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Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements

**Analog Devices: Current Measurements
**

Force on a conductor

I

A conductor is placed in a uniform magnetic field B T, at an angle of θ. The current flow in the conductor is I A. Force exerted on the conductor can be calculated from

r r r F = IL × B

θ

F

F = ILB sinθ

B

**Analog Devices: Current Measurements
**

Force on a conductor

With no current flowing through the conductor, the spring will be at its unstretched length. As current flows through the conductor, the spring will stretch and developed force required to balance the electromagnetic force.

Fs = kx I B F = IBL I

kx = ILB

k = spring constant, x = the total distance moved by the spring and θ is 90o

k I= x BL

D’Arsonval or PMMC Instrument

Important parts of PMMC Instrument •Permanent magnet with two softiron poles • Moving coil • Controlling or restoring spring

PMMC = Permanent Magnet Moving Coil

Torque Equation and Scale When a current I flows through a one-turn coil in a magnetic field . producing a deflecting torque TD = NIBLD . the total force for a coil of N turns is F = NIBL The force on each side acts at a coil diameter D. a force exerted on each side of the coil F = IBL F = IBL F = IBL D L = the length of coil perpendicular to the paper Since the force acts on each side of the coil.

For a given deflection.Torque Equation and Scale The controlling torque exerted by the spiral springs is proportional to the angle of deflection of the pointer: TC = Kθ Where K = the spring constant. the deflection angle is θ = CI Therefore the pointer deflection is always proportional to the coil current. . the scale of the instrument is linear. the controlling and deflecting torques are equal BLIND = Kθ Since all quantities except θ and I are constant for any given instrument. Consequently.

• The current sensitivity is stated in µA/mm • Galvanometers are often used to detect zero current or voltage in a circuit rather than to measure the actual level of current or voltage.Galvanometer • Galvanometer is essentially a PMMC instrument designed to be sensitive to extremely current levels. . • The simplest galvanometer is a very sensitive instrument with the type of center-zero scale. In this situation. therefore the pointer can be deflected to either right or left of the zero position. the instrument is referred as a null detector.

DC Ammeter • An ammeter is always connected in series with a circuit. PMMC instrument • The internal resistance should be very low • The pointer can be deflected by a very small current • Extension of ranges of ammeter can be achieved by connecting a very low shunt resistor Ammeter shunt Rs Coil resistance Im I = Is + Im Is Rm Vm = Vs Vm Shunt resistance I I m Rm = I s Rs I m Rm Rs = I − Im Rs I m Rm Rs = Is .

1 mA.DC Ammeter Example: An ammeter has a PMMC instrument with a coil resistance of Rm = 99 Ω and FSD current of 0.05 4.025 2.95 5 0.5 Im (mA) Is (mA) I = Im + Is (mA) 0. Determine the total current passing through the ammeter at (a) FSD. (b) 0. Shunt resistance Rs = 1 Ω.475 2.25 FSD. Known: FSD of Im Rm and Rs Solution: FSD 0.9 10 .5 FSD. and (c) 0.5FSD 0.1 9.25FSD 0.

DC Ammeter Example: A PMMC instrument has FSD of 100 µA and a coil resistance of 1kΩ. Known: FSD of Im Rm Solution: (a) FSD = 100 mA: Rs = 1.10001 Ω . Calculate the required shunt resistance value to convert the instrument into an ammeter with (a) FSD = 100 mA and (b) FSD = 1 A.001 Ω (b) FSD = 1 A: Rs = 0.

.DC Ammeter: Multirange Rm C Rs1 Rs2 Rs3 Rs4 D E A B D E C B A Make-before break switch Multirange ammeter using switch shunts • A make-before-break must be used so that instrument is not left without a shunt in parallel to prevent a large current flow through ammeter.

Range change is effected by switch between resistor junctions + D R1 + R2 in parallel with Rm + R3 .DC Ammeter: Ayrton shunt Rm Im Im VS R1 I Is R2 R3 C A D I B Is + - R1 + R2 + R3 in parallel with Rm Rm Im Im VS R1 I Is R2 R3 B Is C A I An Ayrton shunt used with an ammeter consists of several seriesconnected resistors all connected in parallel with the PMMC instrument.

