others whose tlllna iden* these mainside mm, when Wodd Wu II cvne along, Gcaillarady.
Grifiindasa,rpcdugoffka~fheI~hphibiowbrpsintheSouth Pndfk,mdirmmmma&ddrfnrstgroupainthcSolomonIdzads. I n N m b c r 1943.
Cdond Gcaill nssumod camnand of the 10th Matines, and lcd &a& d c r y rcgimmt at lirnvn, Saipan, and Tinian. He mired, the nu,in Scpwmber 1948, and was d~cdtothernnkofbfigodiagcndonthcmircdtia
Brigadier GeneralJohn A. Bcmis gives hi. name to the shortat m e in the mainside et mid-a discomectrd rm blocks at the top of the built-up ma, back of the Of%~ers Club andlbaocan~~~l~b'~uu.~sdidtheothm~~ose~~~n~s~~inthemp grid, &mir entered the Mvine Corps during the Word War I period-in his eau as anenkdMviwwhoxrvrdinP~meandthminHairi. Hewascommkioncdaa cond licuunant in 1919. Afk &a& hc dagain in Hait&irm in Nicuaguz, then atsea,anddlahtinPdpimg. China. InVkddWar 1 . C o l o n d G f F m d n i t h 1 mdincommnndofadlcrgunirsonGnnrnandooOiinawa.H e m t i d i n 1948,at whkhtiwhead&wbrigadiagcneralantheretiredLia Mtcrrctkmmt, G e n d Btmis send as drg n)un*, thco emsum, and finally m a p of Occa&de, C&of&, duriog 1952-56. He dd in 1961 at the N a d Hospid i at CPmp Pendlcwn.
v i i Field, 6 n r p m the rminlighted Pthledcfidd for Twentynine PaLns, was lumed 60rthe~~~~ndc~~~ddfhebPs,who~~ndhthptcapacitghm28 June 1957 until l januug 1959. It lis below and w a d B m Road pad the ha& and pos~ office compla. k was d e d i d in September 1959.*
bfajot Gtncnl Randall M. Vwxy was born in Augusta, WiseonFin, on 28 k m b e r He went w school in T I& Idaho, and thrn zhc Unkrsiy ah WYhington, * %, where hc had earned on h y comosirsion thraugh the Ron:pme;nm. This he tndcd forncmnmkkminPhCMarincC~ms. f k B a s i c S c h 0 0 1 a t ~ e i p h l zh e ~ ~ t t o A the Pacific whcre he first x m d in th;Marine detachment of the pifts&rgb. He subsequendp &ned ashore to sem with the Lqation guard in Peiping. There,from Sepk ; until May of 1933, hecommanded the famom "Horse Mndncs" ofPeipinggs b 1932 Mound D&mr.C*
b f k Fcnton P i 4
Mih f mField, w k ywagsmsplnp Little lague basbd, commmomes a gwng m MndnewhoMinWorIdWarITsfinnlbpnk,O k i Itatsomarksamonpoignant chapterin& humanhistorydineMnrinc~~ndofoncofineCorpa'bst known fidks. Mikcandhisclderbmk, Ic grewupmin MMveCorps. thesoa~ofthclate k. B~GcwnlFrradcLFentonandbih q E . h m n l&cyrcrr"~ts"of M ondim din or commanded by their father, or ofnthkric twms cmcbcd by him, fromS~yonGunmwShylghni.~hmupanddoanttKWarCOPSf,PBdm
QupnticnViginipAtS~~Mikcrodc~polieesagepa'sdedudognodriogprutg how Ikc had a drum and tagged along w& the bud. S m t m s they g t i ine way oeie o n and nuc ''dmwn in in b $ by ~ e s or, e s ~ n h c dqustas'' and "pm nndct t m hnctl'byakicd, butfianfd~er.
