SQR User’s Guide

Version 4.3.2

1080 Marsh Road, Menlo Park, California 94025

SQR User’s Guide, Version 4.3.2 Part Number: 06-M-4302-R01

Copyright © 1998 SQRIB E T ec hnologies All rights reserved. Printed in the USA.

This publication pertains to SQR 4.3.2 and to any subsequent release until otherwise indicated in new editions or technical notes. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. The software described herein is furnished under a license agreement, and it may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement.

LIMITED WARRANTY THE SQR PROGRAM AND LANGUAGE TUTORIAL ARE SOLD "AS IS," WITHOUT WARRANT AS TO THEIR PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE OF THIS PROGRAM IS ASSUMED BY YOU. HOWEVER, TO THE ORIGINAL PURCHASER ONLY, THE PUBLISHER WARRANTS THE MAGNETIC MEDIUM ON WHICH THE PROGRAM IS RECORDED TO BE FREE FROM DEFECTS IN MATERIALS AND FAULTY WORKMANSHIP UNDER NORMAL USE FOR A PERIOD OF NINETY DAYS FROM THE DATE OF PURCHASE. IF DURING THE NINETY-DAY PERIOD THE MEDIUM SHOULD BECOME DEFECTIVE, IT MAY BE RETURNED TO THE PUBLISHER FOR A REPLACEMENT WITHOUT CHARGE, PROVIDED YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY EXECUTED A SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT.

SQRIBE, SQR, SQR Execute, SQR Print, SQR Viewer, VisualSQRIBE, InSQRIBE, PowerSQRIBE, WebSQRIBE, ReportMart, RM/API, RM/InSQRIBE, RM/Publisher, RM/Script, and Instant HTML are trademarks or registered trademarks of SQRIB E T ec hnologies . All other company and product names used herein may be the trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

Contents
Introduction..................................................................................................................... ix Audience........................................................................................................................ x How to Use the SQR User’s Guide .............................................................................. x Related Documents ...................................................................................................... xi Syntax Conventions .................................................................................................... xii Setting up the Sample Database................................................................................. xii If You Need Help .......................................................................................................xiii

Part 1—SQR Basics
1 A Simple SQR Program ............................................................................................... 1 Creating and Running an SQR Program ..................................................................... 1 SQR Output ................................................................................................................... 2 2 Headings and Footings................................................................................................. 5 3 Selecting Data from the Database .............................................................................. 9 The SQR SELECT Statement ...................................................................................... 11 Syntax of the SELECT Statement ..................................................................... 11 Positioning Data ................................................................................................ 12 4 Column Variables ....................................................................................................... 15 5 Break Logic .................................................................................................................. 19 Using ON-BREAK....................................................................................................... 21 Skipping Lines Between Groups................................................................................ 22 Arranging Multiple Break Columns .......................................................................... 23 Break Processing with Enhancements ....................................................................... 25 Handling Page Breaks ....................................................................................... 29 Printing the Date................................................................................................ 29 Obtaining Totals ................................................................................................ 30 Hyphens and Underscores ............................................................................... 31 Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER .............................................. 31 Understanding the Order of Events................................................................. 32 Controlling Page Breaks with Multiple ON-BREAK Columns ............................... 38 Saving a Value When a Break Occurs ....................................................................... 38 Using ON-BREAK on a Hidden Column.................................................................. 39 Restrictions and Limitations of ON-BREAK............................................................. 41 6 The SETUP Section..................................................................................................... 45 Using DECLARE-LAYOUT ....................................................................................... 46

Part 2—SQR Reports
7 Master/Detail Reports ................................................................................................ 49
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Contents

SQR 4.3

Correlating Subqueries ............................................................................................... 51 8 Cross-Tabular Reports ................................................................................................ 55 Arrays........................................................................................................................... 56 Creating the Array ...................................................................................................... 59 Grouping by Category ................................................................................................ 60 Using Multiple Arrays ................................................................................................ 63 9 Printing Mailing Labels ............................................................................................. 69 Defining Columns and Rows ..................................................................................... 70 Running the Program.................................................................................................. 72 10 Creating Form Letters ............................................................................................... 75 Laying Out the Letter.................................................................................................. 75 11 Exporting Data to Other Applications .................................................................... 79

Part 3—Fonts and Graphics
12 Using Graphics .......................................................................................................... 83 Adding Graphics ......................................................................................................... 84 Sharing Images among Reports.................................................................................. 88 Printing Bar Codes ...................................................................................................... 92 13 Business Charts ......................................................................................................... 95 Creating a Chart .......................................................................................................... 95 Defining the Chart....................................................................................................... 99 Printing the Chart...................................................................................................... 100 Running the Program................................................................................................ 100 Passing Data to the Chart ......................................................................................... 102 14 Changing Fonts........................................................................................................ 105 Positioning Text ......................................................................................................... 105 Using WRAP.............................................................................................................. 108 15 Writing Printer-Independent Reports .................................................................. 111 Guidelines for Printer-Independent Reports........................................................... 111

Part 4—Advanced SQR Programming
16 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking ....................................................................... 115 Using Variables in SQL ............................................................................................. 115 Dynamic SQL............................................................................................................. 117 SQL Error Checking .................................................................................................. 119 SQL and Substitution Variables ............................................................................... 120 17 Procedures, Argument Passing, and Local Variables ......................................... 123 Procedures ................................................................................................................. 123 Local Variables ................................................................................................. 124
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SQR 4.3

Contents

Argument Passing............................................................................................124 18 Multiple Reports......................................................................................................131 19 Using DML and DDL SQL Statements...............................................................137 Using BEGIN-SQL .....................................................................................................137 20 Working with Dates ................................................................................................141 Date Arithmetic .........................................................................................................141 Date Formats..............................................................................................................144 String to Date Conversions .............................................................................145 Date to String Conversions .............................................................................145 Using Dates with the INPUT Command .................................................................146 Date Edit Masks.........................................................................................................146 Declaring Date Variables ..........................................................................................148 21 National Language Support ...................................................................................151 Locales ........................................................................................................................151 Available Locales .............................................................................................151 The Default Locale.....................................................................................................152 Switching Locales ......................................................................................................153 Modifying Locale Preferences ..................................................................................154 Keywords—NUMBER, MONEY, and DATE .........................................................154 22 Interoperability........................................................................................................157 Calling SQR from Another Application...................................................................158 Using the SQR API ....................................................................................................158 Extending SQR—UFUNC.C .....................................................................................161 Adding a User Function............................................................................................162 Step 1. Add Function Prototype.....................................................................162 Step 2. Add Entry to USERFUNCS Table .....................................................163 Step 3. Add Implementation Code ................................................................164 Step 4. Relink SQR...........................................................................................165 ufunc on Windows 95 & NT .....................................................................................165 Implementing New User Functions on Windows 95 & NT ...................................166 23 Testing and Debugging ..........................................................................................167 Using the Test Feature...............................................................................................167 Using the #DEBUG Command .................................................................................168 Using Compiler Directives for Debugging..............................................................169 Common Programming Errors.................................................................................169 24 Performance and Tuning ........................................................................................171 SQR Performance and SQL Statements ...................................................................171 Simplifying a Complex SELECT...............................................................................172 Using LOAD-LOOKUP to Simplify Joins................................................................172

SQR User’s Guide

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.................................................................................................................. 221 vi SQR User’s Guide .................................................................................... 219 Testing .... 193 27 Using the SQR Command Line .................................................. 187 Executing Programs on the Database Server .. 219 Output File Types .... 201 Specifying Command-Line Arguments ......... 204 Using Batch Mode ......... and Windows NT .................................................. 201 How SQR Retrieves the Arguments............ 185 Compiling SQR Programs and Using SQR Execute ............................................................................................................................................................ 204 Creating an Argument File from a Report............................... 175 Avoiding Temporary Database Tables ......................................................................................................................................Contents SQR 4.... 199 Command-Line Flags ................................................................................................... 176 Using and Sorting Arrays ...................................... 208 Using -PRINTER:EH............................................................................................................................................ 209 Setting HTML Attributes under -PRINTER:EH..............................................................................................3 Improving SQL Performance with Dynamic SQL ......................... 205 28 Working with HTML .................................................................... 189 26 Printing Issues ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 202 Using an Argument File ................ 205 VAX/VMS .................... 220 How to Use HTML Procedures ................................................... 205 UNIX.................................... Windows 95...................................................... 220 Using HTML Procedures in an SQR Program ......................................... 202 Passing Command-Line Arguments—Other Approaches ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 187 Part 5—Running and Printing 25 Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute ........................................ 214 "Bursting" and Demand Paging................................ 207 SQR Capabilities Available with HTML ....................................... 215 Setting Attributes with HTML Procedures....................................................... 218 Using Additional HTML Procedures.................. 201 Specifying Arguments and Argument Files ................................... 211 Using -PRINTER:HT................................................. 186 Buffering Fetched Rows............................................. 203 Reserved Characters ............................................................................................ 185 Tuning SQR Numerics ........................................................................................ 176 Using and Sorting Flat Files ................................................................................................. 207 Producing HTML Output ..................................................................................... 208 HTML Output ...................................................... 182 Creating Multiple Reports in One Pass ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 174 Examining SQL Cursor Status.................................................... 186 Processing Limits.........

...............................................................................57 ex8b.73 ex10a...............................................................................................19 ex5b....................................................................sqr—Selecting Data from the Database .....63 ex9a.............................61 ex8c.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21 ex5c............9 ex5a.............................221 Table Procedures..........................sqr—Tabular Report without Graphics..........................50 ex8a................................................................6 ex3a...................227 Paragraph Formatting...........................................................................................................................................sqr—Mailing Labels Program (Alternate Layout) ...33 ex5f..............3 Contents Positioning Objects...83 ex12b................................................................233 Publishing Using an Automated Process ........sqr—Form Letter Program ....225 Highlighting....223 Headings ..................................236 Passing Arguments to the SQR Program .............39 ex7a.....229 Publishing the Report .........................................sqr—Master/Detail Report .....227 Lists ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................sqr—Tabular Report with Graphics...........................................................25 ex5e.......238 29 Tables of Contents.....................................................................................................................85 acme..................................................................69 ex9b.................................................sqr—A Report with Break Logic.......................234 Creating the Fill-Out Form ....................................................................................................................sqr—Mailing Labels Program .......................................................................................232 Viewing the Published Report ...........sqr—Form Letter with Graphics.........................................................................................................................................................226 Images .............................................sqr—Program to Create Tab-Delimited File ...........................inc........SQR 4.............................sqr—Order of Events in Break Processing..................................................................1 ex2a.....................76 ex11a....................sqr—Cross-Tabular Report with Grouping by Category ..............79 ex12a..sqr—Cross-Tabular Report with Grouping by Two Categories ..................228 User-Defined HTML..........241 Index ...........................................24 ex5d......................................sqr—Printing a Heading and Footing........................................................................................235 Creating the CGI Script ......................................88 ex12c................233 Publishing Using a CGI Script ........................249 Sample Programs ex1a.....89 SQR User’s Guide vii ...........................................................................................sqr—A Simple Program...................................................................................................sqr—Using Break Logic on a Hidden Column ......................................sqr—Cross-Tabular Report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................sqr—Program with Break Logic and Enhancements ....................................................................225 Hypertext Links............................229 Modifying an Existing SQR Program.......................sqr—A Simple Tabular Report....................................................................sqr—Program with Multiple ON-BREAK Columns ...........

.................................................................... 116 ex16b.......... Table 2.................................inc—spell_number procedure ............... 125 ex17a................................................... 191 Command-Line Flags and Output Types................................. 159 Error Values Returned by the SQR API ...................................................................... 128 ex18a.................. Table 3.................................................................................................................................... 223 ex28b..................................................................sqr—QuickSort Procedure ............................... 131 ex19a............ 230 Tables Table 1.....sqr—Report with Multiple Fonts........... 193 Print Commands by Operating System ...... Table 9............................................................. 45 Sample Date Edit Masks ....................................... Table 6........sqr Modified with HTML Procedures..........sqr—Check-Writing Program ..... 196 SQR Command-Line Arguments............................................................................................ 138 ex24a................................................. Table 7..............................................Contents SQR 4..... 146 The SQR API ..............................................................sqr—Business Chart .......................sqr—Simple Tabular Program with HTML Procedures....................... Table 8................. Syntax Conventions......................sqr—Program ex12a............ Table 4..................sqr—SQL and Substitution Variables..................................................................................... 199 viii SQR User’s Guide ............................................................................................sqr—Dynamic SQL .................................................... 96 ex14a.............................................................................sqr—Using Variables in SQL ... 183 ex28a......... 107 ex16a............................................. Table 5..... 161 Compile-Time Commands and Run-Time Equivalents ................................................. 118 ex16c...................................................................3 ex13a....sqr—Multiple Report Program.............sqr—External Files and Database Inserts.............xii Commands Available in the SETUP Section................. 121 spell............... 178 ex24b...sqr—Sorting a Flat File .........................................

cross-tabular and master/detail reports. • Integrate SQR with other software packages. such as tabular. numbers. and we encourage you to copy code from it. • Enhance your reports with typeset-quality fonts and graphics. • Test and debug your programs. The tips and techniques you find here will help you take advantage of SQR’s advanced capabilities. • Extend SQR with procedures and functions written in C. The next two parts of the User’s Guide describe the advanced features and uses of SQR. • Create reports that can be easily ported between different systems and databases and that support different printer and display types. This User’s Guide is filled with real examples and sample programs.Introduction Welcome to the SQR User’s Guide. SQR User’s Guide ix . • Tune your programs for optimum performance. By working through code examples. You will learn how to: • Create a variety of reports. Many of these techniques will save you time in developing reports for your organization. form letters. and envelopes. This guide is designed to help you learn SQR. • Produce graphs and charts that will help you present data and trends in visual terms. and money according to local preferences. It will help you create the kinds of SQR programs that are important to your organization. such as front-end user interface tools and spreadsheets. You will learn how to: • Create HTML output and publish your reports on the Internet or an Intranet or Extranet. The first three parts of the User’s Guide teach basic uses of SQR. a specialized language for database processing and reporting. • Create reports that format dates. you will learn how to write SQR programs that select data from a database and present it in a report. • Produce mailing labels.

you may wish to rerun the installation program to install just these files. If you have not already installed SQR on your system. we encourage you to try these programs for yourself and to experiment with them. Audience This guide was written for programmers developing reports for relational databases. To use this guide effectively. The program examples in this guide can be run without modification against the Oracle. Ingres. The examples may also be run against other databases with minor modifications. x SQR User’s Guide . If you installed all of the program components. How to Use the SQR User’s Guide If this is your first time using SQR. To try the sample programs. Try making some changes to our examples and see how they run. you will find the sample programs in the TUTORIAL directory. but you may find it somewhat easier to review SQR program results from the Windows platform using the SQR Viewer. The rest of the User’s Guide discusses advanced features and more technical issues.3 The code examples also demonstrate good SQR programming style. You can use this book by simply reading it and studying the code examples. consult the SQR ® Language Reference or SQRIBE Technologies Technical Support for additional information. If your database is not named here. You can run the User’s Guide programs on any hardware platform. If you did not include the User’s Guide files in the original installation.Introduction SQR 4. Informix. the first three parts (through Chapter 15) will give you everything that you need to get started. see the installation instructions provided with SQR. You also need to be familiar with your particular database and operating system. However. We recommend that you adopt this standard style because it will make your code easier for other SQR programmers to read. you must first install SQR. you need a working knowledge of SQL and experience in writing software programs. and SQLBase databases. SYBASE.

SQR User’s Guide xi . • VisualSQRIBE Installation Guide contains installation instructions and configuration information specific to your platform. Related Documents In addition to this User’s Guide. the SQR product includes the following documentation: ® • SQR Language Reference contains a complete reference to SQR commands. • VisualSQRIBE User’s Guide explains how to quickly create SQR reports. and command-line flags.3 Introduction À Note You can set up the sample database and run the sample programs with any user name and password. arguments. and the code examples require SQR Version 4. This guide describes the features for SQR Version 4. • VisualSQRIBE Release Notes describes enhancements and new features.3. using the graphical SQR development tool on Windows 95 and Windows NT systems. We recommend. however. that you use an account that does not hold important data.3 or higher.SQR 4. • SQR Server Release Notes describes enhancements and new features. • SQR Server Installation Guide contains installation instructions and configuration information specific to your platform.

An ellipsis shows that the preceding parameter can be repeated. A comma separates multiple arguments.. run the program loadall. To do so.sqr from the SQR product’s SAMPLEW directory. If your system does not display this icon. Table 1.3 Syntax Conventions Syntax and code examples use the following conventions: Symbol {} [] . Information and values that you must supply are specified in italics.sqr by double-clicking on the Loadall icon. braces.. A single quote starts and ends a literal text constant or any argument that has more than one word. Syntax Conventions . Square brackets enclose optional items. A vertical bar separates alternatives within brackets. you can run loadall. | ’ Description Braces enclose required items. enter: sqr loadall username/password If SQR is installed on Windows NT or Windows 95. execute loadall. you will need to create a sample database. Parentheses must enclose an argument or element. or parentheses. Change to the SAMPLE directory.Introduction SQR 4. On the command line. xii SQR User’s Guide . () BOLD UPPERCASE Italic Setting up the Sample Database To run the sample programs in this guide.sqr. SQR commands and arguments are specified in bold uppercase.

S. R.6391.888. you will be prompted to: A—Abort the load. your operating system and database names and versions.7489 (outside of North America). S—Skip the specified table.SQR 4.562. R—Reload the specified table.436. or C) on the command-line.1663 (within North America) or. SQR User’s Guide xiii . You will also need to know the version of SQR you are using. You may also send an e-mail message to support@sqribe.3 Introduction If an individual table already exists. If you wish to execute a SQRIBE support agreement. + 1. For example: sqr loadall username/password a If You Need Help If you are unable to resolve an SQR question or problem using product documentation and you have a valid SQRIBE Technologies support agreement. C—Reload all tables.437. Please be prepared to provide a valid customer number and company name. you may contact SQRIBE Technical Support from 6:00 AM to 5:30 PM Pacific Time at 1. please call 1.800.473.com. You can also run this as a batch program by the preferred option (A.

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sqr. You may run SQR from the command line or from a GUI on Windows systems. If you are actually writing the sample program code. The first sample program is the simplest SQR program. END-PROGRAM. SQR on UNIX systems. all of the program examples and their output files are included with the installation. It prints a text string. Then. is always run from the command line. SQR User’s Guide 1 .sqr. you will learn three SQR commands: BEGIN-PROGRAM. and PRINT. Run the sample program. Program ex1a. Save this program with the name ex1a.1 A Simple SQR Program In this chapter.sqr file found in the TUTORIAL directory. the next step is to save your code. You will also learn how to create and run an SQR program. Creating and Running an SQR Program Open a text editor and enter the code printed above exactly as shown or open the ex1a. enter the appropriate SQR program command at the system command prompt or from within the SQR application’s graphical user interface. SQR programs are normally given a file extension of .1) end-program À Note For your convenience. where available.’ (1.sqr begin-program print ’Hello. Use the command appropriate to your operating system to change to the directory in which you saved the program. World.

. SQR Portable Format will be discussed later in this book but for now. The SQR Viewer is invoked from the command line with "sqrwv". On UNIX systems. The command that you should then execute would have the following format: sqrw ex1a username/password@servername -KEEP If you correctly replace username. SQR Command-Line Arguments and Table 2... all on one line. the SQR program name and connectivity string. and arguments. Do not worry about its presence at this stage.A Simple SQR Program SQR 4. SQR is invoked from the command line with "sqrw".] [@file . you may be running SQR on Windows NT against an Oracle database located on another machine in your network. flags.3 If you are entering the information from the command line.. The following syntax shows you how to run SQR from the command line: [sqr or sqrw] [program] [connectivity] [flags . The output files should appear as soon as your program has finished running. On SQR for Windows systems. 2 SQR User’s Guide . and servername with the appropriate information.spf. SQR Command-Line Flags in the SQR Language Reference for a complete explanation of connectivity. you may easily view the sample program’s .SPF file output. In a common configuration. If you specified the -KEEP argument. SQR Output SQR normally places the SQR program output files in the directory from which you run the program.SPF extension).. you should see a command line similar to: sqrw ex1a sammy/baker@rome -KEEP In order to produce the desired output file for this exercise. the -KEEP flag is used in our example. include "sqr" or "sqrw".] Consult Table 1. one output file will be in SQR Portable Format (recognizeable by its .] [args . on Windows platforms with the SQR Viewer GUI (sometimes referred to as an "SPF viewer") or from within VisualSQRIBE using the File|Open menu commands. password.. ex1a. The output file will have the same file name as the SQR file that created it but the file extension will differ. SQR is invoked from the command line with "sqr".

The last element of the PRINT command gives the position on the output page. or <FF> at the end of this output file.sqr Hello. starting with BEGIN-PROGRAM and ending with END-PROGRAM.LIS file. World. World. These two commands and the code between them make up the PROGRAM section.SQR 4.3 A Simple SQR Program On Windows and UNIX systems. Take another look at sample program ex1a. It is the form feed character that ejects the last page. An output page can be thought of as a grid of lines and columns. which is used to control the order of processing." This text is enclosed in single quotation marks (’). MORE.LIS extension. In this guide. You may indent SQR commands. This program consists of three lines of code. The "(1. which are used in SQR to distinguish literal text from other program elements. which is the top left corner of the page.sqr. The PROGRAM section contains a PRINT command. we do not show the form-feed characters. the program will also produce an output file with an . You may also see a character such as ^L. column one. and VI on UNIX systems. It is typically placed at or near the top of the program. you must place each command on a new line. No matter what platform you are using. which in this case prints the text "Hello. The PROGRAM section is required. SQR User’s Guide 3 . À Note In SQR. the output will look like this: Output for ex1a. Use the command appropriate to your system to view or print the .1)" indicates line one. and you may have only one. You may view this output file type from the command line with such commands as TYPE on Windows sytems or CAT.

A Simple SQR Program SQR 4. • Print position can be expressed by a pair of numbers enclosed in parentheses. • The PRINT command can be used to print a text string. The next chapter explains how to extend your program by printing a title on the top of the page and a page number on the bottom of the page.3 Summary • The PROGRAM section is where execution of the program begins. • Enter each command on a new line. 4 SQR User’s Guide .

the date. The bottom area of the page is the footing. The middle part of the page is called the body. Here we normally print the page number. and the page number. In SQR. The top area of the page is the heading. independent of the size of the heading. Here is the code: SQR User’s Guide 5 . The program you wrote in the last chapter can be expanded by adding a page heading and footing. This is where we print the report data. You can print in each of these page areas using line numbers that are relative to the top corner of that area without being concerned about the size of the other areas. Typically. you can print to the first line of the body using line number 1. In other words. body. and footing each have independent line numbers. every page of a report has some information about the report itself. and footing: Heading lines Body lines Footing lines 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 Heading Body Footing The diagram also shows that the heading.2 Headings and Footings This chapter explains how to create page headings and footings. the page can be divided into three logical areas. The following diagram shows the structure of a page with heading. body. such as the title. This is where we normally print the report title and the date. You will learn to use the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGIN-FOOTING commands.

’ (1.Headings and Footings SQR 4. The BEGIN-HEADING command is followed by a number.3 Program ex2a. World. 6 SQR User’s Guide .sqr begin-program print ’Hello. Page 1 of 1 The page heading is defined in the HEADING section. the heading will take exactly one line and will consist of the text "Tutorial Report. The command BEGIN-FOOTING is followed by the number 1. In our example. which means that the footing will take one line.sqr Tutorial Report Hello. This line will consist of the text "Page 1 of 1. The page footing is defined in the FOOTING section. which starts with BEGIN-FOOTING and ends with END-FOOTING. World. Note also that line 1 of the body is actually the first line after the heading. which is the number of lines reserved for the heading. the maximum possible size of the body of our report is reduced by two lines.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing Output for ex2a. With one line each in the heading and footing." Note that any space reserved for the heading and footing is taken away from the body. The section starts with BEGIN-HEADING and ends with END-HEADING." The CENTER argument ensures that the text is centered on the line.1) end-program begin-heading 1 print ’Tutorial Report’ (1) center end-heading begin-footing 1 ! print "Page n of m" in the footing page-number (1.

" SQR User’s Guide 7 .3 Headings and Footings The first line in the FOOTING section is a comment. PAGE-NUMBER. The position (1. or footing. within the heading. The width is normally omitted because it defaults to the width of the text being printed. In our example. Line 1 of the body is the first line below the heading. If you also omit the line and column numbers.1) The PAGE-NUMBER command prints the text "Page " and the current page number. World!!’ (1. a position consists only of the line and column numbers. the heading has only one line. Numbers in these parentheses give the position for printing. then the HEADING and FOOTING sections. preceded by the word "of. In this case. The LAST-PAGE command prints the number of the last page. In many cases. Print position is a point within the area of the page. not on paper. and they extend from the exclamation mark to the end of the line.1) in the heading is not the same as the position (1. the print position defaults to the current position. Similarly. What is the order of execution? The PRINT command actually places text in memory. the LAST-PAGE command has the position "()" so the current position here is the position following the page number. World" is executed first. then "Tutorial Report" and "Page 1 of 1. or more precisely. "Hello. performing the body first. body. column is the column (character position) and width is the width of the text. In the example. SQR prints "Page 1 of 1" because there is only one page. so line 1 of the body is actually the second line of the page. If you want to print an exclamation mark.SQR 4. A position in SQR is expressed as three numbers in parentheses— (line. SQR always prepares a page in memory before printing it to paper. and LAST-PAGE commands. Comments are preceded by an exclamation mark." which is bracketed by spaces. line 1 of the footing is at the bottom of the page.width)—where line is the line number.1) in the body. the position following the last item printed. It is the first line following the body.column. you must type it twice to tell SQR not to take it as the beginning of a comment. In the program. Note the parentheses in the PRINT. For example: print ’Hello.

• Page numbers can be printed in a "Page n of m" format with the PAGE-NUMBER and LAST-PAGE commands. 8 SQR User’s Guide .Headings and Footings SQR 4. • Print positions are expressed by numbers enclosed in parentheses. • Exclamation marks are used to precede comments. The next chapter explains how to write a program that retrieves data from the database and prints it in a report.3 Summary • An SQR program can have HEADING and FOOTING sections which create the heading and footing of a report page. • The CENTER option of the PRINT command centers text on a line.

1) print ’City’ (.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers end-select end-procedure ! list_customers SQR User’s Guide 9 . Because the BEGIN-SELECT command is used in a procedure.3 Selecting Data from the Database This chapter describes how to write a program that lists data from the database and prints it in columns.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 4 print ’Customer Listing’ (1) center print ’Name’ (3.49) print ’Phone’ (. An explanation of it follows.32) state (. you will also learn how to use procedures. You will learn the BEGIN-SELECT command. Here is the code. which is the principal means of retrieving data from the database and printing it in a report.55) end-heading begin-footing 1 ! Print "Page n of m" in the footing page-number (1.32) print ’State’ (.49) phone (.1) city (.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing begin-procedure list_customers begin-select name (. Program ex3a.

A procedure is invoked with a DO command. 2125550021 Harry’s Landmark Diner 3175550948 City Everretsville New York Queens Zanesville Davenport Mamaroneck Teaneck Cleveland Frogline New York Bell Harbor Big Falls New York Miningville State Phone OH NY NY OH IN NY NJ OH NH NY MI NM NY IN Page 1 of 1 The PROGRAM section consists of a single DO command. The HEADING section (shown again below) creates headings for the report columns. 10 SQR User’s Guide . We recommend that you break your program logic into procedures and keep the PROGRAM section small. which invokes the procedure list_customers.3 Output for ex3a. Four lines are reserved for the heading.sqr Customer Listing Name Gregory Stonehaven 2165553109 Alfred E Newman & Company 2125552311 Eliot Richards 2125554285 Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 5185559813 Harold Alexander Fink 3015553645 Harriet Bailey 9145550144 Clair Butterfield 2015559901 Quentin Fields 2165553341 Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties 6125552877 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2125559000 Sam Johnson 3135556732 Joe Smith and Company 8085552124 Corks and Bottles. In SQR. It should normally consist of a few DO commands for the main components of your report. Inc. a procedure is a group of commands that are performed one after the other. like a procedure (or subroutine) in other programming languages.Selecting Data from the Database SQR 4.

each column is on its own line. Line 2 is left blank. It tells you which procedure is being ended. the word SELECT is omitted. The SELECT paragraph is unique. PHONE FROM CUSTOMERS Syntax of the SELECT Statement In an SQR SELECT paragraph. CITY.) The procedure itself contains a SELECT paragraph. It combines a SQL SELECT statement with SQR processing in a seamless way. "Name.1) print ’City’ (.3 Selecting Data from the Database begin-heading 4 print ’Customer Listing’ (1) center print ’Name’ (3. The rest of the column-heading commands omit the line numbers in their positions and default to the current line. STATE. Note the comment following the END-PROCEDURE command. The actual SQL statement is: SELECT NAME. À Note You must name each individual column in a table—the SELECT * FROM statement is not allowed in SQR. SQR User’s Guide 11 . Instead.55) end-heading The title "Customer Listing" is printed on line 1. character position 1. Line 4 of the heading is left blank. The SQR SELECT Statement Look again at the list_customers procedure.49) print ’Phone’ (. which starts with BEGIN-SELECT and ends with END-SELECT. which starts with BEGIN-PROCEDURE and ends with END-PROCEDURE. You can also place SQR commands between the column names. and there are no commas between the column names. and these commands will be executed for every record that the SELECT fetches.SQR 4. (You can also omit the exclamation point: END-PROCEDURE main." is positioned at line 3 of the heading.32) print ’State’ (. which is helpful when you have a program with many procedures. The first column heading.

you see positioning after each column name. The plus sign (or minus sign) indicates relative positioning in SQR. The "+1" in our program means one line down from the current line. including printing of columns.1) city (. SQR commands must be indented at least one space— in the example below. A plus sign moves the print position forward from the current position. and a minus sign moves it back. be sure your numbers don't specify a position outside the page boundaries. the POSITION command is indented to prevent it from being taken as a column name. This command will advance the current print position to the next line.Selecting Data from the Database SQR 4. The word FROM must be the first word in a line. Positioning Data In SELECT statement (repeated below). When you indicate print positions using plus or minus signs. The loop ends after the last record is returned. This positioning implies a PRINT command for that column.32) state (. As before. The SQR commands. The rest of the SQR SELECT statement is then written freely. there is a POSITION command: POSITION(+1). After the last column. following SQL syntax. begin-select name (. are executed in a loop. omitting the line number in the position lets it default to the current line.3 SQR distinguishes column names from SQR commands in a SELECT paragraph by their indentation. It only works inside a SELECT paragraph.55) position (+1) from customers end-select ! Advance to the next line The implied PRINT command is a special SQR feature designed to save you coding time. 12 SQR User’s Guide . You can think of the SELECT paragraph as a loop. once for each record that is returned by the SELECT.49) phone (. Column names must be placed at the beginning of a line.

• A SELECT paragraph begins with BEGIN-SELECT and ends with END-SELECT. SQR User’s Guide 13 . These variables hold the results from a SELECT paragraph.SQR 4. • In a SELECT statement. • The POSITION command is used to give a position.3 Selecting Data from the Database Summary • The DO command is used to invoke a procedure. • SQR commands in a SELECT paragraph must be indented at least one space to prevent them from being taken for column names. • A procedure begins with BEGIN-PROCEDURE and ends with END-PROCEDURE. This is called an implied PRINT command. The next chapter describes a special kind of SQR variable called a column variable. you can print a column by entering it at the beginning of a line with a position qualifier.

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begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-procedure list_customers begin-select phone if &phone = ’’ print ’No phone’ (. for example. When you select columns from the database in a SELECT paragraph.1) else print &phone (.1) end-if position (+1) from customers end-select end-procedure ! list_customers The phone column is considered an SQR column variable. SQR User’s Guide 15 . For example: begin-select phone (. Unlike other program variables. in a condition? The following example shows you how to do this. but you cannot assign a new value to a column variable. You can use their existing value.4 Column Variables This chapter explains how to name database columns with variables and how to use their values in conditions and commands. column variables are read-only.1) position (+1) from customers end-select But what if you want to use the value of phone for another purpose. Column variables are preceded with an ampersand (&). you can immediately print them using a position.

This is the default. or numeric variable. an empty string. as the following example demonstrates. &phone is compared to ’ ’. Note that the column variable &phone inherited its name from the phone column. state end-select In this example.1) else print &cust_phone (. but you can change it. depending on its contents. the program prints "No phone" instead. &phone is a column variable that you can use in SQR commands as if it were a string. In the condition. begin-select phone &cust_phone if &cust_phone = ’’ print ’No phone’ (. 16 SQR User’s Guide . In the program.3 In the sample program.1) end-if position (+1) from customers end-select Why would you want to change the name of the column variable? One reason is that you may want to use a selected column in an expression that has no name. you store this expression in the column variable &cust_cnt and refer to it afterwards by that name. If &phone is an empty string.Column Variables SQR 4.1) if &cust_cnt < 100 print ’Less than 100 customers’ end-if position (+1) from customers group by city. For example: begin-select count(name) &cust_cnt (. the expression count(name) is selected. date.

The next chapter introduces the concept of a report break. We can rename column variables to receive the value of expressions.3 Column Variables Summary • In SQR.SQR 4. we can refer to database columns as variables. • Column variables can be used in commands and conditions. Column variables are preceded with an ampersand (&). SQR User’s Guide 17 . It will also explain how to print database records across multiple lines in a report.

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region. Break logic will allow you to do all that and more—you can print column headings. and perform additional processing on the count or subtotal. To see how a break works. The break logic will make the grouping more apparent. There are a number of reasons to use break logic in a report. When a break occurs. It allows you to: • Add white space to your reports • Avoid printing redundant data • Perform conditional processing on variables that change • Print subtotals For example. SQR User’s Guide 19 .sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program Program continues on the following page. you can write a program similar to the one in the Chapter 3 and then add break logic to it. Records with the same value—for example. It also presents some additional techniques to enhance the appearance of reports that use break logic. or salesperson (or all three). records with the same value for state—logically belong to a group. count records. subtotal a column. Here is the program without break logic: Program ex5a. A break is a change in the value of a column or variable. you may want to prepare a sales report with records grouped by product.5 Break Logic This chapter describes techniques for using break logic in your SQR programs. a new group begins.

20 SQR User’s Guide . and name (note the ORDER BY clause in the BEGIN-SELECT).3 Program ex5a.7) name (.1) (1.24) (1.24) phone (. city.55) begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state (. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers Output for ex5a.7) (1. Inc. To make the grouping more apparent.1) city (.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state.Break Logic SQR 4.sqr (continued) begin-heading 2 print ’State’ print ’City’ print ’Name’ print ’Phone’ end-heading (1. you can add a break. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 When the output is sorted by state. the records are grouped by state.sqr State City IN IN MI NH NJ NM NY NY NY NY NY OH OH OH Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles. city.

SQR User’s Guide 21 . city.sqr with the exception of the line that prints the state column.SQR 4. city. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers The output is shown on the following page.3 Break Logic Using ON-BREAK In the program below.1) print ’City’ (1. The program below is identical to ex5a.55) end-heading begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state (. where state.24) phone (.7) name (. Program ex5b. and phone are implicitly printed as part of the SELECT paragraph.24) print ’Phone’ (1.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 2 print ’State’ (1. This line is shown in bold. Note that ON-BREAK works as well for implicit as for explicit PRINT commands. such as in the example below.1) on-break city (.7) print ’Name’ (1. the ON-BREAK option of the PRINT command accomplishes two related tasks—it starts a new group each time the value of state changes. and prints state only when its value changes.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state. name.

