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Manuel de sécurité au laboratoire

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Laboratory Safety Inspection Program Lab Design Guidelines Lab Furniture Lab Safety Guidelines Laboratory Safety Orientation Lab Coat Laundry Service Biosafety Radiation Safety Laser Safety Physical Plant Safety Field Work Safety

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Laboratory Safety Manual
Pour le manuel en français, cliquez ici Last Updated: May 5, 2010

CONTENTS

1. Introduction to Laboratory Safety 1.1 Preparing for laboratory work 1.2 During laboratory work 1.3 Cleaning up before leaving 1.4 Evaluating laboratory hazards, an ongoing process 1.5 Working alone policy 2. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) 2.1 Regulatory Requirements: Labelling, Material Safety Data Sheets & Training 2.1.1 Labelling 2.1.1.1 Supplier’s Labels 2.1.1.2 Workplace Labels 2.1.1.3 Workplace Labels in Research Laboratories 2.1.1.4 EHS Approved Lab Abbreviations List 2.1.1.5 Laboratory Sample Labels 2.1.2 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 2.1.2.1 Supplier’s Responsibilities 2.1.2.2 Laboratory’s Responsibilities 2.1.2.3 MSDS location 2.1.2.4 MSDS location indicated on Laboratory Information Card 2.1.2.5 MSDS Audit 2.1.3 Training 2.1.3.1 Core WHMIS Training 2.1.3.2 Job-specific WHMIS Training 2.2 Understanding hazard warning information 2.2.1 WHMIS Symbols 2.2.2 Toxicological properties: LD50 AND LC50 2.2.3 Exposure limits (TLV, PEL) 2.2.4 Flash point 2.2.5 Autoignition temperature 2.2.6 Flammable limits 3. Control of Chemical Hazards 3.1 Toxic chemicals and the four routes of entry 3.2 Flammable chemicals 3.3 Oxidizing chemicals 3.4 Reactive chemicals 3.5 Corrosive chemicals 3.6 Chemical spill response 3.6.1 Spill response contingencies 3.6.2 Development of spill response plans 3.6.2.1 Communications 3.6.2.2 General guidelines 3.6.3 Guidelines for specific types of spills 3.6.3.1 Flammable and toxic liquids 3.6.3.2 Corrosive liquids 3.6.3.3 Corrosive solids 3.6.3.4 Toxic solids 3.6.3.5 Gases 3.6.3.6 Mercury

3.6.3.7 Special categories 4. Storage and Handling in Laboratories 4.1 General Storage Guidelines 4.2 Ergonomics 4.3 Chemical Storage 4.4 Flammable Liquid Storage Cabinets 4.5 Chemical Compatibility 4.6 Chemical Segregation 4.7 Unstable Chemicals 4.8 Explosive Chemicals 5. Fire Safety 5.1 The fire triangle 5.2 Classes of fire 5.3 Fire extinguishers 5.4 Preventing fires 5.5 Evacuations 6. Hazardous Waste Disposal 6.1 Waste minimization 6.2 Hazardous waste disposal guidelines 6.3 Waste preparation procedures 6.3.1 Chemical waste 6.3.1.1 Organic solvents and oils 6.3.1.2 Miscellaneous chemicals and cylinders 6.3.1.3 Chemicals of unknown composition 6.3.1.4 Peroxide-forming (e.g. ether) and explosive (e.g. dry picric acid) chemicals 6.3.1.5 Corrosives (acids and bases) 6.3.2 Biomedical waste 6.3.2.1 Animal carcasses 6.3.2.2 Infectious laboratory waste 6.3.2.3 Biohazardous sharps 6.3.2.4 Blood and blood-contaminated materials 6.3.3 Sharps 6.3.3.1 Definition of Sharps 6.3.3.1.1 Contaminated sharps 6.3.3.1.2 Non-contaminated sharps 6.3.3.2 Broken glassware (uncontaminated) 6.3.3.3 Empty chemical reagent bottles 6.3.4 Radioactive waste 6.3.4.1 Solid waste (except sealed sources) 6.3.4.2 Sealed and encapsulated sources 6.3.4.3 Liquid scintillation vials 6.3.4.4 Liquid radioactive waste 7. Laboratory Ventilation and Fume Hoods 7.1 General ventilation 7.2 Local ventilation devices 7.2.1 Chemical fume hoods 7.2.2 Canopy hoods 7.2.3 Slotted hoods 7.2.4 Biological safety cabinets 7.2.5 Direct connections 7.3 Ventilation balancing and containment 7.4 Safe use of chemical fume hoods 8. Compressed Gases and Cryogenics 8.1 Hazards of compressed gases 8.2 Safe handling, storage and transport of compressed gas cylinders 8.3 Cryogenic hazards 8.4 Cryogenic handling precautions 9. Physical Hazards and Ergonomics 9.1 Electrical safety 9.2 High pressure and vacuum work

9.3 Repetitive work and ergonomics 9.4 Glassware safety 10. Equipment Safety 10.1 Centrifuges 10.2 Electrophoresis equipment 10.3 Heating baths, water baths 10.4 Shakers, blenders and sonicators 10.5 Ovens and hot plates 10.6 Analytical equipment 10.6.1 Scintillation counters 10.6.2 Atomic absorption (AA) spectrometers 10.6.3 Mass spectrometers (MS) 10.6.4 Gas chromatographs (GC) 10.6.5 NMR equipment 10.6.6 HPLC equipment 10.6.7 LC/MS equipment 11. Personal Protective Equipment 11.1 Eye and face protection 11.2 Lab Coats 11.3 Hand Protection 11.3.1 Latex gloves and skin reactions 11.3.2 Glove selection guidelines 11.3.3 Chemical glove selection 11.3.4 Selection, use and care of protective gloves 11.4 Respirators 11.4.1 Selection, use and care of respirators 12. Emergency Procedures 12.1 First aid 12.1.1 Burns 12.1.1.1 Burns to the skin 12.1.1.2 Burns to the eyes 12.1.2 Cuts 12.1.3 Needlestick injuries 12.1.4 Chemical splashes to the skin or eyes 12.1.5 Poisoning 12.2 Fires 12.2.1 Suspected fires 12.2.2 Known fires 12.2.3 Clothing fires 12.3 Hazardous chemical spills 12.4 Natural gas leaks Appendix 1: Flammability classification & permissible container sizes TOP OF PAGE