Dutiog~dd~II,inddcrPcntondinincPncificandde~m~d~ SruMnlllfnhile~~~nirhtheistM~D~nonRcldmandObnr Younp. Ikc-Ploods I. IientM1.JG-runed a Mnriac CoqB cron and aenr m
~1ininMirzouri.~Mikc-Mitc-MifihndJ~aa-thm~~fhlllIkc,~ he-cnsgoiogromias&nu.PrrpnringmapatheNdAEsdemg, Mikckignfeignedbad
B lstBPtOiiOS1,5th~wherrhcbcc~measc~t-snipr.&~whis~bmina .
inXnanii,pnsPingrhroFtghni&hisrrp~rdrpft;&fithcrsaw~a~~ ~O~~Omethc*piacd&oonfmbrrPtELAinfhCfiddsthc~ h e a d q ~ ~ o r B w r d n p r ~ o n 7 1945.bIiLtasWlcdin~~iiq May intheA+PbdptnorthdShuri Natday hcwburicd, a l o n g u i t b w h e r ~ a n f i o ~ i a t h D s c m u g h baalcrin andarouadthcShuri"fasde,"pt rbc WonrcmcargatHitl Hisfnrhuwastherc. A wire serPicc phowgmphcr took a piQlM as the el& h t o n k~lcelcd b& bis son's bodyonis~~bptheU.S.~.On&&ymQb~-pswirhso
Mihhmr~,whopmbabIyhadthctetenffi~rin b c b d b i g l ~andnfiocerr , ainlyhadinehccatgOrtheNadAend~yandac~erinthc~rpabdinMnrineGrpa,hasoncothcrbaseWfiddnnmedforhim.Itisrhehigbsrhoolfidds Qupntim,afierchcplngedmtring~omcd&~schoolpnrs.'Ibemnin?tbledcfi& atGmpPcrd*tonisnamcdforcfKfithcr.dxkmIpnBrigPdLrh~nroa b r c ,Ik,Pfm&%dd\XhtIInranisdindangh~ofColondCa,rgcBomhr
anut,wlrobimscffspentPlmost31plrnina~de~tacrinc$tWeCMps. I k e d E l o i s e ~ e ) ~ m t t n h e n c h c y s a o g ~ m g ,Ikc(&lateirria~. ttadasafdond)audEllicbam~~ oneofwhom-(imgeRRamn-entad
tbcMvineCorpa~ineWitup.Asedcmgdbyfhcd-19sQswasamnjot~~IyonccliRdinqulsclson~thebrseitTnen~~ahilcILcasinVietnanstn*tfiebogsarrreby~mo$d~ihdc~~ontfieMih:r+Drrm~. OneMherhistoricllaote,in~rnrlydPpsofthe&m~ziKnGpainIkc~ c d e d W s old eompnny-Company W l Batolion, 5th MMvu. His badea wentpfifckcap&inafvnomp~~&oma~~~~,by~boqInsDuncan. O f ~ ~ ~ a n d d c d i f l t i o a s d ~ ~ a n d w ~ i s ~ d l e stcong iibric of the Mndne CoqB.
*Alo~rithnUtheothmfmnrhurrnapwnnlm~cayMitc'sbo$~lamdisitltcnrd:hisfimly.*c ic in ths N n t i d Cemcctry in HoaBMu.
6W Ashumt with Pfarnous anthropologial aensan loat k the war-the bone of PUisgbdPeChia=~ridchbopinam=mthcsehmatsWm~mAJhum u r d h i s ~ ~ t i a a f o r ~ t o s a & o n a ~shiprhenbad&pt~biavrngaoup .S. thrrnillbx, m & o f T " d ThcJnpnnoeaoppedtheuain, i n m d thc Myinch and the bares d R k k Man hrsc ban miainn cp.a since.