Here is the list_customers procedure from ex5b. city. 22 SQR User’s Guide .1) on-break skiplines=1 city (. Skipping Lines Between Groups You can further enhance the visual effect of break processing by inserting one or more lines between groups.3 Output for ex5b.sqr State City IN MI NH NJ NM NY Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles. with the modified line shown in bold: begin-select state (.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state. name end-select The output is shown below.Break Logic SQR 4. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 OH With break processing.sqr. To do so. the state abbreviation is printed only once for each group.24) phone (. Inc.7) name (. use the SKIPLINES qualifier with ON-BREAK.

use the LEVEL keyword.SQR 4. you can also have multiple customers within a city. so it is logical to arrange them according to size—first state. you must arrange them in a hierarchy.3 Break Logic State IN MI NH NJ NM NY City Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 OH Arranging Multiple Break Columns As you can see in the previous example. Add another ON-BREAK to the program so that city will also be printed only when its value changes. SQR User’s Guide 23 . When you have multiple breaks." on page 31. This sort of arrangement is called nesting. You will learn more about this technique in the section "Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER. see "Understanding the Order of Events. the breaks concern geographical units. Inc. You can apply the same break concept to the city column to make this grouping of customers more apparent. and the breaks are said to be nested. For more information on LEVEL. This argument numbers breaks by level and specifies that the columns are printed in order of increasing break levels. then city. The LEVEL qualifier allows you to control the order in which you call break procedures." on page 32. from left to right. In the sample program. To ensure that the breaks are properly nested. Number your breaks in the same order in which they are sorted in the ORDER BY clause.

Program ex5c. 24 SQR User’s Guide .7) on-break level=2 name (.24) (1.7) (1.Break Logic SQR 4.55) begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state (.sqr with the exception of the two lines that print the state and city columns. city.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 2 print ’State’ print ’City’ print ’Name’ print ’Phone’ end-heading (1.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state. These two lines are shown in bold.sqr State City IN MI NH NJ NM NY Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles.1) (1. there are three customers in New York.1) on-break level=1 city (. so the city name for the second and third customers is left blank.24) phone (. Inc. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers Output for ex5c. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 OH As you can see.3 The next example is identical to ex5a.

9) fill print ’-’ (4. Here is the code: Program ex5d. SQR User’s Guide 25 . you may want to enhance your report by controlling page breaks or calculating counts and totals for the ON-BREAK column.1) print #state_total () edit 999.1) print ’Customer Name.1.SQR 4. The program selects the customer’s name. let #cust_total = #cust_total + #state_total let #state_total = 0 end-procedure ! state_tot Program continues on the following page.1) Edit ’DD-Mon-YYYY’ print ’State’ (3. The break processing is performed on the state column. The following example illustrates these techniques.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 4 print ’Customers Listed by State’ (1) center print $current-date (1.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing begin-procedure state_tot print ’ Total Customers for State: ’ (+1.1) ! Leave 2 blank lines. Address and Phone Number’ (.11. and telephone number from the database.11) print ’-’ (4.40) fill end-heading begin-footing 2 ! print "Page n of m" page-number (1. address.3 Break Logic Break Processing with Enhancements When you use break logic.999 position (+3.

! Skip 1 line between listings. else print ’No customers. ! Since each listing takes 4 lines.11) ! continue on third line city (+1.1) print #cust_total () edit 999.11) addr1 (+1. next-listing skiplines=1 need=4 let #state_total = #state_total + 1 from customers order by state.1) on-break print=change/top-page after=state_tot name (. The procedure ’state_tot’ will also be ! executed only when the value of ’state’ changes.999 ! Total customers printed. we specify ’need=4’ to ! prevent a customer’s data from being broken across two pages.11) ! continue on second line addr2 (+1.11) ! continue on fourth line phone (.sqr (continued) begin-procedure list_customers let #state_total = 0 let #cust_total = 0 begin-select ! The ’state’ field will only be printed when it ! changes. 26 SQR User’s Guide .3 Program ex5d. state (.1) end-if end-procedure ! list_customers The output is shown on the following pages.’ (1.+2) edit (xxx)bxxx-xxxx ! Edit for easy reading. name end-select if #cust_total > 0 print ’ Total Customers: ’ (+3.Break Logic SQR 4.

sqr 29-Apr-1996 Customers Listed by State State Customer Name. Address and Phone Number --------.3 Break Logic Output for ex5d.---------------------------------------IN Harold Alexander Fink 32077 Cedar Street West End Davenport (301) 555-3645 Harry’s Landmark Diner 17043 Silverfish Road South Park Miningville (317) 555-0948 Total Customers for State: MI 2 Sam Johnson 37 Cleaver Street Sandy Acres Bell Harbor (313) 555-6732 Total Customers for State: 1 NH Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Crazy Lakes Cottages Rural Delivery #27 Frogline (612) 555-2877 Total Customers for State: 1 NJ Clair Butterfield 371 Youngstown Blvd Quit Woods Teaneck (201) 555-9901 Total Customers for State: 1 NM Joe Smith and Company 1711 Sunset Blvd East River Big Falls (808) 555-2124 Total Customers for State: 1 NY Alfred E Newman & Company 2837 East Third Street Greenwich Village New York (212) 555-2311 Page 1 of 2 SQR User’s Guide 27 .SQR 4.

167 East Blvd.3 29-Apr-1996 Customers Listed by State State Customer Name. Inc. Address and Phone Number --------. Jamaica New York (212) 555-0021 Eliot Richards 2134 Partridge Ave Jamaica Queens (212) 555-4285 Harriet Bailey 47 Season Street Bellevue Park Mamaroneck (914) 555-0144 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2100 Park Ave East Side City New York (212) 555-9000 Total Customers for State: OH 5 Gregory Stonehaven Middlebrook Road Grey Quarter Everretsville (216) 555-3109 Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 37211 Columbia Blvd Sweet Acres Zanesville (518) 555-9813 Quentin Fields 37021 Cedar Road Beachwood Cleveland (216) 555-3341 Total Customers for State: 3 Total Customers: 14 Page 2 of 2 28 SQR User’s Guide .Break Logic SQR 4.---------------------------------------NY Corks and Bottles.

but whenever the report starts a new page. or reserved. The order of processing is explained in the section "Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER. Handling Page Breaks If a page break occurs within a group. This variable is initialized with the date and time of the client machine at the start of program execution. SQR will start a new page.1 of the heading. see the SQR Language Reference. In this example. and strings. for printing the date.1) EDIT ’DD/MM/YYYY’. To control the printing of the value. the value of state will be printed not only when it changes. This command serves two purposes. It prints the date and time at position 1. The data is printed using a SELECT paragraph in the list_customers procedure. the reserved variable $current-date is used to print the date and the time. SQR provides a large variety of edit masks for use in formatting numbers. if there are fewer than four lines left on a page. or format. The program also uses the argument AFTER=STATE_TOT. the value of the ON-BREAK column will be printed when it changes and after every page break. The customer’s address and phone number are printed on the next three lines. The state and the customer name are printed on the first line.SQR 4. The SKIPLINES=1 argument skips one line between records. then renumbers the current line as line 1. The EDIT argument specifies an edit mask. you may want to reprint headings and the value of the break column at the top of the new page. variables for a variety of uses. the complete command is PRINT $current-date (1. To format records. use the NEXT-LISTING command. In this case. They are fully described in the SQR Language Reference.3 Break Logic Take a close look at the code. This argument calls the state_tot procedure after each change in the value of state. The NEED=4 argument prevents a listing from being split over two pages by specifying the minimum number of lines needed to write a new listing on the current page. SQR User’s Guide 29 . For a complete listing of reserved variables. use PRINT=CHANGE/TOP-PAGE. SQR provides predefined. Printing the Date In the HEADING section. In this example. With this qualifier. dates." on page 31.

Note the use of the edit mask EDIT 999. SQR always assembles a page in memory before printing. even though the date is on the left and the title is on the right. This initialization is optional and is done for clarity only. SQR has a small set of variable types. In SQR. respectively. In the FOOTING section. numeric and string variables are not explicitly declared. #state_total and #cust_total are set to zero at the beginning of the procedure. It’s a good way to print a line. These calculations are performed with two numeric variables. which formats the number. so there is normally no need to initialize them. Their names are #state_total and #cust_total. Note the use of the FILL option of the PRINT command.3 Note that the PRINT command for the report title precedes the command for the $current-date reserved variable. so the order of these commands doesn’t matter as long as you use the correct print position qualifiers. Instead. Obtaining Totals The program ex5d. 30 SQR User’s Guide . All numeric variables in SQR are preceded with a pound sign (#) and all string variables are preceded with a dollar sign ($). its length is automatically adjusted.Break Logic SQR 4. When a new value is assigned to a string variable. An additional SQR variable type is the date variable (see Chapter 20).sqr also prints two totals—a subtotal of customers in each state and a grand total of all customers. It tells SQR to fill the specified width with this pattern. we print the "Page n of m" as we did in earlier examples.999. one for the subtotals and one for the grand totals. The variable #state_total is incremented by 1 for every row selected. The string variables are of varying length and can hold long strings of characters as well as short ones. the program calls the state_tot procedure and prints the value of #state_total. The last two commands in the HEADING section print a string of hyphens under the column headings. When the value of state changes. In the list_customers procedure. All numeric variables start out as zero and all string variables start out as null. The most common types are numeric variables and the string variables. they are implicitly defined by their first use.

1) on-break before=state_heading after=state_tot SQR User’s Guide 31 . Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER When you print variables with ON-BREAK. use a hyphen. LET is the assignment command in SQR. if there is an ELSE part to the IF. The BEFORE and AFTER qualifiers give you this capability.3 Break Logic This procedure also employs the LET command. the subsequent commands are executed. In this case. and it lets you build complex expressions. Otherwise. #state_total is reset to zero. The condition starts with IF followed by an expression. If the expression evaluates to true or to a number other than zero. the query has returned rows of data. but we strongly recommend you use an underscore. the value of #cust_total is examined.SQR 4. In that case. those commands are executed. you can automatically call procedures before and after each break in a column. The list_customers procedure contains an example of SQR’s if-then-else logic. Here. and the program will print the string "Total Customers: " and the value of #cust_total. such as BEGIN-PROGRAM and BEGIN-SELECT. where hyphens could be mistaken for minus signs. At the end of the procedure. If it is greater than zero. the program prints the string "No customers. If #cust_total is equal to zero. the query has not returned any data. Procedure and variable names may contain either a hyphen or underscore." Hyphens and Underscores You may have noticed that many SQR commands. IF commands always end with an END-IF. whereas procedure and variable names use an underscore. For example: begin-select state (. It will also prevent confusion when you mix variable names and numbers in an expression. LET is used to add the value of #state_total to #cust_total. Using underscores in procedure and variable names will help you distinguish them from SQR commands.

1) on-break level=1 after=state_tot skiplines=2 city (. When zip breaks. and two lines are skipped after the state_tot procedure is executed. then the city_tot procedure is executed. the city_tot procedure is executed. particularly where there are multiple ON-BREAK columns. lines skipped. including the last group—in other words.Break Logic SQR 4. 32 SQR User’s Guide . before the SELECT is even processed. and one line is skipped (SKIPLINES=1). Similarly.sqr. city. When a break occurs at one level. a break on state also means a break on city. zip end-select The breaks are processed as follows: 1.45) on-break level=3 after=zip_tot from customers order by state. the zip_tot. 3. city_tot. and the old value saved. It is important to know the order of events. All three columns—state. The value may be printed. When state breaks. Similarly. first the zip_tot procedure is executed. One line is skipped after the city_tot procedure is executed. and state_tot procedures are processed in that order. for example. When city breaks. 2.3 The BEFORE qualifier automatically calls the state_heading procedure to print headings before each group of records of the same state. Both city and zip are printed in the next record. In ex5c. A break on a variable can trigger many other events.7) on-break level=2 after=city_tot skiplines=1 zip (. including the first—in other words. it also forces breaks on variables with higher LEVEL qualifiers. and zip—are printed in the next record. state was defined as LEVEL=1 and city as LEVEL=2. upon completion of the SELECT. the AFTER qualifier automatically calls the state_tot procedure to print totals after each group of records. all AFTER procedures are invoked after each break. The following SELECT statement has breaks on three levels: begin-select state (. procedures automatically called. All BEFORE procedures are automatically invoked before each break. Understanding the Order of Events You can define a hierarchy of break columns by using the LEVEL qualifier of ON-BREAK. In the sample program. city.

40) end-procedure begin-procedure cc print ’BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3’ (+1. Program ex5e. The BEFORE and AFTER procedures print strings to indicate the order of processing.SQR 4. It has three ON-BREAK columns.40) end-procedure begin-procedure b print ’AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2’ (+1.40) end-procedure The program continues on the following page.40) end-procedure begin-procedure bb print ’BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2’ (+1.sqr begin-setup declare-Layout default end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure a print ’AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1’ (+1.3 Break Logic The following program (ex5e.sqr) demonstrates the order of events in break processing.40) end-procedure begin-procedure c print ’AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3’ (+1.40) end-procedure begin-procedure aa print ’BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1’ (+1. SQR User’s Guide 33 . each with a LEVEL argument and a BEFORE and AFTER procedure.

Break Logic SQR 4.25) On-Break Level=3 after=c before=cc Edit xxxxx next-listing Need=10 from customers order by state.10) On-Break Level=2 after=b before=bb zip (3.1) edit ’DD-MM-YYYY’ page-number (1.60) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ print ’STATE’ (3.40) print #count (. 34 SQR User’s Guide .sqr (continued) begin-procedure main local begin-select add 1 to #count print ’Retrieved row #’ (+1.+10)Edit 9999 position (+1) state (3.40) end-heading The output is shown on the following pages.3 Program ex5e.zip end-select end-procedure begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.city.1) On-Break Level=1 after=a before=aa city (3.1) print ’CITY’ (3.10) print ’ZIP’ (3.25) print ’Break Processing sequence’ (3.

3 Break Logic Output for ex5e.sqr 02-05-1996 STATE IN CITY Davenport ZIP 62130 Page 1 of 3 Break Processing sequence BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # 1 Retrieved row # Miningville 40622 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # MI Bell Harbor 40674 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # NH Frogline 04821 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # NJ Teaneck 00355 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # NM Big Falls 87893 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 6 5 4 3 2 SQR User’s Guide 35 .SQR 4.

3 02-05-1996 STATE NY CITY Mamaroneck ZIP 10833 Page 2 of 3 Break Processing sequence Retrieved row # 7 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # New York 10002 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # 10134 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # 10204 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # Queens 10213 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # OH Cleveland 44121 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # Everretsville 40233 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 13 12 11 10 9 8 36 SQR User’s Guide .Break Logic SQR 4.

SQR 4. Select Subsequent Rows of Data Processing of the SELECT continues. 4." below. BEFORE procedures are processed in ascending order from the current level to the highest level. the current line position is advanced. The value of the new group is printed (unless PRINT=NEVER is specified). 2. Step 3.3 Break Logic 02-05-1996 STATE CITY Zanesville ZIP 44900 Page 3 of 3 Break Processing sequence Retrieved row # 14 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 The following steps explain the order of processing in detail. See "Saving a Value When a Break Occurs. BEFORE procedures are not executed. When a break occurs on any column. for an explanation of the SAVE argument. Process BEFORE Procedures BEFORE procedures are processed in ascending order by LEVEL before the first row of the query is retrieved. SQR User’s Guide 37 . Select First Row of Data The first row of data is selected. Step 1. If SKIPLINES was specified. it also triggers breaks on columns at the same or higher levels. If no data is selected. Step 2. AFTER procedures are processed in descending order from the highest level to the level of the current ON-BREAK column. 5. SAVE variables are set with the value of the previous ON-BREAK column. Events occur in the following order: 1. 3.

AFTER procedures are processed in descending order by LEVEL. For example: begin-select state (.sqr. 38 SQR User’s Guide . the state_tot procedure prints the total number of customers per state. Because it is called with the AFTER argument. The answer is to save the previous break value in a string variable. state. you may want to print the state name along with the totals for each state. While it may be acceptable to have a page break within a group.1) on-break after=state_tot save=$old_state You can then print the value of $old_state in the state_tot procedure. To do this. Controlling Page Breaks with Multiple ON-BREAK Columns Where there are multiple columns with ON-BREAK. Sometimes. • Place the lower-level ON-BREAK columns ahead of the higher-level ON-BREAK columns in your SELECT statement. • Avoid using WRAP and ON-BREAK together on one column. however. use the SAVE qualifier of ON-BREAK. page breaks call for careful planning. • Use the same line positions for all ON-BREAK columns. Process AFTER Procedures After the SELECT is complete. you probably would not want to have one within a record.3 Step 4. you may wish to print the previous value of the ON-BREAK column in the AFTER procedure. has changed. Simply printing the value of state will not work because its value will have changed by the time the AFTER procedure is called. this procedure is executed only after the value of the ON-BREAK column. if any rows were selected. You can prevent page breaks within a record by following four simple rules: • Place ON-BREAK columns ahead of other columns in your SELECT statement. For example. Saving a Value When a Break Occurs In ex5d.Break Logic SQR 4.

city.SQR 4.58) fill position (+1) ! Advance to the next line end-procedure ! state_heading Note that this program has no HEADING section.49) bold print ’-’ (+1.18) bold print ’Phone’ (. The key lines are shown in bold.sqr.1) bold ! Advance a line and print ’City’ print ’Name’ (.1) on-break level=2 name (. This format might make your report more readable. you may want to incorporate the ON-BREAK variable into a subheading.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state () on-break before=state_heading print=never level=1 city (.18) phone (. Program ex5f.8) bold ! Print the state column here print ’City’ (+1. Instead. It is also useful when you want to leave room on the page for additional columns.49) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state. The following code is based on the program ex5b. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers begin-procedure state_heading print ’State: ’ (+1.1) bold ! Advance a line and print ’State:’ print &state (. you may want to use the features of break processing without printing the ON-BREAK variable. The way to create such a report is to "hide" the break variable with the PRINT=NEVER qualifier and print it in a heading procedure called by BEFORE. a procedure prints column headings for each state rather than at the top of each page. For example.3 Break Logic Using ON-BREAK on a Hidden Column In some reports. SQR User’s Guide 39 .1.

In this procedure. 40 SQR User’s Guide . Instead. The city column is assigned a LEVEL=2 break. In this program. The BEFORE qualifier specifies that the state_heading procedure will be called automatically before each change in state.3 Note also that the &state variable can be referenced throughout the program. The PRINT=NEVER qualifier makes the state column a hidden column and specifies that it won’t be printed as part of the SELECT statement. this break is set to LEVEL=1. The most interesting line in the program is this one from the SELECT statement: state () on-break before=state_heading print=never level=1 This line defines the break processing for state. The output is shown below. the state column is referred to as the column variable &state. even though the state column was not printed as part of the break.Break Logic SQR 4. it is printed in the state_heading procedure.

If you need to perform break processing on a numeric variable. you must first move its value to a string variable and set ON-BREAK on that. Inc. 2125550021 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2125559000 Queens Eliot Richards 2125554285 State: OH City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Cleveland Quentin Fields 2165553341 Everretsville Gregory Stonehaven 2165553109 Zanesville Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 5185559813 Restrictions and Limitations of ON-BREAK ON-BREAK cannot be used with SQR numeric variables.3 Break Logic Output for ex5f.sqr State: IN City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Davenport Harold Alexander Fink 3015553645 Miningville Harry’s Landmark Diner 3175550948 State: MI City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Bell Harbor Sam Johnson 3135556732 State: NH City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Frogline Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties 6125552877 State: NJ City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Teaneck Clair Butterfield 2015559901 State: NM City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Big Falls Joe Smith and Company 8085552124 State: NY City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Mamaroneck Harriet Bailey 9145550144 New York Alfred E Newman & Company 2125552311 Corks and Bottles.SQR 4. For example: SQR User’s Guide 41 .

535). but you may increase this setting. For more information on SQR.INI file. Its maximum value is 64K-1 (65. and date variables. 42 SQR User’s Guide . • SQR provides numeric. • The BEFORE and AFTER arguments set break procedures. • The SQR reserved variable $current-date holds the current date and time. String variables are preceded with a dollar sign ($) and start out as null. • ON-BREAK LEVEL arranges breaks hierarchically. • The SAVE qualifier saves the value of a previous group to a variable. • The SET and LEVEL qualifiers. It allows you to build expressions. determine the order of events.3 begin-select amount_received &amount move &amount to $amount $$9. The default is 30.99 print $amount (+1.Break Logic SQR 4. • ON-BREAK SKIPLINES inserts space between groups of records. There is no need to initialize either variable type. Numeric variables are preceded with a pound sign (#) and start out as 0. • LET is the SQR assignment command. string. in conjunction with BEFORE and AFTER. Summary • PRINT ON-BREAK performs special processing when a value changes. such as the state column in a listing of customer addresses.1) on-break from cash_receipts order by amount_received end-select The maximum number of ON-BREAK levels is determined by the ON-BREAK setting in the [Processing-Limits] section of the SQR. • PRINT=CHANGE/TOP-PAGE prints a column after a page break or after a change in the column’s value. • NEXT-LISTING keeps a group of lines on the same page.999.INI. see the SQR Language Reference.

INI file determines the maximum number of ON-BREAK levels in a program. • The ON-BREAK setting in the SQR. SQR User’s Guide 43 . see the PRINT command in the SQR Language Reference.3 Break Logic • ON-BREAK cannot be used with SQR numeric variables. If you need to perform break processing on a numeric variable. For more information on the ON-BREAK argument. The next chapter describes the SETUP section of an SQR program. you must first move its value to a string variable and set ON-BREAK on that.SQR 4.

6

The SETUP Section
This chapter introduces the SQR SETUP section. This section is not required in a program, but it is very useful. The SETUP section holds all the declarations. Declarations define certain report characteristics and the source and attributes of various report components, such as charts and images. The SETUP section is evaluated when your program is compiled. The SETUP section, if present, is typically placed at the top of the program before the PROGRAM section. It begins with BEGIN-SETUP and ends with END-SETUP. The following commands can be issued in the SETUP section. If used, they are processed at compile time, before the program begins executing. For more information about the following commands, see the SQR Language Reference.

Command
ALTER-LOCALE ASK BEGIN-SQL CREATE-ARRAY DECLARE-CHART DECLARE-IMAGE DECLARE-LAYOUT DECLARE-PRINTER DECLARE-PROCEDURE DECLARE-REPORT DECLARE-TOC DECLARE-VARIABLE LOAD-LOOKUP USE

Comments
Can also appear in a procedure. Allowed only in SETUP section. Can also appear in a procedure. Executed when a run-time file (.SQT) is loaded. Can also appear in a procedure.

Can also appear in a local procedure. Can also appear in a procedure. SYBASE only.

Table 2. Commands Available in the SETUP Section

SQR User’s Guide

45

The SETUP Section

SQR 4.3

Using DECLARE-LAYOUT
One common declaration used in the SETUP section is the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. This command sets the page layout and includes such important options as the paper size and margins. Here is a typical SETUP section:
begin-setup ! Declare the default layout for this report declare-layout default paper-size=(8.5,11) left-margin=1 right-margin=1 top-margin=1 bottom-margin=1 end-declare end-setup

In the above example, the DECLARE-LAYOUT command sets the paper size to 8 1/2 by 11 inches, with all margins at 1 inch. In SQR, data is positioned on the page using line and character position coordinates. Think of the page as a grid where each cell holds one character. With such a grid, in a position qualifier consisting of (line,column,width), column and width are numbers that denote characters and spaces. The SQR page layout is shown below:
Character width Paper size (width) Top margin

Line height Paper size (height)

Right margin

Left margin

Bottom margin

46

SQR User’s Guide

SQR 4.3

The SETUP Section

The diagram shows how the main attributes of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command affect the structure of the page. The PAPER-SIZE argument defines the dimensions of the entire page, including margins. The arguments TOP-MARGIN, LEFT-MARGIN, BOTTOM-MARGIN, and RIGHT-MARGIN define the margins. In SQR, you cannot print in the margins. In the sample code above, the left margin will use 10 spaces and the top margin will use 6 lines. The page width will accommodate 65 characters (without the margins) and 54 lines. The default mapping of characters and lines to inches is 10 CPI (characters per inch) and 6 LPI (lines per inch). This means that each character cell is 1/10 inch wide and 1/6 inch high. These settings are used when a program does not contain a DECLARE-LAYOUT command. You can override the default settings by using the LINE-HEIGHT and CHAR-WIDTH arguments in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. These arguments will adjust the dimensions of the grid, which implies a change in the meaning of column and line. If your DECLARE-LAYOUT paragraph includes the arguments LINE-HEIGHT=1 and CHAR-WIDTH=1, the cells in the grid will measure 1 point by 1 point (1 point = 1/72 inch or approx. 0.35 mm). In that case, column will be a dimension given in points. The length of a string, however, will still be given in characters. Alternatively, you can use the MAX-LINES and MAX-COLUMNS arguments of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command to specify the number of lines on the page and the number of characters to fit across the page. SQR will calculate the line height and character width based on these settings and the size of the page and margins. Coordinates are specified in terms of lines and character positions. The first line from the top is 1 and the first column (from the left) is 1. There is no coordinate 0. The DECLARE-LAYOUT command also allows you to declare the page orientation. Note that this declaration does not affect how SQR uses position coordinates. Line and character positions are not transposed when page orientation is switched. The only effect of the ORIENTATION option of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command is that SQR will switch the printer to the specified orientation, portrait or landscape. The default mode is portrait.

SQR User’s Guide

47

The SETUP Section

SQR 4.3

Summary
• The SETUP section holds declarations and several commands. Most commands in the SETUP section are performed at compile time. • DECLARE-LAYOUT sets the page layout and includes such important options as the paper size and margins.
The next chapter explains how to create a master/detail report, which combines information from multiple tables.

48

SQR User’s Guide

If you need to show all master records. The information is normally retrieved from multiple tables that have a one-to-many relationship.7 Master/Detail Reports This chapter presents master/detail reports. one BEGIN-SELECT returns the names of customers. This type of report has one major disadvantage—if a master record has no associated detail records. the data from the master table is joined with data from the detail table. which show hierarchical information. The code example in this chapter produces just such a report." to group the detail records for each master record. The customer information is the "master" and the orders are the "detail. "Break Logic." In many cases. two additional BEGIN-SELECT commands are performed. In such a program. You can implement break logic as described in Chapter 5. whether they have detail records or not. you can obtain such information with a single SQR SELECT statement. For each customer. The following diagram depicts the BEGIN-SELECT structure in this example: Customers Orders Payments SQR User’s Guide 49 . such as customers and orders. it will not be displayed. In our example. followed by separate SELECT statements that retrieve the detail records associated with each master record. The solution is to create a master/detail report with one SELECT that retrieves records from the master table. this type of report will not meet your needs. one to retrieve order information and another to retrieve payment information.

The nested queries are invoked once for each customer.13) Edit $$$$. (See Chapter 16.3 When one query returns master information and another query returns detail information. "Dynamic SQL and Error Checking. the detail query is nested within the master query.+1.) Program ex7a.+1.99 from cash_receipts a where a. one query returns customer names and two nested queries return detail information.10) print ’-------------’ (+1.10.20) edit ’DD-MON-YY’ amount_received (. This variable correlates the customer number (cust_num) with the current customer record." for a more detailed explanation of bind variables.1.16) state (.45) Fill name (+1. each one retrieving records that correspond to the current customer.25) city (.cust_num = #cust_num end-select end-procedure ! cash_receipts Program continues on the following page.Master/Detail Reports SQR 4.1) from customers end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure cash_receipts (#cust_num) let #any = 0 begin-select if not #any print ’Cash Received’ (+2.1.$$0.sqr begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select Print ’Customer Information’ (. In our sample program. The subqueries are correlated with a bind variable in the WHERE clause.2) cust_num do cash_receipts(&cust_num) do orders(&cust_num) position (+2. 50 SQR User’s Guide .10) let #any = 1 end-if date_received (+1.+1.1) Print ’-’ (+1.

Thus.13) Edit $$$$.$$0.99 from orders a. SQR User’s Guide 51 .+1. Note the use of the IF command and the numeric variable #any in these procedures.10. The procedure main is the master.20) Edit ’DD-MON-YY’ description (.cust_num = #cust_num end-select end-procedure ! orders begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.10) let #any = 1 end-if a. SQR will not execute the following PRINT commands.order_num order_date (+1. cash_receipts.product_code and a. It retrieves the customer names.20) c. main.order_num and b. and Local Variables. Argument Passing. and orders to list the customer’s orders.10) print ’-------------’ (+1. the procedures perform the same query with a different value for the cust_num variable in the WHERE clause. and orders. once for each customer.product_code = c.order_num = b. if there are any. This feature is discussed in more detail in Chapter 17.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.+1.SQR 4. When the BEGIN-SELECT command returns no records.price * b.sqr (continued) begin-procedure orders (#cust_num) let #any = 0 begin-select if not #any print ’Orders Booked’ (+2. products c where a. Each time. ordlines b. we invoke the procedures cash_receipts to list the cash receipts. if there are any.69) ’Page ’ end-heading Correlating Subqueries The above program consists of three procedures. The procedures take the variable cust_num as an argument.quantity (. "Procedures. cash_receipts and orders are called many times." As you can see. For each customer. which correspond to the three queries. the headings for these procedures are only displayed for those customers who have records in the detail tables.3 Master/Detail Reports Program ex7a.

" This format uses a "floating-to-the-right" money symbol.19 $3." for more information on formatting dates. The expression is c.00 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Eliot Richards Queens NY Cash Received ------------16-JAN-94 17-JAN-94 Orders Booked ------------02-MAY-94 02-MAY-94 $220.Master/Detail Reports SQR 4. Finally. À Note See Chapter 20.25 Output continues on the following page. note that the format given to the dollar amount with the argument EDIT "$$$$. If there are fewer digits than the six that we allowed here.980.00 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Alfred E Newman & Company New York NY Cash Received ------------01-MAR-94 $140.00 Whirlybobs Canisters $239.$$0.99.3 The procedure orders demonstrates the use of an expression in the BEGIN-SELECT.quantity.sqr 26-APR-1996 Page 1 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Gregory Stonehaven Everretsville OH Cash Received ------------01-FEB-94 $130. "Working with Dates.price * b.12 $260. the dollar sign will float to the right and stay close to the number. 52 SQR User’s Guide . Output for ex7a.

00 Hop scotch kits Wire rings $6.3 Master/Detail Reports Output for ex7a.902.300.200.00 $1.90 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Harold Alexander Fink Davenport IN Cash Received ------------01-FEB-94 01-MAR-94 Orders Booked ------------19-MAY-94 19-MAY-94 $1. SQR User’s Guide 53 .00 Ginger snaps Modeling clay $44.872. • Subqueries are joined to the main query by use of bind variables.00 $1.28 $517. The next chapter describes how to create cross-tabular reports and assemble data in an SQR array.05 Summary • Multiple BEGIN-SELECT commands can be used to retrieve detail information that is contained in different database tables.100. • Queries that retrieve detail information are said to be nested in the queries that retrieve master information.SQR 4.sqr Customer Information --------------------------------------------Isaiah J Schwartz and Com Zanesville OH Cash Received ------------18-JAN-94 02-JAN-94 Orders Booked ------------02-MAY-94 02-MAY-94 $190.00 $19.

.

Resellers can be domestic resellers plus international distributors. Look at the following example.-----------.309 B $120 $311 $519 $950 C $2 $0 $924 $926 ---------.------0 320 924 1876 ------------. SQR User’s Guide 55 .-----------. Products are classified as durable and nondurable.209 $0 $3. For example.--------.222 $1.--------.443 $5. A category may also represent a range.-----------. Some groups have no sales (such as mail order for Product A).----------. These reports are useful for presenting summary numeric data.------Total $2. Each row corresponds to a product. as demonstrated in the next example: Orders by Product by Product Category Less than 10 10 to 100 ----------.8 Cross-Tabular Reports This chapter presents cross-tabular reports.or spreadsheet-like reports.------A $2. Each category may be a discrete value of some database column or a set of values.--------Durable 200 120 Nondurable 122 311 ----------.185 This report is based on many sales records.520 $1.-----------. The records fall into nine groups: three products sold through three sales channels.--------Total 322 431 Order Size More than 100 Total ------------. which are matrix. The three middle columns correspond to sales channel categories.----------. the rows correspond to nondiscrete categories. which shows sales revenue summarized by product by sales channel: Revenue by Product by Sales Channel Product Direct Sales Resellers Mail Order Total ---------. Cross-tabular reports vary in format.------1443 2196 In this example. The columns represent categories that are ranges of order size.100 $1.

The subscript can be a literal or an SQR numeric variable. There are three months in the example. Repeating fields are also numbered starting with zero. The numbers in the cells are counts.3 For each record selected. This specific example could be programmed without an array. During the processing. An array is a unit of storage that consists of rows and columns and exists in memory. The data can even be presented in a chart. using one can be beneficial. SQR arrays are referenced in expressions as array_name. In the order_qty array." This example demonstrates an SQR feature called a "three-dimensional array.sub2])." It has fields (columns) and rows. The second subscript (sub2) is specified when the field repeats. In the next sample program. an array called order_qty is created to hold the sum of the quantity of orders in a given month. this field occurs (repeats) three times. the program needs to keep the data in some buffer where it can accumulate the numbers. therefore. Rows are numbered starting with zero.field(sub1[. the first field is the product description. Of course. "Business Charts. but it exists only in memory.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4. These reports become more complex when the number of columns is not predefined and when there are more columns than can fit across the page. there are other types of cross-tabular reports. Data retrieved once and stored in an array can be presented in many ways without additional database queries. but they could be sums. Arrays In a many cases. but as you will see later. An array is similar to a database table. Sub1 is the first subscript. averages. as we will see later in Chapter 13. the program must determine the range to which it belongs and add 1 to the count for that category. the program must process all the records before it can begin printing the data. or any other expression. the row number. The second field is the order quantity of each month. and it also has repeating fields (the "third dimension"). This can be done in an SQR array. 56 SQR User’s Guide .

32.month_qty(#i.product(#i) let #jan = order_qty.1.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.2) let #prod_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $product (.32.999.999.9) edit 9.999 print #mar (.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Program ex8a.999 print #feb (.42.SQR 4.999.999 print #mar_total (.52.52.9) edit 9.999. SQR User’s Guide 57 .9) edit 9.9) edit 9.999 end-procedure print_array size={max_products} field=month_qty:number:3 Program continues on the following page.9) edit 9.999.1) let #mar = order_qty.999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.1) print #jan_total (.999 print #prod_tot (.0) let #feb = order_qty.999 print #grand_total (.30) print #jan (.month_qty(#i.999.9) edit 9.sqr #define max_products 100 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty field=product:char end-setup begin-program do select_data do print_array end-program begin-procedure print_array let #entry_cnt = #i let #i = 0 while #i <= #entry_cnt let $product = order_qty.999.42.month_qty(#i.999 print #feb_total (.62.999.62.

product_code = c.product(#i) = &description end-if if order_qty.product(#i) = &description end-if let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.order_num = b.product(#i) = ’’ let order_qty.1.3 Program ex8a.62) print ’-’ (4. products c where a.product_code order by description end-select end-procedure ! select_data begin-heading 4 print $current-date (1.32) print ’ February’ (.month_qty(#i.1) print ’Order Quantity by Product by Month’ (1. ordlines b.64) ’Page ’ print ’Product’ (3.1 if #j < 3 let order_qty.42) print ’ March’ (.70) Fill end-heading 58 SQR User’s Guide .1) print ’ January’ (.52) print ’ Total’ (.#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a.#j) = order_qty.month_qty(#i.18) page-number (1.order_num and b.product(#i) != &description let #i = #i + 1 if #i >= {max_products} display ’Error: There are more than {max_products} products’ stop end-if let order_qty.’MM’)) .sqr (continued) begin-procedure select_data begin-select order_date ! The quantity for this order quantity ! the product for this order description if #i = 0 and order_qty.