1. Introduction to Laboratory Safety

1.1 Preparing for laboratory work Before starting to work in a laboratory, familiarize yourself with the following: • the hazards of the materials in the lab, as well as appropriate safe handling, storage and emergency protocols. Read labels and material safety data sheets (MSDSs) before moving, handling or opening chemicals. Never use a product from an unlabeled container, and report missing labels to your supervisor. the agents, processes and equipment in the laboratory. If you are unsure of any aspect of a procedure, check with your supervisor before proceeding. the location and operation of safety and emergency equipment such as fire extinguishers, eye wash and shower, first aid and spill response kits, fire alarm pull stations, telephone and emergency exits

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Walk. Conduct procedures involving the release of volatile toxic or flammable materials in a chemical fume hood (See Section 7. eating. it is critical that you remain open to the possibility that new unexpected dangers can arise. Wear lab coats (knee length) and safety glasses in laboratories employing chemicals. Report accidents and dangerous incidents ("near-misses") promptly to your supervisor Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory. radioisotopes. Keep work places clean and free of unwanted chemicals.2 During laboratory work • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Restrict laboratory access to authorized persons only. Replace MSDS that are more than 3 years old. biological specimens. Keep exits and passageways clear at all times. Tie back or otherwise restrain long hair when working with chemicals. such as sandals. applying cosmetics or lip balm and handling contact lenses are not permitted in laboratories. Leave behind protective clothing (lab coats.3 Cleaning up before leaving Perform a safety check at the end of each experiment and before leaving the lab. beverages or tobacco. or moving machinery. etc. and idle equipment.• • • emergency spill response procedures for the materials you will handle emergency reporting procedures and telephone numbers designated and alternate escape routes 1. equipment and apparatus to their proper storage locations Label. Prepare and maintain a chemical inventory for the lab. and situations can change frequently. biohazards. gloves.4). water. advise Environmental Health and Safety whenever changes to the LIC are required. reactivity. Ensure that access to emergency equipment (eyewashes. toxicity. vacuum and compression lines and heating apparatus Return unused materials. biohazards or radioisotopes. Never pipette by mouth. Open shoes. should never be worn in the lab. Work only with materials once you know their flammability. radios. Consult material safety data sheets (MSDS) before working with hazardous chemicals or infectious material. Avoid leaving reagent bottles. on the floor.) when leaving the laboratory Close and lock the door to the laboratory if you are the last one to leave 1. Even after you have identified and controlled all current risks. Smoking.3. do not run. drinking. Children are not permitted in labs.4 Evaluating laboratory hazards. Carry out weekly inspections on the condition of: • • • • • . an ongoing process There are many categories of hazards that might be encountered in a laboratory setting. package and dispose of all waste material properly (Refer to Section 9. Make sure to: • • • • • Turn off gas. Perform procedures that liberate infectious bioaerosols in a biological safety cabinet Handle all human blood and body fluids as if potentially infectious 1. "Waste Preparation Procedures") Remove defective or damaged equipment immediately. safe handling and storage and emergency procedures. Periodically verify that the Laboratory Information Card (LIC) and other hazard warnings are current. in the lab. use mechanical transfer devices. safety showers and fire extinguishers) is not blocked. empty or full. and arrange to have it repaired or replaced Decontaminate any equipment or work areas that may have been in contact with hazardous materials. storing food. electricity.

Before conducting any work alone in a laboratory go through this checklist to determine if it is appropriate to proceed: • • • • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Is your supervisor aware of your plans? Are there any hazardous experiments involved? Examples: High temperature High vacuum Extremely flammable materials (low flash point) Poisonous materials Scaling up i.. take measures to ensure that others are aware of your location and have someone check in with you from time to time.5 Working alone policy Working alone is an unsafe practice at any time. gases chemical storage compartments Also. higher quantities .• • • • • • fire extinguishers emergency wash devices such as eyewashes and drench hoses (run these for several minutes and update inspection tags first aid kit contents fume hood and other ventilation devices tubing for circulating water. However. if the nature of your work makes it unavoidable. vacuum. either in person or by telephone. tested and tagged annually.e. ensure that fire extinguishers and emergency showers are inspected. be alert for the following: • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • Chemical products flammable toxic oxidizing reactive corrosive Microbiological disease-producing agents and their toxins viruses bacteria parasites rickettsiae fungi Physical or mechanical hazards ionizing and non-ionizing radiation electrical poor equipment design or work organization (ergonomic hazards) tripping hazards excessive noise or heat Psychosocial conditions that can cause psychological stress 1. Among potential laboratory hazards.

in the workplace. A label may be a mark. Material Safety Data Sheets & Training 2. and substances that are regulated by WHMIS legislation.1. Any hazardous material. WHMIS is governed by federal and provincial laws and regulations (Quebec’s Regulation respecting Information on controlled products (R. stencilled. or embossed on the container of the controlled product. A supplier label must contain the following information: • • • • product identifier (name of product) supplier identifier (name of company that sold it) hazard symbols (WHMIS classification symbols) risk phrases (words that describe the main hazards of the product) .2 The main objectives of WHMIS are hazard identification and product classification. WHMIS divides hazardous materials into six main categories or classes based on their characteristics. stamp. It is imperative that all containers in laboratories are clearly identified. c.1. At McGill. WHMIS consists of three main components: • Labelling • • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Training 2. material safety data sheets (MSDS) and education programs. must be labelled.1 Regulatory Requirements: Labelling.1.1 Labelling Labels alert people to the dangers of the product and basic safety precautions. It is intended to protect the health and safety of workers by promoting access to information on hazardous materials. based on their hazardous properties and characteristics.1.1 Supplier’s Labels Suppliers are responsible for labelling WHMIS-controlled products. referred to as controlled products. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) is a Canada-wide system for providing information on the safe use of hazardous materials. this information is provided by means of product labels. device.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Have you reviewed your procedure with your supervisor? Do you have a written operating procedure? Are your apparatus and equipment in good working condition? Are you trained to carry out the work? Do you have a check-in/check-out procedure? Do you have an emergency contingency? Do you have access to a McGill telephone (rather than a cell) in case of an emergency? Does your door have a viewing window or other means of indicating someone is inside? Are you aware of the emergency evacuations procedure? Do you have access to a telephone in case of an emergency? Do you have access to a first aid kit? Do you have access to a spill kit? TOP OF PAGE 2. staff.Q. post docs. whether in transit. See Section 2. sign.1) and any person supplying or using controlled products must comply with its requirements. or use. Controlled products are products. tag. WHMIS legislation dictates what information is required on a workplace label. sticker. WHMIS legislation applies to all faculty. storage.10. materials. students (graduate and undergraduate) and visitors who work in areas where hazardous materials are used. S-2. imprinted. There are 2 types of labels prescribed under WHMIS regulation: supplier labels and workplace labels. r. or wrapper and must be attached to. ticket. 2.