DC Ammeter Example: A PMMC instrument has a three-resistor Ayrton shunt connected across it to make an ammeter.5 Ω . Calculate the three ranges of the ammeter.05 + . and R3 = 4.45 Ω. The resistance values are R1 = 0.05 C 100.05 Ω. Known: FSD of Im Rm R1 R2 and R3 Solution: Rm Im Im VS R1 I Is R2 R3 B Is C A I Position IFSD (mA) D B 10. R2 = 0. The meter has Rm = 1 kΩ and FSD = 50 µA.05 D 1000.

• The internal resistance should be very high V = I m Rs + I m Rm Series resistance or “multiplier” V Rs = − Rm Im Given V = Range V Range Rs = − Rm Im The reciprocal of full scale current is the voltmeter sensitivity (kΩ/V) Ω Multiplier resistance Coil resistance Rs Im Rm V The total voltmeter resistance = Sensitivity X Range .DC Voltmeter PMMC instrument • An ammeter is always connected across or parallel with the points in a circuit at which the voltage is to be measured.

R2. or R1 + R2 + R3 V .DC Voltmeter: Multirange Multiplier resistors R1 Meter resistance • Multirange voltmeter using switched multiplier resistors R2 R3 Rm V = I m (Rm + R) Where R can be R1. or R3 V Rm R1 R2 R3 • Multirange voltmeter using seriesconnected multiplier resistor V = I m (Rm + R) Where R can be R1. R1 + R2.

9983 MΩ Ω R1 198.3 kΩ Ω R3 1.DC Ammeter Example: A PMMC instrument with FSD of 50 µA and a coil resistance of 1700 Ω is to be used as a voltmeter with ranges of 10 V. and 100 V. Calculate the required values of multiplier resistor for the circuit (a) and (b) Known: FSD of Im Rm Solution: Multiplier resistors R1 Meter resistance R2 R3 Rm R1 R2 R3 Rm V V (a) R1 198. 50 V.3 kΩ Ω (b) R2 800 kΩ Ω R3 1 MΩ Ω .3 kΩ Ω R2 998.

(b)) + + VS V V VA A I Rx Vx VS - I + + A + V V - IV Ix Rx Fig. (a) Fig. (a)) Current in voltmeter (Fig.Ohmmeter: Voltmeter-ammeter method Pro and con: •Simple and theoretical oriented •Requires two meter and calculations •Subject to error: Voltage drop in ammeter (Fig. (b) Measured Rx: Rmeas = if Ix>>IV V V + VA V = Rx + A Measured Rx: Rmeas = = x I I I Rmeas ≈ Rx if Vx>>VA Therefore this circuit is suitable for measure large resistance V V Rx = = I I x + IV 1 + IV / I x Rmeas ≈ Rx Therefore this circuit is suitable for measure small resistance .

. At half scale defection Rx = R1 + Rm.Ohmmeter: Series Connection •Voltmeter-ammeter method is rarely used in practical applications (mostly used in Laboratory) •Ohmmeter uses only one meter by keeping one parameter constant Example: series ohmmeter Resistance to be measured Standard resistance Nonlinear scale 15k Rx Battery R1 VS Rx = Vs − R1 − Rm I k 45 50 75 5k Rm ∞ Meter Infinity resistance Meter 25 0 A 0µ 10 0 Basic series ohmmeter Ohmmeter scale Basic series ohmmeter consisting of a PMMC and a series-connected standard resistor (R1). When the ohmmeter terminals are shorted (Rx = 0) meter full scale defection occurs. and at zero defection the terminals are open-circuited.

Loading Effect: Voltage Measurement a Linear Circuit Rth a Vab V Rm Vth Vab V Rm b Undisturbed condition: Rm = ∞ Measured condition: Rm ≠ ∞ General equation: b Vab = Vu = Vth Vab = Vm = Vm = Rm Vth Rm + Rth 1 Vu 1 + Rth / Rm Vm − Vu × 100 Vu Rth 1 =− ×100% = − ×100% Rm + Rth 1 + Rm / Rth Measurement error: error = Therefore. we must have Rm ≥ 10 Rth (error ~ 9%) . in practice. to get the acceptable results.