SQR 4. or March. the procedure print_array does two things: It loops through the array and prints the data. and is added to the array. All SQR arrays are created before the program begins executing. While the database records are being processed. For each record selected. the array is incremented by row subscript #i. There is one complication with this program—how to obtain the month. It then fills the array one product at a time. The sample program uses this constant to define the size of the array. In the example. Otherwise.) The resulting string is then converted to a number. if it is less than 3. the program checks to see if it’s a new product. It is a good practice to use #DEFINE because it displays our limit at the top of the program source. it represents January. If you do not know exactly how many rows you will have. and to write truly portable code calls for careful planning. you must over-allocate and specify an upper bound. Select_data performs the database query. as its name suggests. Their size must be known at compile time. February. The program also adds the quantity to the corresponding entry in the array based on the month. ’MM’)) . The above program has two procedures: select_data and print_array. (The 'MM' edit mask specifies that only the month part will be converted. it would be buried in the code. even though the program only uses 12 rows to process the sample data. When the processing is over. SQR User’s Guide 59 .1 This function converts the order_date column into a string. The SETUP section creates the array using the CREATE-ARRAY command. It also adds up the month totals and prints them at the bottom. The report summarizes the product order quantities for each month. nothing is printed. The key is the datetostr function in the following command: let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date. The program creates the array order_qty with a size of 100. if it is. the array has 100 rows. The command #DEFINE MAX_PRODUCTS 100 defines the constant max_products as a substitution variable. which are the records ordered by the product description. and the data accumulates in the array.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Creating the Array You must define the size of an array when you create it. Date manipulation can vary among databases.

The example shows how to do it without sorting the data.3 Grouping by Category The next example is a cross-tabular report that groups the products by price range.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4. This grouping cannot be done using a SQL GROUP BY clause. or 2. The program uses an SQR EVALUATE command to determine the price category and assign the array subscript #i to 0. Output for ex8a. Moreover. 1. to process the records in order of price category. Then it adds the order quantity to the array cell that corresponds to the price category (row) and the month (column). the program would have to sort the table by price.sqr 11-JUN-96 Order Quantity by Product by Month Page 1 Product January February March Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------Canisters 3 0 0 3 Curtain rods 2 8 18 28 Ginger snaps 1 10 0 11 Hanging plants 1 20 0 21 Hookup wire 16 15 0 31 Hop scotch kits 2 0 0 2 Modeling clay 5 0 0 5 New car 1 9 0 10 Thimble 7 20 0 27 Thingamajigs 17 0 120 137 Widgets 4 0 12 16 Wire rings 1 0 0 1 Totals 60 82 150 292 60 SQR User’s Guide .

category(2) = ’Over $100’ size={max_categories} field=month_qty:number:3 Program continues on the following page.0) let #feb = order_qty.1.999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.9) edit 9.category(#i) let #jan = order_qty.9) edit 9.999 print #mar (.2) let #category_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $category (.31) print #jan (.999.month_qty(#i.month_qty(#i.999 print #grand_total (.32.9) edit 9.999 print #feb (.999.sqr #define max_categories 3 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty field=category:char end-setup begin-program do select_data do print_array end-program begin-procedure print_array let #i = 0 while #i < {max_categories} let $category = order_qty.999.999.32.52.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Program ex8b.999 print #mar_total (.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.999 end-procedure print_array begin-procedure select_data let order_qty.62.00-$100.999.9) edit 9.999 print #feb_total (.00’ let order_qty.category(0) = ’$0-$4.999 print #category_tot (.999.SQR 4.42. SQR User’s Guide 61 .category(1) = ’$5.52.62.9) edit 9.999.1) print #jan_total (.99’ let order_qty.42.999.month_qty(#i.1) let #mar = order_qty.

#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a. products c where a.42) print ’ March’ (.product_code end-select end-procedure ! select_data begin-heading 5 print $current-date (1.64) ’Page ’ print ’Order Quantity by Product Price Category by Month’ (2.order_num and b.month_qty(#i.price &price move &price to #price_num evaluate #price_num when < 5.11) print ’Product Price Category’ (4.52) print ’ Total’ (.3 Program ex8b.70) Fill end-heading The output is shown on the following page.0 let #i = 0 break when <= 100. 62 SQR User’s Guide .order_num = b.1) page-number (1.1.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.1 if #j < 3 let order_qty.month_qty(#i.32) print ’ February’ (.#j) = order_qty.sqr (continued) begin-select order_date ! the price / price category for the order c.62) print ’-’ (5.1) print ’ January’ (.0 let #i = 1 break when-other let #i = 2 break end-evaluate ! The quantity for this order quantity let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.’MM’)) . ordlines b.product_code = c.

you can fill the two arrays and then print the two parts of the report. and another to summarize monthly orders by price range.99 28 45 12 85 $5. The next sample program performs the work done by the first two programs. Program ex8c.sqr #define max_categories 3 #define max_products 100 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty field=product:char create-array name=order_qty2 field=category:char end-setup size={max_products} field=month_qty:number:3 size={max_categories} field=month_qty:number:3 Program continues on the following page. SQR User’s Guide 63 .3 Cross-Tabular Reports Output for ex8b. Another advantage is that you can combine the two sample reports into one. In the SETUP section.sqr 11-JUN-96 Order Quantity by Product Price Category by Month Product Price Category January February March Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------$0-$4.SQR 4. you saw how it eliminated the need to sort the data. two arrays are created—one to summarize monthly orders by product. With one pass on the data.00 25 28 138 191 Over $100 7 9 0 16 Totals 60 82 150 292 Page 1 Using Multiple Arrays Using SQR arrays to buffer the data offers several advantages.00-$100. In the last example.

month_qty(#i.42.32.9) edit 9.2) let #category_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $category (.1) print #jan_total (.2) let #prod_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $product (.52.999.62.999 print #grand_total (.52.999 position (+1) let #i = #i + 1 end-while end-procedure ! print_array begin-procedure print_array2 let #i = 0 while #i < {max_categories} let $category = order_qty2.999 print #feb (.42.product(#i) let #jan = order_qty.month_qty(#i.month_qty(#i.70) fill position (+1) do print_array2 end-program begin-procedure print_array let #entry_cnt = #i let #i = 0 while #i <= #entry_cnt let $product = order_qty.sqr (continued) begin-program do select_data do print_array print ’-’ (+2.1.999 print #mar_total (.9) edit 9.3 Program ex8c.1.month_qty(#i.999.month_qty(#i.month_qty(#i.32.9) edit 9.32.1) let #mar = order_qty.1.9) edit 9.999.62.0) let #feb = order_qty. 64 SQR User’s Guide .999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.category(#i) let #jan = order_qty2.42.62.9) edit 9.999.999 print #category_tot (.999 print #mar (.0) let #feb = order_qty2.999.999 print #mar (.999 print #feb (.999.999.9) edit 9.52.999 end-procedure ! print_array2 Program continues on the following page.999.9) edit 9.999.999.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.999 print #feb_total (.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.1) let #mar = order_qty2.9) edit 9.999.999 print #prod_tot (.30) print #jan (.9) edit 9.999.9) edit 9.31) print #jan (.

0 let #x = 1 break when-other let #x = 2 break end-evaluate ! The quantity for this order quantity let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.’MM’)) .#j) + &quantity end-if ! the product for this order description if #i = 0 and order_qty. ordlines b.00’ let order_qty2.month_qty(#i.sqr (continued) begin-procedure select_data let order_qty2. products c where a.product_code order by description end-select end-procedure ! select_data Program continues on the following page.1 if #j < 3 let order_qty2.product(#i) = &description end-if if #j < 3 let order_qty.00-$100.#j) = order_qty2.product(#i) = ’’ let order_qty. SQR User’s Guide 65 .99’ let order_qty2.#j) = order_qty.order_num and b.product(#i) = &description end-if if order_qty.category(2)=’Over $100’ begin-select order_date ! the price / price category for the order c.SQR 4.product(#i) != &description let #i = #i + 1 if #i >= {max_products} display ’Error: There are more than {max_products} products’ stop end-if let order_qty.category(0)=’$0-$4.month_qty(#x.product_code = c.#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a.price &price move &price to #price_num evaluate #price_num when < 5.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Program ex8c.category(1)=’$5.month_qty(#x.0 let #x = 0 break when <= 100.month_qty(#i.order_num = b.

42) print ’ March’ (.sqr (continued) begin-heading 5 print $current-date (1.62) print ’-’ (5. presenting the above cross-tab as a bar chart is easy. see Chapter 13.10) print ’Product / Price Category’ (4.1) page-number (1.1) print ’ January’ (.99 28 45 12 85 $5.00 25 28 138 191 Over $100 7 9 0 16 Totals 60 82 150 292 SQR arrays are also advantageous in programs that produce charts. With the data for the chart already in the array.3 Program ex8c.70) Fill end-heading Output for ex8c.sqr 11-JUN-96 Page 1 Order Quantity by Product and Price Category by Month Product / Price Category January February March Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------Canisters 3 0 0 3 Curtain rods 2 8 18 28 Ginger snaps 1 10 0 11 Hanging plants 1 20 0 21 Hookup wire 16 15 0 31 Hop scotch kits 2 0 0 2 Modeling clay 5 0 0 5 New car 1 9 0 10 Thimble 7 20 0 27 Thingamajigs 17 0 120 137 Widgets 4 0 12 16 Wire rings 1 0 0 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------$0-$4.00-$100.32) print ’ February’ (.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.1. For more information on charts. "Business Charts.52) print ’ Total’ (." 66 SQR User’s Guide .64) ’Page ’ print ’Order Quantity by Product and Price Category by Month’ (2.

SQR User’s Guide 67 . • Using multiple arrays can allow you to reduce database calls. • Procedures can be written to select data for an array and print it. • CREATE-ARRAY can be used to assemble data for a report in arrays. The next chapter explains how to use SQR to print mailing labels or other data in columns.or spreadsheet-like reports that are useful for presenting summary data.SQR 4.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Summary • Cross-tabular reports are matrix. • Arrays can be referenced in expressions. • EVALUATE can be used to place data in the correct row of the array.

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SQR User’s Guide 69 . The process is quite simple. The following program prints mailing labels in a format of three columns by ten rows.9 Printing Mailing Labels This chapter explains how to print mailing labels and similar information. Program ex9a.sqr #define MAX_LABEL_LINES #define LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS 10 3 begin-setup declare-layout default paper-size=(10. Sometimes you’ll need to print labels in multiple columns. The page then becomes a matrix of rows and columns of labels.11) left-margin=0. SQR allows you to print into columns with the commands COLUMNS and NEXT-COLUMN.33 end-declare end-setup begin-program do mailing_labels end-program begin-procedure mailing_labels let #label_count = 0 let #label_lines = 0 columns 1 29 57 ! enable columns alter-printer font=5 point-size=10 Program continues on the following page. A SQR SELECT paragraph retrieves the addresses and prints them on the page. in conjunction with NEXT-LISTING. It also counts the number of labels printed and prints that number on the last sheet of the report.

The first column starts at character position 1.3 Program ex9a. the program prints a summary page showing the number of labels printed.1. The above program writes the first address into the first column.30) addr1 (2. The fourth address will go into the second row of the first column.30) next-column at-end=newline add 1 to #label_count if #current-column = 1 add 1 to #label_lines if #label_lines = {MAX_LABEL_LINES} new-page let #label_lines = 0 else next-listing no-advance skiplines={LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS} end-if end-if from customers end-select use-column 0 ! disable columns new-page print ’Labels printed on ’ (.1.1) print #label_count () edit 9. the third address into the third. 70 SQR User’s Guide . the second at character position 29.1.30) city state zip move &zip to $zip XXXXX-XXXX let $last_line = &city || ’.Printing Mailing Labels SQR 4. a new page is started. After the last page of labels has been printed. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip print $last_line (3. and the third at character position 57.1) print $current-date () print ’Total labels printed = ’ (+1. When ten lines of labels are complete. just below the first label.999 end-procedure ! mailing_labels Defining Columns and Rows The command COLUMNS 1 29 57 defines the starting position for three columns. the second address into the second.sqr (continued) begin-select name (1.999.

#label_count. and zip columns are moved to string variables.SQR 4. The city. #label_count and #label_lines. which is a proportionally spaced font. you can use proportionally spaced fonts with any printer that supports fonts or graphics. The command LET $last_line = &city || ’. condenses the text so that it will fit on the page. The 10-point Times Roman used here. The first counter. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip combines the city. and zip code. city. SQR User’s Guide 71 . #label_lines. however. the NEXT-LISTING command redefines the position where the next row of labels will be printed as line 1." In the sample program. counts the total number of labels and prints it on the summary page.3 Printing Mailing Labels Note the technique for composing the last line of the label. Printing and printer support are explained in greater detail in Chapter 26. NEXT-LISTING skips the specified number of lines (SKIPLINES) from the last line that was printed (NO-ADVANCE) and sets the new position as line 1. In this way. the command DECLARE-LAYOUT defines a page width of 10 inches. which contains 30 characters and begins at character position 57." The sample program prints the labels in 10-point Times Roman. In Windows. The program defines two counters. This command changes the font in which the report is printed. On other platforms. The second counter. see Chapter 14. plus appropriate punctuation and spacing. The page width is set at 10 inches to prevent SQR from treating the third-column print position as an error. "Changing Fonts. it starts a new page and resets the #label_lines counter. "Changing Fonts. state. into a string. This width accommodates the printing of the third column. When the program has printed the number of lines defined by {MAX_LABEL_LINES}. state. SQR assumes a default character grid of 10 characters per inch. "Printing Issues. SQR directly supports HP LaserJet printers and PostScript printers. see Chapter 14. and zip code are printed without unnecessary gaps. Note the use of the ALTER-PRINTER command. counts the number of rows of labels that were printed. For more information on changing fonts in SQR. which it stores in the variable $last_line. which would cause the third column to print beyond the paper edge if this report used the default font." For more information on using proportionally spaced fonts. state. After each row of labels.

Printing Mailing Labels SQR 4. In the example above. OH 44900-1300 Harold Alexander Fink 32077 Cedar Street Davenport. NY 10204-1234 Harry’s Landmark Diner 17043 Silverfish Road Miningville. Inc. NJ 00355-4530 Quentin Fields 37021 Cedar Road Cleveland. the report prints the labels left to right. With VisualSQRIBE. New York. SQR Portable File format is covered in greater detail in Chapter 26. you must use a slightly different technique for running the program and viewing the output. If you are using a platform such as UNIX or VMS. The output will automatically appear in the Viewer window after the report has been run. NY 10002-1001 Eliot Richards 2134 Partridge Ave Queens. OH 44121-9475 Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Crazy Lake Cottages Frogline. OH 40233-1000 Alfred E Newman & Company 2837 East Third Street New York.sqr Gregory Stonehaven Middlebrook Road Everretsville. filling each row of labels before moving down the page. enter -PRINTER:HP (or -printer:hp). If you are using a PostScript printer. NY 10134-2030 Sam Johnson 37 Cleaver Street Bell Harbor.3 Running the Program When you print with a proportionally spaced font. neither -PRINTER:xx nor -KEEP is required. Here is a portion of the output: Output for ex9a. specify the printer type with the -PRINTER:xx flag. If you are using an HP LaserJet. NY 10213-1002 Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 37211 Columbia Blvd Zanesville. IN 62130-1025 Harriet Bailey 47 Season Street Mamaroneck. You will still need to use the -PRINTER:xx flag when printing. 167 East Blvd. NM 87893-7070 Corks and Bottles. enter -PRINTER:PS (or -printer:ps) on the command line. NH 04821-9876 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2100 Park Ave New York. MI 40674-3900 Joe Smith and Company 1711 Sunset Blvd Big Falls. For example: sqr ex9a username/password -printer:hp You may also use the -KEEP command-line flag to produce output in the SQR Portable File format (SPF) and print it using SQR Print. 72 SQR User’s Guide . NY 10833-1660 Clair Butterfield 371 Youngstown Blvd Teaneck. IN 40622-4321 The report produces the output in three columns corresponding to the dimensions of a sheet of mailing label stock.

The output is not printed here.1) print $current-date () print ’Total labels printed = ’ (+1. but you can run the file and view it using the same procedure you used for the previous example. The code is shown below.1) print #label_count () edit 9. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip print $last_line (+1.999 end-procedure ! mailing_labels SQR User’s Guide 73 .30) addr1 (+1.30) city state zip move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx let $last_line = &city || ’.sqr #define MAX_LABEL_LINES #define LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS 10 3 begin-setup declare-layout default paper-size=(10.30) add 1 to #label_count add 1 to #label_lines if #label_lines = {MAX_LABEL_LINES} next-column goto-top=1 at-end=newpage let #label_lines = 0 else position (+1) position (+{LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS}) end-if from customers end-select use-column 0 ! disable columns new-page print ’Labels printed on ’ (. filling each column before moving to the next column of labels.1. Program ex9b.SQR 4. The differences between this code and the previous one are shown in bold.33 end-declare end-setup begin-program do mailing_labels end-program begin-procedure mailing_labels let #Label_Count = 0 let #Label_Lines = 0 columns 1 29 57 ! enable columns alter-printer font=5 point-size=10 begin-select name (0.1.3 Printing Mailing Labels You can also print the labels from the top down.1.11) left-margin=0.999.

produce summary information about a report. such as #label_count and #label_lines. 74 SQR User’s Guide . • COLUMNS is used to define report columns. such as the number of labels printed.3 Summary • A SELECT paragraph is used to retrieve data for mailing labels and other similar reports. • ALTER-PRINTER can be used to specify fonts. • Counters.Printing Mailing Labels SQR 4. • NEXT-LISTING ends the current listing and begins another. Counters also determine when a page is full. The next chapter describes how to create form letters.

Document markers are denoted with a name preceded by the at sign (@). and zip code because the city name varies in length and thus affects the position of the state name and zip code. These are placeholders in the DOCUMENT section where you can print data after the DOCUMENT section is printed. you must explicitly mark them with a . state. you use a DOCUMENT section.b (see the sample code below). Using a document marker is less direct. For most purposes. in the program below. The sample program uses a document marker to position the city. SQR will insert the value of the variable when the document is printed. For example. SQR User’s Guide 75 . but it gives more flexibility in positioning the contents of variables. To leave blank lines in a letter. Another way to mix data with the letter is to use document markers. a variable would do. the customer’s name is printed on the first line. It starts with a BEGIN-DOCUMENT command and ends with an END-DOCUMENT command. In between you lay out the letter and insert variables where you want data from the database to be inserted. You will be introduced to the SQR DOCUMENT section and two new commands: BEGIN-DOCUMENT and END-DOCUMENT. This use of document markers is demonstrated in the simple form letter program below.10 Creating Form Letters This chapter explains how to create a form letter. The sample program demonstrates the use of variables as well as document markers. Laying Out the Letter To create form letters. SQR will print the contents of the variable in the position where it is placed in the DOCUMENT section.

.sqr begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name addr1 addr2 city state zip do write_letter from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure write_letter begin-document (1. We would like to tell you about our limited-time offer. our entire inventory is marked down by 25%. Clark Axelotle ACME Inc.b Thank you for your recent purchases from ACME Inc. you can buy your favorite merchandise and save too.1) &name &addr1 &addr2 @city_state_zip .b Sincerely.3 Program ex10a. Yes.b .Creating Form Letters SQR 4. Delivery is free too.b . end-document position () @city_state_zip print &city () print ’. so don’t wait. ’ () print &state () print ’ ’ () print &zip () edit xxxxx-xxxx new-page end-procedure ! write_letter 76 SQR User’s Guide . To place an order simply dial 800-555-ACME.b $current-date Dear Sir or Madam: . During this month.

NY 10002-1001 10-MAY-1996 Dear Sir or Madam: Thank you for your recent purchases from ACME Inc." Summary • To print form letters. Yes. Sincerely. During this month. The next chapter explains how to export data to other applications.3 Creating Form Letters First.SQR 4. our entire inventory is marked down by 25%. SQR performs the main procedure and the SELECT statement. you can buy your favorite merchandise and save too. Below is the first page of the output of our program for ex10a. The state name. use variables or document markers inserted in the DOCUMENT section to place data in the text. SQR User’s Guide 77 . which is given by the marker @city_state_zip. We would like to tell you about our limited-time offer. "Using Graphics. The program prints the city. it performs the write_letter procedure and the DOCUMENT section. so don’t wait. and zip code are automatically printed in the correct positions with appropriate punctuation. then continues printing the other elements to the current position. Clark Axelotle ACME Inc. Alfred E Newman & Company 2837 East Third Street Greenwich Village New York. Delivery is free too. You will find another example of a form letter in Chapter 12. The POSITION command sets the position to the appropriate line. To place an order simply dial 800-555-ACME.sqr. Next.

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The following program example creates such a file.1) new-page Program continues on the following page. SQR User’s Guide 79 . which you can load into a document such as a spreadsheet. Program ex11a.11 Exporting Data to Other Applications This chapter shows you how to create a tab-delimited file that is suitable for exporting data to many applications. The tabs create columns in your spreadsheet or word processing document which will correspond to the columns in your database table.sqr begin-setup ! No margins. wide enough for the widest record ! and no page breaks declare-layout default left-margin=0 top-margin=0 max_columns=160 formfeed=no end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main encode ’<009>’ into $sep ! Separator character is TAB let $cust_num = ’Customer Number’ let $name = ’Customer Name’ let $addr1 = ’Address Line 1’ let $addr2 = ’Address Line 2’ let $city = ’City’ let $state = ’State’ let $zip = ’Zip Code’ let $phone = ’Phone Number’ let $tot = ’Total’ string $cust_num $name $addr1 $addr2 $city $state $zip $phone $tot by $sep into $col_hds print $col_hds (1.

with each heading separated by a tab.Exporting Data to Other Applications SQR 4. not printed. Remember. You can now load the output file (ex11a. There is no page ejection because of the FORMFEED=NO argument in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. The LET command creates variables for the text strings used as column headings in the export file. In the SELECT paragraph. this report is meant to be exported. this time to combine the records (named as column variables) in the $db_cols variable. It really causes a new line and carriage return at the end of each record. 80 SQR User’s Guide . The code (9) is enclosed in angle brackets to indicate that it is a non-display character.sqr (continued) begin-select cust_num name addr1 addr2 city state zip phone tot string &cust_num &name &addr1 &addr2 &city &state &zip &phone &tot by $sep into $db_cols print $db_cols () new-page from customers end-select end-procedure ! main The ENCODE command stores the ASCII code for the tab character in the variable $sep. we use the STRING command again. ENCODE is a useful way to place nonalpha and nonnumeric characters into variables. SQR will then treat it as a character code and set the variable accordingly.3 Program ex11a. with each record similarly separated by a tab. with the line number reset to 1. The NEW-PAGE command is used in this example in an unusual way. The STRING command combines these variables in the $col_hds variable.lis) into a spreadsheet or other application.

3 Exporting Data to Other Applications Summary • A tab-delimited output file can be used to export data into other applications. • LET can be used to place text in variables for export. • STRING can be used to create a variable holding several text or data items separated by a variable representing a tab or other separator character. • ENCODE can be used to place the ASCII code for a tab into a value. The next chapter explains how to create graphical reports. • The contents of database column variables can also be exported. SQR User’s Guide 81 .SQR 4.

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32) print ’State’ (.+1.+1.55.11) fill print ’Grand Total’ (+1.65) fill end-heading SQR User’s Guide 83 .99 next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers end-select print ’-’ (.40) print #grand_total (.99 end-procedure ! main begin-heading 5 print $current-date (1.11) edit 99999999.30) city (. and draw solid lines. change the font.+1.sqr begin-setup declare-layout default end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name (.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.61) print ’-’ (4.12 Using Graphics This chapter explains how to add graphical features to SQR reports.55.5) tot (.1) print ’City’ (. You will learn how to include a logo or other graphic in a report. The following example produces a simple tabular report similar to the one in Chapter 3.11) edit 99999999.49) print ’Total’ (. Program ex12a.1.1.16) state (.60) ’Page ’ print ’Name’ (3.

Text that has changed is shown in bold.00 9.Using Graphics SQR 4. The next section. which are defined as 1/2 inch.00 30.00 18. Without DECLARE-LAYOUT.00 21." shows you how to take advantage of this feature. Inc.00 6. This command produces dashed lines.3 The SETUP section contains a DECLARE-LAYOUT command that specifies the default layout without defining any options.00 --------315. The purpose of specifying the default layout is to use its margin settings.00 3. Harry’s Landmark Diner Everretsville New York Queens Zanesville Davenport Mamaroneck Teaneck Cleveland Frogline New York Bell Harbor Big Falls New York Miningville OH NY NY OH IN NY NJ OH NH NY MI NM NY IN 39.00 24.00 36. it is possible to draw solid lines.00 12. On a graphical printer.00 42.00 Grand Total Adding Graphics The next sample program includes graphical features—a logo.00 33.00 15. which is a simple way to draw lines for a report printed on a line printer. 84 SQR User’s Guide . the report would have no margins.00 27. solid lines. however. Note the PRINT command with the FILL option. "Adding Graphics. 06-JUN-96 Page 1 Name City State Total --------------------------------------------------------------Gregory Stonehaven Alfred E Newman & Company Eliot Richards Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Harold Alexander Fink Harriet Bailey Clair Butterfield Quentin Fields Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Sam Johnson Joe Smith and Company Corks and Bottles. and a change of font in the heading.

(The actual width of a character cell is determined by the CHAR-WIDTH or MAX-COLUMNS arguments of DECLARE-LAYOUT.16) state (.) SQR User’s Guide 85 . See Chapter 6 for more information on character grids.66) horz-line 20 print-image (1.23) type=bmp-file image-size=(21.30) city (.55.12) horz-line 20 print ’Grand Total’ (+2.61) bold alter-printer point-size=12 font=3 ! restore font graphic (9.32) bold print ’State’ (.11) edit 99999999.11) Edit 99999999.+1.99 end-procedure ! main begin-heading 11 print $current-date (1.SQR 4.+1.49) bold print ’Total’ (.60) ’Page ’ alter-printer point-size=14 font=4 ! switch font print ’Name’ (9.bmp’ end-heading The GRAPHIC command is used to draw solid lines with the HORZLINE option.sqr begin-setup declare-layout default end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name (.1) page-number (1.+1.5) tot (. The line is positioned using a normal SQR position specifier.99 next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers end-select graphic (. which is given in characters. Note that the third number in the position specifier is the length of the line.5) source=’acmelogo.55.1) bold print ’City’ (.1.1.40) print #grand_total (.3 Using Graphics Program ex12b.

The size of the image is specified in terms of columns (width) and lines (height).5). When used a second time. PRINT-IMAGE is followed by a print position corresponding to the top left corner of the image (line 1. font 4 is Helvetica. For example. In the example. For more information on fonts.1. POINT-SIZE=10. The GRAPHIC command in the SQR Language Reference also provides more information. The GRAPHIC command can also be used to draw vertical lines. which is in your SAMPLE (or SAMPLEW) subdirectory.3 The HORZ-LINE argument of the GRAPHIC HORZ-LINE command is the thickness of the line. You can use a whole number or even a fraction (for example. The thickness of the line is 20 decipoints.6 inches).sqr. column 19 in our example). See the program sqrlaser. it restores the normal font for the rest of the report. The following command changes the font to 14-point Helvetica: alter-printer point-size=14 font=4 ! switch font The PRINT-IMAGE command inserts the logo. and font 5 is Times Roman. The format of the image must match that of the printer you are using. The TYPE option specifies the image file type. The POINT-SIZE option specifies type size in points. and it is specified in decipoints (there are 720 decipoints per inch). but the number is printerspecific. which is 1/36 of an inch (about 0. for example. In our example the image is stored in Windows bitmap format (bmp-file). images are always stored in external files. These formats are: • Windows—bmp-file images • PostScript printer or viewer—eps-file • HP LaserJet—hpgl-file images • HTML output—GIF or JPEG formats (gif-file or jpeg-file) 86 SQR User’s Guide . The FONT option selects a font (typeface) that is supported by the printer. In SQR. the command graphic (10. boxes and shaded boxes. font 3 is Courier.sqr changes the font for the heading. see DECLARE-PRINTER in the SQR Language Reference.Using Graphics SQR 4. The ALTER-PRINTER command in ex12b. On a PostScript printer.7 millimeters). The font is specified by number. for an example. the image is 30 characters wide (3 inches) and 7 lines high (1 1/6 inches).66) horz-line 20 specifies a horizontal line below line 10 in the report starting with position 1 (the left side of the report) and stretching for 66 character positions (at 10 characters per inch this is 6.

The file may reside in any directory. SQR can produce output suitable for HP LaserJet printers in a file format that uses the HP PCL language or output suitable for PostScript printers in a file format that uses the PostScript language. SQR User’s Guide 87 .BMP.sqr The output file now contains graphic language commands. In our example. see Chapter 28.3 Using Graphics For more information on HTML output. "Working with HTML. the file is ACMELOGO. Output for ex12b. The file is assumed to reside in the current directory or in the directory where SQR is installed (you can place the logo file in either of these two places). however.SQR 4." The SOURCE option specifies the file name of the image file. SQR can also produce printerindependent output files in a special format called SQR Portable Format (SPF). as long as you specify a full pathname for the image file.

inc: File acme. you only need to change it in one place. the command DECLARE-IMAGE is contained in this file.7) source=’acmelogo. The image size is specified and provides the default. acme. when printer-specific output is generated. such as the source. 88 SQR User’s Guide .SPF files. As you will see." Sharing Images among Reports You can place logos and other images in a report using only the PRINT-IMAGE command. "Printing Issues. Program ex12c.inc.LIS file from an .SPF file.LIS file or by using SQR Print to generate an . Multiple programs can share the declaration and include the file acme. If you later need to change an attribute.Using Graphics SQR 4.LIS file) or create the output in portable format (. when the image is printed. It specifies the logo used in the last sample program. However.SPF). a change in the contents of the image file will be reflected in the report the next time you print it or view it. the DECLARE-IMAGE command is useful if you want several programs to share the definition of an image. the name of the image file is copied into it. The declaration includes the type and source file for the image. When using . and the image is processed at print time. you do not need to respecify these attributes. see Chapter 26. For more information on SQR Portable Format. Because the image is shared among several reports. When you create an . You can create printer-specific output by using SQR or SQR Execute to directly generate an .inc declare-image acme_logo type=bmp-file image-size=(30.SPF file.3 SQR can create a printer-specific output file (an .sqr prints a simple form letter.bmp’ end-declare This file declares an image with "acme-logo" as the name. It shows how to print a logo using the DECLARE-IMAGE and PRINT-IMAGE commands and how to print a signature using only PRINT-IMAGE.

Program ex12c. ’ with $csz concat &state with $csz concat ’ ’ with $csz move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx concat $zip with $csz move &phone to $phone_no (xxx)bxxx-xxxx ! Edit phone number.sqr begin-setup #include ’acme. Program continues on the following page.SQR 4.inc’ end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name addr1 addr2 city state zip phone do write_letter from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure write_letter move &city to $csz concat ’.3 Using Graphics If you need to change the size of an image in a particular report. It will override the image size specified in DECLARE-IMAGE. SQR User’s Guide 89 . use the IMAGE-SIZE argument of the PRINT-IMAGE command.

Maestro!! is the music teacher for you. our revolutionary teaching system for piano and organ.b Whether you like classical. You’ll learn the correct keyboarding while hearing the sounds you make through the headphones provided with the Encore. Maestro!!.1. Encore. If you’ve always wanted to play an instrument but felt you could never master one.b .b Thank you for your inquiry regarding Encore. pop. Encore. From there. so get ready to play your favorite tunes!! . Maestro!! is made for you.b .b @logo $current-date Dear &name .b A local representative will be calling you at $phone_no to set up an in-house demonstration. Encore.4) position () @signature print-image () type=bmp-file image-size=(12. . .3) source=’clark. Maestro!! can even teach you to improvise your own solos.b . @signature . Maestro!! begins with a step-by-step approach to some of America’s favorite songs.b Now anyone who can hum a tune can play one too. . jazz. Maestro!! system.b Clark Axelotle end-document position () @logo print-image acme-logo () image-size=(16. Encore.0) &name &addr1 &addr2 $csz .3 Program ex12c.Using Graphics SQR 4.sqr (continued) begin-document (1.bmp’ new-page end-procedure ! write_letter 90 SQR User’s Guide . you’ll advance to intricate compositions with dazzling melodic runs. or blues.b Sincerely.

state. The program uses variables for the name and address. It uses document markers for the logo and signature.inc in this program. It is printed directly in the DOCUMENT section without issuing a PRINT command. Instead.SQR 4. and zip code. The date is prepared with the reserved variable $current-date. In this program. Document markers are placeholders in the letter. The program uses the document markers @logo and @signature in a POSITION command before printing each image. will remain the width of the column as defined in the database. The document markers make it unnecessary to specify the position of these items in the PRINT-IMAGE command. variables retain their predefined size. SQR User’s Guide 91 . you simply print to the current position. The DOCUMENT section begins with a BEGIN-DOCUMENT command and ends with an END-DOCUMENT command. You can print the date and phone number directly. The output of our program is shown on the following page. the date. however. because they fall at the end of a line. It uses variables and document markers to print inside the letter. which is performed at compile time. without any following text.INC’ includes the code from the file acme. see the command #INCLUDE ’ACME. In the DOCUMENT section. for example. is used to pull in text from another file. and the phone number. A column variable. The program uses the CONCAT command to put together the city.3 Using Graphics The #INCLUDE command.

spf Printing Bar Codes You can also include bar codes in your SQR report.Using Graphics SQR 4. specify the bar code type.5 text=’01234567890’ caption=’0 12345 67890’ 92 SQR User’s Guide .3 File ex12c. and optional check sum. use the PRINT-BAR-CODE command. height.1) type=1 height=0. caption. To create a bar code. In separate arguments. SQR supports a wide variety of bar code types. For example: print-bar-code (1. Specify the position of the bar code in an ordinary position qualifier. text to be encoded.

3 Using Graphics Arguments to PRINT-BAR-CODE may be variables or literals. • PRINT-IMAGE prints a logo or other graphic in the report. see the PRINT-BAR-CODE command in the SQR Language Reference. • DECLARE-IMAGE allows you to share images among reports.SQR 4. • GRAPHIC can be used to draw solid lines or shaded boxes. • The #INCLUDE command is used to include commands from other files in a program. • ALTER-PRINTER chooses a font. • CONCAT is used to combine multiple data elements into one variable. SQR User’s Guide 93 . • PRINT-BAR-CODE can be used to create bar codes. The next chapter shows how to present information visually with charts and other graphics. The example above will produce the following bar code: For further information. Summary • DECLARE-LAYOUT can be used to set a margin.

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and a rich set of chart types—line. Business charts are useful tools for presenting summary data. If you've already written a crosstabular report. stacked bar. Creating a Chart The following example builds on the report created in Chapter 8. floating bar. area.sqr). xy-scatter plot and high-low-close. You can customize many attributes of SQR charts by turning on threedimensional effects or setting titles and legends. overlapped bar. histogram. 100% bar. just like a cross-tabular report (see Chapter 8). A business chart can be prepared using data held in an array.13 Business Charts This chapter shows how to present information visually with graphs. pie. SQR User’s Guide 95 . DECLARE-CHART and PRINT-CHART. and histograms. That example combined the two reports in one program. "CrossTabular Reports and the Use of Arrays" (ex8c. The following program produces two charts corresponding to the two cross-tabs. SQR charts are also portable—you can move them from one hardware platform to another. it's just one more step to make a chart using the data already collected in the array. SQR provides two commands for creating charts. 100% area. charts. The lines that were changed or added are shown in bold. Here is the code. stacked area. bar.