used or analyzed in research laboratories. the workplace label affixed to the container must contain the following information: • product identifier (product name) The product name can either be: • the full name of the product or solution.. as it appears on the material safety data sheet and include its concentration. stock solutions). as long as the following conditions are met: • • the product is not transported outside the laboratory. This list permits laboratories to use abbreviations on the labels of those products listed. the controlled product is transferred from the original container into another container. the following conditions must be met: • • The EHS Approved Lab Abbreviations List must be posted in the laboratory. unless they appear on the EHS Approved Lab Abbreviations List.1.4 EHS Approved Lab Abbreviations List EHS has compiled an approved list of laboratory abbreviations. A workplace label must contain the following information: • • • product identifier (product name) information for the safe handling of the product reference to the MSDS The product name must include the full name of the product or solution. In research laboratories. EHS Approved Lab Abbreviations List [. the label affixed to the container must indicate: the product name (abbreviations and chemical formulas permitted) 2. prepared or transferred from one container to another.1. 2. See Section 2.. and the Material Safety Data Sheet is available.g.1. manufactured or prepared (e. when a WHMIS-controlled product is manufactured.pdf] In order to use these abbreviations.g. stock solutions) at the workplace. preferably in a location close to where the products are stored. The following exemptions apply to WHMIS-controlled product manufactured. as it appears on the EHS Approved Lab Abbreviations List Abbreviations are not permitted.4 When a non-controlled product is manufactured. prepared or transferred from one container to another (e.• • • precautionary statements (how to work with the product safely) first aid measures (what to do in an emergency) reference to the MSDS Supplier labels must be provided in both official languages (English and French). 2. and the original supplier label becomes illegible or damaged or when it is removed.3 Workplace Labels in Research Laboratories WHMIS legislation permits certain exemptions in the labelling requirements for WHMIS-controlled products in laboratories involved with research and development. transferred. as it appears on the material safety data sheet and including its concentration OR • the approved product abbreviation.1.1.1.2 Workplace Labels A workplace label must appear on all WHMIS-controlled products when: • • • controlled products are produced. .1.1.

" -O.. The MSDS must be available in both official languages (French and English). materials or substances (e.1. noted in a lab book). physical. S-2.Q.1. 2.C.1.2.2 Laboratory’s Responsibilities Everyone has the right to review an MSDS.g. 10. The requirements for laboratory samples that are intended to be used in a laboratory immediately (same day) and solely by that person who prepared them include: • • • the samples must be clearly identified.1. sent elsewhere for analysis).g.R. including within the University must have a label affixed to it that contains the following information: • • • • product identifier (product name) owner’s name (name of Principal Investigator who prepared the sample) lab number and building emergency telephone number When samples are greater than 10 kg. 1981.g.g. Each laboratory is responsible for ensuring that their MSDS Collection: .1.. The list will be reviewed annually by EHS. If you wish to make suggestions or recommendations for new abbreviations. 48.1. the CAS number and attach an electronic copy of the product’s MSDS. Laboratory samples CANNOT be sent via internal mail. as well as information on precautionary and emergency procedures. and toxicological information about each controlled product. Email EHS (Subject: Lab Abbreviations) and include the full name of the product. Every lab at McGill must to comply with Quebec’s Regulation respecting information on controlled products (R. regardless of the number of controlled products on-hand. 2.). or simply because of personal interest. They are technical bulletins that provide chemical.1. whether it is related to their work. 2.2 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provide more details than labels.1) which states: "the Material Safety Data Sheet for a controlled product shall be kept at the workplace by the employer in a place that is known to the workers and shall be easily and rapidly accessible to those workers that are liable to come into contact with the product. Laboratory samples that must be transported outside of a laboratory (e. the Supplier is required to revise the MSDS. Laboratory samples do not include WHMIS-controlled products that are used by the laboratory for testing other products. 445-89.1 Supplier’s Responsibilities Suppliers of WHMIS-controlled products are required to make available MSDS to the purchaser. at the beginning of the binder) These conditions will be verified during Laboratory Safety Inspections.1. buffer solutions). a description of sample’s contents must be readily available (e. the label affixed to the container must meet the requirements of a supplier label (see Section 2.2.. or who may otherwise be exposed to.AND • The EHS Approved Lab Abbreviations List must be included with the MSDS Collection (e. r.. Should any new information arise about a product. s. controlled products.5 Laboratory Sample Labels Laboratory samples are samples intended solely to be tested in a laboratory or used for educational or demonstration purposes. They must be readily accessible to anyone who works with. and Material Safety Data Sheets for the sample must be readily available. That data sheet shall be in the form of a document that is easy to handle and consult. The following applies to all laboratories involved with research and development. 2.

including students. provided that all the employees are aware of the location. . EHS recommends all MSDS be placed in alphabetical order in clearly marked red binders in an easily accessible location. 2.ca/ehs/training/whmis/.3.1 Core WHMIS Training Core WHMIS Training is basic training that provides instruction on classification of controlled products.g.5 MSDS Audit WHMIS legislation requires that a MSDS be less than 3 years old. contains the MSDS for all consumer products (e. and are able to gain access to the date sheets at any time. or who may be exposed to the product. must have access 24/7 to the area where the MSDS Collection is kept.1. students and visiting researcher.2.1.• • • • • contains the MSDS for all WHMIS-controlled products in the laboratory.1. Principal Investigators and Laboratory Supervisors with multiple laboratories can have a central MSDS collection. The inspector randomly selects five WHMIS-controlled products found in the laboratory and then verifies the MSDS collection to ensure that it contains the MSDS of the five selected products. 2. and that MSDS are readily accessible to anyone who works with.2. 2. and includes spill or leak remediation. including Principal Investigators. Everyone must be advised as to the location of the MSDS collection.3. The training is valid for a period of 3 years. All laboratory personnel must be advised as to the location of the MSDS Collection.3 Training Training and education provides more detailed instruction on the specific procedures necessary to carry out work safely.. WHMIS training is a major component of the WHMIS legislation and therefore is mandatory for all personnel working with controlled products at McGill. staff and students. All lab personnel. 2.1. preferably close to the telephone.1. second shelf on the black bookshelf). 2. Training can broken divided into two parts: Core Training and Job-specific Training. Core WHMIS Training is offered several times per semester and the schedule can be consulted at www. In order to simplify MSDS management. and basic first aid instructions. include risks and precautions.. including undergraduate students working on research projects. Job-specific training is the responsibility of Principal Investigators and Laboratory Supervisors. binders.g. the EHS inspector will audit the MSDS collection. that the MSDS are less than 3 years old. provided that the labs are reasonably close to each another (in the same building). if the room is sometimes locked. MSDS Collections may be stored in several ways: a filing cabinet. on a personal computer. all personnel must have a key.mcgill.2 Job-specific WHMIS Training Job-specific training refers to instruction in the procedures for the safe handling and storage of the WHMIScontrolled products that are unique to each laboratory.4 MSDS location indicated on Laboratory Information Card The Laboratory Information Card must contain a detailed description of the location of the MSDS Collection in the laboratory (e.2. 2. Core WHMIS Training for Laboratory Personnel is provided by Environmental Health & Safety and is mandatory for all faculty. and the content. or who may be exposed to controlled products. During Laboratory Safety Inspections. Windex) in the laboratory.1. purpose and interpretation of information found on labels and in MSDS.3 MSDS location WHMIS legislation requires that a MSDS be readily accessible to anyone who works with. waste disposal. Bleach. or by any other means of storage. that the MSDS are updated when new information becomes available.