8 V 100 + 1000 // 100 .2 V 10 V 100kΩ Ω 4V V 200kΩ Ω 100kΩ Ω 4.3 V 100 + 100 // 100 Circuit before measurement Circuit under measurement 100kΩ Ω 6V 10 V 100kΩ Ω 5.8 V V 1000kΩ Ω Vmeas = 200 // 100 10 V = 4.Loading Effect R1 100kΩ Ω 5V 10 V 100kΩ Ω 6.0 V 100 + 200 // 100 Vmeas = 1000 // 100 10 V = 4.7 V 10 V R2 100kΩ Ω 5V 100kΩ Ω 3.3 V V Vmeas = 100kΩ Ω 100 // 100 10 V = 3.

76 k Rm + Rb 100 k + 5 k Req V= 4. if the instrument has a 20 kΩ/V sensitivity. (ii) 10 V range and (iii) 30 V range.76 k The voltmeter reading is Vb = Ra + Req .76 k 50 = 4. an accuracy 1% of full scale deflection and the meter is connected across Rb SOLUTION The voltage drop across Rb without the voltmeter connection Vb = Ra 45kΩ Ω Rb 5k V= × 50 = 5 V Ra + Rb 45 k + 5 k On the 5 V range 45 V Rm = S × range = 20kΩ / V × 5V = 100 k 50 V Rb 5kΩ Ω 5V Req = Rm Rb 100 k × 5 k = = 4.782 V 45 k + 4.Loading Effect Example Find the voltage reading and % error of each reading obtained with a voltmeter on (i) 5 V range.

218 V The meter error = ± 5 x 1 = ± 0.3 Total error (V) ± 0.5 = -0.27 ± 0.36 ± 4.22 -0.35 % error ± 5.782 .95 Loading error (V) -0. (V) 4.05 V ×100 = ±5.05 Meter error (V) ± 0.88 4.22 ± 0.218 V ± 0.Loading Effect Error of the measurement is the combination of the loading effect and the meter error The loading error = 4.10 .40 ± 6.36% 5V Range (V) 5 10 30 Vb .05 ± 0.05 V 100 ∴% of error on the 5 V range: = − 0.1 ± 0.78 4.12 -0.

Loading Effect: Current Measurement a Linear Circuit I Rth a I Vab A Rm Vth Vab A Rm b Undisturbed condition: Rm = 0 Measured condition: Rm ≠ 0 General equation: I = I u = Vth / Rth b I = I m = Vth / (Rth + Rm ) I m = I u / (1 + Rm / Rth ) Measurement error: error = I m − Iu ×100 Iu Rm 1 =− ×100% = − × 100% Rm + Rth 1 + Rth / Rm Therefore. we must have Rm ≤ Rth /10 (error ~ 9%) . in practice. to get the acceptable results.

AC Voltmeter: PMMC Based Waveform Amplitude A A A A A A D W Average 0 RMS A 2 A 2 A 2 A 3 A A π 2A π 0 0 D A D +W D A D +W .

D2 and D3 are forward-biased. while D1 and D4 are reverse-biased •The scale is calibrated for pure sine with the scale factor of 1. D1 and D4 are forward-biased. Full-wave Rectifier Voltmeter Multiplier resistors •Using 4 diodes •On positive cycle. • PMMC instrument can not response quite well with the frequency 50 Hz or higher.11 (A/√2 / 2A/π) √ π Rs D1 D3 Rm Vrms Vav Vp D2 D4 •Actually voltage to be indicated in ac measurements is normally the rms quantity . while D2 and D3 are reverse-biased •On negative cycle. therefore its terminals must be identified as + and -.AC Voltmeter: PMMC Based • Basic PMMC instrument is polarized. So the pointer will settle at the average value of the current flowing through the moving coil: average-responding meter.

