Index

• Introduction • Types of biopesticides (biochemical and microbial pesticides) • Types of microbial pesticides

beneficial nematodes or other safe biologically based active ingredients. viruses. Biopesticides are an important group of pesticides that can reduce pesticides risks Biopesticides in general: • Have a narrow target range and very specific mode of action AND PESTICIDES: . fungi. and protozoa).• Bacteria • Viruses • Nematodes • Fungi • Protozoan • General advantages and disadvantages of microbial insecticides over chemical insecticides • Some examples INTRODUCTION BIOINSECTICIDES Pest management tools that are based on beneficial microorganisms (bacteria.

algae. Men made pheromones are used to disrupt insects mating by creating confusion during the search for mates.• • • • • Are slow acting Have relatively critical application times Suppress. or can be used to attract male insects to traps. Microbial insecticides come from naturally occurring or genetically altered bacteria. Major pathogens groups are . Pheromones are after used to detect or monitor insect’s population. a pest population Have limited field persistence and a short shelf life Are safer to human and the environment than conventional pesticides • Presents no residue problem Two types of biopesticides are biochemical and microbial Biochemical pesticides may have a similar structure to and function like naturally occurring chemicals and have non-toxic mode of action Insect’s pheromones for example are naturally occurring chemicals that insects use to locate mates. rather than eliminate. These products must compete with their synthetic counter parts in pest management marketplace. or to control them. viruses. They suppress pests by • Producing a toxin specific to pest • Causing a disease • Preventing establishment of other microorganism through competition • `Other modes of action Microbial insecticides: Microorganisms that have been made commercially available to control orthopods pests. or protozoan. fungi.

streptococcaceae.insect dies afterwards Factors influencing the larvicidal activity of BT • Age of targeted larvae ie younger larvae are more susceptible • Temperature o Spray rate o Coverage of plants o Timing and number of applications o Inactivation by sunlight Advantage pesticides: of BT formulation over chemical • Safely for application and field workers . pseudomonadaceae. After being eaten crystal is solublized in alkaline environment of midgut and enzymatically activated.cell swells and rupture allowing gut contents to enter body cavity. binds to specific sites on membrane of midgut cells and disrupture osmotic balance of midgut cells. And micrococaceae. Bacillus thuringiensis: Members of family bacillaceae are gram positive motile or non motile rods that can produce endospores the larvicidal activity of the bacterium is due to the parasporal crystals procedure by bacterium at the time of sporulation. Portion of the toxins molecules responsible for larvicidal activity. The only non-bacillus bacteria microbial insecticide is serratia entomophila currently registered for pasture land grub control in Newzealand.Bacteria Most pathogenic entobacteria are found in families bacillacea. Bacillus thuringiensis has been the most widely used and successful microbial pesticide ever registered. Bacillus is by far most important microbial pesticide genus. Protein toxin in parasporal crystal collectively called delta endotoxins must be ingested in order to be active. enterobacteriacea.

sphaericus: strict aerobic spores former. costelytra zealandica .commonly found in nature as saprophytes in soil and water .S.• Lack of activity on non targeted organisms including natural enemies. Drawbacks of BT formulation • Still expensive when compared to many synthetic pesticides • Media must be optimized for each new strain put into commertial production. S. gram negative .Entomophila is the casual agent of amber disease in Newzeland grass grud.rod shaped bacteria. Baculoviruses- .it is registered for control of C. Other bacteria: Two other species of bacteria currently registered as microbial insecticides are: Bacillus sphacricus and serratia entmophila. B. Viruses: Number of currently registered viral insecticides are made up of a relatively small no of entomopathogenic viruses exclusively from family baculoviridae.zealandica in Newzealand pasture. registered for mosquito control particularly effective against membrane of genus culex.entomophila Non spore forming.anaerobic.