2 Understanding hazard warning information 2. sparks and flame Do not smoke near these materials Store away from Class B (flammabl e and combustib le) materials Store away from sources of • • • • Class B Flammable and Combustible Material • May burn or explode when exposed to heat. as well as general characteristics and handling precautions are outlined in table 1. Table 1 . including students. send an e-mail to EHS.Safe handling of controlled products. sparks or flames Flammable: burns readily at room temperature Combustible: burns when heated • • • • • Class C Oxidizing Material • Can cause other materials to burn or explode by providing oxygen May burn skin and eyes on contact • • • .1 WHMIS Symbols The classes of controlled chemical products and their corresponding symbols or pictograms.Environmental Health & Safety tracks all safety training on campus and is able to supply supervisors with up-todate safety training lists for all their personnel. Summary of general characteristics and procedures for handling and storage of WHMIS-controlled products. Class and Symbol Characteristics Precautions Class A Compressed Gas • • Gas inside cylinder is under pressure The cylinder may explode if heated or damaged Sudden release of high pressure gas streams may puncture skin and cause fatal embolis • Transport and handle with care Make sure cylinders are properly secured Store away from sources of heat or fire Use proper regulator Store away from Class C (oxidizing materials) Store away from sources of heat. 2. To request a safety training attendance list.2.

g. viruses.heat and ignition • Wear the recommen ded protective equipment and clothing Avoid inhaling gas or vapours Avoid skin and eye contact Wear the recommen ded protective equipment and clothing Do not eat. skin and breathing passages: may lead to chronic lung problems and skin sensitivity May cause liver or kidney damage. drink or smoke near these materials Wash hands after handling Wear the recommen ded protective equipment and Class D Poisonous and Infectious Material • May cause immediate death or serious injury if inhaled. fungi and their toxins) may cause illness or death • .. bacteria. drink or smoke near these materials Wash hands after handling Avoid inhaling gas or vapours Avoid skin and eye contact Wear the recommen ded protective equipment and clothing Do not eat. or absorbed through the skin • • Division 1:Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects • • • Class D Poisonous and Infectious Material • May cause death or permanent injury following repeated or long-term exposure May irritate eyes. cancer. birth defects or sterility • • • Division 2:Materials Causing Other Toxic Effects • • • • Class D Poisonous and Infectious Material • Contact with microbiological agents (e. swallowed.

when administered by a defined route of entry (e. LD50 and LC50 values often comprise a large part of the available toxicity information. The LD50 is usually expressed as milligrams or grams of test substance per kilogram of animal body weight (mg/kg or g/kg).2 Toxicological properties: LD50 AND LC50 Despite the limitations of using toxicity data from animal studies to predict the effects on humans. The . is expected to cause the death of 50 per cent of a defined animal population. oral or dermal) over a specified period of time.clothing • Work with these materials in designate d areas Disinfect area after handling Wash hands after handling Store acids and bases in separate areas Avoid inhaling these materials Avoid contact with skin and eyes Wear the recommen ded protective equipment and clothing Store away from heat Avoid shock and friction Wear the recommen ded protective equipment and clothing Division 3:Biohazardous Infectious Materials • • Class E Corrosive Material • • Will burn eyes and skin on contact Will burn tissues of respiratory tract if inhaled • • • • Class F Dangerously Reactive Material • May be unstable. LD50 (Lethal Dose50) is the amount of a substance that. 2. guidelines and regulations.ca/eso/. compression. is expected to cause the death in 50 per cent of a defined animal population.g. when given by inhalation over a specified period of time.mcgill. LC50 (Lethal Concentration50) is the amount of a substance in air that. heat or exposure to light May burn. and form the bases for many standards.2. reacting dangerously to jarring. A glossary explaining the technical and legal terms commonly used in MSDSs ("McGill Material Safety Data Sheet Reference Manual") is available from theEnvironmental Health and Safety. Some LC50 values are determined by administration of test substances to aquatic life in water. explode or produce dangerous gases when mixed with incompatible materials • • • • Links to MSDSs can be found at the Environmental Health and Safety web site at http://www.