Silicon diodes are used in the full-bridge rectifier circuit (a) calculate the multiplier resistance value required.AC Voltmeter: PMMC Based Example: A PMMC instrument has FSD of 100 µA and a coil resistance of 1kΩ is to be employed as an ac voltmeter with FSD = 100 V (rms).7 kΩ (b) 0.75 of FSD (c) 9 kΩ/V . (b) the position of the pointer when the rms input is 75 V and (c) the sensitivity of the voltmeter Known: FSD of Im Rm Solution: Multiplier resistors Rs D1 D3 Rm Vrms Vav Vp D2 D4 (a) Rs = 890.

while D1 is reverse-biased •The shunt resistor RSH is connected to be able to measure the relative large current. D2 is forward-biased. while D2 is reverse-biased •On negative cycle.22 (A/√2 / A/π) √ π .AC Voltmeter: PMMC Based Half-wave Rectifier Voltmeter Rs D1 Rm D2 RSH Vp Vrms Vav •On positive cycle. •The scale is calibrated for pure sine with the scale factor of 2. D1 is forward-biased.

When the measured voltage is 20% of FSD. The voltmeter is to indicate 50 Vrms at full scale Calculate the values of RS and RSH.AC Voltmeter: PMMC Based Example: A PMMC instrument has FSD of 50 µA and a coil resistance of 1700 Ω is used in the half-wave rectifier voltmeter.5 kΩ RSH = 778 Ω . Known: FSD of Im Rm Solution: Rs D1 Rm D2 RSH Vp Vrms Vav RS = 139. The silicon diode (D1) must have a minimum (peak) forward current of 100 µA.

E Solution 11% Em t T . Neglect all voltage drop in all diodes. Calculate the error in the meter indication. If the voltmeter is the full-wave rectified configuration.AC Voltmeter: PMMC Based Example The symmetrical square-wave voltage is applied to an average-responding ac voltmeter with a scale calibrated in terms of the rms value of a sine wave.

That is a known (standard) value is adjusted until it is equal to the unknown value. operates on the principle of comparison. Bridge Circuit DC Bridge (Resistance) Inductance Wheatstone Bridge Kelvin Bridge Megaohm Bridge Maxwell Bridge Hay Bridge Owen Bridge Etc.Bridge Circuit Bridge Circuit is a null method. AC Bridge Capacitance Schering Bridge Frequency Wien Bridge .

and I4 are current in resistance arms respectively.Wheatstone Bridge and Balance Condition The standard resistor R3 can be adjusted to null or balance the circuit. since I1 = I3 and I2 = I4 R1 R2 or = R3 R4 R2 Rx = R4 = R3 R1 . I3. A R1 I1 V I2 R2 Balance condition: No potential difference across the galvanometer (there is no current through the galvanometer) Under this condition: VAD = VAB D I3 R3 I4 R4 B I1R1 = I 2 R2 And also VDC = VBC I3 R3 = I 4 R4 C where I1. I2.

Example 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω 12 V 1Ω 1Ω 12 V 2Ω 2Ω (a) Equal resistance (b) Proportional resistance 1Ω 10 Ω 1Ω 10 Ω 12 V 2Ω 20 Ω 12 V 2Ω 10 Ω (c) Proportional resistance (d) 2-Volt unbalance .

consider a bridge circuit under a small unbalance condition.Sensitivity of Galvanometer A galvanometer is use to detect an unbalance condition in Wheatstone bridge. Its sensitivity is governed by: Current sensitivity (currents per unit defection) and internal resistance. and apply circuit analysis to solve the current through galvanometer Thévenin Equivalent Circuit Thévenin Voltage (VTH) A I1 VS R1 C R3 G R4 B R2 D Therefore I2 VCD = VAC − VAD = I1 R1 − I 2 R2 where I1 = V V and I 2 = R1 + R3 R2 + R4 R1 R2 VTH = VCD = V − R1 + R3 R2 + R4 .

Sensitivity of Galvanometer (continued) Thévenin Resistance (RTH) R1 C R3 B A R2 R4 D RTH = R1 // R3 + R2 // R4 Completed Circuit RTH C Ig= VTH D G VTH RTH+Rg Ig = VTH RTH + Rg where Ig = the galvanometer current Rg = the galvanometer resistance .