Advantage of baculoviruses over chemical pesticides: • Have a narrow host range ie don’t harm beneficial insects. celeopreta.the insect larvae while feeding on plants foliage accidently feed upon the polyhedral with then gets solubilized in midgut thereby releasing the virion. they are suitable for long term. In nature they are found occluded within proteinaceous crystals known as POLYHEDRA on plant faliage. show feeding cessation and ultimately die. Insect larvae get infected when they feed on plant foliage and after a few days. ecologically sound control progammer • Can be produced easily locally. mostly of order lepidoptera hymnoptera.Viruses that infect insect. • Because of their persistence in environment. The global use of baculoviruses has been hampered by various constrains: • Slower speed of kill • Narrow hast range • Product stability .plant debris or soil. They are rod shaped and have circular doubled stranded DNA as their genomes. These virions replicate within the nuclei of epithelial cells lining the midgut to produce more virion which are released in budded form by 10-12 hr pi or get occluded in polyhedra late in infection cycle tissue liquefication and death of these cell upon death of infected larvae liberate masses of these polyhedra in soil environment from here they are again ready to be ingested and infected their host. Baculoviruses primary infect insect larvae and adult insects are not susceptible to them .

• Registration and patentibility.4 – 1. Some registered or commercialized baculoviruses as insecticides are: Country USA Brazil product name active againt Elean cotton bollworm multigen velvet bean catterpiller Nematodes: Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNS) are being recognized as important biological control agents for a wide variety of insect pests. EPN’S are insect parasitic nematodes. They are simple roundworm with cylindrical shaped bodies.1mm . ranging in length from . Efficacy of baculoviruses is measured in lad. • Inactivated by UV. Brays of sunlight. Occlusion bodies are quantified under microscope using haemacytometer. By an insect bioassay.

• Infective juvenile stage can withstand high pressure and can be applied in field using conventional spray. Mode of action: Nematodes parasitizes their host by direct penetration either through the opening in host integument ie mouth spiracles or through cuticle. An insect death is due to a symbiotic becteria that is released by juvenile into host. Advantage of EPNS over chemical insecticides: • There will be a reduction in social costs that incur from accumulation of chemical insecticides in food chain and water • Reduce formwork health risk associated with application of chemical insecticides • Broad activity of EPN based bioinsecticides allow for the target of several market. Fungi: Entomopathogenic fungi are found in division eumycota in the subdivisions: mastigomycotina .zygomycatina.ascomycotina and deutromycotina .Attributes that makes EPNS commercially suitable as biological control agent of insect pests: • They have a host range that includes majority of insects orders and their families and kill their host in 48 hr of infection • They can be easily cultured on a larger scale in an artificial media (in vitro culture) and infected juvenile stage obtained can be stored for longer time.

This has led the Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) to impose buffer zones.g. Other trials have also shown its effectiveness against the wingless grasshopper and the plague locust.e. In areas such as these however. As this new organic bioinsecticide uses the naturally occurring fungal insect disease pathogen Metarhizium as the active ingredient. has caused residue problems.Toxicity from entomopathogenic fungi most often occurs from contact of fungal conidia with host cuticle this necessitates through coverage of pest and foliage The first registered myainsecticides was Hirsutella thampsanii procedure by abott labs under trade name Mycar Currently most widely used fungal insecticide is Beauveria bassiana . it can be used to effectively control locust plagues without polluting the environment. This form of plague control is to be marketed as a commercial product within the next two years. chemical insecticide fenitrothion is being used to reduce locust numbers. The stabilized oil-based formulation of Metarhizium was tested against the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) in the Central Highlands and proven to yield excellent field results. Once the insects come into contact with the fungal spores (either by direct contact or through ingestion of treated vegetation). However. they become infected with the disease. endosulfan). Currently. S Factors that effect its larvicidal activity includes: • Temperature • Humidity • Age and stage of insects . the locust population is allowed to multiply since no form of control is used.it has been produced by several companies and market for control of calorado potato bettle that several other insects. the use of this insecticide as well as several alternative chemicals (e. through the use of a new fungal bioinsecticide. and die in a matter of days. The fungus bioinsecticide is formulated in such a way that live fungal spores can be air-sprayed on vegetation. locusts have resulted in significant losses for farmers and graziers throughout Australia. contaminating waterways and organic farms. i. Using Fungus to Fight Locusts several years of research involving fungus trials have culminated the development of an environmentally friendly way of controlling locust plagues. In the past. The rainy weather in many parts of Queensland and northern New South Wales (NSW) has created conditions ideal for locust breeding. where pesticide spraying is banned.