2. The upper explosive limit (UEL) or upper flammable limit (UFL) is the highest vapour concentration that will ignite. 2. the mixture is oxygen rich but contains insufficient fuel.LC50 is expressed as parts of test substance per million parts of air (PPM) for gases and vapours. diethyl ether. day after day.5 Autoignition temperature The ignition or autoignition temperature is the temperature at which a material will ignite.. Good laboratory practices and well-designed ventilation systems serve to maintain air concentrations well below these limits. a spark is not necessary for ignition when a flammable vapour reaches its autoignition temperature. and is applied to many chemicals with acute toxic effects It should be noted that most exposure limits are based on industrial experiences and are not entirely relevant to the laboratory environment. day after day. The lower the ignition temperature. the greater the potential for a fire started by typical laboratory equipment.3 2. PEL) An exposure limit is the maximum limit of exposure to an air contaminant. the greater the risk of fire.4 Flash point The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid produces enough vapour to ignite in the presence of a source of ignition.. The lower the flash point.4 11 -49 4.2.2. or as milligrams per litre or cubic metre of air (mg/L or mg/m3) for dusts.2. Above this limit.3 Exposure limits (TLV. 2.0 1.5 1. even in the absence of an ignition source. acetone.g. 2.0 1. without adverse effects Ceiling (C) defines a concentration that must never be exceeded.Flash points.1 427 538 524 180 423 427 464 309 552 10 (25) 250 (590) 20 (34) 400 (1210)** 1000 (1900) 400 (1440) 200 (260) 120 (350) 100 (375) • • .0 2. without harmful effects Short-term exposure limit (STEL). Many common laboratory solvents (e. Below this limit.9 3.4 4. Solvent FPL LEL (% by Auto ignition TLV-TWA * ppm (oC) volume) temp (C) (mg/m3) acetic acid. is the maximum average concentration to which most workers can be exposed over a 15 minute period.6 -45 13 -4. lower explosive limits and exposure limits (8-hour time-weighted averages) of several flammable or combustible laboratory solvents. Explosive limits are usually expressed as the percent by volume of the material in air: • The lower explosive limit (LEL) or lower flammable limit (LFL) is the lowest vapour concentration that will burn or explode if ignited.e. i. the concentration of fuel is too "lean" for ignition. mists and fumes. The threshold limit value (TLV) or permissible exposure limit (PEL) can be expressed as the following: • • • 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) is the average concentration to which most workers can be exposed during an 8-hour workday.5 3.0 6. methanol) have flash points that are below room temperature.6 Flammable limits Flammable limits or explosive limits define the range of concentrations of a material in air that will burn or explode in the presence of an ignition source such as a spark or flame. it is important to remember that substances with lower LD50 or LC50values are more toxic that those with higher values. the mixture is too "rich" for ignition. The flammable range consists of concentrations between the LEL and UEL Table 2 . When assessing the hazards of materials used in the laboratory. 2. glacial acetone acetonitrile diethyl ether ethanol. benzene. absolute ethyl acetate methanol n-pentane toluene 39 -18 5.

3 Oxidizing chemicals Oxidizers provide oxidizing elements such as oxygen or chlorine.1. gases and vapours Ingestion of chemicals directly or indirectly via contaminated foods and beverages and contact between mouth and contaminated hands (nail-biting. vapours and particulate material (e. causing materials that would normally not burn to ignite and burn rapidly. and are capable of igniting flammable and combustible material even in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere (Refer to Section5.4 Reactive chemicals • May be sensitive to jarring. heat or light .1 Toxic chemicals and the four routes of entry Chemicals can gain entry into the body by: • • • • Inhalation of gases. solids or gases will ignite when exposed to heat. solids. Oxidizing chemicals can increase the speed and intensity of a fire by adding to the oxygen supply. purchase in liquid instead of dry form Reduce reactivity of solutions by diluting with water Wear appropriate skin and eye protection Ensure that oxidizers are compatible with other oxidizers in the same storage area 3. Refer to Section 5. sparks or flame. eyes. Oxidizers can also: • React with other chemicals. smoking) Injection of chemicals through needles and other contaminated laboratory sharps 3.2 Flammable chemicals Flammable and combustible liquids. dusts. smoke. resulting in release of toxic gases • • Decompose and liberate toxic gases when heated Burn or irritate skin. Flammable liquids or their vapours are the most common fire hazards in laboratories.g. Control of Chemical Hazards 3. compression. fumes) Absorption through skin of liquids. Flammable materials burn readily at room temperature.4("Preventing Fires") for specific details on the safe handling of flammable chemicals in the laboratory 3. 1999 ** Pending review TOP OF PAGE 3. breathing passages and other tissues Precautions to follow when using and storing oxidizers in the laboratory include the following: • • • • • • • Keep away from flammable and combustible materials Keep containers tightly closed unless otherwise indicated by the supplier Mix and dilute according to the supplier's instructions To prevent release of corrosive dusts. mists. "The Fire Triangle").* NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. while combustible materials must be heated before they will burn.

explode or yield flammable or toxic gases when mixed with incompatible materials Can vigorously decompose. . Communications are handled through the emergency telephone number (Downtown Campus local 3000. such as acids and bases (caustics.5 Corrosive chemicals Corrosives are materials. In instances where more extensive equipment or technical assistance is needed. thus they are incompatible with flammable or combustible material They may release toxic or explosive products when reacted with other chemicals They may liberate heat when mixed with water Precautions for handling corrosive materials include: • • • • • • • Wear appropriate skin and eye protection Use in the weakest concentration possible Handle in a chemical fume hood Use secondary containers when transporting and storing corrosives Always dilute by adding acids to water Dilute and mix slowly Store acids separately from gases 3. inhalation or ingestion. Also: • They may damage metals. alkalis) which can damage body tissues as a result of splashing. are also oxidizers. nitric and perchloric acids. fire sprinkler heads and water baths Handle in a chemical fume hood Wear the appropriate skin and eye protection Work with small quantities Use up or dispose of these chemicals before they attain their expiry date 3. oxidizing or flammable Some chemicals may not be dangerous when purchased but may develop hazardous properties over time (e. polymerize or condense Can also be toxic. such as plumbing. corrosive.6.1 Spill response contingencies Laboratory heads are responsible for predetermining procedures for response to the types of spill situations that may be anticipated for their operations. or Macdonald Campus local 7777).• • • • • May react dangerously with water or air May burn. diethyl ether and solutions of picric acid).6 Chemical spill response 3. Individuals requiring assistance in preparing spill response plans should contact Environmental Health and Safety(local 4563). releasing flammable hydrogen gas • • • • They may damage some plastics Some corrosives. such as sulphuric. backup can be provided by other internal resources. Follow these precautions when working with dangerously reactive chemicals: • • • • • • • Understand the hazards associated with these chemicals and use them under conditions which keep them stable Store and handle away from incompatible chemicals Keep water-reactive chemicals away from potential contact with water.g.