Sisfw~,*om~srmenathcse+ondcmasaminOcotilloHeights.h& ~ on fhd honox mII ofthe Marine Corns. Maior Kenneth Dillon Bailcv a e his l f C w ie b d enmcd the Medal of Honor in fierce fi&&g'on G u a d a l d early in k&d Wu U. Mipr Mq, wmmauding &m of Compvlg C ist Raider BvtPlton (Ebon's Raida s , m) led led MS~vioes a 10-h& bade, o&hand-to-h?nd in i repulsingJapanese atn nelrs near Hendnson Pidd on GuadPluoll. So dtspmte wuc thm fighw that Edson himself cvncd a Medal of Honor rhc n m night. Bpilcy was born in Rwncc, Ok~nbonu. 1910, and grcw up in Danvillc, &ois, He in became n second lieurenant in the Matine Qrp in July of 1935, and had a vatiety of dudaprlorm~~II.JnLn~mdearlicrlrdoninfhdSolomwc-anTulPgi oaoss thc chzaael h m Guadhaal-Bailey amed the Silver S t y Medal He had pmmoud m major jnsz prior to the Wagi Innding.
~-,~~llll~drhc~ebrlof~0a~~bcloism*~~ticethejpp4aac-bbntdcd Mldt~lyI b d on 7 Dmrnber 1941-that day whish hes lived in ku?amy Cannon la^ born in 1915 in Wcbater Gm M h u r i , grew up in the Detroit a e , I , ra and d e d high w h d thclt; hc a s attended the Culm Milimy Academy i IndiIu n ana. Irrc+.hegrPdundfmmrheUnitrmitgof~and"undcd"anAnnpR~
Dab, in the Ocotillo housing uca, is the only sueet on the base named for an enlisted Marine, and what a aOne of two Marines (the other was Smedley Butler) m r ! t receive two Medals of Honor for septa= acts o f h ~ i s mIb.aiel Daly enlisted in the o , Marine Corps in Januvy of 1899, hoping to get into the Spanish-AmericanWar. He did not makt it, but he wu p m t for most other c d c t s thereah-from the 3oxu Reb& through World War I-until he went on the retainer list in 1919. Daly cvncd his fim Medal of Honor on the lirtltWall near the American Irgadon in Peking,standing offso-calledChinese "Boxers" until d r t a ~ ~ from an internal t s tional rclicfaq~dition i .Fifteen ytars later, in Haiti, Daly earned his second Memd dal of Honor when, as pan of a s d Marine farce of thrce officers and 35 enlisted men, he played a prominent role in defeating an atmkbg f6rc-e of some 400 Clcos rebels. Om of the &CMS in that snp wu then-Captain Bill Upshur, who named that northbotder strm in Ocotillo. As imprcsivc as are Medals of Honor, p u g hbiucs h y s have taken a deeper gasp of mpcct for wky tide Dm Dalp (he was five feet, six inches tall, and weighed about 130) when they hear that s o y of his lending hir exhausted Mvines in a charge from tr their pitions neuBclleau Wood in B r l d Wu I. "Come on, pou sons of hitches," yelled Daly, "do pou wzot to live fixever?" He led the wag. Major Gmed John A. Lejeune, the 13th Commandant. and who also has sign posts in Oco&, once called Sergeant Ma+ Dan Daly "the oursanding Maine of all times." Fora~e,thatisasdosepsyouungatol~hr.