2 mm µA (c) . The battery voltage is 5 V and its internal resistance negligible.32 µ A × 10 mm = 33.Example 1 Figure below show the schematic diagram of a Wheatstone bridge with values of the bridge elements.77 mV = = 3. The galvanometer has a current sensitivity of 10 mm/µA and an internal resistance of 100 Ω.005 Ω.34 µA VTH 2.32 µ A RTH + Rg 734 Ω + 100 Ω Ig=3.77 mV D G Rg= 100 Ω Galvanometer deflection d = 3.77 mV Thévenin Resistance (RTH) RTH = 100 // 200 + 1000 // 2005 = 734 Ω D C 200 Ω B (b) RTH= 734 Ω C 2005 Ω The galvanometer current Ig = VTH 2. A 100 Ω R1 5V D R3 200 Ω B (a) 100 Ω A 1000 Ω G R4 2005 Ω R2 C 1000 Ω Thévenin Voltage (VTH) 1000 100 VTH = V AD − VAC = 5 V × − 100 + 200 1000 + 2005 ≈ 2. Calculate the deflection of the galvanometer caused by the 5-Ω unbalance in arm BC SOLUTION The bridge circuit is in the small unbalance condition since the value of resistance in arm BC is 2.

and we use the galvanometer in the Example 2. determine if this new galvanometer is capable of detecting the 5-Ω unbalance in arm BC Example 3 If all resistances in the Example 1 increase by 10 times. determine if this new setting can be detected (the 50-Ω unbalance in arm BC) . Assuming that a deflection of 1 mm can be observed on the galvanometer scale. Assuming that a deflection of 1 mm can be observed on the galvanometer scale.Example 2 The galvanometer in the previous example is replaced by one with an internal resistance of 500 Ω and a current sensitivity of 1mm/µA.

and the last arm has the resistance of R +∆R. if ∆R/R <<1 Please correct Thévenin Voltage (VTH) C V D VTH = VCD = V R B R+∆R ∆ ∆R / R 4 + 2 ∆R / R Small unbalance occur by the external RTH ≈ R environment In an unbalanced condition. the magnitude of the current or voltage drop for the meter or galvanometer portion of a bridge circuit is a direct indication of the change in resistance in one arm. strain etc. Thévenin Resistance (RTH) . R in three arms. where the resistance in one arm is sensitive to a physical quantity such as pressure.Deflection Method A R V R Consider a bridge circuit which have identical resistors. temperature. This kind of bridge circuit can be found in sensor applications.

5 kΩ 5 kΩ Ω Rv Output signal 60 80 100 120 Temp (oC) (b) (a) . is also shown in Figure (b). Find (a) the temperature at which the bridge is balance and (b) The output signal at Temperature of 60oC. 6V R v (kΩ ) 5 kΩ Ω 5 kΩ Ω 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 4. The plot of R VS Temp.Example Circuit in Figure (a) below consists of a resistor Rv which is sensitive to the temperature change.

Z3 and Z4 are the impedance of bridge arms Z4 D At balance point: EBA = EBC or I1Z1 = I 2 Z 2 General Form of the ac Bridge Complex Form: Polar Form: Z1Z4 ( ∠θ1 + ∠θ 4 ) =Z2 Z3 ( ∠θ 2 + ∠θ 3 ) I1 = V V and I 2 = Z1 + Z 3 Z2 + Z4 Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 Z1Z4 =Z2 Z3 Magnitude balance: Phase balance: ∠θ1 + ∠θ 4 =∠θ 2 + ∠θ 3 . ac meter Source: an ac voltage at desired frequency Z1.AC Bridge: Balance Condition B Z1 I1 I2 Z2 V A Z3 D C all four arms are considered as impedance (frequency dependent components) The detector is an ac responding device: headphone. Z2.

Example The impedance of the basic ac bridge are given as follows: Z1 = 100 Ω ∠80o (inductive impedance) Z 2 = 250 Ω (pure resistance) Z3 = 400 ∠30o Ω (inductive impedance) Z 4 = unknown Determine the constants of the unknown arm. .