Gloves. The quantities that may be released. Possible locations of release (e. If the spill is minor and of known limited danger. Do not attempt to wipe up a corrosive liquid unless it is very dilute.g. Using a plastic utensil (to avoid creating sparks).6. laboratory.1 Flammable and toxic liquids • • • • If you can do so without putting yourself at risk.2.g. "Chemical Waste". These guidelines should be followed when initially responding to a spill situation: • Determine appropriate clean up method by referring to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). flammable solvents) and their chemical. physical and toxicological properties.2 Development of spill response plans 3. Macdonald Campus local 7777) to request assistance. seal it. Pour the required neutralizing or adsorbing material around the perimeter of the spill.3. call the emergency telephone number (Downtown Campus local 3000. If the spill is of unknown composition. who operate the emergency telephone number.6. 3.2 General guidelines The following factors are to be considered when developing spill response procedures: • • • • • Categories of chemicals (e. If you are unsure how to proceed. scoop up the absorbed spill. If no flames are evident. corridor). This may involve posting the relevant telephone number(s) and/or providing them to the Security Services.2.6. Refer to Section 6. or potentially dangerous (explosive. do not attempt to clean up the spill. boots. Building Directors are also required to provide to the Security Services telephone numbers where they. place it in a plastic bag. If vapours are being released. alert everyone present and evacuate the room. or alternate contact persons. clear the area.6. 3. especially for after-hours situations. If the spill cannot be safely handled using the equipment and personnel present. 3. • • • . If the fire cannot be controlled immediately pull the nearest fire alarm. immediately shut off all potential ignition sources If fire occurs.2 Corrosive liquids • • • • Alert everyone present. then carefully add water and more neutralizing material to the contained area. Carefully agitate to promote neutralization. Wear an appropriate respirator if toxic vapours are involved. Types and quantities of neutralizing or absorbing material needed.3.3. toxic vapours).1 Communications All laboratories housing hazardous materials are required to provide means of reaching contact people who may be summoned in the event of emergencies involving their laboratory. oxidizers. Respiratory protection is required if the liquid releases corrosive vapour or gas. clean up immediately. or if you do not have the necessary protective equipment. pour adsorbent around the perimeter of the spill and then cover the rest of the material. and place in a labeled container.3. apron and eye protection must be used when neutralizing an extensive corrosive spill. 3.6. alert everyone present and extinguish all flames.1. for details on how to dispose of the absorbed chemical. Personal protectiveequipment needed.6.3 Guidelines for specific types of spills This section describes how to clean up some of the chemical spills that may occur in the laboratory. may be reached during after-hours crises. Wear gloves resistant to the chemical being handled.

shelf brackets and other shelving hardware Arrange items so that they do not overhang or project beyond the edges of shelves or counter tops Do not stack materials so high that stability is compromised Leave a minimum of 18 inches (45. Larger spills should be cleaned up using a HEPA (high-efficiency articulate) filter vacuum. 3. cover with water. chlorine) or gases that are absorbed through the skin (e.1 General Storage Guidelines • • • • • • • • Do not block access to emergency safety equipment such as fire extinguishers. flush down the drain with plenty of water. 3. seal it and label it appropriately. If wet removal is not possible.6. a complete chemical resistant suit and a self-contained breathing apparatus are required.g. broken thermometer).• • Use pH paper to verify that all contaminated areas are neutralized and safe to wipe up.3. protective goggles. seal it. hydrogen cyanide). If a large spill of mercury is involved. equipment and shelf projections Ensure that the weight of stored material does not exceed the load-bearing capacity of shelves or cabinets Ensure that wall-mounted shelving has heavy-duty brackets and supports and is attached to studs or solid blocking. supports. For spills containing fine dusts. and label the bottle appropriately. scoop up the absorbed spill.5 Gases In the event of the release of a corrosive gas (e. and then place in a labeled box. TOP OF PAGE 4. Contact the Environmental Health and Safety(local 4563) for monitoring of mercury air concentrations.3. 3.the leak must be corrected at the source. Wet the material thoroughly. walkways and stairs clear of chemicals.g. 3. then place it in a plastic bag and label it appropriately.3. an air-purifying respirator with dust filters is recommended. place the mercury in a container.4 Toxic solids Avoid disturbing such solids (e. a vacuum equipped with a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter is required. spill control pillows) is used instead of a neutralizer.7 cm) of clearance between sprinkler heads and the top of storage Use a safety step or stepladder to access higher items. place it in a plastic bag. chromium). If neutralized material contains no toxic heavy metals (e. seal it. asbestos) which may release toxic dusts. boxes. and a mercury respirator worn during the clean-up.6 Mercury If a small amount of mercury is spilled (e. To clean up the residual micro-droplets that may have worked into cracks and other hard-to-clean areas.6.3. use an aspirator bulb or a mercury sponge to pick up droplets. 3. the area should be closed off. There is no practical means of absorbing or neutralizing a gas .6.6. Storage and Handling in Laboratories 4. Regularly inspect clamps.3.g.6. If an adsorbent (eg. and a lab coat.3 Corrosive solids Small spills can be cleaned up mechanically with a dustpan and brush.g. A mercury vacuum is available from the Waste Management Program (local 5066) for large mercury spills. For further information on responses to other categories consult the material safety data sheet or contactEnvironmental Health and Safety (local 4563). Leave the material for several hours and sweep up solid into a plastic bag. showers. as are gloves.g.7 Special categories It is not within the scope of this manual to list procedures for all possible categories of chemicals. eyewashes. sprinkle sulphur powder or other commercially available product for mercury decontamination. never stand on a stool or a chair . first aid kits or utility controls such as breaker boxes or gas shut-off valves Avoid blocking exits or normal paths of travel: keep hallways.

segregate according to the primary hazard Designate specific storage areas for each class of chemical. and update annually 4. carbon dioxide. CHEMICAL Keep from contact with: Acetic Acid Acetylene Alkali Metals(e. bromine. Certain hazardous combinations can occur even between chemicals of the same classifications.3 Chemical Storage • • • • • • • • • • Store hazardous chemicals in an area that is accessible only to authorized laboratory workers Minimize quantities and container sizes kept in the lab Do not store chemicals in aisles.4..Examples of incompatible combinations of some commonly used chemicals. ovens or steam pipes) and direct sunlight Never stack bottles on top of each other Do not store chemicals above eye level/shoulder height Store larger containers on lower shelves Store liquids inside chemically-resistant secondary containers (such as trays or tubs) that are large enough to hold spills Store chemicals inside closable cabinets or on sturdy shelving that has 12.g.7 mm-19 mm (½ . Table 3 shows common examples of incompatible combinations: Table 3 . ethers) with the date of receipt and the date opened Inspect chemicals weekly for signs of deterioration and for label integrity Dispose of unwanted chemicals promptly through the Waste Management Program Keep inventory records of chemicals. Sodium) Ammonia. ventilated cabinets. peroxides. Anhydrous chromic acid. fluorine.g. perchloric acid.g.6 below ("Chemical Segregation") may not suffice to prevent mixing of incompatible chemicals. hydrofluoric acid • • • • • • • • . chlorinated hydrocarbons.2 Ergonomics • • Store frequently used items between knee and shoulder height Store heavy objects on lower shelves 4. calcium hypochlorite. and return reagents to those locations after each use Store volatile toxic and odorous chemicals in a way that prevents release of vapours (e. under sinks or on floors.g. Guidelines for cabinet use include: • • • Use NFPA or UL approved flammable liquid storage cabinets Keep cabinet doors of the cabinet closed and latched Do not store other materials in these cabinets 4.4 Flammable liquid storage cabinets Flammable chemicals should be stored inside flammable liquid storage cabinets. copper. chlorine. paraffin sealing) Store flammables requiring refrigeration in explosion-safe or lab-safe refrigerators Label reactive or unstable chemicals (e.. silver. bromine. desks or bench tops Store chemicals away from sources of heat (e.5 Chemical compatibility The storage scheme outlined in Section 4. nitric acid. halogens mercury. permanganate chlorine. inside closed secondary containers. mercury water. If a chemical presents more than one hazard. hydroxyl compounds. Only those flammables in use for the day should be outside the cabinet. iodine..¾ inch) edge guards to prevent containers from falling Ensure that chemicals cannot fall off the rear of shelves Store chemicals based on compatibility and not in alphabetical order (refer to Table 3 and Table 4 below).