Death follows shortly after lethal infection and egg production reduced by 60 – 80 % in surviving adults Demerits of protozoa as microbial insecticides . Products are formulated on bran that is consumed by grasshopper. Currentely in U. generally slow acting rather than quick and acute .V light Host behavior Temperature Pathogen vigor and Age Protozoan: Entomogenous protozoan are extremely diverse group with relationship ranging from common Sal to pathogenic. it is soled in U.S one registered protozoa insecticide Nosomea locustae targeted against grasshopper.S as NoloBait by W and R Durango.• Timing and number of application • Dosage agricultural practices • Deactivation by sunlight Advantage of fungal pathogens used in microbial control • Less expensive • Broad host range • Able to grow and sporulate on any generalized media • Can adapt to a variety of growing conditions Despite of advantages there are numerous constrains on ability of fungal pathogens to infect their host these includes: • • • • • • Desiccation U.

• No toxic residues. • Ease of application. • No secondary pest outbreak.g. especially to bacterial toxins. • Little or no environmental pollution. microbial pesticides over chemical • Specificity to the target organism or to a limited number of host species. • Harmless to vertebrates and plants. • Adaptability to genetic modification through biotechnology Disadvantage of microbial pesticides • • • • • • • • Specificity only to target organism Strictly timing of application for maximal effect Long period of lethal infection (little or no knock down effect Inactivation by environmental factors (e. U. Advantages of insecticides. The real issue is that a strategy to constitutively express an insecticidal compound in large-scale crop monocultures and thus expose a homogeneous subecosystem continuously to the toxin.V. Uneconomical. Sooner or later we will likely see Bt-toxin resistance in those insects that are continuously in contact . dissection) and difficult to formulate Short shelf life.They can be extremely effective at reducing fitness and fecundity of insects so that they may have e real negative effect on microbial insecticides (viruses etc) produced in vivo. Possibility for development of resistance by target organisms. seems bound to create Bt-toxinresistant pests because of heavy selection pressure. • Compatibility with other biological control agents. Except for niche markets. • Little or no development of resistance by target organism. Risks associated with genetically modified organisms. • Possibility of long-term control. • Little or no direct impact upon parasitoids and invertebrates predators.

If or when this occurs. we will have lost the use of a valuable bio-insecticide. which could possibly affect a myriad of insects in the soil and give rise to horizontal gene transfer. Bt toxin has been found to leak through the root system of Bt-toxin GM maize into the soil. for example.with these monocultures and feed on them. through soil bacteria • EXAMPLES OF SUCCUSSFULLY USED BIOINSECTICIDES Product Crop(s) Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Gibberellic Acid (GA) Bacillus popilliae Methyl Eugenol (w/ Malathion)  Grape Berry Moth Pheromone All (Label Expansions) Strawberries & Blueberries Pastures All Grape .

Codling Moth Granulosis Virus Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain NCIB 12089 Lagenidium giganteum Apple. Extend storage shelf life. Pear. 4. Macleaya Extract . LPE . Walnut & Plum Mushroom Rice  SOME RECENT EXAMPLES 1.for ornamental disease control (pending) . Cinnamaldehyde – for mite/powdery mildew control on 39 crops. Messenger (Harpin Protein) – for disease control on apples & grapes. 7. roses and strawberries. 5. Milsana – for powdery mildew control on ornamentals.97 and 98S formulations on 13 fruit crops (EUP) – promote ripening and 2.on all commodities for insect and mite control (pending) 8. Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters . 6. 3. Chitosan (Elexa 4) – for powdery mildew control on grapes.

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