= 450 Ω.Example an ac bridge is in balance with the following constants: arm AB. unknown. R = 300 Ω in series with C = 0. arm BC. B Z1 Z2 I1 I2 SOLUTION Z1 = R + jω L = 200 + j100 Ω V A Z3 D C Z 2 = R + 1/ jω C = 300 − j 600 Ω Z3 = R = 450 Ω Z 4 = unknown Z4 D The general equation for bridge balance states that Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 .265 µF. R = 200 Ω in series with L = 15. Find the constants of arm CD. The oscillator frequency is 1 kHz. arm CD. arm DA.9 mH R.

R+/.= ∞ Rule 2: V+ = V-.Operational Amplifier: Op Amp VCC(+) Inverting Input Non-inverting Input _ Output I1 _ I2 VV+ VEE(-) + + Vout (a) Electrical Symbol for the op amp (b) Minimum connections to an op amp Ideal Op Amp Rules: 1. Virtually shorted . No current flows in to either input terminal 2. There is no voltage difference between the two input terminals Rule 1: I1 = I2 = 0.

vA = 0 vin vout + =0 R1 R f Rf vout =− vin R1 . therefore V.is also at zero volts too.Inverting Amplifier KCL R1 A + Rf Use KCL at point A and apply Rule 1: (no current flows into the inverting input) _ v A − vin v A − vout + =0 R1 Rf + vout - Rearrange vin 1 1 vin vout vA + + − =0 R 1 R f R1 R f Apply Rule 2: (no voltage difference between inverting and non-inverting inputs) Since V+ at zero volts.

= V+ = 0.Inverting Amplifier: another approach No current flows into op amp Rf _ + i From Rule 2: we know that V. and therefore 0 R1 vin i −vin + iR1 − V = 0 vout + 0 − vin i= R1 Since there is no current into op amp (Rule 1) −V − + iR f + vout = 0 mV 60 40 20 -20 -40 -60 vout = −iR f Combine the results.7 kΩ and Rf =47 kΩ vout = -10vin = -50 sin 3t mV Rf vout vin 1 2 3 4 5 6 time . R1=4. we get vout =− vin R1 Given vin = 5sin3t.

Non-inverting Amplifier KCL R1 A + Rf Use KCL at point A and apply Rule 1: _ v A v A − vout + =0 R1 Rf + vout - Apply Rule 2: vin = v A vin Rf vout = 1+ vin R1 mV 60 vout vin 1 2 3 4 5 6 time Given vin = 5sin3t. R1=4.7 kΩ and Rf =47 kΩ vout = 11vin = 55 sin 3t mV 40 20 -20 -40 -60 .

Summing Amplifier: Mathematic Operation i = i1 + i2 + i3 i i1 i2 i3 v1 v2 v3 R R R vA vB Use KCL and apply Rule 1: Rf v A − v1 v A − v 2 v A − v3 v A − vout + + + =0 R R R Rf _ + Since vA = 0 (Rule 2) + vout - vout = − Rf R ( v1 + v2 + v3 ) Sum of v1. v2 and v3 .

(2) into eq. (1). we get If R1 = R2 = R and R3 = R4 = Rf vout = Rf R ( v2 − v1 ) Difference of v1and v2 .Difference Amplifier: Mathematic Operation R4 R1 R2 vA vB R3 Use KCL and apply Rule 1: v A − v1 v A − vout + =0 R1 R4 (1) _ + + vout - Since vA = vB (Rule 2) and R3 v A = vB = v2 R2 + R3 vout R1 + R4 R3 v = v2 − 1 R4 R1 R4 R2 + R3 R1 (2) v1 v2 Substitute eq.

Differentiator and Integrator: Mathematic Operation R C i vout = − iR dvC and dt vin = vC _ + But i=C i vin + vout - vout dvin = − RC dt vout = − vC Differentiator i C R + vc _ 1 But vC (t ) = ∫ idt + vC (0) and C 0 t vin = iR i vin + + vout - vout 1 =− ∫ vin dt + vC (0) RC 0 t Integrator .

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