9) edit 9.1.product(#i) let #jan = order_qty.Business Charts SQR 4.999 position (+1) let #i = #i + 1 end-while end-procedure ! print_array Program continues on the following page.999.1) let #mar = order_qty.999.52.0) let #feb = order_qty.32.month_qty(#i.999 print #mar (.1.3 Program ex13a.month_qty(#i.month_qty(#i.70) fill position (+1) do print_array2 new-page let $done = ’YES’ ! Don’t need heading any more do print_the_charts end-program begin-procedure print_array let #entry_cnt = #i let #i = 0 while #i <= #entry_cnt let $product = order_qty.999 print #feb (.sqr #define max-categories 3 #define max-products 100 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty size={max-products} field=product:char field=month_qty:number:3 create-array name=order_qty2 size={max-categories} field=category:char field=month_qty:number:3 declare-chart orders-stacked-bar chart-size=(70.9) edit 9.9) edit 9. 96 SQR User’s Guide .999.62.30) print #jan (.999.30) title=’Order Quantity’ legend-title=’Month’ type=stacked-bar end-declare ! orders-stacked-bar end-setup begin-program do select_data do print_array print ’-’ (+2.42.999 print #prod_tot (.9) edit 9.2) let #prod_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $product (.

31) print #jan (.999.month_qty(#i.999 print #mar (.00’ let order_qty2.52.42.999 print #grand_total (.999.SQR 4.category(0)=’$0-$4.9) edit 9.1) let #mar = order_qty2.32.999 print #category_tot (.62.32.52.1.3 Business Charts Program ex13a.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.999 end-procedure ! print_array2 begin-procedure select_data let order_qty2.42.month_qty(#i.999.00-$100.62.999.999.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.99’ let order_qty2.category(1)=’$5.0 let #x = 0 break when <= 100.9) edit 9.2) let #category_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $category (.category(2)=’Over $100’ begin-select order_date ! the price / price category for the order c.1) print #jan_total (.999 print #feb_total (.price &price move &price to #price_num evaluate #price_num when < 5.category(#i) let #jan = order_qty2.999.9) edit 9. SQR User’s Guide 97 .month_qty(#i.sqr (continued) begin-procedure print_array2 let #i = 0 while #i < {max_categories} let $category = order_qty2.0 let #x = 1 break Program continues on the following page.9) edit 9.999 print #mar_total (.0) let #feb = order_qty2.999.999 print #feb (.999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.999.

product(#i) = ’’ let order_qty.3 Program ex13a.product_code order by description end-select end-procedure ! select_data begin-heading 5 if not ($done = ’YES’) print $current-date (1.’MM’)) .product(#i) = &description end-if if #j < 3 let order_qty.product_code = c.order_num = b.#j) = order_qty2.Business Charts SQR 4. ordlines b.62) Print ’-’ (5.month_qty(#i.1. 98 SQR User’s Guide .month_qty(#x.sqr (continued) when-other let #x = 2 break end-evaluate ! The quantity for this order quantity let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.32) print ’ February’ (.10) print ’Product / Price Category’ (4.42) print ’ March’ (.#j) = order_qty.month_qty(#x.64) ’Page ’ print ’Order Quantity by Product and Price Category by Month’ (2.1) page-number (1.70) Fill end-if end-heading Program continues on the following page.month_qty(#i.#j) + &quantity end-if ! the product for this order description if #i = 0 and order_qty.product(#i) != &description let #i = #i + 1 if #i >= {max_products} display ’Error: There are more than {max_products} products’ stop end-if let order_qty.#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a.52) print ’ Total’ (.1) print ’ January’ (.order_num and b.1 if #j < 3 let order_qty2.product(#i) = &description end-if if order_qty. products c where a.

These dimensions define a rectangle that contains the chart. The charts generated by this program will be 70 characters wide. The title is centered at the top of the chart. In general. The height (or depth. The text generated by LEGEND-TITLE must fit in the small legend box above the categories.sqr are based on the DECLARE-CHART command in the SETUP section and are named orders-stacked-bar.sqr (continued) begin-procedure print_the_charts print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2. The box that surrounds the chart is drawn by default.30) title=’Order Quantity’ legend-title=’Month’ type=stacked-bar end-declare ! orders-stacked-bar The heading is disabled for the last two pages where the charts are printed. these terms are used interchangeably) of the charts is 30 lines. Here is the DECLARE-CHART command: declare-chart orders-stacked-bar chart-size=(70. but you can disable it using the qualifier BORDER=NO. you’ll find that charts look best when the text items are short.’Mar’) sub-title=’By Product By Month’ new-page print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2.’Feb’. The width and height of the charts are specified in terms of character cells. so keep this description short.1) data-array=order_qty data-array-row-count=12 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’.’Feb’.1) data-array=order_qty2 data-array-row-count=3 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’. which translates to 5 inches at 6 lines per inch.3 Business Charts Program ex13a.’Mar’) sub-title=’By Price Category By Month’ end-procedure ! print_the_charts Defining the Chart The two charts in program ex13a. which is 7 inches on a default layout. SQR User’s Guide 99 .SQR 4.

1) data-array=order_qty2 data-array-row-count=3 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’.’Mar’) sub-title=’By Price Category By Month’ The data source is specified using the DATA-ARRAY option. A legend is used to label the series. you must use a slightly different technique for running the program and viewing the output. The argument DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-LABELS is used to pass these labels. If you are using a platform such as UNIX or VMS.1) data-array=order_qty data-array-row-count=12 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’.’Feb’. If you are using an HP LaserJet. Running the Program When you create a graphical report. The argument DATA-ARRAY-ROW-COUNT is the number of rows (bars) to chart and DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-COUNT is the number of fields in the array that the chart uses. specify the printer type with the flag -PRINTER:xx. each series corresponds to a month. For a stacked-bar chart. In this case. enter -PRINTER:HP (or -printer:hp).Business Charts SQR 4. The subtitle goes under the title and can be used as a second line of the title. print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2. enter -PRINTER:PS (or -printer:ps) on the command line. Both are based on the orders-stacked-bar chart that was declared above. For example: sqr ex9a username/password -printer:hp 100 SQR User’s Guide . There are four fields in the array—the product (or price category) field plus the three series (months).’Mar’) sub-title=’By Product By Month’ new-page print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2. The rest of the fields are series of numbers. If you are using a PostScript printer. The named array is expected to have a certain structure that is specified by the TYPE option. the first field in the array gives the names of the categories for the bars.’Feb’.3 Printing the Chart Now look at the PRINT-CHART commands.

SQR 4. The output will automatically appear in the Viewer window after the report has been run. SQR Portable File format is covered in greater detail in Chapter 26.spf SQR User’s Guide 101 . Here is a portion of the output: The charts will appear on pages 2 and 3 of the report. You will still need to use the -PRINTER:xx flag when printing. Output for file ex13a. neither -PRINTER:xx nor -KEEP is required. With VisualSQRIBE.3 Business Charts You may also use the -KEEP command-line flag to produce output in the SQR Portable File format (SPF) and print it using SQR Print.

This procedure is common to many chart types. With pie charts. Pie charts cannot have more than 12 segments. You can omit the first field and SQR will use cardinal numbers (1. . area.Business Charts SQR 4.2. you can have a series of ’Y’ and ’N’ values which indicate whether or not to explode the segment. For pie charts.) for the bars. 102 SQR User’s Guide . histogram. from the center of the pie. and 100% area. Only text fields will be used for these options." or pull away.. stacked-bar. Using a third field in the array. the pie segment that corresponds to the first row will be exploded. stacked-area. you cannot omit the first field with the descriptions. If ’Y’ is the value in the first row of the array. bar. Pie charts are also a special case because you can specify which segments to "explode..3 Passing Data to the Chart The procedure for passing the data to the chart is to use the first field for the descriptions of bars (or lines or areas) and then use one or more additional fields with series of numbers. 100% bar. overlapped bar. including line. only one series is allowed.

the first field does not have descriptions.3 Business Charts Pie charts display the numeric value next to each segment. The description is displayed in the legend. A pair in a floating-bar chart represents the base and height of the bars. A pair in an xy-scatter plot represents x and y coordinates. you can have one or more pairs of series. When data is passed to an xy scatter plot or a floating-bar chart. For both types. SQR User’s Guide 103 . The next chapter gives details on changing fonts. the series are paired. SQR displays the percentage next to the value. In addition.SQR 4. Summary • DECLARE-CHART and PRINT-CHART are used to print charts. You can disable this feature by using the qualifier PIE-SEGMENT-PERCENT-DISPLAY=NO. In a floating-bar chart. In an xy-scatter plot. • Data arrays must be used to assemble and process the data used in making a chart. the first field may or may not have descriptions for the bars.

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If you want to set a font for the entire report. Positioning Text In SQR. the word "Proportionally" fills only 9 cells. SQR User’s Guide 105 . The ALTER-PRINTER command changes the font anywhere in the report. but you can give it another definition by altering the CHAR-WIDTH and LINE-HEIGHT parameters of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. It can only express the width of a string in terms of the number of characters it contains. you use the commands DECLARE-PRINTER and ALTER-PRINTER. such as inches or picas. in the illustration below. not in an actual linear measurement. be aware that the attributes you set with DECLARE-PRINTER only take effect when you print your report with the printer you specify with the TYPE argument. A character grid is best used for positioning the first character in a string. The DECLARE-PRINTER command sets the default font for the entire report. use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. the number of letters that you print may no longer match the number of character cells that the text actually fills. For example. and the change remains in effect until the next ALTER-PRINTER.14 Changing Fonts This chapter explains how to print text in different fonts. To specify a printer at print time. at the beginning of the program. not the size defined by the grid. If you are writing a printer-independent report. When you use a proportionally spaced font. use ALTER-PRINTER. which is not printer-specific. Fonts will print in the size set by DECLARE-PRINTER or ALTER-PRINTER. although it contains 14 letters. text is positioned according to a grid. That grid is set by default to 10 characters per inch and 6 lines per inch. To select a font in SQR. Note however that character grid and character size function independently of one another.

after the output example.Proportionally spaced font 12-pt Times Roman font at position (10. For example. 106 SQR User’s Guide .Report Title SQR default font at position (8.Changing Fonts SQR 4.3 Large Times Roman font at position (4. we advise you to concatenate consecutive pieces of text and print them as one. plus Helvetica bold. the actual position at the end of a string may differ from the position SQR assumes according to the grid.4) . Look at the sample program.3) F ixed pitch fon t . instead of writing code such as: alter-printer font=5 print &first_name () print ’ ’ () print &last_name () alter-printer font=3 ! ! ! ! ! select a proportional font print first name print a space print the last name restore the font You should write code such as: alter-printer font=5 ! select a proportional font ! concatenate the name let $full_name = &first_name || ’ ’ || &last_name print $full_name () ! print the name alter-printer font=3 ! restore the font The WRAP and CENTER options of the PRINT command also require special consideration when used with proportional fonts. It consists of a list of reminders from the reminders table. They both calculate the text length based on the character count in the grid. For this reason.2) When you print consecutive text strings. It is printed in a mix of fonts—Times Roman in two different sizes. which is not the same as its dimensional width. The use of these options with proportional fonts is explained below.

60) ’Page ’ ! Use large font for the title alter-printer font=5 point-size=24 print ’Reminder List’ (3. both for positioning the text and for setting the length of the solid line.25) ! Use Helvetica for the column headings alter-printer font=4 point-size=12 print ’Date’ (6.1) bold print ’Reminder’ (6.+1) wrap 60 5 position (+2) from reminders end-select end-procedure ! main begin-heading 7 print $current-date (1.SQR 4.3 Changing Fonts Program ex14a.20) edit ’DD-MON-YY’ reminder (.66) horz-line ! Restore the font alter-printer font=5 point-size=12 end-heading The report uses the default layout grid of 10 characters per inch and 6 lines per inch.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1. its size is set to 24 points to print the title. The point size was not set. The column headings are set to 12-point Helvetica with the command ALTER-PRINTER FONT=4 POINT-SIZE=12. so it remains at the default of 12. SQR User’s Guide 107 . which is Times Roman. The font is set at the beginning of the main procedure to font 5.11) end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main ! Set Times Roman as the font for the report alter-printer font=5 point-size=12 begin-select remind_date (. In the HEADING section. The BOLD option of the PRINT command specifies that they are printed in bold.1.1.sqr begin-setup declare-layout default paper-size=(10.22) bold graphic (6.

there is a solid line. position the title by estimating its length. which is 60 characters in the sample program. the report heading is performed after the body. Note that it is positioned at line 6. The CENTER option of the PRINT command won’t work because it does not account for the actual size of the text.3 Under the column headings. Instead. the title should start 2 1/2 inches from the left margin. 25 characters translates to 2 1/2 inches. Make sure you keep track of your font changes. SQR is designed to draw the solid line as an underline. the same as the column headings.spf In an SQR program. Positioning the title requires careful coding. 108 SQR User’s Guide . the font is restored to Times Roman. We recommend that you return fonts to their original settings in the same section in which you change them.Changing Fonts SQR 4. although it will change the font used in the body of subsequent pages. The character coordinates will be "(3. This option wraps text based on a given width. Program ex14a. Using WRAP The WRAP option of the PRINT command is used to print the text of the reminder column. Therefore. Remember that the character grid used for positioning assumes 10 characters per inch. character position 25. At the end the HEADING section. A font change in the heading will not affect the font used in the body of the current page.25)." which is line 3. In this case.

define the page as wider than it actually is. Summary • DECLARE-PRINTER and ALTER-PRINTER are used to specify fonts. SQR User’s Guide 109 .3 Changing Fonts The WRAP option works only on the basis of the width given in the character grid. this setting only specifies the maximum number of lines. The next chapter explains how to write reports that can be printed on any printer. In the sample program. The other argument of the WRAP option is the maximum number of lines. This definition is given by the argument PAPERSIZE=(10. • The BOLD. Printing 60 characters starting from position 22 could exceed this maximum and cause an error or undesirable output. and WRAP options of the PRINT command are used to format text. CENTER. Since the reminder column in the database is 240 characters wide. SQR will not use more lines than are needed. or 75 characters at 10 CPI. which is a fixed-size font). Remember. SQR calculates the maximum number of characters on a line using the page dimensions in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command (the default is 8 1/2 inches wide). ALTER-PRINTER is printerneutral. no more than 5 lines are needed. 8 1/2 inches minus the inch used in the margins is 7 1/2 inches. Text printed in Times Roman takes about 30-50 percent less room than the same text in Courier (the default font. specify a width of 60. It does not depend on the font. To avoid this error. at 60 characters per line. To be conservative.SQR 4. This means that a column with a nominal width of 44 characters (that’s the width of the reminder column) can actually hold as many as 66 letters when printed in the Times Roman font. • DECLARE-PRINTER is printer-specific.11) in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command.

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4.15 Writing Printer-Independent Reports This chapter explains how to prepare printer-independent reports. and font 5 is Times Roman. However. which can be run on any printer that SQR supports or distributed electronically. as demonstrated below). the better. and the SYMBOL-SET argument of the ALTER-PRINTER command only define behavior when a specific printer is used. you must write a program that avoids using any characteristics that are unique to a specific printer. Test your graphical report on a line printer. As you will see. Helvetica may not be available. PRINT-DIRECT. the closer you can get to a truly printer-independent report. • Your report should be readable if printed on a line printer. Your program should be free of the following commands: GRAPHIC FONT (use ALTER-PRINTER instead). This reduces the common fonts to fonts 3 and 5 only. the CODE or CODE-PRINTER qualifiers of the PRINT command. Guidelines for Printer-Independent Reports • Your program should not assume or require a specific printer. • DECLARE-PRINTER. and the CODE-PRINTER and CODE qualifiers of the PRINT command. Font numbers 3. USE-PRINTER-TYPE (except for using this command to select a printer at run time. complete printer independence may be too restrictive. Graphics or solid lines printed with the graphic command are not printed on a line printer. PRINTER-INIT. To create a printer-independent report. Note that on some HP printers. font 4 is Helvetica. PRINTER-DEINIT. • Use only a small set of fonts. 5 and their boldface versions are the same regardless of the type of printer you use (except for a line printer). SQR User’s Guide 111 . Font 3 is Courier.

The added lines are shown in bold type.’ 112 SQR User’s Guide .3 • Be aware of certain limitations. Hpgl-file images can only be printed on HP LaserJet Series 3 or higher or printers that emulate HP PCL at that level. PRINTIMAGE and PRINT-CHART may not work with old printers that use PostScript Level 1 or HP LaserJet Series II. enter this command-line flag in the Parameters field of the Run dialog box. -PRINTER:HP for HP LaserJet output.sqr modified to prompt the user to select the printer type at run time. If you are using VisualSQRIBE. In the next example.Writing Printer-Independent Reports SQR 4. Use -PRINTER:LP for lineprinter output. enter the following on the command line: sqr test username/password -printer:ps The second way of specifying the printer type is by using the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command. Gif-file and jpeg-file images are suitable only for HTML output. Bmp-file images can only be printed using Windows. If you are using the system shell. you can specify the printer at run time in two ways. -PRINTER:WP for Windows output. Eps-file images can only be printed on PostScript printers. The first way is to use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. -PRINTER:PS for PostScript output. you can see the PROGRAM section of the program ex3a. If your report is printer-neutral and does not specify a printer. or -PRINTER:HT for HTML output. which specifies the output type for your report. begin-program input $p ’Printer type’ let $p = lower($p) evaluate $p when = ’hp’ when = ’hplaserjet’ use-printer-type hp break when = ’lp’ when = ’lineprinter’ use-printer-type lp break when = ’ps’ when = ’postscript’ use-printer-type ps break when-other display ’Invalid printer stop end-evaluate ! Prompt user for printer type ! Convert type to lowercase ! Case statement ! HP LaserJet ! Line Printer ! PostScript type.

The EVALUATE command is similar to a switch statement in the C language. • The -PRINTER:xx command-line flag and the USE-PRINTER-TYPE and EVALUATE commands prompt the user to specify the printer at run time.SQR 4.3 Writing Printer-Independent Reports do list_customers end-program In the code above. The next chapter describes how to produce reports that vary according to the report parameters and selection criteria supplied by the user. SQR User’s Guide 113 . Because the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command does not accept a variable as an argument. the INPUT command prompts the user to enter the printer type. the EVALUATE command is used to test for the six possible values and set the printer type accordingly. It compares a variable to multiple constants and executes the appropriate code. Summary • Reports can be made printer-independent by writing programs that do not require a certain printer.

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it is considered as executing the same statement. When SQR executes this statement several times. even if the values of the variables change. SQR provides three ways to vary a SQL statement: • Using variables in SQL • Dynamic SQL • SQL and substitution variables SQR provides three ways to do error checking: • ON-ERROR procedures • Commands with ON-ERROR options • The INPUT command These techniques are described in more detail in the following sections. This sample program selects customers from a state that the user specifies. SQR User’s Guide 115 .16 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking This chapter describes how to vary the SQL statement based on a user’s selection criteria or other report parameters. A SQL statement containing variables is considered static. Using Variables in SQL The SQL language supports the use of variables. Since SQL only allows variables in places where literals are allowed (such as in a WHERE clause or INSERT statement). the database can parse the statement before the values for the variables are given.

the INPUT command prompts the user to enter the value of state. NH. SQR will generate the output shown below. NM. NJ. INPUT reprompts. The only thing that changes between executions of the SELECT statement is the value of the variable. which allows the user to input the state without worrying about the case. If the entry is incorrect. The program converts the contents of the $state variable to uppercase.Dynamic SQL and Error Checking SQR 4. enter IN. You would do so by using "where state = upper($state)" if you are using Oracle or SYBASE or by using "where state = ucase($state)" if you are using another database. In this program. ensuring that the user enters a string of no more than two characters. In the example. The arguments MAXLEN and TYPE check the input. However. the database only needs to parse the SQL statement once.sqr begin-program do list_customers_for_state end-program begin-procedure list_customers_for_state input $state maxlen=2 type=char ’Enter state abbreviation’ let $state = upper($state) begin-select name (. SQR "binds" the variable before the SQL is executed. In many cases. This is the most common example of varying a SELECT statement. you must specify one of the states included in the sample data for the program to return any records.3 Program ex16a. the SQL statement sent to the database contains that variable. When you run this program.1) position (+1) from customers where state = $state end-select end-procedure ! list_customers_for_state Note the use of the $state variable in the SELECT paragraph. When you use a variable in a SQL statement in SQR. NY. The example shows the LET command used with the SQR upper function. SQR allows you to write database-independent code by moving the use of such SQL extensions to the SQR code. 116 SQR User’s Guide . At the prompt. state is uppercase in the database. You could let the SQL perform the conversion to uppercase. or OH. If you enter NY (the state where most of the customers in the sample data reside). MI.

This technique is called dynamic SQL. It is illustrated in the following example. name from customers order by city. and the program sorts the records by name with a secondary sort by city. To take full advantage of the error-handling procedure. the statements are different. SQR actually constructs the statement each time before executing it. the first column is the city and the second is name. city from customers order by name. SQR User’s Guide 117 . The first SELECT statement will therefore be: select name.3 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking Output for ex16a. The first time. the first column is called name and the second column is called city. Inc. name As you can see. The program runs the SELECT twice. Dynamic SQL You may find the restriction against using variables where only literals are allowed too limiting in some cases. and the program sorts by city with a secondary sort by name. the ordering of the records is changed based on the user’s selection.SQR 4. run it with the command-line flag -CB.sqr Alfred E Newman & Company Eliot Richards Harriet Bailey Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Corks and Bottles. The second time. city The second SELECT statement will be: select city. In the following example.

Note that the data in the first half of the report is sorted differently than the data in the second half. when you use the dynamic variable [$my_order] in the ORDER BY clause of the SELECT statement. For example. It is discussed below in "SQL Error Checking.sqr begin-program let $col1 = ’name’ let $col2 = ’city’ let #pos = 32 do list_customers_for_state position (+1) let $col1 = ’city’ let $col2 = ’name’ let #pos = 18 do list_customers_for_state end-program begin-procedure give_warning display ’Database error occurred’ display $sql-error end-procedure ! give_warning begin-procedure list_customers_for_state let $my_order = $col1 || ’. a new statement is compiled and executed. you make them dynamic variables by enclosing them in square brackets.3 Program ex16b. They substitute the names of the columns in the SELECT statement. Note the error-handling procedure give_warning.#pos) position (+1) from customers order by [$my_order] end-select end-procedure ! list_customers_for_state When you use variables in a SQL statement in SQR to replace more than literals.1) [$col2] &column2=char (. Each time the statement is executed.Dynamic SQL and Error Checking SQR 4. if the text changes. You can use dynamic variables to produce reports like this one. Other dynamic variables used are [$col1] and [$col2]. The variables &column1 and &column2 are column variables.’ || $col2 begin-select on-error=give_warning [$col1] &column1=char (." 118 SQR User’s Guide . SQR will place the text from the variable $my_order in that statement.

report the error. and DELETE SQL statements in your program. before the execution of the report begins. which can allow syntax errors to occur in run time. UPDATE. use the ON-ERROR option of the BEGIN-SELECT or BEGIN-SQL paragraphs. and abort the program. the content of the dynamic variable is used to construct the SQL statement. Any SQL syntax error will be detected and reported at compile time.SQR 4. INSERT. SQR cannot check the syntax until run time. SQR checks the syntax of the SELECT. When an SQR program is compiled. SQR User’s Guide 119 . Errors could occur if the dynamic variables selected or used in a WHERE or ORDER BY clause were incorrect. Inc. Inc.sqr Alfred E Newman & Company Clair Butterfield Corks and Bottles. SQR will trap any run-time error. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Clair Butterfield Isaiah J Schwartz and Company SQL Error Checking SQR checks and reports database errors for SQL statements. In that case.3 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking Output for ex16b. Eliot Richards Gregory Stonehaven Harold Alexander Fink Harriet Bailey Harry’s Landmark Diner Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Joe Smith and Company Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Quentin Fields Sam Johnson Bell Harbor Big Falls Cleveland Davenport Everretsville Frogline Mamaroneck Miningville New York New York New York Queens Teaneck Zanesville New York Teaneck New York Queens Everretsville Davenport Mamaroneck Miningville Zanesville Frogline Big Falls New York Cleveland Bell Harbor Sam Johnson Joe Smith and Company Quentin Fields Harold Alexander Fink Gregory Stonehaven Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Harriet Bailey Harry’s Landmark Diner Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles. If you want to change this default behavior. When you use dynamic SQL.

Note the use of the variable $sql-error. SQL and Substitution Variables SQR uses the value of this substitution variable to complete the SELECT statement at compile time. but it demonstrates the difference between compile-time and run-time substitutions. 120 SQR User’s Guide . the value of {my_order} cannot change and the SQL statement is considered static. execution would continue at the statement immediately following the SQL or SELECT paragraph. From this point on. or predefined. if a database error occurs. The variable $username has the user name that was used to log on to the database. and they are very useful. the ASK command in the SETUP section prompts the user at compile time. SQR will invoke a procedure called give_warning instead of reporting the problem and aborting. For example.#pos) position (+1) from customers order by [$my_order] end-select In the above example. The variable #page-count has the page number for the current page. variables. This example is less common. Write this procedure as follows: begin-procedure give_warning display ’Database error occurred’ display $sql-error end-procedure ! give_warning This procedure displays the error message but does not abort the execution of the program. argument. This is a special SQR reserved variable. For a complete list of reserved variables. It contains the error message text from the database and is automatically set by SQR after a database error occurs. This variable can be used to substitute any command.Dynamic SQL and Error Checking SQR 4. or part of a SQL statement at compile time. the variable $sqr-program has the name of the program that is running. Instead. see the table "SQR Reserved Variables" in the SQR Language Reference. SQR has a number of reserved. In the following program. SQR can check its syntax before execution begins. Because the SELECT statement is complete at compile time.3 begin-select on-error=give_warning [$col1] &column1=char (. The value that the user enters is placed in a special kind of variable called a substitution variable.1) [$col2] &column2=char (.

sqr begin-setup ask my_order ’Enter the column name to sort by (name or city)’ end-setup begin-program do list_customers_for_state end-program begin-procedure give_warning display ’Database error occurred’ display $sql-error end-procedure ! give_warning begin-procedure list_customers_for_state begin-select on-error=give_warning name (. If the argument is passed on the command line. there will be no prompt. which will be used to sort the output. The following code shows this technique. all ASK commands are performed before any INPUT command is performed. The ASK command can only be used in the SETUP section. We have seen an example of reprompting in the section "Using Variables in SQL. When you run this program. You can validate the length and type of data input and reprompt if it is not valid. city. SQR User’s Guide 121 . You can use INPUT inside loops. The program will produce a report sorted accordingly.32) position (+1) from customers order by {my_order} end-select end-procedure ! list_customers_for_state In this case. ASK can be more powerful." earlier in this chapter.SQR 4. Therefore.1) city (. Substitution variables set in an ASK command let you modify commands that are normally quite restrictive. the ASK command prompts the user for the value of the substitution variable {my_order}. ASK commands are always performed at compile time before program execution begins. or both (in either order and separated by a comma). INPUT is more flexible than ASK.3 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking Program ex16c. enter name.

Dynamic SQL and Error Checking

SQR 4.3

begin-setup ask hlines ’Number of lines for heading’ end-setup begin-program print ’Hello, World!!’ (1,1) end-program begin-heading {hlines} print ’Report Title’ () center end-heading

In this example, the substitution variable {hlines} defines the number of lines that the heading will occupy. The BEGIN-HEADING command normally expects a literal and does not allow a run-time variable. When a substitution variable is used with this command, its value is modified at compile time. For further information on the ASK and INPUT commands, see Chapter 25, "Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute."

Summary
• Dynamic variables are variables used in a SQL statement to replace more than literals. They are enclosed in square brackets. • You can customize SQR’s run-time error handling. • SQR has a number of reserved variables. For a full listing, see the table "SQR Reserved Variables" in the SQR Language Reference. • Substitution variables entered by the ASK command can be used in place of any command, argument, or SQL statement at compile time. They are enclosed in curly braces.
In the next chapter, you will learn more about SQR procedures.

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Procedures, Argument Passing, and Local Variables
This chapter examines SQR procedures. It explains how to pass parameters and illustrates the difference between global and local procedures. In particular, it shows how to reference global variables from within a local procedure. The sample code in this chapter shows a procedure that spells out a number and a program for printing checks that uses this procedure. When printing checks, you normally need to spell out the dollar amount, as shown below.

In the sample program, it is assumed that the checks are preprinted and that our program only has to print such items as the date, name, and amount.

Procedures
SQR procedures that contain variables which are visible throughout the program are called global procedures. These procedures can also directly reference any program variable.

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In contrast, procedures that take arguments, such as the spell_number procedure in this chapter’s check-printing sample code, are local procedures. In SQR, any procedure that takes arguments is automatically considered local. Variables introduced in a local procedure are only readable inside the procedure. This useful feature avoids name collisions. In the sample program, the spell_number procedure is placed in an include file because other reports may also want to use it.

Local Variables
When you create library procedures that may be used in many programs, make them local. Then, if a program has a variable with the same name as a variable used in the procedure, there will not be a collision. SQR treats the two variables as separate. We recommend that you declare a procedure as local even if it does not take any arguments. Simply place the keyword LOCAL after the procedure name in the BEGIN-PROCEDURE command. To reference a global variable from a local procedure, insert an underscore between the prefix character (#, $, or &) and the variable name. Note also that the same technique is used to reference reserved variables such as #current-line. These variables are always global. You can reference #_current-line from a local procedure. SQR supports recursive procedure calls, but it maintains only one copy of a local variable. A procedure will not allocate new instances of the local variables on a stack, as C or Pascal would.

Argument Passing
Procedure arguments are treated as local variables. Arguments may be either numeric, date, or text variables or strings. If an argument is preceded with a colon, its value will be passed back to the calling procedure. In the example below, spell_number takes two arguments. The first argument is the check amount. This argument is a number, and the program passes it to the procedure. There is no need for the procedure to pass it back.

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Procedures, Argument Passing, and Local Variables

The second argument is the result that the procedure passes back to the calling program. We precede this variable with a colon, which means that the value of this argument will be copied back at the end of the procedure. The colon is only used when the argument is declared in the BEGIN-PROCEDURE command. Look at the following code. It’s not a complete program. It’s the spell_number procedure, which is stored in the file spell.inc. The checkprinting program will include this code using an #INCLUDE command. File spell.inc
begin-procedure spell_number(#num,:$str) let $str = ’’ ! break the number to it’s 3-digit parts let #trillions = floor(#num / 1000000000000) let #billions = mod(floor(#num / 1000000000),1000) let #millions = mod(floor(#num / 1000000),1000) let #thousands = mod(floor(#num / 1000),1000) let #ones = mod(floor(#num),1000) ! spell each 3-digit part do spell_3digit(#trillions,’trillion’,$str) do spell_3digit(#billions,’billion’,$str) do spell_3digit(#millions,’million’,$str) do spell_3digit(#thousands,’thousand’,$str) do spell_3digit(#ones,’’,$str) end-procedure ! spell_number begin-procedure spell_3digit(#num,$part_name,:$str) let #hundreds = floor(#num / 100) let #rest = mod(#num,100) if #hundreds do spell_digit(#hundreds,$str) concat ’hundred ’ with $str end-if if #rest do spell_2digit(#rest,$str) end-if if #hundreds or #rest if $part_name != ’’ concat $part_name with $str concat ’ ’ with $str end-if end-if end-procedure ! spell_3digit

Program continues on the following page.

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File spell.inc (continued)
begin-procedure spell_2digit(#num,:$str) let #tens = floor(#num / 10) let #ones = mod(#num,10) if #num < 20 and #num > 9 evaluate #num when = 10 concat ’ten ’ with $str break when = 11 concat ’eleven ’ with $str break when = 12 concat ’twelve ’ with $str break when = 13 concat ’thirteen ’ with $str break when = 14 concat ’fourteen ’ with $str break when = 15 concat ’fifteen ’ with $str break when = 16 concat ’sixteen ’ with $str break when = 17 concat ’seventeen ’ with $str break when = 18 concat ’eighteen ’ with $str break when = 19 concat ’nineteen ’ with $str break end-evaluate else evaluate #tens when = 2 concat ’twenty’ with $str break when = 3 concat ’thirty’ with $str break when = 4 concat ’forty’ with $str break

Program continues on the following page.

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:$str) evaluate #num when = 1 concat ’one ’ with $str break when = 2 concat ’two ’ with $str break when = 3 concat ’three ’ with $str break when = 4 concat ’four ’ with $str break when = 5 concat ’five ’ with $str break when = 6 concat ’six ’ with $str break Program continues on the following page. Argument Passing.SQR 4.inc (continued) when = 5 concat ’fifty’ with $str break when = 6 concat ’sixty’ with $str break when = 7 concat ’seventy’ with $str break when = 8 concat ’eighty’ with $str break when = 9 concat ’ninety’ with $str break end-evaluate if #num > 20 if #ones concat ’-’ with $str else concat ’ ’ with $str end-if end-if if #ones do spell_digit(#ones. and Local Variables File spell.3 Procedures.$str) end-if end-if end-procedure ! spell_2digit begin-procedure spell_digit(#num. SQR User’s Guide 127 .

and Local Variables SQR 4. but not between three-digit parts. The number is broken into its three-digit parts: trillions.inc’ begin-setup declare-layout default end-declare end-setup Program continues on the following page.sqr #include ’spell. These functions are listed and described under the LET command in the SQR Language Reference. The program only supports numbers up to 999 trillion. millions.3 File spell.Procedures. Another procedure spells out the three-digit numbers such as "one hundred twelve." Note that the word and is inserted only between dollars and cents. SQR has a rich set of functions that can be used in expressions. because the program begins with an empty string and keeps concatenating the parts of the number to it. This format is common for check printing in dollars. This is the full program that prints the checks. Argument Passing. Program ex17a. Note the use of math functions such as floor and mod. and ones. thousands.inc (continued) when = 7 concat break when = 8 concat break when = 9 concat break end-evaluate end-procedure ! ’seven ’ with $str ’eight ’ with $str ’nine ’ with $str spell_digit The result argument is reset in the procedure. billions. The series of EVALUATE commands in the number-spelling procedures are used to correlate the numbers stored in the variables with the strings used to spell them out. 128 SQR User’s Guide .

58) if #amount < 1.1) * 100.10 >= 0. products d where a.order_num = c.990. ordlines c.2.00 let $spelled_amount = ’Zero dollars ’ else do spell_number(#amount.12) move #amount to $display_amt 9.12) print ’ ’ (20) next-listing need=20 end-procedure ! print_check The main procedure starts by setting the font to 15-point Times Roman.99 ! enclose number with asterisks for security let $display_amt = ’**’ || ltrim($display_amt. It also joins with the products table for the price.1) concat ’dollars ’ with $spelled_amount end-if let #cents = round(mod(#amount.999. The SELECT paragraph is a join of several tables.’00’) || ’ cents’ concat $cents_amount with $spelled_amount print $spelled_amount (12.’ ’) || ’**’ print $display_amt (8.1.45) edit ’DD-Mon-YYYY’ print &_name (8. The program joins it with the orders and ordlines tables to get the customer’s order details.$spelled_amount) let #len = length($spelled_amount) ! Change the first letter to uppercase let $spelled_amount = upper(substr($spelled_amount.price * c.#len .12) print ’Rebate’ (16. (A join is created when you select data from more than one database table in the same SELECT paragraph. SQR User’s Guide 129 .10 &refund do print_check(&refund) from customers a.cust_num = b.product_code = d.sqr (continued) begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main alter-printer font=5 point-size=15 begin-select name &name sum(d.quantity) * 0.SQR 4. and Local Variables Program ex17a.cust_num and b.price * c. Argument Passing.quantity) * 0.order_num and c.) The customers table has the customer’s name. 0) let $cents_amount = ’and ’ || edit(#cents.product_code group by name having sum(d.3 Procedures.1)) || substr($spelled_amount. orders b.01 end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure print_check(#amount) print $_current-date (3.