Elrod Place, the shottest saca in the OcoriIlo h&g area, is named for a Matine aviator Medal of Honor recipient who smod out ocn among thase valiant heroes who defended Wake Island in the dmpente mly days of World War I. Majot Henq T EltDd I . m s born 27 Scptanber IN> Tuma County,Gcorgk, and a m d e d the Ualve&~ in ofGeor~and~bcforrentcringthcBSdneCorpsinla~1927. Hemsca second iieutcnant in Pcbnmy 193L Later he earned his wings, s e n d at 4smeside sntions. and in January 1 went out into thcPa&c. He was among the l Mvine % 2 pilots o f W S l l (equipped with P4F-3 GnunrmnWildcats). who slipped with enmnc o f t i d saeq m y from Pclr1 Harbor on the Entnpnic and nnrt t Wake in l t 1941. o ae jus bcfore tbe Japvlcsc pttedrs throughout the Padk on 7 Demnber nrad t h e d e ~ ~
fell to thcJnpvlex on 23 December 1941. Prior m that. Elrod and &I pilots had rtxd up their plyrcs. and they were ehtiug in gmund positiom with other dcfmders. Elrod was killed thnr find day while leading his Muines ingmund @lgaimtthe Jlpancx landing 6rcc. Earlier, on 12 December, Elrod am&cd alone into a flight of 22 enemy planes, and downed m ofthem. In other action, he and Mbcr Mvine G g m flietsmadc low-kd am& againuJapanex ships, and Elrod wrs d t e d wich gctriog a iJUityl bomb into a Japan- dcanopr, and this ship blew up and sank. In this duiag arrion, enemy flak cut the main fuel line in Elrod's Gnuurnan, and although he wrs abk to nurse the cnft back to W&e, his hisly powtrles landing d t p i t e d him in a uasb anumg bouldem along the atoll's south heach. In Ocotillo Heights, Elrod Place extends a shon d h w e from Bukricy A m u e onl pvnllel to other cmm sump. It ends in a cul-de-sac in the housing weas' a n a l park where children play on green grass.
A ~m-of-the-nug BdPinc rho became the 15th Cwnmandan5 Major Gcocnl Ben H. Pnller, gives his name to another of the meets wbieh connect Berkeley and Upahuz in the Ocotillo housing ~ r rAs with other bkines of h s @od. W e r din " e ~ r y * i dimesod~mtdnghiscvecrnhiehstvtedwirhtheNovzlAcldungofthcU)80s, and ended with his suvke as M a j o ~ e n d Cwmmdant from 1930 to 1934.He nec G
bom27Frb~187OinBigRapids,~dPfm&wliDg~iadndcdNd Acndarty~timinU)89,~did~p~bedmpus~ththcflmasa'~ midshipnun'' and became a Marine dlieutenent on 1 July 189L He s e n d at sn during the Spaaish-American Wir, afnr which he sm action in the Philippines where he dininguthcd himself as a bPtcniion commander in the Bade o f N d c t a . Nanclmc CbiolstsirrintheBmpcr~be~whcrebewascomm~forhip~pltionin
~nthe u d y 1 ~ulkr h rmmt in various command and SUE~OIQ in ~nribtxan actions. including Hii the Dominican Republic, Cutn, and elxwhcrc doat and asbore. at. Durina World War I, Colonel (and tcm6orvily Briaadier Gened) Fuller commded a p ~ ~ nbrigade in Smto n l and &u&ed m r a l ad&i.matk paritions of high naL in the military $o~mmcnt ofthat iskd nation. Fw this duty, be wls commended by his nnnl mpziors. During thir period, a sw.Captain 'Ed Fuller, was killed in action in Fmnce. After World Wac I, Colonel and lam GencmI Fuller s c d in a number of post. stat o ,and sshoo1duties. and beame the Major GcnemI Cbmmandant in August of 1 3 . in 90 He retired 1 March 1934,at age 64.Altogether, he had don active duty for 48 yeas, 9 months, and 8 days.