hydrogen peroxide. mercury acetic anhydride. hydrocyanic acid. methyl acetate. most metals or their salts. glycerin. inorganic acids. ethyl acetate. benzaldehyde. Separate the following types of chemicals from each other according to the segregation scheme in Table 3. acetylene. etc. carbon disulphide. ammonia compounds alcohol. sodium peroxide. For more detailed information refer to the reactivity section of the Material Safety Data Sheet or a reference manual on reactive chemical hazards. flammable gases silver. finely divided combustible materials nitric acid. acetic anhydride. bromine. sulphur. acids. nitrites. butane. finely divided combustible materials acetic acid. organic materials carbon tetrachloride. lithium. Activated Chlorates Chromic Acid Chlorine acids. potassium perchlorate. finely divided metals acetylene. Table 4 . chromic acid. chlorine. ammonia acetic acid. hydrogen peroxide same as chlorine calcium hypochlorite. fulminic acid. halogens fluorine. aniline. ethylene glycol. sodium peroxide anhydrous ammonia. sulphuric acid acetylene. ethylene glycol. acetone. hydrogen. flammable liquids. sulphur. iron. propane (or other petroleum gases). all oxidizing agents ammonium salts. camphor. flammable liquids. potassium permanganate (or compounds with similar light metals. glycerin. hydrogen peroxide ammonium nitrate. alcohols. benzene. oxalic acid. aniline.Ammonium Nitrate Aniline Bromine Carbon. bismuth and its alloys. metal powders. ammonium hydroxide copper. benzaldehyde. water sulphuric and other acids glycerin. flammable liquids. glacial acetic acid. oxidizing gases fuming nitric acid. hydrogen acetylene. sodium carbide. turpentine. alcohol. hydrogen sulphide. tartaric acid.) Copper Flammable Liquids Hydrocarbons Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen Sulphide Iodine Mercury Nitric Acid Oxalic Acid Perchloric Acid Potassium Potassium Chlorate Potassium Permanganate Silver Sodium Peroxide Sulphuric Acid 4. naphthalene. nitromethane. Ensure that incompatible chemicals are not stored in close proximity to each other. chromium. ammonia (aqueous or anhydrous). flammable liquids ammonia. chromic acid. methane. metal powders. turpentine. chlorates.6 Chemical segregation • • Read the label carefully before storing a chemical. carbon dioxide. furfural potassium chlorate. oxidizing gases acetylene. More detailed storage information is usually provided by the MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet).Suggested Segregation for Chemical Storage Flammables Non-flammable solvents • • Store in grounded flammable liquid storage cabinet Separate from oxidizing materials • • • Store in cabinet Can be stored with flammable liquids Separate from oxidizing . butadiene. such as sodium. Note that this is a simplified scheme and that in some instances chemicals of the same category may be incompatible.

sulfides Caustics • • Examples: • • • materials Carbon tetrachloride Ethylene glycol Mineral oil Store in dry area Separate from acids Ammonium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Water reactive chemicals • • • Examples: • • • Store in cool.Examples: • • • Acetone Ethanol Glacial acetic acid Examples: • • • Acids • • • Examples: • • • Nitric acid Hydrochloric acid Sulphuric acid Oxidizers • • Examples: • Sodium Potassium Lithium • • Store in cabinet of noncombustible material Separate oxidizing acids from organic acids Separate from caustics. cyanides. dry location Separate from aqueous solutions Protect from fire sprinkler water Store in cabinet of noncombustible material Separate from flammable and combustible materials Sodium hypochlorite Benzoyl peroxide Potassium permanganate Non-oxidizing compressed gases • • Examples: • • • Nitrogen Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide Store in well-ventilated area separate physically from oxidizing compressed gases Oxidizing compressed gases • Examples: • • • Oxygen Chlorine Nitrous oxide Separate physically from flammable compressed gases Non-volatile. non-reactive solids • Examples: • • • Agar Sodium chloride Sodium bicarbonate Store in cabinets or open shelves with edge guards .

8 Explosive chemicals Many chemicals are susceptible to rapid decomposition or explosion when subjected to forces such as being struck. vibrated.e. 4. Ethers.7 Unstable chemicals Many chemicals. and olefins form peroxides on exposure to air and light.g. • • • • • • • Refer to the label and the Material Safety Data Sheet to determine if a chemical is explosive. • • Discard unopened containers of ethers after one year Discard containers of ethers within six months of opening Never handle ethers beyond their expiry dates.. liquid paraffins. Work with small quantities. Picric acid becomes shock sensitive and explosive if it dries out. The following are atomic groupings that are associated with the possibility of explosion: • • • • • • acetylide amine oxide azide chlorate diazo diazonium • • • • • • fulminate N-haloamine hypohalite hydroperoxide nitrate nitrite • • • • • • nitroso nitro ozonide perchlorate peroxide picrate The following are common examples of materials known to be shock-sensitive and explosive: • • • • ammonium nitrate ammonium perchlorate copper acetylide dinitrotoluene • • • • • TOP OF PAGE fulminate of mercury lead azide nitroglycerine picric acid (when dry) trinitrotoluene . diethyl and isopropyl ether). dioxane. agitated or heated.4. contact your local waste disposal coordinator to arrange to have the material stabilized and removed The following are common examples of compounds prone to peroxide formation: • • • • Cyclohexene Dicyclopentadiene Diethyl ether (ether) Dimethyl ether • • • Dioxane Isopropyl ether Tetrahydrofuran (THF) • The label and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) will also indicate if a chemical is unstable. Write the dates received and opened on all containers of explosive or shock-sensitive chemicals Inspect all such containers every month Keep picric acid solutions wet i. unless the material contains stabilizers Wear appropriate personal protective equipment and perform experiments behind face shield. Since most of these products have been packaged in an air atmosphere. and closed containers after one year. most notably ethers (e. peroxides can form even if the containers have not been opened. are susceptible to decomposition resulting in explosive products. THF.. 30% or more water Discard opened containers after six months. Some become increasingly shock sensitive with age.