01 The HAVING clause eliminates checks for less than 1 cent. • To reference a global variable from a local procedure.Procedures.3 The following expression adds up all of the customer’s purchases and calculates a 10 percent rebate: sum(d. 130 SQR User’s Guide . respectively. or & and the variable name.quantity) * 0.price * c. The next chapter shows how to create multiple reports simultaneously from one program. Note the way it references the date and customer name with &_current-date and &_name. Summary • Variables in global procedures are visible throughout the program.10 >= 0. one check per customer. preface it with a colon.quantity) * 0. • To pass an argument back to its calling procedure. Argument Passing. This is done with the clause: group by name having sum(d. The procedure print_check is a local procedure.10 The statement groups the records by the customer name. $. • Variables in local procedures are visible only within the procedure.price * c. place an underscore between the prefix character #. and Local Variables SQR 4.

selecting the database records only once and creating different reports simultaneously. The sample program will print three reports—the labels from Chapter 9. All three reports are based on exactly the same data.33 end-declare declare-layout form_letter end-declare declare-layout listing end-declare declare-report labels layout=labels end-declare declare-report form_letter layout=form_letter end-declare declare-report listing layout=listing end-declare end-setup Program continues on the following page.11) left-margin=0. The alternative—writing separate programs for the different reports— would require you to perform a separate database query for each report. SQR User’s Guide 131 .18 Multiple Reports This chapter shows you how to create multiple reports from one program. You can create multiple reports based on common data. you will see how SQR allows you to write multiple reports with different layouts and different heading and footing sections. This powerful feature can save a significant amount of processing time. Program ex18a. Repeated queries are costly because database operations are often the most resource-consuming or time-consuming part of creating a report. the form letter from Chapter 10. In the following example. and the listing report from Chapter 3.sqr #define MAX_LABEL_LINES #define LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS 10 3 begin-setup declare-layout labels paper-size=(10.

30) let $last_line = &city || ’.1.30) next-column at-end=newline add 1 to #label_count if #current-column = 1 add 1 to #label_lines if #label_lines = {MAX_LABEL_LINES} new-page let #label_lines = 0 else next-listing no-advance skiplines={LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS} end-if end-if end-procedure ! print_label Program continues on the following page.3 Program ex18a.30) print &addr1 (2. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip print $last_line (3.sqr (continued) begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main do init_mailing_labels begin-select name addr1 addr2 city state zip move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx phone do print_label do print_letter do print_listing from customers end-select do end_mailing_labels end-procedure ! main begin-procedure init_mailing_labels let #label_count = 0 let #label_lines = 0 use-report labels columns 1 29 57 ! enable columns alter-printer font=5 point-size=10 end-procedure ! init_mailing_labels begin-procedure print_label use-report labels print &name (1.1.1.Multiple Reports SQR 4. 132 SQR User’s Guide .

b .b Thank you for your recent purchases from ACME Inc. Yes.b . During this month.SQR 4. end-document position () @city_state_zip print &city () print ’.1) &name &addr1 &addr2 @city_state_zip . SQR User’s Guide 133 . .1) print #label_count () edit 9. so don’t wait.1) print $current-date () print ’Total labels printed = ’ (+1.b Sincerely.sqr (continued) begin-procedure end_mailing_labels use-report labels use-column 0 ! disable columns new-page print ’Labels printed on ’ (. ’ () print &state () print ’ ’ () move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx print $zip () new-page end-procedure ! print_letter Program continues on the following page. To place an order simply dial 800-555-ACME. We would like to tell you about our limited time offer.b $current-date Dear Sir or Madam: . our entire inventory is marked down by 25%.999.999 end-procedure ! end_mailing_labels begin-procedure print_letter use-report form_letter begin-document (1. Clark Axelotle ACME Inc. Delivery is free too.3 Multiple Reports Program ex18a. you can buy your favorite merchandise and save too.

Note that it is only performed once and includes all the columns for all the reports.55) position (+1) end-procedure ! print_listing The SETUP section defines three layouts and three different reports that use these layouts.49) print ’Phone’ (. and print_listing prints one line into the listing report. The print_label procedure prints one label.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing begin-procedure print_listing use-report listing print &name (.49) print &phone (. The main procedure performs the SELECT.3 Program ex18a.1) print ’City’ (. The labels report requires a layout that is different from the default.Multiple Reports SQR 4. For each record selected.32) print ’State’ (.32) print &state (. The phone column is only used in the listing report and the addr2 column is only used in the form-letter report. The other two reports use a layout that is identical to the default layout. However. three procedures are executed.1) print &city (. It would be possible to save the last layout declaration and use the form-letter layout for the listing.sqr (continued) begin-heading 4 for-reports=(listing) print ’Customer Listing’ (1) center print ’Name’ (3. SQR sets the printing context with the USE-REPORT command. Each procedure processes one record for its corresponding report. print_letter prints one letter. 134 SQR User’s Guide . Each procedure begins by setting the SQR printing context to its corresponding report. unless there is a logical reason why the two layouts should be the same. The name of the layout indicates which report uses it. The other columns are used in more than one report. it is better to keep separate layouts.55) end-heading begin-footing 1 for-reports=(listing) ! Print "Page n of m" in the footing page-number (1.

SQR User’s Guide 135 .sqr. (If you are running the report with VisualSQRIBE. respectively.SQR 4.s01. The parentheses are required. • USE-REPORT sets the printing context for each report. the output files will be named ex18a. ex18a. and ex18a. ex18a. The FOR-REPORTS option of the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGIN-FOOTING commands specifies the report name. and ex18a. If you are running VisualSQRIBE.l02 (customer listing). ex18a. but only the first output file. you may omit -KEEP. ex10a. Most of the code for ex18a. because the other two reports do not use them.lis (labels). and ex3a.) When you run ex18a. If you specify -KEEP. The next chapter explains how to integrate SQL statements other than SELECT with SQR.sqr is taken from ex9a. and ex3a. you must run it with the -KEEP or -PRINTER:xx command-line flags. This example only defines the heading and footing for the listing report. respectively. The report is implied by the FOR-REPORTS option.spf. Note that the USE-REPORT command is not needed in the heading or the footing.sqr. Because this program creates output with proportional fonts. you get three output files that match the output files for ex9a.sqr. ex10a. • The FOR-REPORTS option of BEGIN-HEADING and BEGIN-FOOTING defines headings and footings for individual reports. These output files will have the names ex18a. You can view the other output files by selecting File→Open. will be displayed. • You can define separate reports in the SETUP section.s02.l01 (form letter). Summary • Writing multiple reports simultaneously with one program reduces database queries.sqr. See Chapter 9 for more information on running reports with proportional fonts.spf. the Viewer window will open automatically after you run the programs.3 Multiple Reports SQR allows you to define HEADING and FOOTING sections for each report.

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This is easily performed in SQR with a SQL UPDATE statement.19 Using DML and DDL SQL Statements Although SELECT may be the most common SQL statement. • If you need to hold intermediate results in a temporary database table. This program loads the tab-delimited file created by the program ex11a. or invoices. you can create two SQL paragraphs in your SQR program (CREATE TABLE and DROP TABLE) to create this table at the beginning of the program and drop the table at the end. • You can use SQR to load data into the database. SQR can also insert these records into the database using a SQL INSERT statement. and this feature is used often. SQR can read and write external files and construct records. These are only a few examples. Here are a few examples: • If the program prints important documents such as checks. It demonstrates two important features of SQR—handling external files and performing database inserts. you can also perform other SQL commands in SQR. SQR can perform any SQL statement. you may need to update the database to indicate that the document was printed. tickets. Using BEGIN-SQL To perform a SQL statement other than a SELECT statement you must use the BEGIN-SQL paragraph. SQR User’s Guide 137 .sqr. The following example loads data from an external file into the database.

$addr1. 138 SQR User’s Guide . addr2. #tot) end-sql end-while Program continues on the following page. $zip.3 Program ex19a. city.sqr begin-setup begin-sql on-error=skip ! table may already exist create table customers_ext ( cust_num int not null.Using DML and DDL SQL Statements SQR 4. addr1 varchar (30). zip varchar (10). $state. $phone.lis’ as 1 for-reading record=160:vary read 1 into $rec:160 ! skip the first record. state varchar (2). addr1. phone. tot int ) end-sql end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main #if {sqr-database} = ’Sybase’ begin-sql begin transaction end-sql #endif encode ’<009>’ into $sep open ’ex11a. addr2 varchar (30). $name. phone varchar (10). $addr2. name. name varchar (30). $city. column headings while 1 read 1 into $rec:160 if #end-file break end-if unstring $rec by $sep into $cust_num $name $addr1 $addr2 $city $state $zip $phone $tot move $cust_num to #cust_num move $tot to #tot begin-sql insert into customers_ext (cust_num. city varchar (16). tot) values (#cust_num. state. zip.

Note that #end-file is an SQR reserved variable. we recommend you use the SQR COMMIT.3 Using DML and DDL SQL Statements Program ex19a. The changes are committed with a SQL COMMIT statement inside a BEGIN-SQL paragraph. The input file format is one record per line. When the end of the file is encountered (if #end-file). To ignore this error message. the program branches out of the loop. see the SQR Language Reference. for example. The last step is to commit the changes to the database and close the file. SQR User’s Guide 139 . See Chapter 16.sqr (continued) #if {sqr-database} = ’Sybase’ begin-sql commit transaction end-sql #else #if {sqr-database} <> ’Informix’ begin-sql commit end-sql #endif #endif close 1 end-procedure ! main The program starts by creating the table customers_ext. Note that the code may be database-specific. If you are using Informix. The program reads the records from the file and inserts each record into the database by using an INSERT statement inside a BEGIN-SQL paragraph. For Oracle databases. For a complete listing of reserved variables. Alternatively.SQR 4. If the table already exists you will get an error message. much like the SYBASE example of BEGIN TRANSACTION and COMMIT TRANSACTION. Dynamic SQL and Error Checking. and your database was created with transaction logging. use the ON-ERROR=SKIP option. you can use the SQR COMMIT command. with each field separated by the separator character. you must add a BEGIN WORK and a COMMIT WORK." for more information on error handling.

use the SQR COMMIT. 140 SQR User’s Guide . • To insert database records. The next chapter explains how to work with dates in SQR. For Oracle databases.Using DML and DDL SQL Statements SQR 4. use SQL commands such as INSERT and COMMIT inside the BEGIN-SQL paragraph.3 Summary • A BEGIN-SQL paragraph can be used to perform SQL statements other than SELECT.

A date can be represented as a character string or in an internal format using the SQR date datatype. • By using INPUT to get a date from the user. Date variables will be discussed later in this chapter. datediff. The internal date representation always keeps the year as a four-digit value. or strdodate. You may need to add or subtract a number of days from a given date. • By referencing or printing the reserved variable $current-date.D. datenow. 4712 B. it is not necessary to declare date variables. • By declaring a date variable using the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. • As a result of an SQR date function: dateadd. or compare dates to find if one date is later. Date values can be obtained in one of five ways: • By selecting a date column from the database. earlier. or the same as another date. We strongly recommend that you always keep dates with four-digit year values (and not truncate to two digits) to avoid date problems at the turn of the century. and manipulation.C. The date datatype allows you to store dates in the range of January 1. editing. You will learn the best way to handle dates in a program. For most applications. to December 31.20 Working with Dates This chapter explains how to handle dates with SQR. Date Arithmetic Many applications require date calculations. SQR allows you to easily perform these calculations in your program. It also stores the time of day with the precision of a microsecond. SQR has powerful capabilities in date arithmetic. subtract one date from another to find a time difference. SQR User’s Guide 141 . 9999 A.

Working with Dates SQR 4. which is returned by datenow. The datenow function returns the current local date and time. $current-date.12) end-if position (+1) end-select In this example. SQR provides a reserved date variable.5 days to a given date." 142 SQR User’s Guide .’day’. In addition. minutes.30) < datenow() print ’Past Due Order’ (.12) else print ’Current Order’ (. The datetostr function converts a date to a string. the functions dateadd and datenow are used to compare dates. the program prints the string "Past Due Order. weeks.1) invoice_date if dateadd(&invoice_date. perform those calculations in SQR—your programs will be portable. or seconds. =. The strtodate function converts a string to a date. Instead." If the invoice is 30 days old or less. Fractions are allowed—you can add 2. The function dateadd adds 30 days to the invoice date (&invoice_date). days. The dateadd function adds or subtracts a number of specified time units from a given date. the program prints the string "Current Order. which is automatically initialized with the local date and time at the beginning of the program. Conversion between time units is also allowed—you can add. or >) in an expression. hours. You can compare dates by using the usual operators (< .3 Many databases allow you to perform date calculations in SQL. If the invoice is older than 30 days. but that can be awkward if you are trying to write portable code. because they won't rely on a particular SQL syntax. The following code uses functions to add 30 days to the invoice date and compare it to the current date: begin-select order_num (. because the syntax varies between databases. months. The datediff function returns the difference between two specified dates in the time units you specify—years. quarters. or compare dates using days and state the difference using weeks. The resulting date is then compared with the current date. subtract.

&invoice_date. the timeof-day portion of the order date is omitted.3 Working with Dates To subtract a given number of days from a date.’dd/mm/yyyy’).’day’) > 30 All three IF statements are equivalent. use the dateadd function with a negative argument. This technique is demonstrated in the next example.-30) This condition can also be written as follows using the datediff function. Note that the comparison is now a simple numeric comparison. Now when it is compared with January 3. and year. 1996. not a date comparison: if datediff(datenow(). The condition is equivalent to that of the previous example. if &invoice_date < dateadd(datenow(). The strtodate function then converts this value back into a date.’dd/mm/yyyy’) > strtodate(’3/1/1996’. only dates that are of January 4 or later will satisfy the condition. In this example. which is compared with the column &order_date. the comparison will be satisfied for orders of January 3.’day’.’dd/mm/yyyy’) print ’Current Order’ () else print ’Past Due Order’ () end-if from orders end-select The IF statement has a date column on the left side and the strtodate function on the right side. 1996. month. the datetostr function converts the order date to a string that only stores the day. the condition is satisfied. SQR User’s Guide 143 . In the next example. the IF condition compares the invoice date with the date of 30 days before today. If the date includes the time of day. the date is truncated to remove the time-of-day portion of a date: if strtodate(datetostr(&order_date. 1996 with a time of day greater than 00:00.’dd/mm/yyyy’) In this example. and they demonstrate the flexibility provided by these functions. When the order date is later than January 3. Here is another technique for comparing dates: begin-select order_date if &order_date > strtodate(’3/1/1996’. The strtodate function returns a date type. With these two conversions.SQR 4.

The time portion defaults to 00:00. For more information on the SQR. A default is assumed for the missing elements. hours.INI file. This is called the literal date format. If preceded with a minus sign. see the chapter "SQR. 1996 to $a. and microseconds. 1996 to the variable $a. Here are some examples: let $a = strtodate(’19960409’) let $a = strtodate(’19960409152000’) The first LET statement assigns the date of April 9.INI file. You may omit one or more time elements from the right part of the format. The literal date format is SYYYYMMDD[HH24[MI[SS[NNNNNN]]]].INI" in the SQR Language Reference. This format can be specified as an environment variable or specified in the SQR.3 Date Formats SQR allows you to specify date constants and date values in a special format that is recognized without the use of an edit mask. The second LET statement assigns 3:20 in the afternoon of April 9. day. The first S in this format represents an optional minus sign. you can use a value in this format in the strtodate function without the use of an edit mask. the string represents a date B. For example. À Note The literal date format assumes a 24-hour clock.C. The respective outputs (when printed with the edit mask ’DD-MON-YYYY HH:MI AM’) will be: 09-APR-1996 12:00 AM 09-APR-1996 03:20 PM You can also specify a date format with the environment variable SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT. seconds. month.Working with Dates SQR 4. minutes. This format has the advantage of being independent of any specific database or language preference. 144 SQR User’s Guide . The following digits represent year.

PRINT. This implicit conversion will take place with the following commands: • MOVE • The strtodate function • The commands DISPLAY. SQR will apply a date format. This implicit conversion will take place with the following commands: • MOVE • The datetostr function • The commands DISPLAY. The database-dependent format 3. The format specified in SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT 2. The database-dependent format Database-dependent formats are listed in the table "Default Database Formats" in the SQR Language Reference. PRINT.3 Working with Dates String to Date Conversions If you convert a string variable or constant to a date variable without specifying an edit mask that identifies the format of the string. when used to output a date variable SQR will attempt to apply date formats in the following order: 1. SQR User’s Guide 145 . or SHOW. when used to output a string variable as a date. SQR will attempt to apply date formats in the following order: 1. The literal date format SYYYYMMDD[HH24[MI[SS[NNNNNN]]]]. SQR will apply a date format. The format specified in SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT 2. Date to String Conversions If you convert a date variable to a string without specifying an edit mask. or SHOW.SQR 4.

Name of the month in uppercase followed by four-digit year Meridian indicators. Please refer to the table "Date Edit Format Codes" in the SQR Language Reference for a complete listing. The name of the order date month will be printed followed by the day of the month. The user then types in the value. A date can be loaded into a date or string variable. YYYY. Date Edit Masks When you print dates. A format for the date should be specified. SQR provides a rich set of date edit masks. MONTH-YYYY HH:MI ’HH:MI AM’ MARCH-1996 09:35 09:35 AM Table 3. YYYY’ This command will print the order date in the specified format.’ Result 14/03/1996 14-MAR-1996 March 14.3 Using Dates with the INPUT Command The INPUT command also supports dates. For example: print &order_date () edit ’Month dd. the user is prompted with "Enter starting date:" (the colon is automatically added). The value is loaded into the variable $start_date. 1996 at 9:35 in the morning. which is validated as a date using the "dd/mm/yyyy" format. you can format them with an edit mask. If the value of the date value being edited is March 14. Here is an example: input $start_date ’Enter starting date’ format=’dd/mm/yyyy’ type=date In this example. the edit masks produce the following results: Edit Mask dd/mm/yyyy DD-MON-YYYY ’Month dd. Sample Date Edit Masks 146 SQR User’s Guide . For string variables. 1996. Edit mask containing blank space must be enclosed in single quotes.Working with Dates SQR 4. and four-digit year. use the TYPE=DATE qualifier. a comma. Description Edit mask containing blank space must be enclosed in single quotes.

For example. In some cases. For example. Without the backslashes the output string would be "The march is march". Sample Date Edit Masks (continued) If the edit mask contains other text.96 Mar Thursday THU 1 11 2 74 14 5 Description Abbreviated name of the month Day of the week Abbreviated name of day of the week Quarter Week of the year Week of the month Day of the year Day of the month (1-31) Day of the week (Sunday = 1) Table 3. ’DDD’ followed by ’D’ can be written as ’DDD|D’. ’DD’ (day of month). they are simply printed.SQR 4. and ’D’ (day of week). use a vertical bar as a delimiter between format elements. which could be interpreted as various combinations of ’DDD’ (day of year). For example: print &order_date () edit ’As of Month dd.3 Working with Dates Edit Mask YYYYMMDD DD. A backslash forces the character that follows into the output. The second backslash is needed because "n" is a valid date edit mask element.03. This technique is useful when you want to print text that would otherwise be recognized as a date mask element.MM. 1996" if the order date is March 14. Since the words "As of" are not recognized as date mask elements.YY Mon Day DY Q WW W DDD DD D Result 19960314 14. SQR User’s Guide 147 . To resolve such ambiguity. YYYY’ This command will print the string "As of March 14. it is also printed. combining date edit mask elements may result in ambiguity. a mask of "The \mo\nth is month" results in the output string of "The month is march". 1996. One example is the mask ’DDDD’.

See the ALTER-LOCALE command or the chapter "SQR. Date variables can be initialized with date literals as shown in the following example: begin-setup declare-variable date $c end-declare end-setup . national language support is provided for the following masks: MON. let $c = ’19960409152000’ The LET statement assigns 3:20 in the afternoon of April 9.INI" in the SQR Language Reference for additional information. and RM are casesensitive and follow the case of the mask entered.3 The masks MON. Date variables are useful for holding results of date calculations. it is assigned the value of noon on March 1. Later.’Month dd. In addition. PM. For example. AM.Working with Dates SQR 4. Like string variables. 1996. For example: begin-setup declare-variable date $c end-declare end-setup . DAY. 1996 12:00’. let $c = strtodate(’March 1. MONTH. DY. yyyy hh:mi’) print $c () edit ’dd/mm/yyyy’ In this example. BC. the mask Mon yields "Jan" and MON yields "JAN". Declaring Date Variables To hold date values in your program. You must explicitly declare date variables using the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. DY. MONTH. PM. 148 SQR User’s Guide . DAY. $c is declared as a date variable. date variables are prefixed with a dollar sign ($)... 1996 to $c. BC.. use date variables. and AD. AD. The variable $c is then printed with the edit mask ’dd/mm/yyyy’.. All other masks are case-insensitive and can be entered in either uppercase or lowercase. if the month is January. AM. which yields 01/03/1996.

• Perform date arithmetic and date comparison by using the date functions. • The SQR literal date format is SYYYYMMDD[HH24[MI[SS[NNNNNN]]]]. For this format.SQR 4. or strtodate. datediff. a 24-hour clock is assumed. • You can also specify a date format with the environment variable SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT. printing or referencing the reserved variable $current-date. This format can be specified as an environment variable or specified in the SQR. The next chapter describes the SQR features for national language support. or using an SQR date function such as dateadd.3 Working with Dates Summary • Obtain date values by selecting a date column from the database. • Declare date variables with the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. SQR User’s Guide 149 .INI file. datenow.

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It also contains settings for how to handle lower/upper case editing of these names. and Spanish.INI file. Their use is discussed and demonstrated below. refer to the chapter. and the presentation of dates and numbers. numbers with commas separating the thousands. decimal separator. "SQR. and PRINT commands. UK-English. This support is provided through the concept of locales. and time separator. respectively. French.INI file. These settings are described in detail in the reference section for the ALTER-LOCALE command in the SQR Language Reference. A locale also contains settings for currency symbol. thousands separator. For more information about the SQR. PM. For example. A locale is a set of local preferences for language. SHOW. A locale contains default edit masks for number. You can easily define additional locales or modify existing locales by editing the SQR. and a period for the decimal place. dollar currency. MOVE. AM. dates in "dd/mm/yy" format. one locale may use English.21 Locales National Language Support This chapter describes SQR features for national language support (NLS). SQR User’s Guide 151 .INI. date separator. Available Locales SQR provides predefined locales such as US-English. A locale contains a setting for names of the days of the week and names of the months in the language of the locale. and AD in the language of the locale. DISPLAY. A locale contains settings for N/A." in the SQR Language Reference. This chapter describes SQR locales and explains how to use them to write programs that automatically adapt to local preferences. and DATE. and date. These edit masks are used when you specify the keywords NUMBER. These keywords can be specified in the INPUT. German. money. MONEY. BC. currency.

INI. The preferences in the system locale are hard-coded in the product and cannot be set or defined in the SQR.INI file of the machine on which it is run.999.3 With the ALTER-LOCALE command. The delimiters for thousands and the decimal—the comma and the period— will be switched automatically according to the preferences of the locale.National Language Support SQR 4. The date preferences are dependent on the database you are using. Therefore. In London. For example. To adapt your program to any location. 152 SQR User’s Guide . and in Paris it may be 5. Most or all of your programs may use the same locale. the default locale is set to the reserved locale called "System. Different sites may have a different locale as the default.120. You can even have different parts of your program use different locales.00.120.INI file will control the format. you can choose a locale—at the beginning of your program or anywhere else. the result may be 5." System is not a real locale. which are specified in the SQR. It defines the behavior of older versions of SQR.INI file will make it unnecessary to specify the locale in every program.999. date format preferences in the system locale are different for every database you use with SQR. before national language support was added. When you install SQR.99’ The setting of the default locale in the SQR. You can select a locale with this command: alter-locale locale = ’German’ The Default Locale The SQR. and specifying the default locale in the SQR. use the default locale. For example.INI file defines a default locale. you may print the number 5120 using the following command: print #invoice_total () edit ’9. and an office in London may use the "UK-English" locale. an office in Paris may use the "French" locale. 'System' settings can be altered at run time using ALTER-LOCALE.00. however. Your program will then automatically respect the local preferences.

if you change the default locale to "French.SQR 4. or reports that have different sections for different locales.3 National Language Support À Tip Changing the settings of the default locale may change the behavior of existing programs. the locale will be Spanish. For example. SQR User’s Guide 153 . the locale is switched to Spanish and later restored to the previous locale before it was switched. For example." programs that used to print dates in English may now print them in French. The value of $old_locale is then used in the ALTER-LOCALE command at the end of the procedure. To switch to another locale. To do that. Consider this example: begin-procedure print_data_in_spanish ! Save the current locale let $old_locale = $sqr-locale ! Change the locale to "Spanish" alter-locale locale = ’Spanish’ ! Print the data do print_data ! restore the locale to the previous setting alter-locale locale = $old_locale end-procedure In this example. use the ALTER-LOCALE command. This technique is useful for writing reports that use multiple currencies. to switch to the Spanish locale: alter-locale locale = ’Spanish’ From this point in the program. Switching Locales You can switch from one locale to another any number of times during program execution. the locale setting before it is changed is read in the reserved variable $sqr-locale and stored in $old_locale. Be sure that you review and test existing programs when making a change to the default locale.

MONEY.National Language Support SQR 4. and SHOW allow you to specify the keywords NUMBER.$$9. In this case. The first case is when you want to write programs that automatically adapt to the default locale. The ALTER-LOCALE command only affects the current program. PRINT. MONEY. money. MOVE. In the following example. and DATE later in your program. these keywords will have the same effect. and DATE. money.3 Modifying Locale Preferences With the ALTER-LOCALE command. suppose that the locale was "USEnglish" and the date and money edit masks were modified using the above code. These keywords can be useful in two cases.INI file or in your program. MONEY. and date formats once at the top of your program and use these formats throughout your report. and DATE The commands DISPLAY. The following code will reset the changed date and money edit masks: alter-locale locale = ’US-English’ Keywords—NUMBER. you can reselect the modified locale. they format number. you can modify any individual preference in a locale. MONEY. Here is an example of how you can modify default preferences in a locale: alter-locale date-edit-mask = ’Mon-DD-YYYY’ money-edit-mask = ’$$.INI file. By using the keywords NUMBER. Whether you set the locale in the SQR. and DATE in place of an explicit number or date edit mask. Then when you use the keywords NUMBER. It does not modify the SQR.99’ To restore modified locale preferences to their defaults. For example.$$$. you tell SQR to take these edit masks from the default locale settings. these keywords are used with the PRINT command to produce output for the US-English and French locales: 154 SQR User’s Guide . you define these formats with an ALTER-LOCALE command at the top of your program. and date outputs with the masks defined in the ALTER-LOCALE command. The second case is when you want to specify your number.

22) MONEY print ’With DATE keyword ’ (+1.3 National Language Support let #num_var = 123456 let #money_var = 123456 let $date_var = strtodate(’19960520152000’) ! set locale to US-English alter-locale locale = ’US-English’ print ’US-English locale’ (1.00 $ 123. 1996 123.22) NUMBER print ’With MONEY keyword ’ (+1.22) MONEY print ’With DATE keyword ’ (+1.00 May 20.1) print #num_var (.456.456.1) print ’With NUMBER keyword ’ (+1.22) NUMBER print ’With MONEY keyword ’ (+1.1) print #num_var (.1) print ’With NUMBER keyword ’ (+1.1) print $date_var (.1) print #money_var (.1) print $date_var (.456.22) DATE ! set locale to French ALTER-LOCALE locale = ’French’ print ’French locale’ (+2.1) print #money_var (.SQR 4.456.00 F 20 mai 1996 SQR User’s Guide 155 .00 123.22) DATE The output will be as follows: US-English locale With NUMBER keyword With MONEY keyword With DATE keyword French locale With NUMBER keyword With MONEY keyword With DATE keyword 123.

• Predefined locales are specified in the SQR. and the presentation of dates and numbers can be specified in a locale. and DATE. You can also specify individual preferences for a locale by using ALTER-LOCALE.INI file. • You can also specify formats with the keywords NUMBER. currency.National Language Support SQR 4. The next chapter explains how SQR can interoperate with other applications and how SQR can be extended with functions supplied by you or contained in a third-party library. 156 SQR User’s Guide . • You can switch among locales by using the command ALTER-LOCALE.INI file to alter predefined locales or to create new ones. • You can edit the SQR.3 Summary • Local preferences for language. MONEY.

This API is provided through a DLL on Windows and through an object library on other platforms.C This chapter will first describe how to invoke an SQR program from another application using the SQR API. Next. This interoperability is depicted in the two diagrams below: External Application SQR Execute SQR API External Application Invoking an SQR Program Using the SQR API SQR Execute External Application UFUNC. An SQR program can also call an external application’s API. SQR User’s Guide 157 .22 Interoperability This chapter describes how SQR can interoperate with other applications or be extended with additional functions.C interface. the chapter will explain how to invoke an external application’s API by using the UFUNC. Applications can run SQR programs using the SQR API (application program interface).C SQR Calling an External Application’s API Using UFUNC.

158 SQR User’s Guide . For C and C++ applications. The aforementioned DLL files are located in the BINW directory.a.DLL. a header file. The SQR for PowerBuilder extensions are covered in the SQR for PowerBuilder User’s Guide. SQRAPI. Two additional libraries are required: bcl. Be sure to include the SQR API library and your database library when you link your C or C++ application.LIB). BCLW32. The SQR command includes all the necessary parameters.Interoperability SQR 4.DLL. SQRAPI.H. and an import library (SQRWIN.a and libsti. LIBSTI32. This method is covered in the next section. The SQR command line is covered in Chapter 27." • Using the SQR API—the application makes a call to the SQR API. a header file. the SQR API is provided as a static library (sqr.H (or sqrapi.DLL.DLL. Using the SQR API The SQR API is provided on Windows through a DLL (Dynamic Link Library).a or SQR. • Using SQR for PowerBuilder—your PowerBuilder application can call to the local or remote SQR user objects. On platforms other than Windows. "Using the SQR Command Line. and STIMAGES.3 Calling SQR from Another Application The following techniques can be used to invoke an SQR program from another application: • Using the SQR command line—the application initiates a process for running SQR. SQR requires the following DLLs to run: For Windows 95 & NT they are SQRW.LIB) are provided.h). is provided. You can use the SQR API from any application that is capable of calling DLL functions. For C and C++ applications. See the SQR Server Installation Guide for more information about linking with SQR.

This function returns zero (0) if it is successful. Cursors may be left open to speed up repeated execution of the same SQR program. Passes the address of a null terminated string containing an SQR command line. Cancels a running SQR program. sqrcancel is called using another thread or some similar asynchronous method. It returns when the SQR program has completed. void sqrcancel(void) int sqrend(void) Releases memory and closes cursors.3 Interoperability The following API functions are defined for calling SQR: Function int sqr(char *) Description Runs an SQR program. To force SQR to release its memory and database cursors. The SQR API For the benefit of C/C++ programmers. Since the sqr function does not return until the SQR program has completed. This is a synchronous call. SQR User’s Guide 159 . flags. including program name.SQR 4. Call this function after the last program execution. This feature provides a significant improvement in processing time. This function always returns zero (0). the APIs are declared in the file SQRAPI. or optionally between SQR program executions.h’ When you call SQR from a program. call sqrend() at any time. connectivity information.H. Table 4. The program may not stop immediately because SQR waits for any currently pending database operations to complete. the program is not scanned again and the SQL statements are not parsed again. the most recently run SQR program is saved in memory. Include this header file in your source code: #include ’sqrapi. If the same SQR program is run again with either the same or different arguments. and arguments.

Check the make files or link scripts that are supplied with SQR for details.Interoperability SQR 4.a\ $SQRDIR/..3 Although memory is automatically released when the program exits...a (DB Libname). you must call sqrend before the calling program exits to ensure that SQR properly cleans up any database resources such as database cursors and temporary stored procedures... 160 SQR User’s Guide . To call SQR..a $SQRDIR/. in C: status = sqr("myprog sammy/baker arg1 arg2 arg3"). if (status != 0) .error occurred.. You may want to copy and modify those to link in your program./libsti. For example. Following is an example of a command that links a C application with the SQR API on a UNIX machine: cc -o {your_prog} {your_prog}. call sqr() and pass a command line./lib/bcl.o $SQRDIR/sqr..

DAT Command-line flag in error Problem creating . Error Values Returned by the SQR API The VMS codes are given in hexadecimal notation. suppose you had a library for communication over a serial line.C The SQR language can be extended by adding user functions written in standard languages such as C. SQR uses the 0x2600 group for its error messages to avoid conflict with VMS error messages.SQR 4. For example.LOG file (create/write) Problem with POSTSCRI.SQR/. SQR would allow you to call these functions from SQR programs. Extending SQR—UFUNC.LIS file (create/write) Problem with . SQR User’s Guide 161 . both standalone and callable: Non-VMS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 VMS 1 0 0x2622 0x2632 0x2642 0x2652 0x2662 0x2672 0x2682 0x2692 0x26A2 0x26B2 0x26C2 0x26D2 0x26E2 0x26F2 Reason Normal exit Error exit Cannot process SQRERR. with functions for initiating the connection and sending and receiving data.SQT file (open/read) Problem with .STR file (open/read) Cannot call SQR recursively Problem with Windows Internal error occurred Problem with SQRWIN.3 Interoperability The following table describes error values returned by SQR. Error codes 9 and 12 are only applicable to the Windows release.SQT file Program did not compile Problem with . This feature allows you to integrate your own code and third-party libraries into SQR.DLL Problem with -ZCF file Table 5.ERR file (create/write) Problem with .

This code defines a prototype for a C function called initcap. The key to the process is an SQR source file called UFUNC. For example: let $a = initcap(’MR.3 To extend SQR in this way. It also contains comments with a description of the process of adding a function to SQR. static static static static void void void void max CC_ARGS((int. To add initcap to SQR. "tell" SQR about them. char *." Adding a User Function The following example demonstrates how to extend SQR with an initcap function. 162 SQR User’s Guide .C. Joseph Jefferson. JOSEPH JEFFERSON’) The result value in the variable $a would be "Mr.C. initcap CC_ARGS((int. Oracle users are familiar with this function. UFUNC. The first three lines are part of the original UFUNC. The SQR name for the function is defined in the next step.C is provided in the LIB subdirectory (LIBW in Windows). and then link the objects (and libraries) with the SQR objects and libraries to form a new SQR executable. One example of such an extension would be an initcap function. double *)). char*[]. The code segment above is taken from the file UFUNC. Step 1. The new SQR executable will then recognize the new functions as if they were standard SQR functions. Note that the name of the C function does not have to be the same as the name of the SQR function. double *[]. Add Function Prototype Begin by adding a function prototype to the function declaration list.C. This file contains the list of user-defined functions. The prototype is required by the C compiler. The line that adds the initcap function is shown in bold.C in the TUTORIAL directory. you need to add it to a global array called userfuncs in UFUNC.Interoperability SQR 4. char *[]. double *)). double *)). printarray CC_ARGS((int. char *[]. The function initcap changes the first letter of every word to uppercase and changes the rest of the letters to lowercase. You can find the modified version of UFUNC. you must prepare the functions.C. split CC_ARGS((int. int)).