'Tllc Great Gocttgc," he was somctimts called in those post-World Wac I days ofthe Roaring Rvaxies d e n a scarlet -er with gold "M" nrm far bcuiog out Amny and Navy rapice teams for the President's Cup could be worn as p d l y as a ribbon caned in battle. F o o M writen ofthe day compared him toJim Thorpe. Major General Commandant John A. Irjcunc commended him for his h b a l l pccfofmancc on the 1925 tcatnwhichwontheaxp, andhewlsconchdtheteam~chmnthccupfortheMadne Corps the fouowiag Ppr. ThL.mpsCdondPcrak~Gofftge,promotcdmthat~~~afarbPIling
lonhislifcina~pnuolm~~inthecvlydopoftiLltWorldWuU opaation. A natirc of Canton, Ohio, whm ht was born 3 December 1 9 ,Gomtgc 0 95 enlisted in the M h e CMps in May 1 1 ,fbr World Wac I dwy in France. He mid 97 a "field mmmission" to second lieutenant in the summer of 1 1 ,and d e d for France 98
whaehemdranninthefinalstnnaofthe~~aesiRwiththe5dlMarinea. ~ f t e r & ~oetrgc the semmtnedat various panr a stations, in *ti, & in chian. and at~andschwk. n b r r a K n s u c h n o r d ~ t s o f r h e d a yhesaRdasmach I , and playa on a number of Matine Corps btbnU team. In the 1 3 s be r m d for -a 90. time-as &I aide to Presidens H-r, d a t another time asaids to Commandant W e t . Lieutenant Colonel Goengc was rhc G-2 ~ t e ~ Weer) d eh e lt Mndnc Divia ~ t s sionwhenithdcdrnGu?dnlcllmlon7Angwt1942. Ahdnyslzar,aJlprrmstpabwcr ~ ~ w o d t h a t a n c n c m g f o ~ t ~ i n a n r u b y a n s n l v i l l n g e ~ t o s u n On d c . c n 12 Augun,GontgcandapotrolmoKdbybontmthe~toomogcthednWhen dKg reached the beach, theJ~prineseo p e d tire. The ambush killed lieutenant Coloncl G0mgfandaUbutthmoftbep.d Thcsumivoneithergarun backtofrimdlylii or worked their way through the jungle to d y .
reportedly thought he owned that big old house at Gighth and I Sueca: (its addras is actually 801 G Stmt.S.E.)i Washingmn, Btige$ia Geocnl hbibald Henderson, the n fifthCanmmh o n c e c l o g d H ~ ~ c o t p I a n d p ~ t o n t h c f i u n t d o o r asign saying he cwld befocmdinmoddn~tingrhr Seminole Indims-or soit is slid Hendersun d as Commandant fmm 17 Ocmber 1820 to 6 January 1859-38 pnn. 2 months. and 19 dpys. He died in o& y 76. Pddent Jma BtMhnaPn and f, manbcm of Bb cabinet atnoded the funed. InchepufolloniogHcudc~'sdepth, thcfhtihoooftheOdWnrnerrfind uhSumm. Itans~~nrmzioglifciniald-shakiagpnafofthcyomgUnid State%B o m i n ~ C o u n t yVirginia on21JPnuug 1783.Hcndmwhfnmcapc, cond lieumaat of Marines on 4June 1806. In the W w d 1812, he saved on b d the Prigate C o t & h h ~ ("Old Imwidd') and helped Qht her in thrt EMolrr ht at = tk lgkartthcBritish~~inDcrcmk~1812; andhewasprrsemPLroin 1815 £ 1 thaPc mgagmmci with Cyum and k 0 t During Wbrld W w 11, a N v m q m n f t w s named &r Gencml Hendenon. Hcnay m d~nWI,thedbPSpdincenttothCprwntHndq~~~t~Mvim~inArliogton,V~islumedfofhiln.HtndasooWI~mnybddHcPdqunarMviae Corpsid. HadquPrrasatprrsunisatclt~tofRdaal~Na 2,prmioudy
G m u l l k n l e c s ~ d y m ~ l a g e s t h c ~ . ~ Q f ~ k i c p i a d byrheNavy. ~ r e a r c p l a a s f a r n e a ~HcndasonHallwhiehaouldlllow ir thMuimColpcmownksownhcadquPrrasbuildiags.
PlntthaeuwsMarhrePaimshDusingnarthenrningnrc.anomniwwEhccLabavd ofgnp.ron~dt-up~edbysaMi.~enrty*~cbunacd~~ aitbsuchnamLaasPlnm,HinmlCocarr.~~'Ilm,rhenitbcauncap paremthrtaMndncbpscprshcrcmstap,~H~b1dfmmthedesq ~th~~whkhnkdtocotehd~~@ur+marrlyht),qulners podiagnbovccurPing~lumed~fPmouJM~of~,andnthusmugIycmbrPadagolf~~mindthrtitapJdbp~&amalodororr~ ~annfrom'~laQ~."Thgebcgondthestnlingpwdsdonthe
Lcftad~ch~ddmtahichrbckdocsnote~n,isthebaetgmandvoederofwondm-a "suidivkk" whkh dmos scemstobeoffrhe besc. Bgntothishwtsing~reaa~f~mkft~ndU)rhStmtw~qA~rme,
C R U d u r i n g t h e ~ o n i n M a k o i n 9 1 4 L P t & . l n N i i i n t927. heearned 1 thNavy C m .H e a n s h i n 177 at Stoumon,Vhgih. andofecrrhoaliag-pp 881 pointcdadlieutcnnntintheMadn~Co1psw8~W8,~theSpnnishAmerican War. Although he left the M & Corps bricay in early 1899, he returned bc~thcpu~oa,andtheodfatm~~~&gnaina~~~dmiesarhich iorkdalsariaatsa.iome~CubrPPllamaMerLqchiaa.Haiti,N~ and Guam. He mikcd inof 1939, and died in 1960.
d u e of Imkima (born 1867) and n o d for diplomacy, d and command compctarrr, plus Porwatd rhinking. Lejeune served the Corps h the pre-Wd War I yevs
ofdd~muand~ingseniathraugbWodd\KFUImdincothcdnmof the modan amphibious pge wbich came to hition for the Corps b duting Wodd ,
war 1 . 1
hFraacc~WWuLGeocrpl~~becnmethe&M&&meommnnd n division in coinbat. This wer the A m c k Expcdithmry W s 2d Division, which induded the 4th Brigade, mmposcd of MPtims, as d P an Army b * , artillerp, and other unirs. His preparation forthat asignmetlt went d the way back to his l clays u the Naval hcedemg, from which he g n d d in 1899, and then thmugh &marts d sr duty, in Panama oebae his d i p l o d talents F i atuacted anartion. in the PhiSppincs. Cuba, Vu Cruz (1914), and rrs 4 s a n t u w m a n b t (to GcGcmrPt Barc nett), and cmnmand of the new, lnrge Marine Corps buc at Quantieo in 1917. During his years as Commandant (1920-29) Lejeunc is credited with krging the way for modcm methods of adminkation and p m m e l xlecdon and pnnnotion, for expedi* krce con~cprs which led the way l t xfor amphibious d d e . and for &ae ingusefultothcrtltiona~~mdfullymodunMlrrimcorpJ. n d u d Mark A know, the 13th 6 m m a n b t 4m d o the ceremonial +gs f of m a d i t i d MacincCorpsb~pobse~-anolmostmagicolannualRbitbdingofMvine~ spirit and dedkation which bas touched us 211 during the years sime Irjeuac held the hdmofthc0,rps
When Bcrtdey A, e wmhg ru~orsthe deszn frwr d d Valle DriR, teaches the OEMillo Houskw ~2 k c u m around the mnth bordet of the subdivision and then dislppcan northrrh& thc golf counc. A the nsma point ofomrlllo, U&ur Avcrmc t btanches off norrbanrd and then as oatward to farm the north border of this hous iag area. in between an eight tmss meets-named h r Marines from 'A"to "H", and at the 50nthwM region is a loop. Lejcune W e . Upshur, the north bonkr.is rimed 61 0 tMMednt of Honar mipient, Major General ~ h ~ ~ William P Upshur, who entered the Marine Corps shortly after the turn of thc cennrrg. . He llso d" n evny dime and p W fwm Haiti, where hc cam& the Medd &Honor i in 1915, s d t o m ofsea duty, Cuba, the Pwpincs, China, and then h n c e in World war I. His name is burned inddiblv into the mamrv of an entire eenentlrn of&cer candidata who mined during the k m n War and k r u ~ v n ~ % ~ sat Quantica Also. e hur %or Gcnenl Upshur wrote and signed the f o m r d of the ~ b w j kMmincs of b the m r l d W 6 period. * Upshur, born in 1881 in Richmond, Vir* g n d d from the Virginia Milimy Inskate (VMI) and became a Maxine Corps second Limtcnult on 1 frbruvg 1 0 . In 94 1962 he was Command'ing Gcncrnl Dcpanment d t h e Rdfir (a command ofthe World Wun period, located in Spn Fmisco). when he mkilled in a plane EIpsh near SitIra, AJda.