’n’. 0 }. remove the STATIC keyword. Step 2. "printarray". and it initializes one structure in the array. we will define it as "char *". The first argument of the C function is the argument count of the corresponding SQR function.C.*/ PVR max. this argument count should be 1 because initcap takes exactly one argument. The third argument of the C function is a pointer to the result buffer. "split".--------. /* Last entry must be NULL—do not change */ "". As stated before.--------"max".C file. "initcap". since initcap only takes one argument. Note also that the keyword STATIC means that the code for initcap will be added in the file UFUNC. 4. You cannot return a value that is longer than the maximum length. 0. ’c’. SQR User’s Guide 163 . This array is the argument list. Add Entry to USERFUNCS Table The next step is to tell SQR about our initcap function. You could also write: static void initcap(). Here is the modified code: } userfuncs[] = { /* (2) Define functions in userfuncs table: Number of Name Return_type Arguments Arg_Types -------------. ’n’. If you have the code in a separate file. 1. Since initcap returns a string. "n". PVR split. The line contains five arguments. only the first pointer is actually used. 0. The second argument of the C function is an array of pointers. In the case of initcap. which you must not overflow. '\0'. depending on platform. The line added is shown in bold. which correspond to the five fields of the structure.3 Interoperability The CC_ARGS macro makes your code portable between compilers that expect full ANSI prototyping and compilers where the argument prototype is omitted. The maximum length is typically around 2000 bytes. "cnnc". The length of this string is the size of the result buffer. PVR initcap. "c". PVR printarray. "C".SQR 4. 0. In this case. "". The userfuncs table is an array of structures. ’n’. Function -------. this table exists in the UFUNC. The last argument sets the maximum length of the result string.

The last argument is a pointer to a C function that implements the SQR function we are adding.maxlen)) CC_ARG(int. } p++. "c". return. maxlen) /* Result’s maximum length */ { int flag = 1. char *p.result.C: static void initcap CC_ARGL((argc.argv. } 164 SQR User’s Guide . Note the PVR macro that provides proper cast for the pointer. you will have to remove the STATIC keyword from the prototype. } else { flag = 1. IF and WHILE commands. argc) /* Number of actual arguments */ CC_ARG(char*. else *p = isupper(*ptr)?tolower(*ptr):*ptr. argv[]) /* Pointers to arguments: */ CC_ARG(char*. } *p = ’\0’. You can insert it right into the file UFUNC. This character indicates that the argument for initcap is a string. ptr++.Interoperability SQR 4. result) /* Where to store result */ CC_LARG(int. The second argument is the return type. Remember that if you want to put the code in a separate file. while (*ptr) { if (ptr . Here is the code.argv[0] >= maxlen) break. Step 3. /* don’t exceed maxlen */ if (isalnum(*ptr)) { if (flag) *p = islower(*ptr)?toupper(*ptr):*ptr. The third argument is the number of arguments that initcap will take. p = result. This argument is the initcap function for which we have provided a prototype in the previous step. Since initcap has only one argument.H. Add Implementation Code The next step is to add the implementation code for initcap. which ’c’ (enclosed in single quotation marks) indicates is a character string. which is inserted at the end of UFUNC. the string contains one character enclosed in double quotation marks. This is the name that you will use in the LET. You may also need to include standard C header files such as CTYPE. ptr = argv[0]. The fourth argument is a string representing the types of the arguments.3 The first argument is the name of the SQR function being added.C. Set it to 1. flag = 0. char *ptr. *p = *ptr.

Relink SQR Once you have modified UFUNC. Use the make file that is provided in the LIB (or LIBW) subdirectory of SQR. passing the instance handle (of the calling module) and three function pointers: void InitSQRExtension ( HINSTANCE hInstance. If SQRW. You can also write the code as follows (only the first five lines are shown).DLL and SQRWT.maxlen) int argc. they look for SQREXT. SQR User’s Guide 165 .DLL and the DLLs specified in the SQR. /* Where to store result */ int maxlen.DLL are loaded. Try the following program: begin-program let $a = initcap(’MR. you must relink SQR. When SQRW.C). see the comments in the UFUNC.C file. ufunc now resides in SQREXT.DLL find SQREXT. /* Result’s maximum length */ Step 4. FARPROC lpfnConsole. FARPROC lpfnError ).DLL in the same directory and for any DLLs specified in the [SQR Extension] section in SQR. FARPROC lpfnUFuncRegister. ufunc on Windows 95 & NT On Windows 95 & NT.DLL is included in the shipped package (EXTUFUNC.argv.DLL using any language or tool. and CC_LARG macros.C. This step is highly specific to operating systems and databases. Once SQR is relinked. Joseph Jefferson For further information on argument types in user-defined functions. as long as the appropriate calling protocol is maintained.INI file. /* Pointers to arguments: */ char* result. static void initcap(argc.3 Interoperability Note the use of the CC_ARGL. you are ready to test. The source code for SQREXT.DLL. they make the following calls in all the DLLs. CC_ARG. You may rebuild SQREXT.DLL and SQRWT. /* Number of actual arguments */ char* argv[].SQR 4. You may have to modify the make file for your system. whose names and locations tend to vary.INI.result. JOSEPH JEFFERSON’) print $a () end-program The result in the output file should be: Mr. SQR is linked with the database libraries.

you must register it by making the following call in InitSQRExtension(). All the extension DLLs must have the InitSQRExtension() function exported. If new extension DLLs containing new user functions are to be used.DLL.3 Implementing New User Functions on Windows 95 & NT You may implement new user functions in SQREXT. • An SQR program can call also an external application’s API. add functions to the userfuncs global array in the UFUNC.C for the definition of struct ufnns and the sample user functions.C file.DLL or any other extension DLL. If you choose to implement user functions in SQREXT. For any ufunc.INI in the system directory.MAK. The next chapter describes techniques for testing and debugging SQR programs.Interoperability SQR 4. you should rebuild the DLL using the supplied make file. Refer to EXTUFUNC. 166 SQR User’s Guide . Summary • Applications can run SQR programs using the SQR API (application program interface). SQREXT. lpfnUFuncRegister(struct ufnns* ufunc). • To extend SQR. they must be listed in the [SQR Extension] section in SQR. • You can extend SQR with third-party libraries and functions written in standard languages such as C. The function pointer lpfnUFuncRegister is passed in from the calling module.

enter the following command: sqr customer username/password -T3 The -T3 flag specifies that the program will stop running after 3 pages have been produced. you frequently test it by running it and examining its output. -T6 will cause the program to stop after 6 pages of output have been created. If you are using VisualSQRIBE. The default name of the output file is the same as the program file with the extension . use the -T command-line flag. Enter the desired number of test pages after the -T flag. the breaks may occur in unexpected locations because the ORDER BY clause is ignored. the output file will be named customer. SQR User’s Guide 167 .LIS. In many cases. you are only interested in the first few pages of the report.sqr.sqr. To test a report file called customer.lis. This chapter will focus on facilities in the SQR language and command-line options. The database will not sort the data and the first set of records will be selected sooner. For example. For example. if your report is named customer. check it by displaying the output file on your screen or printing it. Using the Test Feature During the development of an SQR program. The -T flag lets reports finish more quickly because all BEGIN-SELECT ORDER BY clauses are ignored. À Note If your program contains break logic. When the test completes successfully.23 Testing and Debugging This chapter describes the SQR functionality designed to help with the testing and debugging of SQR programs. To speed the cycle of running and viewing a few pages. select Limit to nn pages in the Run dialog.

In this example. Using the #DEBUG Command When debugging a program it is often useful to: • Display data or show when a procedure or query executes by using temporary SHOW or DISPLAY commands in key places in the program. SQR provides the #DEBUG command to help you make temporary changes to your code. commands preceded by #DEBUG. display or modify variables that you suspect are causing a problem. that command is processed only if the -DEBUG flag is specified on the SQR command line.Testing and Debugging SQR 4. #DEBUGa. #DEBUGb.3 When the development of your program is complete. If the program creates more than one report. • Isolate problem areas by temporarily skipping the parts of the program that work correctly. You can use the #DEBUG command to conditionally process portions of your program. 168 SQR User’s Guide . as shown in the following example: sqr myreport username/password -DEBUGabc In this example. Precede the command with #DEBUG. run it without the -T flag. • Temporarily cause additional behavior in questionable areas of the program. the value of $s will be displayed only when you run the program with -DEBUG. Commands preceded with #DEBUGd are not compiled because "d" was not specified in the -DEBUG command-line flag. as shown in the following example: #debug display $s When #DEBUG precedes a command. Indicate which command is to be debugged on the -DEBUG flag. You can achieve debug multiple commands by using up to 10 letters or digits to differentiate between them. the -T flag restriction will apply only to the first report. or #DEBUGc are compiled when the program is executed. For example. Your program will process all ORDER BY clauses and run to completion.

24) print $phone (. it will not issue an error message when variables names are mistyped. declared by a #DEFINE command. to turn on or off a set of statements.1) print $city (. By defining DEBUG_SESSION as Y. you can change DEBUG_SESSION to N and exclude the dump_array procedure from the program. SQR User’s Guide 169 . The #IF command in this example is case-insensitive. Because SQR does not require variables to be declared. as shown in the following example: #define DEBUG_SESSION Y #if DEBUG_SESSION = ’Y’ begin-procedure dump_array let #i = 0 while #i < #counter ! Get data from the array get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) print $state (. SQR considers the mistyped variable as if it is another variable.55) position (+1) add 1 to #i end-while end-procedure ! dump_array #end-if The dump_array procedure is only used for debugging.3 Testing and Debugging Using Compiler Directives for Debugging You can conditionally compile entire sections of your program using the five compiler directives: • #IF • #ELSE • #END-IF or #ENDIF • #IFDEF • #IFNDEF You can use the value of a substitution variable.SQR 4. Instead. Common Programming Errors The most common programming error using SQR is mistyping variable names.7) print $name (. Later. the dump_array procedure is included in the program.

the local procedure proc prints the value of the local variable $area and not the global variable $area. #ELSE. A related problem has to do with global versus local variables. Such small errors are hard to detect because SQR considers #customer_acess_code as simply another variable with a value of zero.3 For example: let #customer_access_code = 55 print #customer_acess_code () This example will not print 55 because we mistyped the variable name. To refer to the global variable. • The most common programming error is the mistyping of variable names. It will print nothing because the local $area variable did not receive a value. • You can conditionally process sections of a program by using the #DEBUG command and the -DEBUG command-line flag. #END-IF. 170 SQR User’s Guide . • You can conditionally compile entire sections of your program using the five compiler directives #IF. #IFDEF. it is taken as a new local variable name. and #IFNDEF. Can you see the typo? The "c" in "acess" on the PRINT command is missing. Instead. For example: begin-procedure main let $area = ’North’ do proc end-procedure ! main begin-procedure proc local print $area () ! Should be $_area end-procedure In this example. If you refer to a global variable in a local procedure without preceding it with an underscore. Summary • You can speed up the testing cycle by using the -T command-line flag. SQR will not issue an error message.Testing and Debugging SQR 4. use $_area.

This chapter examines some of the issues that affect the performance of SQR programs. BEGIN-SQL. • Writing programs that create multiple reports • Tuning SQR numerics • Running compiled programs with SQR Execute • Adjusting processing limits • Buffering fetched rows • Running programs on the server SQR User’s Guide 171 . or EXECUTE command. This chapter focuses on SQR tools for simplifying SQL statements and reducing the number of SQL executions. General tuning of SQL is outside the scope of this book. SQR Performance and SQL Statements Whenever your program contains a BEGIN-SELECT. Processing SQL statements typically consumes significant computing resources. including: • Simplifying a complex SELECT • Using LOAD-LOOKUP to simplify joins • Using dynamic SQL • Examining cursor status • Using an array or flat file instead of a temporary database table. Tuning SQL is often specific to the type of database that you are using—tuning SQL statements for an ORACLE database may be different than tuning SQL statements for DB2. This chapter also describes certain SQR capabilities that can help you write high-performance programs. There are several techniques.24 Performance and Tuning Performance considerations are an important aspect of application development. it performs a SQL statement. Tuning SQL statements typically yields higher performance gains than tuning any other part of your program.

Performance and Tuning

SQR 4.3

Simplifying a Complex SELECT
With relational database design, information is often "normalized" by storing data entities in separate tables. To display the normalized information, you must write a SELECT statement that joins these tables together. With many database systems, performance suffers when you join more than three or four tables in one SELECT. With SQR, you can perform multiple SELECT statements and nest them as we saw in Chapter 7, "Master/Detail Reports." In this way, you can break a large join into several simpler SELECTS. For example, a SELECT statement that joins orders and products tables can be broken into two SELECTS. The first SELECT will retrieve the orders in which we are interested. For each order retrieved, a second SELECT will retrieve the products that were ordered. The second SELECT is correlated to the first SELECT by having a condition such as: where order_num = &order_num This condition specifies that the second SELECT will only retrieve products for the current order. Similarly, if your report is based on products ordered, you can make the first SELECT retrieve the products, and make the second SELECT retrieve the orders for each product. This method will improve performance in many cases, but not all. To achieve the best performance, you may need to experiment with the different alternatives.

Using LOAD-LOOKUP to Simplify Joins
Database tables often contain key columns such as a product code or customer number. To retrieve a certain piece of information, you join two or more tables that contain the same column. For example, to obtain a product description, you may join the orders table with the products table, using the product_code column as the key. With LOAD-LOOKUP, you can reduce the number of tables that are joined in one SELECT. This command is used in conjunction with one or more LOOKUP commands.

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The LOAD-LOOKUP command defines an array containing a set of keys and values and loads it into memory. The LOOKUP command looks up a key in the array and returns the associated value. In some programs, this technique will perform better than a conventional table join. LOAD-LOOKUP can be used in the SETUP section or in a procedure. If used in the SETUP section, it is processed only once. If used in a procedure, it is processed each time it is encountered. LOAD-LOOKUP retrieves two fields from the database, the KEY field and the RETURN_VALUE field. Rows are ordered by KEY and stored in an array. The KEY field must be unique and contain no NULL values. When the LOOKUP command is used, the array is searched (using a "binary" search) to find the RETURN_VALUE field corresponding to the KEY referenced in the lookup. The following example illustrates LOAD-LOOKUP and LOOKUP:
begin-setup load-lookup name=prods table=products key=product_code return_value=description end-setup ... begin-select order_num (+1,1) product_code lookup prods &product_code $desc print $desc (,15) from orderlines end-select

In this example, the LOAD-LOOKUP command loads an array with the product_code and description columns from the products table. The lookup array is named prods. The product_code column is the key and the description column is the return value. In the SELECT paragraph, a LOOKUP on the prods array retrieves the description for each product_code. This technique eliminates the need to join the products table in the SELECT. If the ordlines and products tables were simply joined in the SELECT (without LOAD-LOOKUP), the code would look like this:

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begin-select order_num (+1,1) ordlines.product_code description (,15) from ordlines, products where ordlines.product_code = products.product_code end-select

Which is faster, a database join or LOAD-LOOKUP? It depends on your program. LOAD-LOOKUP improves performance in the following situations:

• When it is used with multiple SELECTS. • When it keeps the number of tables being joined from exceeding three or four. • When the number of entries in the LOAD-LOOKUP table is small compared to the number of rows in the SELECT, and they are used often. • When most entries in the LOAD-LOOKUP table are used.

À Tip

You can concatenate columns if you want RETURN_VALUE to return more than one column. The concatenation symbol is database-specific.

Improving SQL Performance with Dynamic SQL
Chapter 16, "Dynamic SQL and Error Checking," explained how to use dynamic SQL variables. Dynamic SQL can also be used in some situations to simplify a SQL statement and gain performance.
begin-select order_num from orders, customers where order.customer_num = customers.customer_num and ($state = ’CA’ and order_date > $start_date or $state != ’CA’ and ship_date > $start_date) end-select

In this example, a given value of $state, order_date or ship_date is compared to $start_date. The OR operator in the condition makes such multiple comparisons possible. With most databases, an OR operator slows processing. It may cause the database to perform more work than necessary.

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However, the same work can be done with a simpler SELECT. For example, if $state is ’CA,’ the following SELECT would work:
begin-select order_num from orders, customers where order.customer_num = customers.customer_num and order_date > $start_date end-select

Dynamic SQL allows you to check the value of $state and create the simpler condition:
if $state = ’CA’ let $datecol = ’order_date’ else let $datecol = ’ship_date’ end-if begin-select order_num from orders, customers where order.customer_num = customers.customer_num and [$datecol] > $start_date end-select

The substitution variable [$datecol] substitutes the name of the column to be compared with $state_date. The SELECT is simpler and no longer uses an OR. In most cases, this use of dynamic SQL will improve performance.

Examining SQL Cursor Status
Since SQR programs select and manipulate data from a SQL database, it is helpful to understand how SQR handles SQL statements and queries. SQR programs may perform multiple SQL statements. Moreover, the same SQL statement may be executed many times. When your program executes, a pool of SQL statement handles—called cursors—is maintained. A cursor is a storage location for one SQL statement, for example, SELECT, INSERT, or UPDATE. Every SQL statement uses a cursor for processing. A cursor holds the context for the execution of a SQL statement. The cursor pool consists of 30 cursors, and its size cannot be changed. When a SQL statement is re-executed, its cursor can be immediately reused if it is still in the cursor pool. When your SQR program executes more than 30 different SQL statement, cursors in the pool are reassigned.

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SQR 4.3

To examine how cursors are managed, use the -S command-line flag. This flag will cause cursor status information to be displayed at the end of a run. The following information will be displayed for each cursor:
Cursor #nn: SQL = <SQL statement> Compiles = nn Executes = nn Rows = nn

The listing will also include the number of "compiles," which will vary according to the database and the complexity of the query. With Oracle, for example, a simple query is compiled only once. With SYBASE, a SQL statement is compiled before it is first executed and recompiled for the purpose of validation during the SQR compile phase. Therefore, you may see two compiles for a SQL statement. Later when the SQL is re-executed, if its cursor is found in the cursor pool, it can proceed without recompiling.

Avoiding Temporary Database Tables
Programs often use temporary database tables to hold intermediate results. Creating, updating, and deleting database temporary tables is a very resource-consuming task, however, and can hurt your program’s performance. SQR provides two alternatives to using temporary database tables. The first alternative is to store intermediate results in an SQR array. The second is to store intermediate results in a local flat file. Both techniques can bring about a significant performance gain. You can use the SQR language to manipulate data stored in an array or a flat file. These two methods are explained and demonstrated in the following sections. Methods for sorting data in SQR arrays or flat files are also explained.

Using and Sorting Arrays
Chapter 8, "Cross-Tabular Reports and the Use of Arrays," introduced the array as a means of holding data records during program execution.

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you can assign all four fields in one command.SQR 4. The next piece of code retrieves the data from customer_array and prints it: let #i = 0 while #i < #counter get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) print $state (.1) city (. create-array name=customer_array size=1000 field=state:char field=city:char field=name:char field=phone:char let #counter = 0 begin-select state (. and saves them into an array named customer_array.55) position (+1) add 1 to #i end-while SQR User’s Guide 177 .24) print $phone (.3 Performance and Tuning An SQR array can hold as many records as can fit in memory.7) print $name (.000 rows. prints them.7) name (. If the customers table had more than 1. The PUT command is then used to store the data in the array. At the end of the SELECT. During the first pass.24) phone (. Chapter 8 showed how to use the LET command to assign values to array fields. It starts with zero and maintains the subscript of the next available entry. The #counter variable serves as the array subscript.55) position (+1) put &state &city &name &phone into customer_array(#counter) add 1 to #counter from customers end-select This example creates an array named customer_array. when records are retrieved from the database. but with fewer lines of code. the value of #counter is the number of records in the array. and it can hold up to 1. Subsequent passes on the data can be made without additional database access. With PUT.000 rows. The PUT command performs the same work. The SELECT prints the data. it would be necessary to create a larger array. you can store them in the array.1) print $city (. The array has four fields that correspond to the four columns selected from the customers table. The following code retrieves records.

You can copy this code into your program. make appropriate changes.sqr #define MAX_ROWS 1000 begin-setup create-array name=customer_array size={MAX_ROWS} field=state:char field=city:char field=name:char field=phone:char ! ! Create a helper array that is used in the sort ! create-array name=QSort size={MAX_ROWS} field=n:number field=j:number end-setup begin-program do main end-program Program continues on the following page. These values are then printed. 1982.3 In this piece of code. $state. The program uses a well-known sorting algorithm called QuickSort. #i goes from 0 to #counter-1. and use it to sort your array.Performance and Tuning SQR 4. For further information on QuickSort. 178 SQR User’s Guide . Sorting In many cases. and $phone. The following program shows how to sort customer_array by name. Program ex24a. $city. The fields from each record are moved into the corresponding variables $name. intermediate results must be sorted by a different field. see the book Fundamentals of Data Structures by Horowitz and Sahni.

SQR User’s Guide 179 .1) city (.7) name (.SQR 4.55) position (+1) add 1 to #i end-while end-procedure ! main Program continues on the following page.3 Performance and Tuning Program ex24a. #last_row) ! ! Print customers (which are now sorted by name) ! let #i = 0 while #i < #counter ! Get data from the array get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) print $state (.1) print $city (.24) phone (. 0.1 do QuickSort(0.55) position (+1) ! Put data in the array put &state &city &name &phone into customer_array(#counter) add 1 to #counter from customers order by state end-select position (+2) ! ! Sort customer_array by name ! let #last_row = #counter .sqr (continued) begin-procedure main let #counter = 0 ! ! Print customers sorted by state ! begin-select state (.24) print $phone (.7) print $name (.

sqr (continued) ! ! QuickSort ! ! Purpose: Sort customer_array by name.1) = #j let QSort.The "n" argument of the classical QuickSort ! begin-procedure QuickSort(#level.name(#m) while 1 add 1 to #i while #i <= #j and customer_array.1) let #n = QSort. this ! procedure uses a helper array. #n) if #m < #n let #i = #m let #j = #n + 1 ! Sort key is "name" let $key = customer_array.n(#level .3 Program ex24a.The "m" argument of the classical QuickSort ! #n . #j) ! restore #j and #n let #j = QSort.Recursion level (used as a subscript to the helper ! array) ! #m . #j) else break end-if end-while do QSortSwap(#m.Performance and Tuning SQR 4.j(#level . 180 SQR User’s Guide .name(#j) > $key subtract 1 from #j end-while if #i < #j do QSortSwap(#i.j(#level . #j. #n) subtract 1 from #level end-if end-procedure ! QuickSort Program continues on the following page.1) = #n subtract 1 from #j do QuickSort(#level. Since SQR does not allocate ! local variables on a stack (they are all static).name(#i) < $key add 1 to #i end-while subtract 1 from #j while #j >= 0 and customer_array. ! This is a recursive function. ! ! #level . #j) add 1 to #level ! Save #j and #n let QSort.n(#level . #m. #m.1) add 1 to #j do QuickSort(#level.

In QuickSort the variables #j and #n are overwritten when QuickSort calls itself. which means that it calls itself. Each time QuickSort calls itself. SQR User’s Guide 181 . Typically. add a #level variable that maintains the depth of recursion. a helper array. QuickSort can call itself recursively many times. The QuickSort procedure takes three arguments.sqr (continued) ! ! ! QSortSwap ! ! Purpose: Swaps records #i and #j of customer_array ! ! #i . If you plan to use these procedures to sort an array in your applications. is used to hold multiple values of #j and #n. To do this.phone(#i) = customer_array. rows with a lower key value are moved up.state(#i) = customer_array. as described above.sqr refer to customer_array and its fields. In this example. For the algorithm to work properly. The second and third arguments are the beginning and end of the range of rows to be sorted.SQR 4.state(#j) let customer_array. you’ll need to change these references to the applicable array and fields.name(#i) = customer_array.Array subscript ! begin-procedure QSortSwap(#i. The QuickSort procedure sorts in ascending order.phone(#j) put $state $city $name $phone into customer_array(#j) end-procedure ! QSortSwap The QuickSort algorithm uses a recursive procedure.name(#j) let customer_array. so the program may need to save many copies of #j and #n. which is #level. SQR maintains only one copy of the procedure’s local variables. The procedures QuickSort and QSortSwap in ex24a. The QSortSwap procedure swaps two rows in customer_array. then restore those values when the call completes. Qsort.3 Performance and Tuning Program ex24a. the program must save the values of these two variables before making the recursive call. The main procedure starts QuickSort by calling it with the full range of rows. The first is the recursion level (or depth). the range gets smaller.city(#i) = customer_array.city(#j) let customer_array. #j) get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) let customer_array.Array subscript ! #j .

You can use a flat file when the required array size exceeds available memory." explains how to add functions to SQR.Performance and Tuning SQR 4. They work well for US ASCII English. but they may not sort correctly with other languages. The QuickSort procedure will then be modified as follows. "Extending SQR. you may need to write a National Language Sensitive character string comparison and add that to SQR.$key) while #j >= 0 and NLS_STRING_COMPARE($key. The disadvantage of using a file is that the program will perform more I/O. you may need a sorting utility that supports NLS. The following code is rewritten to use the file cust.name(#i) < $key and while #j >= 0 and customer_array. The advantage of using a file is that the program is not constrained by the amount of memory that is available. while #i <= #j and NLS_STRING_COMPARE(customer_array. Chapter 22.name(#j) > $key are simple string comparisons. This program uses the UNIX sort utility to sort the file by name. However.name(#i). As is the case with an array.customer_array.dat instead of the array. The comparisons while #i <= #j and customer_array. This example can be extended to include other operating systems.3 QuickSort and National Language The QuickSort procedure does not support National Language Sensitive character string sort. The sample code in the previous section can be rewritten to use a file instead of an array.name(#j)) Using and Sorting Flat Files An alternative to an array is a flat file. it may still be faster than performing another SQL statement to retrieve the same data. 182 SQR User’s Guide . For such languages.

55) position (+1) end-while ! ! close cust2.dat close 1 ! Sort cust.dat ! open ’cust.24) phone (.3 Performance and Tuning Program ex24b.SQR 4.7) print $name (.dat close 1 end-procedure ! main The program starts by opening a file cust.sqr begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main ! ! Open cust.dat’ #status if #status <> 0 display ’Error in sort’ stop end-if ! ! Print customers (which are now sorted by name) ! open ’cust2.dat’ as 1 for-reading record=80:vary while 1 ! loop until break ! Get data from the file read 1 into $name:30 $state:2 $city:16 $phone:10 if #end-file break ! End of file reached end-if print $state (.dat by name ! call system using ’sort cust.dat’ as 1 for-writing record=80:vary SQR User’s Guide 183 .1) city (.1) print $city (.24) print $phone (.dat > cust2.7) name (.dat’ as 1 for-writing record=80:vary begin-select state (.dat open ’cust.55) position (+1) ! Put data in the file write 1 from &name:30 &state:2 &city:16 &phone:10 from customers order by state end-select position (+2) ! ! Close cust.

The program writes fixed-length fields—for example. The completion status is saved in #status.dat for reading. a status of 0 indicates success. call system using ’sort cust. you could also use fixed-length records. the reserved variable #end-file is automatically set to 1 (true). The command read 1 into $name:30 $state:2 $city:16 $phone:10 reads one record from the file and places the first 30 characters in $name.dat. When the program has finished writing data to the file. &name:30 specifies that the name column will use exactly 30 characters.dat. it writes them to cust. the program closes the file using the CLOSE command. we open cust2. The program checks for #end-file and breaks out of the loop when the end of the file is reached. Finally. The file is set to support records of varying length with a maximum of 80 bytes (characters).Performance and Tuning SQR 4. When the end of the file is encountered.dat > cust2.dat is sent to the UNIX system. For this example.3 The OPEN command opens the file for writing and assigns it file number 1. the file will be sorted by name. which makes it easier to sort the file by name.dat and direct the output to cust2. it will be padded with blanks. The file is sorted with the UNIX sort utility. Next. write 1 from &name:30 &state:2 &city:16 &phone:10 The WRITE command writes the four columns into file number 1—the currently open cust. You can open as many as 12 files in one SQR program.dat’ #status The command sort cust. 184 SQR User’s Guide .dat > cust2.dat. Since name is at the beginning of each record. If the actual name is shorter. The next two characters are placed in $state and so on. it closes the file using the CLOSE command. It invokes the UNIX sort command to sort cust. As the program selects records from the database and prints them. It writes the name first.

a single program creates multiple reports." Tuning SQR Numerics SQR provides three types of numeric values: • Machine floating point numbers • Decimal numbers • Integers Machine floating point numbers are the default. Such repeated processing is often unnecessary. but also the slowest. You can also use the round function of LET or numeric edit masks that round the results to the desired precision. making just one pass on the data. SQR User’s Guide 185 . This method is very fast. if each program is executed separately. This is the most accurate method. The multiple report feature of SQR is described in Chapter 18. However. With SQR. Typically. one program can create multiple reports simultaneously. the database has to repeat the query. In many cases. The amount of database processing is thus greatly reduced. They use the floating point arithmetic provided by the hardware. Math is performed in software. MULTIPLY. Decimal numbers provide exact math and precision of up to 38 digits. you can sometimes use the ROUND option of commands such as ADD. In this method. It uses binary floating point and normally holds up to 15 digits of precision.3 Performance and Tuning Creating Multiple Reports in One Pass Sometimes you must create multiple reports that are based on the same data. "Multiple Reports. SUBTRACT. these reports are similar. To overcome this loss of accuracy. and DIVIDE.SQR 4. Some accuracy may be lost when converting decimal fractions to binary floating point numbers. with only a difference in layout or summary. you can create multiple programs and even reuse code.

If the -M command-line flag is used. however.INI file. The default is machine floating point to provide compatibility with older releases of the product. Many of these settings have a direct impact on memory requirements. The compiled program is stored in a run-time (. the -DNT command-line flag. Selecting the numeric type for variables allows you to fine-tune the precision of numbers in your program. Your program will run faster because it will skip the compile phase. There are several benefits for using integers: They enforce the integer type by not allowing fractions. You can then run it with SQR Execute.INI are used to define the sizes and limitations of some of the internal structures used by SQR. Moreover.Performance and Tuning SQR 4. An -M command-line flag can be used to specify a startup file whose entries will override those set in SQR.3 Integers can be used for numbers that are known to be integers. For most applications. typically faster than floating point numbers. you can select the type for individual variables in the program with the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. When you choose decimal numbers. then corresponding sections of the file will not be processed. This method is explained in Chapter 25. Compiling SQR Programs and Using SQR Execute Performance can be improved if you compile your SQR program.SQT) file. you can also specify the desired precision. or the DEFAULT-NUMERIC entry in the [Default-Settings] section of the SQR. 186 SQR User’s Guide . Integer math is also the fastest. If you use the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. Processing Limits A startup file and the [Processing-Limits] section of SQR.INI. you can choose the type of numbers that SQR uses. this type of tuning will not yield a significant performance improvements and we recommend selecting decimal. and they adhere to integer rules when dividing numbers.

they are fetched in groups rather than one at a time. Executing Programs on the Database Server You can reduce network traffic and greatly improve performance by running SQR programs directly on the database server machine.1. This feature is currently available only when you use SQR for the Oracle or SYBASE databases. and your program processes these records one at a time. A database fetch operation is therefore performed after every 10 records. This means that the number of database fetch operations is further reduced. In both cases. then network traffic is also significantly reduced. SQR User’s Guide 187 . In such cases you must increase the corresponding settings. most operating systems use virtual memory and tuning memory requirements would normally not affect performance in any significant way. instead of after every single record. To improve performance. This is a substantial performance gain. Buffering Fetched Rows When a BEGIN-SELECT command is executed. you specify the number of records to be fetched together. The SQR server product is available on many server platforms including Windows NT and UNIX. For example -B100 specifies that records will be fetched in groups of 100. records are fetched from the database server. The records are buffered.SQR 4.3 Performance and Tuning Tuning of memory requirements used to be significant with older 16-bit operating systems such as Windows 3. Today. The default is groups of 10 records. The number of records to fetch together can be modified using the -B command-line flag or for an individual BEGIN-SELECT command using its -B option. If the database server is on another computer. The only case where you may need to be concerned with [Processing-Limits] settings is with large SQR programs that exceed default [Processing-Limits] settings.

• Adjust settings in the [Processing-Limits] section of SQR. The next chapter will explain how to use compiled versions of SQR programs. • Execute programs on the database server machine.3 Summary The following techniques can be used to improve the performance of your SQR programs: • Simplify complex SELECT statements. • Use LOAD-LOOKUP to simplify joins. • Increase buffering of rows in SELECT statements with the -B flag. or integer). • Save compiled SQR programs and rerun them with SQR Execute. • Use the most efficient numeric type for numeric variables (machine floating point.INI or in a startup file. • Write programs that create multiple reports with one pass on the data. • Avoid using temporary database tables. Two alternatives to temporary database tables are SQR arrays and flat files. decimal. • Use dynamic SQL instead of a condition in a SELECT statement.Performance and Tuning SQR 4. 188 SQR User’s Guide .

• Validates SQL statements. however. SQR: • Reads. SQR creates a ready-to-execute version of your program that is already compiled and validated. there are two steps—compiling the program and executing it. You should enter something similar to the following: sqrw ex1a. • Performs the SETUP section. Note that SQR does not compile the program into machine language. you perform the compile step only once and skip it in subsequent runs.SQT.SQT file. • "Preprocesses" substitution variables and certain commands—ASK. and validates the program. #INCLUDE.25 Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute This chapter explains how to save and run compiled versions of your SQR programs. An example of this is as follows: sqrw ex1a. SQR will create a file with a file name extension of . running an SQR program is a one-step process. interprets. #DEFINE.sqt sammy/baker@rome -RT SQR User’s Guide 189 .sqr sammy/baker@rome -RS Run the SQR executable ("sqr" or "sqrw") with the -RT command-line flag to execute the . For SQR. SQR allows you to save the compiled version of a program and use it when you rerun a report. #IF. For the user. This file is portable between different hardware platforms and between some databases. Run the SQR executable ("sqr" for Unix systems or "sqrw" for Windows systems) against your SQR program file and include the -RS command-line flag to save the run-time file. The steps are simple. and #IFDEF. That way. When compiling a program. Execution will be faster because the program is already compiled.

"Writing Printer-Independent Reports. (This program is equivalent to running SQR with -RT. In some cases. An example of running SQR Execute from the command line is as follows: sqrwt ex1a. no equivalent exists and you will have to work your way around the limitation.sqt sammy/baker@rome It is important to realize that once you save the run-time (. For run-time customization. 190 SQR User’s Guide .3 The SQR product distribution includes SQR Execute (the SQRT program). A list of SQR features that apply at compile time and their possible runtime equivalents follows.Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute SQR 4. You must make a clear distinction between what is performed at compile time and what is performed at run time. We demonstrated this solution in Chapter 15. #INCLUDE.SQT file by invoking SQR Execute from the command line with "sqrt" (on UNIX systems) or "sqrwt" (on Windows systems).SQT) file. you should use commands such as IF and INPUT. or ASK commands or performing the SETUP section. SQR will no longer perform any compile-time steps such as executing #IF. Think of compile-time steps as defining what the report is." where we worked around the limitation of the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command. you may have to use substitution variables with commands that require a constant and do not allow a variable.) You may run the .SQT files but does not include the code that compiles an SQR program. These were already performed at the time that the program was compiled and the run-time file was saved. SQR Execute is capable of running . For example. Commands such as #IF or ASK allow you to customize your report at compile time. which does not accept a variable as an argument.