'lwentynine Palms Commanders
LtCol Frederick H Scantling............................. 15 Dcc 1952-Jul 1953 Col Francis R. Brink .................................... Jul 1953-29 Dcc 1954 John S. Oldfidd ................................. 29 Dcc 1954-30Jan 1957 BGen Thomas G. McFarIand ........................... 1 Feb 1957-27 Jun 1957 Bcki Rnndall M Victory ............................. 28 Jun 1957-30 Dcc 1918 BGcn Alpha L Bcmcr ............................... 31 Dcc 1958-29 Sep 1960 BGen Lewis J . Fields................................ 30 Sep 1960-30 Aug 1962 BGen Joseph L. Stewart .............................. 31 Aug 1%2-17 Mu 1964 BGen William K.Jon- .............................. 18 Mat 1964-27 Dcc 1965 BGen Virgil W. Banning ............................. 28 D c 1965-28 Jul 1966 c Col Henry M. Wellman. Jr............................. 29 Jul 1966-30 Ocr 1966 BGcn Regpn m e 1.................................. 31 Oct 1966-25 Mu 1969 BGcn Carl W. Hotban .............................26 Mar 1969-23 Apr 1971 BGcn Pad G. Graham ............................... 24 Apr 1971-16 Oct 1972 BGen Krnnah J . Houghtoq ,.,...., ,............. 17 Oct 1972-30 Apr 1973 BGen W h G. Joslyn ..,., ................... 1 May 1973-1 May 1974 Col Albert E. Cofken........ .......................2 May 1974-9 May 1974 ,.. BGen Clvencc H. Schmid..,. ........................... 10 May 1974-17 Jul 1971 BGen Ernest R . Reid Jr ..... .. 18 Jul 1975-29 Jun 1976 BGen Edward J. Mcgatt ..., ,, ;-- .: .5 ; .,r. ...30 June 1976-19 Mar 1978 i . BGen Harold G. GInsgow . .,.=, ,...,........ 20 Mar 1978-10 Apr 1981 BGen Joseph B. Knotts ........................ .................11 Apr 1981-14Jul 1983 , BGcn W i i R . Etngre ................................ 15 Jul 1983-14 Jun 1985 BGen John I Monahan .................................... Jun 1985-12 May 1986 ! 15 MajGen Ernest T Cook. Jr ..... . . . . . ....... 13 May 1986-27 Aug 1987 M a j h Gene A. Dcegul ................ ................. Aug 1987-18 Jul 1989 , 28 MajGen John I Hopkins . I9 Jd 1983-
. ........ .......:..... . ;.. .:,.- .. .-... .........
20AugJ2 Activated a Camp Dctachent Marine Corps lnining Ccnter, s
Twentyninc Palms, CaIifo~
Redesignated as Marine Corps Ttaining Center. T m t p k c Palms. caM3rnia. Rcdesignated as Marine Carps B w , Twntynine Pnlms. Caliii~mia.
Redesignated as Marine Corps Air Ground Combat %Training Center, Tfocatyninc Pzlms. California.
16Feb79 Redesignated as Marine Corps Air Ground Cornbar Center, Tmfynine Palms, aifornia.
M~RINE CORPS AIR GROUND COMBKT CBNTBR
PALMS, c L F C U O N A AI0APRl
MARINB CORPS C ~ M M U N I - O N - ~ O M C S SCHOOL
MARINE Corn AIR GBOUND o r n cmm C ltwwmmm PALMS. CALIFORNIA
r9.1 17 9
MmrXMtOUs UMT CIEUXON,
IJULY 1987-p 1988 JULY
List of Reviewers
General Louis H. Wilson. Jr., USMC (Ret) Lieutenant General William K. Jones. USMC (Ret) Major General William R Etnyre, USMC Major General b o l d Ci. Glasgow, USMC Major General Robert E. Haebel, USMC Major General Carl W. Ho&nan. USMC (Rct) Brigadin General John S. Oldfield, USMC (Ret) Colonel George P. Blackbum, J t , USMC (Ret) Colonel Ralph K. Culver, USMC (Ret) Colonel Francis I. Fenton, USMC (Ret) Colonel James E. Stanton, USMC (Ret) Lieutenant Colonel Donald E. Noll. USMC (Ret) Lieutenant Colonel Frederick J. Scantling,USMC (Ret) Gunnerg Sergeant -lie E. Miller, USMC (Ret)
Dr. Augm F q c MtArtKidwcu
'UexGlifomh. 2 Amuion lcgian Rat 1 . 12-14. 1 . 3 8 Andkr. MGgSgrJvne V.. 65 A d t s b k , CPpt EQioe bl. 71-76
W.M . J a.23 r .
Cram, Hhf1 R. O., >6 Gnml Command (GnlCom). 74
Condat Fkld, Californu. 20. 22. 26, 34. 36. 65 itnny C o ~ d and U s & Atmy Au b,20, 22 17, 17th Figiog %inmag Denchment. 20,B mCnpaQfww=ts.~ 2 % E~&CCT l&wgmpluc E, & 18 Amy SEhoolr and W n b g G n a o k n Trvning Got-, 1 9 T m ~ Rtrm Air Aadang, 20-21 m Bqgly, Mr. Frank. 11. 1617. 17 Baglcy, Mn. F d (Hew 9, ll. 13, 15, 23. 27 Baglcg, lalr Willnm J 79 Bzoa;;, LalnLaln m Banmug. Cd Virgil W. . BGm. 55-56 BPnniag.Cnlihxoia5.8 8.miager. G Clvcact A, 35 I Bpmum. GgSk E . 49 d &tma. Gcn Robm H .79 . BWCI. Mr. Don R.. 64 &men. ICpl R b n L,48 oc kwr, Cd SFCU S. 39 Bminger, S@ Mug, 76 Bibk, Scnntor Nan. 41-42 ltCol GgP. 43 ~e. c o r B u g , Cd Jams A.. S& Blyth. Col WCI "Biil." 63 W. Barrn. 6 1 &aud M .19 Bore, MoI E u p V., 3 4 Bwldia. Cd Billg D. 68-69, 72-73 Bowden, Clpt Ehnc A., 77. LrCol. 77 See dro Andrab& Bowdcn, Mq Holland C B o ' B76 : ' h i n Npha L 4548 , f byd. Gd Rhn. 67 %met,a n Uugvct A,, 77 Bdot Cd Pranus R "Menu." 32-37.41.47, 70 Bdlud. PR:Viaanr. 76 Btuchm. 61I& E. 51. 75 . Burrh&t Roba E. I S . Buwu d Lnd b(anwmc~)i. 19 f i n Jascph k.. 16 Bunon. Cal Charks, 45 Budcr, Sgt IhPid, 61
Chapman. Mr. E 8.. 11 Chapnun. Col I m w d E.Jr, 26; Gcn,62 Chmcr, PFC Surnn 66 Cbhnam,Een~.ulimr.hhwmliwbianneCotps.~.46 Chrkron. CPpt Edaud J .49 U s l istlt ]m*c P, 76 mm
Colc. lntr Bnrbnm. 77 Cole. M r . J w a E . 15
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in the United S ~ e s It f i t appeared, as . shown here, on f i n e Corps brrttons &pted in 1804. Wid the r t m cbsnged to jive points, #tbrj dwice b a mnrinned oa A h k e Corps buttons to tbe present &.
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