The next chapter explains how to create different types of output files. Run Time Use regular SQR variables.SQR 4. use the -RT command-line flag or SQR Execute. use dynamic SQL instead. • To run a precompiled program. SQR User’s Guide 191 . use the -RS commandline flag. If you are substituting parts of a SQL statement. margins Number of heading or footing lines DECLARE-CHART DECLARE-IMAGE DECLARE-PROCEDURE DECLARE-PRINTER USE (SYBASE only) Table 6. Compile-Time Commands and Run-Time Equivalents Summary • To save a compiled version of an SQR program. INPUT LET IF No equivalent No equivalent No equivalent PRINT-CHART PRINT-IMAGE USE-PROCEDURE ALTER-PRINTER (where possible) -DB command-line flag ASK #DEFINE #IF INCLUDE DECLARE-LAYOUT. See Chapter 16.3 Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute Compile Time Substitution variables.

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Except for the Microsoft Windows platform.26 Printing Issues In this chapter.LIS .htm . We will cover the DECLARE-PRINTER command and expand on printing issues that pertain to multiple reports. Command-Line Flags and Output Types SQR User’s Guide 193 .LIS Output goes directly to the default printer without being saved to a file." that a program can produce more than one report. but it does not print it directly. Specifically. we will cover technical issues relevant to printing. "Multiple Reports. The output file may be a printer-specific file or an SQR portable file (SPF). SQR creates an output file that contains the report. CommandLine Flag -PRINTER:EH -PRINTER:HP -PRINTER:HT -PRINTER:LP -PRINTER:PS -PRINTER:WP Output File Extension . SQR does not actually print the report. SQR portable files have a default extension of . You can set your default printer using the Windows Control Panel. The following table summarizes SQR command-line flags and the types of output they produce.LIS .Snn (for multiple reports).htm .SPF or . You may recall from Chapter 18. we will examine the SQR command-line flags that specify output file type and the printer for which it is produced. File Format Enhanced HTML PCL HTML ASCII PostScript Suitable for Intranet/Internet HP LaserJet printer Intranet/Internet Line printer PostScript printer Windows Table 7.

PostScript.SPF file to different printers. If your program creates multiple reports. This file format is very useful for saving the output of a report. SQR Portable File (SPF) is a printer-independent file format that allows for all the SQR graphical features.SPF file.Snn (in No flag . the -PRINTER:xx flag will affect all the reports.sqr from Chapter 18. including fonts. PCL.LIS file that is normally created) file . and images. When you are ready to print an . USE-PRINTER-TYPE. respectively.Printing Issues SQR 4. SPF files can be distributed electronically and read with the SQR Viewer.SPF or .SPF or . charts.Snn File Format SQR Portable Format Suitable for SQR Print and SQR Viewer can print this file to different printers. Producing . you may do so with the SQR Viewer or SQR Print. boxes. The DECLARE-PRINTER command itself does not cause the report to be produced for a specific printer.LIS . HP LaserJet. lines. HP LaserJet. SQR Print and SQR Viewer can print this . or PostScript Table 7. Command-Line Flags and Output Types (continued) À Note When no flags are specified. or PostScript. The DECLARE-PRINTER command is used to specify printer-specific settings for the printers that SQR supports: line printer.SPF output also allows you to decide later where to print it. use one of the following three methods: • Use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. For example -PRINTER:PS will cause SQR to produce a PostScript output. SQR will produce a line printer output unless otherwise set in the SQR program with DECLARE-PRINTER. Line printer. -KEEP SQR Portable Format and the addition to the format of the . and HTML. To specify a specific format.LIS ASCII. bar codes. such as the program ex18a.3 CommandLine Flag -NOLIS Output File Extension . 194 SQR User’s Guide . or the PRINTER-TYPE option of DECLAREREPORT. shaded areas.

out When your program creates more than one report.lis -flisting. you can define settings for each printer for each report.LIS for PostScript (PS). for example. if you want to use chapter1. The DECLARE-PRINTER command defines settings for line printers. The settings for a particular printer will only take effect when output is produced for that printer.out as the output of the program ex1a. you can name the output file by using multiple -F flags as follows: sqr ex20a username/password -flabel. use the FOR-REPORTS option.SPF. but with a different file extension. For example. you can use the -F option on the command line. To make a DECLARE-PRINTER command apply to a specific report. DEFAULT-HP. The default file extension is . PostScript.sqr. For example: declare-report labels layout=labels printer-type=ps end-declare will cause SQR to produce PostScript output for the labels report. DEFAULT-PS. How is the output file named? The output file will normally have the same name as your program. HP Laserjet (HP). will cause SQR to produce PostScript output. If you are generating an SQR Portable File the default extension is . or HP LaserJet printers.lis SQR User’s Guide 195 .3 Printing Issues • Use the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command in your report.SQR 4. as we discussed in Chapter 18. or Line Printer (LP). Your program may have more than one DECLARE-PRINTER command if you define settings for each of the printer types. The DECLARE-REPORT command is normally used when your program generates more than one report. The type of printer is specified using the TYPE option of the DECLARE-PRINTER command or by specifying one of the predefined printers DEFAULT-LP. USE-PRINTER-TYPE PS.lis -fletter. • Use the PRINTER-TYPE option of the DECLARE-REPORT command. the command to run SQR will be as follows: sqr ex1a username/password -fchapter1. If you would like SQR to use another name for the output file (including a user-defined file extension). You must use this command before you print anything because SQR cannot switch printer type in the middle of a program. and DEFAULT-HT. When your program generates multiple reports.

you first use SQR Print to create the printer-specific file.s01. if the output is in SPF format. You can still use the -F command-line flag to name the file. You can also use SQR Print or VisualSQRIBE.spf -printer:ps Note that this is a one-way conversion—an . but an . You can also use the File Manager Copy command to copy the file to the printer destination (for example.SPF files. The following table summarizes the commands and command-line options that you may use on different systems to send your report output to the printer. or the SQR Viewer to choose a printer destination.s01 and the third .lis -nolis The -NOLIS command-line flag will cause SQR to produce . The actual file names will be label. and listing. Table 8. the following command will invoke SQR Print to create a PostScript file myreport. Command-Line Options Use -D for printer destination You may use the UNIX "at" command to schedule the printing time.SPF file. On platforms other than Windows.. O/S UNIX SysV Command lp myreport. lpt1). Print Commands by Operating System 196 SQR User’s Guide .Printing Issues SQR 4. Different operating systems require different techniques for printing the output. SQR supplies file extensions such as these when your program generates multiple reports. Consult your operating system documentation for details.lis PRINT MYREPORT.SPF file can be turned into an .lis from the output file myreport.s02. Use SQR Print to print multiple copies.SPF files instead of . but you cannot control the file name extension.LIS files.s02. For example.spf.spf: sqrp myreport. /QUEUE for printer destination /COPIES for number of copies /AFTER for printing time /PASSALL to resolve printing issues Use the Print Setup dialog in SQR Print. UNIX BSD VMS lpr myreport. VisualSQRIBE.LIS file.SPF file is named ..lis -flisting.lis -d . letter.lis lp myreport.LIS file cannot be turned into an .lis Windows SQR will print directly. For example: sqr ex20a username/password -flabel. Note that the second .lis -fletter.3 Note that you cannot directly name .

the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command or the DECLARE-REPORT command with the printer-type option. Summary • Command-line flags create output files appropriate for different platforms and printers. • The -F command-line flag allows you to name output files (including file extensions).SPF extension. SQR User’s Guide 197 . in greater detail. The next chapter will explain. how to pass arguments and flags from the SQR command line.3 Printing Issues In any case. but it does not itself cause the report to be prepared for a specific printer. • DECLARE-PRINTER is used to specify printer-specific settings. • To prepare a report for a specific printer. we recommend that you check with your systems administrator about other procedures or commands applicable to printing output files at your site. use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. • The -NOLIS and -KEEP command-line flags create files in SQR portable format with an .SQR 4.

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SQR. Data_Source_Name/[Username]/[Password] is the name you give to the ODBC driver when you set up the driver. and password for the database.] [args . This technique is a good way to modify your program at run time. SQR prompts you for the program name. if your shell uses the question mark as a wild card character... -KEEP.. If entered as "?" or omitted. SQR prompts you for it. Database[/STAR][/Username] is the name of the database to use and an optional user name. Command-line flags such as -Bnn. The default file type or extension is .27 Using the SQR Command Line This chapter explains how to use the SQR command line to specify flags and pass arguments to your program. The syntax of the SQR command line is as follows: SQR [program] [connectivity] [flags . you must precede it with a backslash (\)... On UNIX-based systems. your user name. SQR Command-Line Arguments SQR User’s Guide 199 . If entered as "?" or omitted. or -S can be entered on the command line to modify some aspect of program execution or output. Command-line arguments are typically answers to requests (made in the SQR program by ASK or INPUT commands) for user input.. DB2 connectivity Ssname/SQLid is the subsystem name and SQL authorization ID to use.] [@file .] where: Argument program Description The name of your program. Database is the name of the database to use. Informix Ingres ODBC Table 9. The information needed by SQR to connect to the database.

. Arguments listed here are used by the ASK and INPUT commands rather than prompting the user. and args can be specified in this file. You can also specify the connection string for the database (e. @B:RDBSERVER). @B:ORASERVER). The command-line arguments program. Table 9. Arguments must be entered on the command line in the same sequence they are expected by the program—first all ASK arguments in order and then INPUT arguments in order. SQR Command-Line Arguments (continued) @file.. Username/[Password] is your user name and password for the database. one argument per line. your user name. SQLBase [Database]/[Username]/[Password] is the name of the database to use. your user name. 200 SQR User’s Guide . SYBASE flags args. and password for the database.. you can specify the connection string for the database (e. Arguments listed in the file are processed one at a time.3 Argument Description Oracle [Username]/[Password[@Database]] is your user name and password for the database. Rdb Red Brick Data_Source_Name/[Username]/[Password] is the name you give to the Red Brick supplied driver when you setup the driver. File containing program arguments. and password for the database.. [Username]/[Password[@Database]] is your user name and password for the database.Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4.g..g. connectivity. Optionally. Any of the flags listed in the SQR Language Reference. Arguments used by SQR while the program is running.

To reference a file on the command line. You can pass arguments to SQR on the command line. Each line in file.SQR 4. in files. followed by the file file. arg1 and arg2 are passed to SQR. or with the environment variable SQRFLAGS.dat. If so. You thus avoid any limits imposed by the operating system. Passing arguments is especially useful in automated reports. such as those invoked by scripts or menu-driven applications.3 Using the SQR Command Line Command-Line Flags Command-line flags begin with a hyphen. reference the file name on the command line and put one argument on each line of the file. After the available arguments are used. When a flag has an argument. precede its name with the at sign (@) as shown in the following example: sqr myreport sammy/baker arg1 arg2 @file. On some platforms.dat has an additional argument. SQR User’s Guide 201 .dat In this example." SQR processes all ASK commands before INPUT commands. subsequent ASK or INPUT commands prompt the user for input. Specifying Command-Line Arguments You can pass an almost unlimited number of command-line arguments to SQR at run time. the argument must be entered directly after the flag with no intervening space. See the SQR Language Reference for a complete discussion of SQR command line flags. SQR uses this input instead of prompting the user. If the INPUT command is used with the BATCH-MODE argument. When you pass arguments in a file. SQR will not prompt the user but will instead return a status meaning "No more arguments. SQR checks to see if you entered any arguments on the command line or if an argument file has been opened. the operating system will impose a limit on the number of arguments or the total size of the command line. How SQR Retrieves the Arguments When the ASK and INPUT commands execute.

Specifying Arguments and Argument Files You can mix argument files with simple arguments. printer initializations.dat’ ! Contains #DEFINE commands for ! printer and paper width and length declare-layout report paper-size =({paper_width} {paper_length}) end-declare end-setup 202 SQR User’s Guide . The "OH" argument is in quotes to ensure that SQR uses uppercase OH.dat. ASK commands will have already been processed. Using an Argument File If you wanted to print the same report on different printers with different characteristics. the value "OH". Arguments stored in files do not require quotes and cannot contain them. and fonts in separate files and use a command-line argument to specify which file to use. as shown in the following example: sqr rep2 sammy/baker 18 @argfile1. the actual strings with uppercase characters and any spaces are passed to SQR. in that order.3 À Note If you compiled your SQR program into an .dat.dat based on the command-line argument: begin-setup ask num ! Printer number.Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4. you could save values for the different page sizes.dat "OH" @argfile2. #include ’printer{num}. the contents of argfile2. When a command-line argument is case-sensitive or contains spaces. For example. the contents of argfile1.SQT file. it must be enclosed in quotes. Use INPUT instead. the following command line passes the value 18 to SQR: sqr myreport sammy/baker 18 An #INCLUDE command in the report file chooses file printer18. and the value "New York".dat "New York" This command line passes SQR the number 18.

user name.SQR 4. and password: sqr @argfile. or password if none is provided on the command line. SQR User’s Guide 203 .3 Using the SQR Command Line In this example.dat In this example. user name. the user is prompted for the program name and user name/password.dat In this example.dat-definitions for printer in Bldg 4. user name. You can use more than one question mark on the command line.dat.dat The first two lines of the argument file for this example contain the program name and user name/password: myreport sammy/baker 18 OH . which could include commands similar to the following: ! Printer18. If you do not want to specify the report name. use the question mark (?). #define paper_length 11 #define paper_width 8. as shown in the following example: sqr ? ? @argfile. the program prompts the user for the user name and password instead of taking them from the first line in the argument file.5 #define bold_font LS12755 #define light_font LS13377 #define init HM^J73011 Passing Command-Line Arguments—Other Approaches SQR examines an argument file for a program name. the ASK command assigns the value 18 to the variable num. The following command line omits the program name. The #INCLUDE command then uses the value of num to include the file printer18. SQR will prompt the user to supply these... For example: sqr myreport ? @argfile. 18 is a compile-time argument. or password on the command line or in an argument file.

and the at sign precedes an argument file name.Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4. The hyphen precedes an SQR flag.3 Reserved Characters The hyphen (-) and at sign (@) characters have special meaning on the command line.dat End acctlist. For example. the double hyphen and double at sign are interpreted as single literal characters: Creating an Argument File from a Report You can create an argument file for one program from the output of another program. END An SQR program could use the numbers in acctlist. then run a second report with the following command: sqr myreport sammy/baker @acctlist. contact.dat with an INPUT command. co_name. as shown in the following example: begin-procedure get_company next: input $account batch-mode status = #status if #status = 3 goto end_proc end-if begin-select cust_num. zip do print-page ! Print page with ! complete company data from customers where cust_num = $account end-select goto next ! Get next account number end_proc: end-procedure !get_company 204 SQR User’s Guide . city. state. To use either of these characters as the first character of a command-line argument.. addr.dat.dat @@X2H44 In this example.." as shown in the following example: 123344 134455 156664 . double the character to indicate that it is a literal hyphen or at sign. as shown in the following example: sqr myreport ? --17 @argfile. you could print a list of account numbers to the file acctlist.dat with a flag such as "END.

then writes a temporary command procedure and submits it to the batch queue. and Windows 95/98 operating systems. Windows 95/98.3 Using the SQR Command Line Using Batch Mode SQR lets you run reports in batch mode in VAX/VMS.COM. Windows NT. SQR User’s Guide 205 . UNIX. run-time arguments for the program (if supplied). VAX/VMS You can run your SQR reports in batch mode using the supplied procedure. your username/password.SQR 4. SUBMITSQR. This DCL command procedure prompts you for the name of your report. and Windows NT You can create UNIX shell scripts or MS-DOS batch (. Include the SQR command line in the file as you type it at the keyboard. UNIX.bat) files to run SQR.

3 Summary • Enter a flag on the command line to modify program execution or output. • Specify a command-line argument to supply information requested by an ASK or INPUT command. • Specify multiple arguments in an argument file referenced on the command line. The next chapter explains how to create HTML output and publish it on a Web server. • Use batch mode to run multiple programs. 206 SQR User’s Guide .Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4. • Use a question mark on the command line to prompt a user for input.

HTML specifies font sizes in a value from one to six. • Centering The SQR features not currently supported for HTML output include: • Font selection SQR User’s Guide 207 . The bold and underline font styles are supported. Many books and web sites offer information on this subject. À Note SQR makes it easy to generate professional quality HTML report files. • Font styles. Though. The SQR features supported under HTML include: • Images • Font sizing. It is not necessary to be an HTML "expert" to generate fine quality HTML output with SQR. but some of these features are not available for HTML output due to the limitations of that format. SQR Capabilities Available with HTML The SQR language has a rich set of available features. Extranet. or the Internet.28 Working with HTML This chapter explains how to generate HTML from an SQR program output and how to publish that output onto a Web site so that it will be available over an Intranet. A point size specified in an SQR program is mapped into an appropriate HTML font size. if you you wish to create customized HTML output using SQR’s HTML Procedures you may find it helpful to learn more about HTML. The SQR language specifies font sizes in points. This chapter also explains how to create a script that will allow users browsing the Internet or an Intranet to request execution of an SQR program and view its output.

• Running an unmodified SQR program with the command line flag -PRINTER:HT makes its HTML 2. With this method. With this method. • Using additional HTML procedures produces output with a full set of HTML features.inc. An HTML tag is a character sequence that defines how information is displayed in a Web browser.3 • • Bar codes Lines and boxes (Using -PRINTER:HT) Producing HTML Output There are four ways to produce HTML output from an SQR program. tables.2 output viewable in a Web browser. 208 SQR User’s Guide . • Using two HTML procedures—html_set_head_tags and html_set_body_attributes—allows you to define a title and background image for the HTML output.lis</TITLE></HEAD><BODY> This code is just a portion of the HTML output that SQR generates. HTML Output When an SQR program is used to generate HTML output. and hypertext links. • Running an unmodified SQR program with the command line flag -PRINTER:EH makes its HTML 3. To utilize HTML procedures. HTML output looks something like this: <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>myreport. The procedures used in the last two options are contained in a file called html.0 output viewable in a Web browser.0 or 3. you must still use the command line flag -PRINTER:HT.INC is located in the SAMPLE (or SAMPLEW) directory. The tags it contains indicate the starting and end points of HTML formatting. including lists. Each method provides a different level of HTML features. Use the command line flag -I to specify its path. you must still use the command line flag -PRINTER:HT. the SQR program must include the command: #include ’html.Working with HTML SQR 4.inc’ The file HTML. that output contains HTML tags.

SQT file.2 or FALSE for HTML 3. Adjust this based upon the level of HTML your web browser supports. To generate Enhanced HTML use the -PRINTER:EH flag in the command: sqrw myreport.0.spf -PRINTER:EH From within the the SQR Viewer. depending on your platform) to output Enhanced HTML from . You may invoke SQR Print (sqrp or sqrwp.SPF files from which you want to generate Enhanced HTML output. Using -PRINTER:EH You can generate Enhanced HTML output from an SQR program using the command-line flag -PRINTER:EH.SQT files"). It's as simple as that. The <BODY> tag indicates that the information following it comprises the body of the report.sqr sammy/baker@rome -RT -PRINTER:EH SQR User’s Guide 209 . You may also generate Enhanced HTML files with pre-compiled SQR program files (".ini file. myreport. it is not necessary to re-run your SQR program. on Windows platforms) by including the -RT flag.sqt sammy/baker@rome -PRINTER:EH As is true of executing any . All output is displayed as fully formatted HTML 3. you may also output this same highquality HTML by selecting File | Save as HTML.0.lis. you may run it against SQR (or SQRW.ini file settings and has the same default value. Using -PRINTER:EH. The -PRINTER:EH default output is HTML 3." above. The tags <TITLE> and </TITLE> enclose the report title—in this case. you can easily output high-quality HTML from SQR programs by just issuing a command similar to: sqrw myreport. the tag <HTML> defines the output that follows as HTML output. This will produce output which contains HTML formatting tags such as those shown in "HTML Output. Run the . If you have existing . The HTML level output from the SQR Viewer is also determined by your sqr.sqr sammy/baker@rome -PRINTER:EH You can control the version of HTML that is used by editing the [Enhanced-HTML] parameter FullHTML in the sqr.SQR 4. Set FullHTML equal to TRUE for HTML 3.SQT file against SQR Execute with a command similar to the following: sqrwt myreport.2 text.SPF files by using a command similar to: sqrwp myreport.0 or 3.3 Working with HTML For example. in the HTML code shown above.

Working with HTML SQR 4.sqr. Note that a "banner" frame is produced which contains the means to navigate through the report. 210 SQR User’s Guide . -PRINTER:EH Output for ex7a.sqr (in Web browser) When -PRINTER:EH is specified. You can also use the navigation links to move through the pages in any order you wish -. when viewed from a web browser.3 Chapter 7 in this User’s Guide contains the program ex7a. -EH_CSV:file."First". These flags only work with -PRINTER:EH. -EH_CSV creates an additional output file in Comma Separated Value format. -EH_CSV:file associates the CSV icon with the specified file. -EH_Icons:dir specifies the directory where the HTML should look for the referenced icons. -EH_Scale:{nn} sets the scaling factor from 50 to 200. will be similar to the following example. you may also use additional flags such as -EH_CSV. You can enter a specific page number and press <Enter> on your keyboard (or click "Go!"). you can produce HTML output which. "Last". "Previous". -EH_Icons:dir. By running it with -PRINTER:EH. or "Next". which produces a simple master/detail report. and -EH_Scale:{nn} to modify the ouput.

text color. It is placed between the <TITLE> </TITLE> HTML tags. You can specify the title of the HTML page by using the %%Title extension at the beginning of your SQR program by entering: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Title Monthly Sales’ Specifying Background Color You may specify a background color for the pages generated with -PRINTER:EH by using the %%Body-BgColor extension.3 Working with HTML Setting HTML Attributes under -PRINTER:EH In certain cases.gif’ The background attribute can be any valid URL. and hyperlinks. Specifying a Background Image for the Report If you would like to use a background image for the report pages that enhanced HTML generates. Enhanced HTML extensions also allow you to include your own HTML tags in the output.SQR 4. background color (or image). insert %%Background extension at the beginning of your program: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Background tile. please refer to the section "Specifying HTML Colors" below. These tags are passed-through to the output without change. Specifying HTML Title The HTML page title normally appears on the caption bar of the browser window and it is also used when creating a bookmark for the page. you may want additional control over the Enhanced HTML code that is generated with -PRINTER:EH. You can use this feature to include advanced HTML capabilities such as JavaScript and <APPLET> tags. Enter code similar to the following at the beginning of your program: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Body-BgColor seashell’ For information about specifying colors. SQR User’s Guide 211 . By using these extensions you can specify features such as the HTML title. SQR suports extensions that allow you to control the generated HTML.

or it could be the location in the page where the link takes you.. A subsequent invocation of %%Color with a different color will set the current color to the new color. number. specify on one line Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Href target="_top" http://www.sqribe. 212 SQR User’s Guide . or chart object into a link. Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Anchor section2’ Print ’XYZ’ () In our example.. image. when the value of the column is over 100000 we print it in red. examine the following piece of code: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Href #section2’ Print ’ABC’ () . This extension allows you to make a text. you can control which frame will display the target of the link using the target option of the %%Href extension.Working with HTML SQR 4. black) use the %%ResetColor extension. clicking on the "ABC" text on the page will jump to the "XYZ" text. The %%Color extension affects all text (and number) printing from this point on. For example. The latter is specified using the %%Anchor extension. To restore the color back to the default (normally. This is demonstrated in the following code example: If &Salary > 100000 Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Color red’ End-If Print &Salary () If &Salary > 100000 Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%ResetColor’ End-If In our example. This is similar to the behavior of the ALTER-PRINTER command in SQR. The object can be the item on which you click to activate the link.com’ Specifying Text Color To change the color of text you can use the %%Color and %%ResetColor extensions. When using frames or multiple browser windows. For example.3 Specifying Hyperlinks To specify a hyperlink in your report use the %%Href extension.

darkorange. orange. plum. you instruct Enhanced HTML to perform no formatting at all. This text could have anything that your browser understands. darkcyan. SQR User’s Guide 213 . -PRINTER:EH enhanced HTML makes extensive use of HTML tables. and ’&’. seashell. lightblue. By invoking the "html_on" procedure. The first two digits specify the intensity of the red. limegreen. SQR makes no attempt to check the text you are printing. green. royalblue. purple. Your browser’s documentation should contain a complete listing of supported colors. ’>’. navajowhite. pink. darkgreen. brown. violet. cyan.inc" or by using SQR PRINT with CODE-PRINTER=HT to insert HTML codes. lightcyan. maroon. black. blue. To gain full control over formatting you can use the HTML procedures that are defined in "html. gold. aqua. crimson. lime. white. gray.3 Working with HTML Specifying HTML Colors Color can be specified in one of two ways: by name or by value. lightgrey. lightyellow. tan. skyblue. turquoise. the next two specify the green. You might consider trying some of the following colors: antiquewhite. and the last two specify the blue. lavender. Using a name is the easiest and offers considerable variety. Including Your Own HTML Tags The SQR PRINT with CODE-PRINTER=HT provides a means for you to inject any text into the HTML output.SQR 4. darkblue. silver. Enhanced HTML will not translate special symbols that are used in HTML tags such as ’<’. You will then specify all formatting using the HTML procedures in "html. lightgreen. For example.inc" and are documented in this chapter and in the SQR Language Reference. goldenrod. coral. lightpink. and yellow. olive. green would be #00FF00. Specifying color as an RGB hexadecimal value is more complicated. beige. This is done by entering a # character followed by six hexadecimal digits. aquamarine. lightcoral. red. navy. teal. magenta. azure. violet. darkgray. When using SQR PRINT with CODE-PRINTER=HT. Be careful however not to try to use this hook for formatting as it is very likely that your formatting will conflict with -PRINTER:EH enhanced HTML formatting.

The characters <. The right frame also features a "navigation bar" which appears at the top of every page in the report. respectively. By running it with -PRINTER:HT.3 Using -PRINTER:HT Another method for generating HTML output from an SQR program is by running your program with the command-line flag -PRINTER:HT. when viewed from a web browser. &gt.sqr produces a simple master/detail report. " are mapped into the character sequences &lt. This prevents the Web browser from mistaking such output as an HTML sequence.. you can make some simple modifications to your program. Add either DECLARE-PRINTER with the argument TYPE=HT or USEPRINTER-TYPE HT. >. 214 SQR User’s Guide .. With these methods. Font sizes are mapped to an appropriate HTML font size. HTML output is generated as follows: • • • • • All output is displayed as preformatted text. Chapter 7 in this User’s Guide contains the program ex7a.Working with HTML SQR 4. Text is positioned on the page by the position coordinates specified in the SQR program. Alternatively. using the HTML <PRE> </PRE> tags. Note that a left frame is produced with hyperlinks to each page of the report.. &amp. &. will be similar to the following example. HTML reserved characters are mapped into the corresponding HTML sequence. you can produce HTML output which. and &quot.. Text is displayed using a fixed-width font such as Courier. The "navigation bar" permits you to move the first page and last page or move one page forward or back from your relative page viewing position.

1.htm file. For example. (This is frequently referred to as "demand paging.htm output files. with SQR.sqr (in Web browser) "Bursting" and Demand Paging We have shown you how. you might want to preview a report’s Table of Contents in your web browser without generating an entire report.SQR 4.3-5 generates an HTML file containing only report page numbers 1. You can do all of these things by using -BURST:{xx} in conjunction with -PRINTER:EH or -PRINTER:HT. SQR User’s Guide 215 . Using -BURST:P (or BURST:P1) with -PRINTER:EH or -BURST:P1 with -PRINTER:HT. -BURST:P0. if you have a 25 page report. Using -PRINTER:HT. you can also specify the report page ranges you wish to see within an HTML file.") So. 4 and 5. it will be divided into 25 separate . you can generate HTML format reports using -PRINTER:EH or -PRINTER:HT command line flags. But what if you want your HTML files to be smaller in size for faster load time or divided on the basis of report page ranges? Or. You can then focus on information that is truly of interest. you can generate HTML ouput files "burst" by report page numbers -.3 Working with HTML -PRINTER:HT Output for ex7a.one report page per . 3.

If you have used DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY commands in your SQR program. Using -BURST:S.1) toc-entry text = &name The HTML ouput from the modified ex7a. We added the following code to the beginning of ex7a. 216 SQR User’s Guide . we modified ex7a.3 Similarly. you can specify the numeric level to burst on.in the main procedure immediately after the begin-select and Print ’Customer Information’ (.sqr program is shown in the illustrations that follow. if you if you specify -PRINTER:HT with -BURST:S.Working with HTML SQR 4.g. you will only generate the Table of Contents file.. And. you will generate report output according to symbolic Table of Contents entries. As an example of how simple it is to use DECLARE-TOC and TOCENTRY to improve the information available in generated HTML output. (e. your Table of Contents will provide more detailed information than simple hyperlinked page numbers as illustrated in the example below. -BURST:S2 bursts on level 2).sqr.sqr: begin-setup declare-toc common for-reports=(all) dot-leader=yes indentation=2 end-declare end-setup We also added code to the body of the program -. if you specify -PRINTER:HT with -BURST:T.

3 Working with HTML -PRINTER:HT with -BURST:T Output for Modified ex7a.sqr -PRINTER:HT Output from Modified ex7a.SQR 4.sqr SQR User’s Guide 217 .

the SQR program must include the file html.gif"’) The first line of this code causes the title "Monthly Report" to be displayed." above. Specifically.Working with HTML SQR 4.sqr Setting Attributes with HTML Procedures You can use SQR’s HTML procedures html_set_head_tags and html_set_body_attributes to define a title and background image for a report. You must also run the program using the command-line flag -PRINTER:HT. the entire sequence ’<TITLE>Monthly Report</TITLE>’ is passed as an argument to the procedure html_set_head_tags. These procedures must be called at the start of the program. 218 SQR User’s Guide . as described in "Producing HTML Output. To utilize these procedures. Note that the argument is enclosed in single quotes.3 -PRINTER:EH Output Table of Contents File from Modified ex7a.inc. For example: do html_set_head_tags(’<TITLE>Monthly Report</TITLE>’) do html_set_body_attributes(’BACKGROUND="/images/mylogo.

and strikethrough.3 Working with HTML The second line causes the background image mylogo. and menus • Paragraph formatting. Together. • Headings • Hypertext links • Lists.INI file.SQR 4. Again. rows. an argument is passed to the procedure.gif"> Using Additional HTML Procedures Using additional HTML procedures in the SQR program provides enhanced capabilities. including: • Highlighting.sqr will create a FRAME file (myreport. including paragraph breaks. including captions. while the file name and path are enclosed in double quotes. unordered lists. SQR User’s Guide 219 . and column headings Output File Types An SQR report named myreport. definition lists. The value of zz ranges from 00 to 99 and reflects the report number. including ordered lists.gif to be displayed for the Web page. columns. The report output file extensions are controlled by the OUTPUT-FILE-MODE entry in the [Default-Setting] section of the SQR. including HTML physical tags and logical markup tags. When set to SHORT the report output files use the form myreport. code. the two lines of code above will generate the following HTML output. keyboard. line breaks. Note that the entire argument is enclosed in single quotes. and sample.htm. superscript. HTML physical tags include subscript.htm) and report output file(s). HTML logical markup tags include citation. <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>My Report</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY BACKGROUND="/images/mylogo. directory lists. and horizontal dividers • Tables.hzz and when set to LONG the files use the form myreport_zz.

White space. otherwise open the report output file (myreport. Text. If your Web browser supports the HTML FRAME construct.htm). open the file in the Web browser.3 The FRAME file shows a list (hypertext links) of report pages in one frame and the report text in another frame. An SQR program with these procedures generates output as described above in "Using Printer:HT. In addition. each report output file will contain links to the other report output files that were created during the program run. Using HTML Procedures in an SQR Program To enhance the appearance of the HTML output. Text is displayed using a proportional font such as Arial." with the following exceptions: • • • The HTML <PRE> </PRE> tags are not used. If myreport. open the FRAME file (myreport_frm. Positioning values specified in the SQR program are ignored. HTML tags. Testing HTML output produced by an SQR program can be previewed on a local system.htm). To test a program’s output. • 220 SQR User’s Guide .h00. use HTML procedures in an SQR program.sqr created multiple reports. This is a good way to test the output before it is published on a Web site. then the FRAME file will contain a link to each report output file. Each report output file contains a list of pages (hypertext links) at the end of the file. is removed. such as spaces between PRINT commands. and other information are placed in the HTML output in the order in which they are generated by the SQR program. myreport_00.Working with HTML SQR 4.

such as spaces between PRINT commands is removed. as displayed by the Web browser. How to Use HTML Procedures To utilize the HTML procedures. the output may display incorrectly. All position qualifiers in the SQR program are ignored. such as a table. Thus." above. the SQR program must include the file html. as described in "Producing HTML Output. and program output and HTML tags are placed in the output file in the order in which they are generated.20) ’Total billed:’ (4. print print print print print ’Report summary:’ (1. follows. SQR automatically inserts the page navigation hypertext links and an HTML <HR> tag at a page break. As before. The following SQR code does not use the HTML procedures to format the output. SQR User’s Guide 221 . HTML output is generated without the <PRE></PRE> tags. Note that all the text appears on the same line with no spaces between the data.inc.20) The output from the above sample code. the HTML procedures must be used to format the report.1) ’Amount billed:’ (3. If a page break falls in the middle of an HTML construct. Positioning Objects When HTML procedures are turned on.1) #total_amount (4. the program must specify a large page length to prevent page breaks. The command that calls this procedure is: do html_on Additionally. White space. Use the command DECLARE-LAYOUT with a large MAX-LINES setting to prevent page breaks from occurring. The SQR program must also call the procedure html_on at the start of the program. regardless of their position qualifiers. you must run the SQR program with the -PRINTER:HT command-line flag.SQR 4.3 Working with HTML À Note See the SQR Language Reference for more information on the HTML procedures available with SQR.1) #amount_amount (3.

This empty string is required if no other argument is passed. The procedures html_table.1) do html_td(’’) print #amount_amount (3.Working with HTML SQR 4.’’) do html_table(’’) do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’WIDTH=300’) print ’Amount billed:’ (3.20) do html_table_end The output from the above code is displayed by the Web browser as follows: 222 SQR User’s Guide .1) do html_td(’’) print #total_amount (4.3 With the HTML procedures for line breaks and a table. the output can be formatted properly. and html_table_end are used to display the totals in a tabular format. html_td. print ’Report summary:’ (1.1) do html_br(2. html_tr. The following SQR code uses the procedure html_br to separate the first two lines of text.20) do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’WIDTH=300’) print ’Total billed:’ (4. Note that an empty string is passed to each procedure as it is called.

Thus. • Captions—call html_caption to mark the start of a table caption and html_caption_end to mark the end of the table caption. but it can be used for completeness. but it can be used for completeness. The end is typically implied and html_caption_end is not needed. • Column headings—call html_th to mark the start of a column heading and html_th_end to mark the end of the column heading.3 Working with HTML Table Procedures When the HTML procedures are turned on. all positioning values in the SQR program are ignored.SQR 4. but it can be used for completeness. Program ex28a. SQR User’s Guide 223 . but it can be used for completeness. • Columns—call html_td to mark the start of a column and html_td_end to mark the end of the column.sqr #include ’html. • Rows—call html_tr to mark the start of a new row in the table and html_tr_end to mark the end of the row. The end is typically implied and html_tr_end is not needed. the position values cannot be used to display records in a tabular format. The end is typically implied and html_td_end is not needed. The following SQR program uses these table procedures to display information in a tabular format.inc’ begin-program do main end-program ! set a large page length to prevent page breaks begin-setup declare-layout default max-lines=750 end-declare end-setup begin-procedure main ! turn on HTML procedures do html_on Program continues on the following page. The end is typically implied and html_th_end is not needed. To display records in a tabular format use the following procedures: • Tables—call html_table to start a table and html_table_end to end a table.

sqr 224 SQR User’s Guide .25) next-listing skiplines=1 need=1 from customers end-select ! end the table do html_table_end end-procedure Output for ex28a.sqr (continued) ! start the table and display the column headings do html_table(’border’) do html_caption(’’) print ’Customer Records’ (1.Working with HTML SQR 4.10) ! display each record begin-select do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’’) cust_num (1.10.1) do html_th(’’) print ’Name’ (.6) edit 099999 do html_td(’’) name (1.1) do html_tr(’’) do html_th(’’) print ’Cust No’ (+1.3 Program ex28a.1.

call the appropriate highlighting procedure before the text is output. The following SQR code displays text in the subscript style: print ’Here is ’ (1. Once the text is output.1) do html_h2_end Highlighting The highlighting procedures provide the ability to display text in the various HTML highlighting styles. The available heading levels range from one to six. The following highlighting procedures are available: • Blink—call html_blink and html_blink_end. Highlighting is also called logical markup. • Sample—call html_sample and html_sample_end.3 Working with HTML Headings The heading procedures display text using heading levels such as those used in this book. To utilize the heading procedures. To utilize the highlighting procedures.SQR 4. call the appropriate heading procedure before the text is output. a first-level heading is the highest. • Code—call html_code and html_code_end. • Citation—call html_cite and html_cite_end. • Superscript—call html_sup and html_sup_end. The following SQR code displays text as a second-level heading: do html_h2(’’) print ’A Level 2 Heading’ (1. Once the text is output call the corresponding end procedure.1) do html_sub(’’) print ’subscript’ () do html_sub_end print ’ text’ () SQR User’s Guide 225 . • Subscript—call html_sub and html_sub_end. • Keyboard—call html_kbd and html_kbd_end. • Strike—call html_strike and html_strike_end. call the corresponding end procedure.

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Hypertext Links
The hypertext link procedures provide the ability to create hypertext links and hypertext link anchors. When the user clicks on the hypertext link, the Web browser switches to the top of the specified HTML document, to a point within the specified document, or to a link anchor within the same document. A hypertext link can point to the home page of a Web site, for example. To insert a hypertext link, use the procedure html_a, output the information that is to become the hypertext link, and use the procedure html_a_end to mark the end of the hypertext link. Two useful attributes for the procedure html_a, are the HREF and NAME attributes. Use the HREF attribute to specify where the hypertext link points to. Use the NAME attribute to specify an anchor to which a hypertext link can point. These attributes are passed as arguments to the procedure html_a. The following SQR code creates an anchor and two hypertext links. The anchor is positioned at the top of the document. The first hypertext link points to the HTML document home.html. The second hypertext link points to the anchor named TOP in the current document. Note the pound sign (#) in the argument, which indicates that the named anchor is a point within a document. The third link points to an anchor named POINT1 in the document mydoc.html.
do html_a(’HREF=home.html’) print ’Goto home page’ () do html_a_end do html_a(’NAME=TOP’) do html_a_end print ’At the top of document’ () do html_br(40, ’’) print ’At the bottom of document’ () do html_p(’’) do html_a(’HREF=#TOP’) print ’Goto top of document’ () do html_a_end do html_a (’HREF=mydoc.html#POINT1’) print ’Goto point1 in mydoc.html’ () do html_a_end

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Images
An image can be included in an HTML output with the PRINT-IMAGE command or the procedure html_img. Both of these produce the HTML <IMG> tag. The PRINT-IMAGE command displays images for all printer types but only allows you to specify the image type and source. The html_img procedure displays images only for HTML printer type but it allows you to specify any of the attributes available for an HTML <IMG> tag. For HTML output, only files of the GIF or JPEG format can be used. With PRINT-IMAGE, use the argument TYPE=GIF-FILE or TYPE=JPEG-FILE, respectively.

Lists
The list procedures display lists. To utilize these procedures, call the appropriate procedure before the list is output. Once the list is output, call the corresponding end procedure. The following list procedures are available.

• Definition (for lists of terms and their definitions)—call html_dl and html_dl_end. • Directory—call html_dir and html_dir_end. • Menus—call html_menu and html_menu_end. • Ordered (numbered or lettered) lists—call html_ol and html_ol_end. • Unordered (bulleted) lists—call html_ul and html_ul_end.
To display a list, except for the definition list, call the appropriate list procedure before the list is output. Call html_li to identify each item in the list; you can also call html_li_end for completeness. Once the list is output call the corresponding end procedure. The following code displays an ordered list:
do html_ol(’’) do html_li(’’) print ’First item in list’ (1,1) do html_li_end do html_li(’’) print ’Second item in list’ (+1,1)

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do html_li_end do html_li(’’) print ’Last item in list’ (+1,1) do html_li_end do html_ol_end

To display a definition list call html_dl before the list is output. Call html_dt to identify a term and html_dd to identify a definition. Once the list is output call html_dl_end. You can also call html_dd_end and html_dt_end for completeness The following code displays a definition list:
do html_dl(’’) do html_dt(’’) print ’A daisy’ (1,1) do html_dt_end do html_dd(’’) print ’A sweet and innocent flower’ (+1,1) do html_dd_end do html_dt(’’) print ’A rose’ (+1,1) do html_dt_end do html_dd(’’) print ’A very passionate flower’ (+1,1) do html_dd_end do html_ol_end

Paragraph Formatting
The HTML procedures provide various paragraph-formatting capabilities. To utilize these procedures, call the appropriate paragraph procedure before the list is output. The following procedures are available:

• Paragraph breaks—call html_p to mark the start of a paragraph and html_p_end to mark the end. Many HTML constructs imply an end of paragraph; thus, the procedure html_th_end is not needed, but it can be used for completeness. • Line breaks—call html_br to insert a line break. • Horizontal dividers (usually a sculpted line)—call html_hr to insert a horizontal divider. • Prevent line wrapping—call html_nobr to mark the start of a section of text that cannot be wrapped by the Web browser to fit the width of the browser window. Use the procedure html_nobr_end to mark the end.

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The following code uses the paragraph-formatting procedures to format text into paragraphs:
print ’Here is some normal text’ (1,1) do html_p(’ALIGN=RIGHT’) print ’Here is right aligned text’ (+1,1) do html_br(1,’’) print ’and a line break’ (+1,1) do html_p_end do html_hr(’’) do html_nobr(’’) print ’A very long line of text that cannot be wrapped’ (+1,1) do html_nobr_end

User-Defined HTML
You can incorporate your own HTML tags into the HTML output. To do so, use the PRINT command with the argument CODE-PRINTER=HT. Text printed with this argument is placed only in the HTML output generated when the HTML printer type is specified. With all other printer types, the text is not placed in the output. In addition, the specified text is placed directly in the HTML output without any modifications, such as the mapping of reserved characters. The following SQR code uses the HTML <B> tag to print bold text:
print ’<B>’ () code-printer=ht print ’Bold text’ () print ’</B>’ () code-printer=ht

Modifying an Existing SQR Program
In this section, an existing SQR program, ex12a.sqr, is modified to use HTML procedures. (The modified program is named ex28b.sqr). First, examine the output from ex12a.sqr when this program is run without modifications using the command line flag -PRINTER:HT. Three HTML files are generated: ex12a.htm, ex12a_frm.htm, and ex12a_toc.htm. If your web browser supports HTML frames, after opening ex12a_frm.htm, you should see the following:

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Program ex28b.sqr
#include ’html.inc’ begin-setup declare-layout default max-lines=10000 end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main do html_on print $current-date (1,1) edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ do html_p(’’) do html_table(’BORDER’) do html_tr(’’) do html_th(’WIDTH=250’) print ’Name’ (3,1) do html_th(’WIDTH=120’) print ’City’ (,32) do html_th(’WIDTH=60’) print ’State’ (,49) do html_th(’WIDTH=90’) print ’Total’ (,61)

Program continues on the next page.
230 SQR User’s Guide

WIDTH defines the width of the columns.3 Working with HTML Program ex28b.SQR 4.+1. Instead of using a HEADING section.11) edit 99999999. Note the arguments passed to the HTML procedures. a DECLARE-LAYOUT command with a large page length setting specified in the MAX-LINES argument is issued to prevent page breaks.sqr (continued) begin-select do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’’) name (.1. html_tr.30) do html_td(’’) city (. COLSPAN causes the label "Grand Total" to be spanned beneath three columns of data. and html_th are used to position the information in a tabular format.+1.55. SQR User’s Guide 231 .5) do html_td(’ALIGN=RIGHT’) tot (. BORDER produces the sculpted border seen in the output that follows. the procedure tr_th is used to display column headings. ALIGN right-aligns the text in the "Total" column.99 do html_table_end end-procedure ! main In this code. The procedure html_on is used to turn on the HTML procedures.40) do html_td(’ALIGN=RIGHT’) print #grand_total (. The procedures html_table.+1.99 next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers end-select do html_tr(’’) do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’COLSPAN=3 ALIGN=RIGHT’) print ’Grand Total’ (+1.16) do html_td(’’) state (.11) edit 99999999. html_td.

3. Run the SQR program. 232 SQR User’s Guide .3 Output for ex28b. Create hypertext links in a home page or other Web site that point to the report files so users browsing the network can navigate to the report and view it. See your Webmaster for more details on creating a URL. the user of a Web browser can view the report over the Internet or an Intranet by specifying the report’s URL address. 4. you must: 1. use a utility such as FTP to transfer the HTML output files to the Web server.Working with HTML SQR 4. Determine where the report output will be stored on the Web server.sqr Publishing the Report A report generated by an SQR program can be published onto the Web site. Thereafter. To publish a report. Copy the generated HTML output files to the chosen directory on the Web server. If the output is generated on a client PC. 2. The directory must be one that is pointed to by a URL on your server.

In that case.) SQR User’s Guide 233 . it should only contain a single page. The output file can be viewed at a later time to diagnose any problems. Viewing the Published Report The Web browser can be used to view a report that is published onto a Web site. a listing of report pages contained in the FRAME file would not be needed.com/myreport. • Specifies /dev/null as the source of standard input to prevent the program from hanging if it requires input. The sample Bourne shell program shown below: • Sets the necessary environment variables. • Redirects the standard output to /usr2/reports/myreport.out to capture any status messages. for example http://www. specify a URL address in your Web browser. Publishing Using an Automated Process The Webmaster can create a program that automates the publishing process.SQR 4.htm. • Copies the generated report files to the directory /usr2/web/docs to publish it on the Web server. See the documentation of your particular scheduling software for more details. To do this.3 Working with HTML To support older Web browsers that do not support the HTML FRAME construct. • Runs the SQR program /usr2/reports/myreport. The program can even be launched using a scheduling utility to automatically run the program and publish it on the Web site at specified times.sqr and generates the output files /usr2/reports/myreport. create two separate hypertext links – one pointing to the FRAME file (. If the report was created with HTML procedures. Only the report output file would be required for publication on a Web site. (Use the directory name appropriate for your server. however.htm) and labeled to indicate "frame version.myserver." and another pointing to the report output file and labeled to indicate "non-frame version". The program should run the SQR program and copy the output to the appropriate location.htm and /usr2/reports/myreport.h00.

The user enters information on the fill-out form and presses a button to invoke the CGI script. 3.htm /usr2/web/docs cp /usr2/reports/myreport.out 2>&1 < /dev/null # copy over the output cp /usr2/reports/myreport. Publishing Using a CGI Script In the CGI script method. The user views the report. The following items are required for this process: • The fill-out form • The CGI script • The SQR program 234 SQR User’s Guide .3 Here is the code: #! /bin/sh # set the appropriate environment values ORACLE_SID=oracle7. the user of a Web browser can run an SQR report and view the output.Working with HTML SQR 4. This method consists of the following steps: 1.sqr orauser/orapasswd \ -PRINTER:ht -I$SQRDIR \ > /usr2/reports/myreport. export SQRDIR # invoke the SQR program sqr /usr2/reports/myreport. One way to allow the user to run an SQR report is by providing a fill-out form. 4. export ORACLE_HOME SQRDIR=/usr2/sqr/bin. 5. 2. export ORACLE_SID ORACLE_HOME=/usr2/oracle7. The CGI script copies the report output file to the standard output. The user of the Web browser navigates to a fill-out form.h00 /usr2/web/docs À Note The environment variables and the file names must be adjusted to fit your particular environment. The CGI script runs the SQR program.

as shown in example that follows. In the INPUT tags.SQR 4.3 Working with HTML Creating the Fill-Out Form This section explains how to create an HTML fill-out form that allows the user to enter some values and launch the request.sh"> <B>Select the Field to Sort By</B><P><DIR> <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rb1" VALUE="cust_num" CHECKED> Number<BR> <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rb1" VALUE="name"> Name<BR> <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rb1" VALUE="city"> City<BR> <P><INPUT TYPE="submit" NAME="run" VALUE="Run Report"></DIR> </FORM> </HTML> The FORM METHOD tag specifies that the CGI script /cgi-bin/myreport. The URL address of the CGI script must be adjusted to fit your particular environment. The submit button invokes the CGI script. The following HTML code defines a fill-out form with three radio buttons and a submit button. For more information on implementing an HTML fill-out form. SQR User’s Guide 235 .sh will be invoked when the submit button is pressed. The VALUE attribute of the selected radio button is passed via the CGI script to the SQR program. The radio buttons allow the user to specify the sorting criteria. Here is the HTML code: <HTML> <TITLE>View Customer Information</TITLE> <FORM METHOD=POST ACTION="/cgi-bin/myreport. see HTML documentation available in print or on the Internet. the attribute TYPE="radio" defines a radio button.

3 The fill-out form will look like this: Creating the CGI Script The CGI script is launched when a user makes a request from a fill-out form. The CGI script performs the following tasks: 1. 2.Working with HTML SQR 4. The . Outputs the generated . 236 SQR User’s Guide . or a C program all provide simpler routines for processing as a CGI script. 4. For more information on implementing a CGI script. We do not recommend that SQR be called directly as a CGI script—a Perl script.LIS file with a relative URL address. If the fill-out form has no input fields. Values entered by the user on the fill-out form are passed to the SQR program via the CGI script and the command line. this step is not required. We also recommend that you make provisions within your SQR program to output an error message. Identifies the output as being in HTML format by outputting the string "Content-type: text/html" along with an extra empty line to the standard output stream.HTM file is not used since it points to the .LIS file to the standard output stream. a shell script. Reads the contents of the standard input stream and parses it to obtain the values entered on the fill-out form. 3. A CGI script can be any executable program. The relative address does not tell the Web browser where to find the .LIS file. Invokes the SQR program. see the HTML documentation available in print or on the Internet.

out to capture any status messages.. The $$ is the process ID of the program and is used as a unique identifier to prevent any multiuser problems.3 Working with HTML The following Bourne shell is an example of a CGI script. it outputs the string "Content-type: text/html" along with an extra empty line to the standard output stream to identify the text as being HTML format. The value is passed to the SQR program on the command line. #! /bin/sh # set the appropriate environment values ORACLE_SID=oracle7. export SQRDIR # identify the output as being HTML format echo "Content-type: text/html" echo "" # get values from fill-out form using the POST method read TEMPSTR SORTBY=‘echo $TEMPSTR | sed "s.out 2>&1 < /dev/null if [ $? -eq 0 ]..lis -I$SQRDIR "$SORTBY" \ > /tmp/myreport$$.. The report file /usr2/reports/myreport."‘ # invoke the SQR program sqr7 /usr2/reports/myreport.SQR 4. display the error echo "<HTML><BODY><PRE>" echo "FAILED TO RUN SQR PROGRAM" cat /tmp/myreport$$.&. In addition. Next.*rb1=.* This script first sets the necessary environment variables. the script redirects the standard input from /dev/null to prevent the program from hanging if the program requires any input.lis else # error ocurred. export ORACLE_HOME SQRDIR=/usr2/sqr/bin. s. The script runs the SQR program. export ORACLE_SID ORACLE_HOME=/usr2/oracle7. It also redirects the standard output to /tmp/myreport$$.*. The script retrieves the value of the selected radio button into the variable SORTBY.lis is generated.out echo "</PRE></BODY></HTML>" fi # remove temp files rm /tmp/myreport$$.sqr orauser/orapasswd \ -PRINTER:ht -f/tmp/myreport$$. then # display the output cat /tmp/myreport$$.sqr is used and the file /tmp/myreport$$. SQR User’s Guide 237 .

It has been modified to use the SORT BY value passed from the CGI script.30) do html_td(’’) city (. Passing Arguments to the SQR Program The SQR program must be modified to accept values entered by the user on the fill-out form. The modified lines are shown in bold. Finally.32) do html_th(’’) print ’State’ (. If an error occurs it outputs the status message file instead to allow the user to view the status messages.16) do html_td(’’) state (.sqr.Working with HTML SQR 4.1.1) do html_th(’’) print ’City’ (.5) next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers order by [$sortby] end-select Summary • Running an existing SQR program with the -PRINTER:EH or -PRINTER:HT command-line flag will cause the program to produce HTML output.+1. The $sortby variable is obtained from the command line with an INPUT command and used as dynamic variables in the ORDER BY clause. begin-procedure main input $sortby ’Sort by’ type=char do html_on do html_table(’’) do html_tr(’’) do html_th(’’) print ’Name’ (3.49) begin-select do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’’) name (. • Modifying an SQR program with the argument TYPE=HT of the DECLARE-PRINTER command or USE-PRINTER-TYPE HT will also cause it to produce HTML output.3 The script then copies the generated report file to the standard output stream. The code shown below is the procedure main from file ex28b.+1. 238 SQR User’s Guide . it deletes any temporary files.

• To automate the publishing process.inc. • To utilize these HTML procedures. • To generate customized HTML output.inc in your SQR program and call the procedure html_on. These procedures are contained in a file called html. include the file html. • To publish an SQR report on a Web server. myreport_00. • A fill-out form allows users to request an SQR program and specify values such as sorting criteria.SQR 4.htm) and report output file(s) (myreport. use a shell script or a scheduling utility.3 Working with HTML • An SQR program run that produces HTML output will create a FRAME file (myreport. use a CGI script and a fill-out form.htm). use HTML procedures. • To allow users to request an SQR report.h00. • A CGI script invokes the SQR program and passes values entered in the fill-out form to it. SQR User’s Guide 239 . run the SQR program and copy the output file to the Web server. • The command PRINT-IMAGE and the HTML procedure <IMG> provide support for GIF and JPEG images.

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the procedure does not execute. DOT-LEADER specifies whether or not a dot leader will precede the page number. SQR User’s Guide 241 . .) INDENTATION specifies the number of spaces that each level will be indented by. The DECLARE-TOC command must be issued in your program’s SETUP section similar to the following example: begin-setup declare-toc toc_name for-reports = (all) dot-leader = yes indentation = 2 end-declare . and AFTER-PAGE.) DECLARE-TOC also supports procedures frequently used for setup and initialization purposes: BEFORE-TOC. BEFORE-PAGE. (The default setting is 4. If no Table of Contents is generated. you may specify a Table of Contents name. this is accomplished through the use of two SQR commands: DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY. When generating multiple reports and Tables of Contents from one SQR program. AFTER-TOC specifies a procedure to be executed after the Table of Contents is generated. TOC-ENTRY places an entry into the Table of Contents. AFTER-TOC. (The default setting is NO and the DOT-LEADER is suppressed in all HTML output except when -BURST:T with -PRINTER:HT are also specified. If no Table of Contents is generated.29 Tables of Contents This chapter describes how to create Tables of Contents for your reports. the procedure does not execute. DECLARE-TOC defines a Table of Contents and its attributes. (Use (all) if you want all the reports to use one Table of Contents. The FOR-REPORTS argument allows you to specify the reports within the SQR program which will use this Table of Contents.) Specifying individual report names is only necessary when you are generating multiple reports with different TOCs from one program. BEFORE-TOC specifies a procedure to be executed before the Table of Contents is generated. . In the simplest form. you may also utilize the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command. end-setup After the DECLARE-TOC command.

you have some options to choose from. Under HTML. Alternatively. The Table of Contents ouput will contain the traditional dot leaders and necessary page numbers relating to a hardcopy report.LIS file (or use -PRINTER:WP on Windows). Then. As previously mentioned.3 BEFORE-PAGE specifies a procedure to be executed at the start of every page. Your program may have multiple DECLARE-TOC statements and multiple DECLARE-REPORT statements. If you wish to include levels in your Table of Contents. To specify the name of the Table of Contents applicable to a given report using the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command. However.sqr to use the DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY commands.) If you are writing programs which generate multiple reports. end-setup In Chapter 28. 242 SQR User’s Guide .Tables of Contents SQR 4. And the Table of Contents features work here as well. you must include the FORTOCS argument in your DECLARE-TOC statements or the TOC argument in your DECLARE-REPORT statements. run the modified version of ex7a.” we modified ex7a.sqr program from Chapter 28 and print it from an . (If this argument is not specified. include code similar to the following in the SETUP section of your program: begin-setup declare-report toc = toc_name end-declare . variables. you may use the FOR-REPORTS argument of the DECLARE-TOC command to identify the reports to which the DECLARE-TOC applies. use the LEVEL argument which specifies the level at which to place the text. the Table of Contents file is a hyper-linked point of navigation for the online report. the previous level’s value will be used. AFTER-PAGE specifies a procedure to be executed at the end of each page. To test this. TOC-ENTRY places an entry into the Table of Contents and takes the mandatory argument TEXT which specifies the text to be placed in the Table of Contents. . and columns. Legal text includes text literals. “Working with HTML. you may also wish to generate ouput files for printing reports on paper. you can use the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command to specify the name of the Table of Contents you want the report to use. we generated HTML output from the modified program using the -PRINTER:EH and PRINTER:HT command-line flags. . But.

SQR User’s Guide 243 .25) toc-entry text = &name level = 1 Program continues on the following page.62) Fill name (+1.1) end-procedure begin-procedure before_page position (+1. One Table of Contents level is set using the TOCENTRY command’s LEVEL=1 argument.3 Tables of Contents The following program is based on cust. Table of Contents Sample Program #1 begin-setup declare-toc cust_toc for-reports=(all) dot-leader=yes indentation=3 after-toc=after_toc before-page=before_page end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure after_toc position (+1.sqr which is located in the SAMPLE (or SAMPLEW) directory.1) print ’Before Page’ () bold position (+1. The dot leader is turned ON. The BEFORE-PAGE and AFTER-TOC arguments of the DECLARE-TOC command are used to print simple messages here.SQR 4.1.1) end-procedure begin-procedure main begin-select print ’Customer Info’ () print ’-’ (+1. The program identifies the Table of Contents with the specific name cust_toc.1) print ’After TOC’ () bold position (+1. Indentation is set to 3.1.

Tables of Contents SQR 4.1. 244 SQR User’s Guide . you may apply unique or common headings and footings to reports and Tables of Contents. by name. The FOR-TOCS argument of the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGINFOOTING commands allows you to specify.sqr. the Table of Contents to which the particular heading or footing section applies.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.16) state (.69) ’Page ’ end-heading The following program is also based on cust.15) edit (xxx)bxxx-xxxx position (+2.1.3 Table of Contents Sample Program #1 (continued) cust_num (." Table of Contents Sample Program #2 begin-setup declare-report cust end-declare declare-toc cust_toc for-reports=(cust) dot-leader=yes indentation=3 after-toc=after_toc before-page=before_page end-declare declare-variable integer #num_toc integer #num_page end-declare end-setup Program continues on the following page. The page numbers in the Table of Contents print as roman numerals. This program also creates Table of Contents specific headings and footings.2) phone (+1.35. if your program is generating multiple reports with multiple Tables of Contents. It is similar to the previous program but declares two Table of Contents levels. So.1) from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.17. The Table of Contents heading of this program prints "Table of Contents" and the page number.30) city (+1. The Table of Contents footing prints "Company Confidential.

25) toc-entry text = &name level = 1 cust_num (.product_code order_date (+1.1.10) let #any = 1 end-if b.35.10.20) toc-entry text = &description level=2 Program continues on the following page.62) Fill name (+1.17.10) print ’-------------’ (+1.+1.1) print ’After TOC’ () bold position (+1.SQR 4.30) city (+1.1.1.order_num b.2) phone (+1.16) state (.1) end-procedure begin-procedure main begin-select print ’Customer Info’ () print ’-’ (+1.15) edit (xxx)bxxx-xxxx position (+2. SQR User’s Guide 245 .1) from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure orders (#cust_num) let #any = 0 begin-select if not #any print ’Orders Booked’ (+2.1) print ’Before Page’ () bold position (+1.3 Tables of Contents Table of Contents Sample Program #2 (continued) begin-program use-report cust do main end-program begin-procedure after_toc position (+1.1) end-procedure begin-procedure before_page position (+1.1) do orders(&cust_num) position (+2.1.20) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ description (.

Tables of Contents SQR 4.13) Edit $$$$.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ end-footing begin-heading 3 for-tocs=(cust_toc) print ’Table of Contents’ (1.+1.cust_num = #cust_num order by b.$$0.3 Table of Contents Sample Program #2 (continued) c.69) print $page () end-heading begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.order_num and b. ordlines b.order_num. products c where a.1.69) ’Page ’ end-heading 246 SQR User’s Guide .product_code = c. b.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.quantity (.product_code and a.order_num = b.product_code end-select end-procedure ! orders begin-footing 3 for-tocs=(cust_toc) print ’Company Confidential’ (1.1) bold center let $page = roman(#page-count) print ’Page ’ (1.0) center print $current-date (1.99 from orders a.price * b.

• You may output multiple Tables of Contents and multiple reports from the same program. Use the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command or the FOR-REPORTS argument of the DECLARE-TOC command to specify which TOC goes with which report • You may create headings and footings for specified Tables of Contents using the FOR-TOC argument to the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGINFOOTING commands. SQR User’s Guide 247 .3 Tables of Contents Two Level Table of Contents HTML File Output with PRINTER:EH Summary • Use the DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY commands to create Tables of Contents for your reports.SQR 4..

19–43 breaks. 204 used with ASK or INPUT. 244 FOR-REPORTS option with. 49 BEGIN-SELECT. 120 . 5. 120 B bar codes. 189 A ALTER-LOCALE. 92 batch mode. 176 ASK. 152. 29 $sql-error. 169. 153 ALTER-PRINTER. 216 Bursting. 153 $sqr-program. 47 break logic. 201 # #DEBUG. 100 multiple. 190 #IF. 202 argument passing. nesting. 201 creating file from reports. 49 ORDER BY clause with. 107 BOTTOM-MARGIN option. 120 $sqr-locale. 123–30 arguments SQR User’s Guide 249 . 1 BEGIN-SELECT. 139 bind variables. . 169 #ENDIF. 169 #IF. 23 -BURST{xx}. 86. 168 #DEFINE. 116 bitmaps. 169. 189 #IFNDEF. 63 performance issues. 189 #page-count. 190. 201 arrays. 112 BOLD option with PRINT. 190 #INCLUDE. 189.Index ! ! (comment character). 121. 130 BEGIN-SELECT. 56. 205 BATCH-MODE argument. 215 S. 215 P. 215 $ $current-date. 86. 9. 20 BEGIN-SQL. 5. 120 $username. 11 BEGIN-PROGRAM. 105 argument files. 216 T. 135 BEGIN-PROCEDURE. 52 with HAVING clause.SQT files. 201 BEGIN-FOOTING. 169 #INCLUDE. 137 ON-ERROR option with. 135 BEGIN-HEADING. 189 #ELSE. 244 FOR-REPORTS option with. 86. 7 command-line. 189 #IFDEF. 112 bmp-file.

108 CGI script. 115. 148 dateadd function. 75. 141 comparing. 11 END-SETUP. 168 debugging SQR programs. 88 DECLARE-LAYOUT. 69 command line using reserved characters on. 91 DOCUMENT section. 186 connectivity. 195 TYPE option with. 189–91 compiling SQR programs performance issues. 142 dates. 209 250 SQR User’s Guide . 15 columnar data. 111 CODE-PRINTER qualifier. 71 CREATE-ARRAY. 47 PAPER-SIZE option with.Index SQR 4.3 C CENTER option. 47 setting margins with. 148 dates. 201 command-line flags. 45 Enhanced HTML. 145 formats. 71 MAX-COLUMNS option with. 84 defining page width with. 71. 167 declarations. 106. 144 datetostr function. 91 document section. 236 character grid. 59 cross-tabular reports. 100 database inserts. 31 END-PROCEDURE. 2 counters. 3. 203 command-line arguments. 193. 137 date arithmetic. 142 datenow function. 47 ORIENTATION option with. 7 compiling. 195 DECLARE-TOC. 137–40 -DEBUG flag. 193. 142. 1 END-SELECT. 195 FOR-REPORTS option with. 95–103 CODE-PRINTER qualifier. 47 DECLARE-PRINTER. 99 DECLARE-IMAGE. 111 DECLARE-PRINTER. 6 END-HEADING. 142. 100 DATA-ARRAY-ROW-COUNT argument. 80 END-FOOTING. 229 column variables. 146 ELSE. 204 using special characters. 119 Demand Paging. 145 converting to strings. 75 dynamic SQL. 234. 105 charts. 199 DDL (Data Definition Language). 46. 142 DB2. 55–67 D DATA-ARRAY option. 75. 201 comments. 45 DECLARE-CHART TITLE option with. 195 DECLARE-REPORT. 142 datediff function. 3 END-PROGRAM. 47 MAX-LINES option with. 100 DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-COUNT argument. 116–19 dynamic variables. 215 DML (Data Manipulation Language) 137–140 document markers. 142 converting from strings. 11 end-program. printing. 46. 241 DELETE. 142 date variables. 241 PRINTER-TYPE option with. 6 END-IF. 118 E edit masks case sensitivity. 31 ENCODE. 194.

157–66 F -F command-line flag. 173 loops. 219. 112 LAST-PAGE. 135 FOR-REPORTS option with DECLARE-PRINTER. 31 images with HTML. 86 fonts. 151–56 switching. 162 INPUT. 105–9 footing. 112 HTML. 84 fill-out form. 219. 86 graphics. 226 hyphens. 123 locales. 12 Informix. 235 flags. 139 interoperability. 128 FONT option. 190 INPUT. 227 LOAD-LOOKUP. 195 functions. 219. 51 IF. 153 LOOKUP. 124 GRAPHIC. 129 performance issues. 47 LET use of functions in. 86. 12 H HAVING clause with BEGIN-SELECT. 219. 199 initcap function. 195. 146. 196 FILL option. 6 form letters. 137 I IF. 112 EVALUATE. 119. 5.3 Index eps-file. 128 J joins. 172 local procedures.SQR 4. 227 indentation. 225 highlighting with HTML. 5. 60 exclamation mark. 6 headings with HTML. 23 lists with HTML. 124 local variables. 199 Ingres. 225 HORZ-LINE option. 113. 7 LEFT-MARGIN option. 83 K -KEEP command-line flag. 80 LEVEL keyword. 2 floor function. 85 hpgl-file. 30. 227 global variables. 227 G GIF format. 79–81 external files. 121 INPUT. 86. 7 exporting data. 164 LET. 194 L LaserJet printers. 87. 75–77 FOR-REPORTS option. 201 INSERT. 130 heading. 172 JPEG format. 207–39 hypertext links. 31 SQR User’s Guide 251 .

151 NEED argument. print. 38 paragraph formatting with HTML. 30 R recursive procedures. 84 FILL option with. 49–53 mod function. 205 multiple reports. 189 running SQR programs in UNIX. 200 ORDER BY clause. 21 with BOLD. 100 DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-COUNT argument with. 139 Oracle. 209 HT. 86. 194 PRINTER-DEINIT. 112 PRINT-CHART DATA-ARRAY option with. 185 N national language support. 193. 71 -NOLIS command-line flag. 50 page breaks with ON-BREAK. 11. 100 SUB-TITLE argument with.Index SQR 4. 5 reserved characters with HTML. 3. 86 procedures. 115. 189 -RT command-line flag. 108–9 PRINT-CHART. 111 PRINTER-TYPE option. 12 FILL option with. 123–30. 112 PRINT. 203 performance issues. 47 ON-BREAK option with. 91. 118 ORDER BY clause with BEGIN-SELECT. 131–35 performance issues. 100 DATA-ARRAY-ROW-COUNT argument with. 29 NO-ADVANCE option. 112. 10. 120. 214 reserved variables. 3. 69 master/detail reports. 107 WRAP option with. 111 -PRINTER:{xx} EH. 2 252 SQR User’s Guide . 124 -RS command-line flag. 119. 10 Q P queries. 124 PROGRAM section. 29. 103 POINT-SIZE option. 195 PRINT-IMAGE. 2 in Windows. 111 printer-independent reports. 19–43 limitations. 128 MS-DOS. 46. 86 PostScript printers. 1. 171 PIE-SEGMENT-PERCENT-DISPLAY qualifier.3 M mailing labels. 100 PRINT-DIRECT. 111–13 PRINTER-INIT. 87. nesting of. 181 report arguments file on command line. 95. 227 SOURCE option with. 20 ORIENTATION option. 112 PRINT-IMAGE. 12. 219. 100 TYPE option with. 91 position. 214 -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. 86 TYPE option with. 85. 196 O ON-BREAK. 228 passing command-line arguments. 200 report body. 41 ON-ERROR option. 194. 7. 86 POSITION.

91 variables in SQL. 120. 161 underscores. 105 TITLE option. 189–91. 100 SYBASE. 200 SYMBOL-SET argument. 165 ufunc on Windows NT. 166 with Windows NT.COM. 205 SELECT paragraph. 87 SPF file format. 190 with multiple reports. 171 TYPE option. 194 SPF file format. 167 tab-delimited file. 71 SKIPLINES argument. 142 substitution variables. 193. 134 SKIPLINES argument. 79 SQL dynamic. 15 common error with. 163. 195 S script files. 171 SQLBase. 167 text positioning. 194 SQR Viewer.INI. 194 SQR.3 Index run-time arguments. 80 strtodate function. 162. 241 tables with HTML. 122 SUB-TITLE argument. 118 SETUP section. 202 T -T command-line flag. 75 in documents. 205 VMS SUBMITSQR. See SPF file format SQR Print. 2 spreadsheets. 190 performance issues. 88. 119–20 SQL statements and SQR performance. 12. 69. 200 SQR calling from another application. 99 TOC-ENTRY. exporting to. 115 SQL and substitution variables. 86. 29. 166 userfuncs. 31 UNIX. 2 STATIC keyword. 29. 45–48. 79 Tables of Contents. 164 STRING.C. 119 SELECT paragraph. 176 testing SQR programs. 22 SOURCE option. 115–16 VMS. 152 SQRW. 121. 158 SQR API. 205 SQR User’s Guide 253 . 30 for positioning. 205 upper function. 169 defining. 175 SQL error checking. 219 Technical Support. 195 user functions with Windows 95.SQR 4. 166 V variables. 111 U ufunc on Windows 95. 116 USE-PRINTER-TYPE. 194. 100. 11. 47 tuning issues. 165 UFUNC. 88. 158–61 SQR Execute. 241 TOP-MARGIN option. 120–22 SQL cursor status performance issues. 196 SPF Viewer. xiii temporary database tables performance issues. 186 SQR Portable Format.

166 Windows NT user functions with. 166 WRAP option. 108–9 254 SQR User’s Guide .3 W Windows 95 user functions with.Index SQR 4.

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