Class D fires encompass combustible metals such as magnesium. 5. the three elements that comprise what is called the "fire triangle": Fire will not be initiated if any one of these elements is absent.1 The fire triangle Fire cannot occur without an ignition source. or overloaded electrical circuits. wiring). This concept is useful in understanding prevention and control of fires.4 Preventing fires Use the following precautions when working with or using flammable chemicals in a laboratory. Familiarize yourself with the operation of the fire extinguishers and the location of pull stations. 5. For example. B. • A: Aim low. solvents. These are: • • • • Class A fires involve combustibles such as paper. . according to the type of fuel involved. In the event that the general alarm is sounded use the evacuation routes established for your area and follow the instructions of the Evacuation Monitors. the coexistence of flammable vapours and ignition sources should be avoided. cloth. B. • Be prepared to repeat the process if the fire breaks out again 5. Class C fires are of electrical origin (fuse boxes. Familiarize yourself with the fire class ratings of the extinguishers in your work area so that you will know what types of fire you can attempt to extinguish with them. as there will be no time to read instructions during an emergency. C and D) for use against the different classes of fires. move away from the doors to enable others to exit. and point the nozzle at the base of the fire. oil and gasoline. runaway chemical reactions.5. emergency exits and evacuation routes where you work. fuel and an oxidizing atmosphere (usually air). Once outside of the building. keep in mind that these precautions also apply to flammable chemical waste. If you do fight a fire. • S: Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent. but when flammable vapours cannot be controlled elimination of ignition sources is essential. failure of unattended or defective equipment. electric motors.2 Classes of fire The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has defined four classes of fire. remember the acronym "PASS" when using the extinguisher: • P: Pull and twist the locking pin to break the seal. greases. C or D (or combinations of A. Fire Safety Laboratory fires can by caused by bunsen burners. 5. Learn how to use the extinguisher in your lab. and will not be sustained if one of these elements is removed.3 Fire extinguishers Fire extinguishers are rated as A. sodium. Class B fires entail burning of liquid fuels like oil-based paints. potassium and phosphorus. wood. Attempt to fight small fires only. rubber and many plastics. Remember to have the extinguisher recharged after every use: inform Building Services at local 4560 (local 7828 at Macdonald Campus). electrical heating units. and only if there is an escape route behind you. • S: Sweep from side to side until the fire is out.

such as heat. Also. Store flammable chemicals that require refrigeration in "explosion-safe" (non-sparking) laboratory refrigerators.• Minimize the quantities of flammable liquids kept in the laboratory. Follow the instructions of the Evacuation Monitors. Inadequately labeled containers will not be accepted. To avoid the build-up of static charges. Once outside the building.1 Waste minimization In order to minimize the amount of hazardous waste presented for disposal. sparks.the result of over buying.1 Chemical waste . Keep flammable chemicals away from ignition sources.(Underwriter's Laboratories) approved flammable liquid storage cabinets. For information. use aqueous-based. TOP OF PAGE • • • • • • • • • 6. bond containers to each other when dispensing. biodegradable scintillation fluids whenever possible. For example.or UL. Never discharge wastes into the sewer unless you have verified that hazardous wastes regulations permit you to do so. as orders are generally shipped the day after an order is received. local 5066). Keep flammable solvent containers. Use a fume hood when working with products that release flammable vapours. it is important to follow these guidelines: • • • Avoid overstocking: one of the main sources of laboratory waste is surplus stock . 6. Many companies have traditionally unloaded unwanted reagents by donating them to laboratories. well capped. as listed in Appendix 1. which eventually transfers the cost of disposal to the University. Package waste materials in approved containers. Hazardous Waste Disposal 6. Clean spills of flammable liquids promptly. Over?filled and/or leaking containers cannot be accepted for disposal. Substitute hazardous experimental materials for non-hazardous ones. contact WMP 6. Use and store flammable liquids and gases only in well-ventilated areas. Keep cabinet doors closed and latched at all times. Except for the quantities needed for the work at hand. keep all flammable liquids in NFPA. Bond and ground large metal containers of flammable liquids in storage. follow the evacuation routes established for your area.5 Evacuations In the event that the general alarm is sounded. Do not exceed the maximum container sizes specified by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). using labels available from the Waste Management Program (WMP. Place open reservoirs or collection vessels for organic procedures like HPLC inside vented chambers. Avoid welding or soldering in the vicinity of flammables. flames and direct sunlight. Do not store other materials in these cabinets. dispensing and transporting flammable liquids. 5. Recent pricing arrangements with suppliers have greatly reduced the benefits of purchasing chemicals in large volumes. there is little need to store large quantities of chemicals. Do not accept donations of materials that you don't plan to use. Use portable safety cans for storing. available from WMP.3. do not use the elevators.3 Waste preparation procedures • • • • 6. move away from the doors to allow others to exit.2 Hazardous waste disposal guidelines Label all waste materials completely and legibly. including those for collecting waste.

6.3.1 Definition of Sharps Sharps are defined as any material that can penetrate plastic bags: examples include syringe needles.2 Miscellaneous chemicals and cylinders • • Complete the lab chemical inventory form and send to WMP (fax 4633).3. ether) and explosive (e. 6. 6. 6.3. 6.3 Biohazardous sharps Refer to Section 6. 6.3.1. Indicate the composition of the contents as accurately as possible on the attached label.3. local 5066).2. disposable pipette tips. Do not mix acids with bases. 6. 6. Await instructions.3.1 Animal carcasses • • • Place in the plastic-lined biomedical waste containers provided by the Waste Management Program (WMP.1. After discharging blood. If the material is older than one year. dry picric acid) chemicals • • Do not mix with solvents or other waste.3.2.1 below for further details. then rinse with water.3.4 Peroxide-forming (e. Contact WMP for advice. decontaminate the sink with a 5-10% dilution of household bleach.3 Sharps 6.3.5. on the attached label.3.1 Organic solvents and oils • • Collect in the containers provided by the Waste Management Program (WMP. Allow a contact time of 20 minutes.6.g. Analyze or contact WMP to arrange for analysis (at the expense of the waste generator). 6. as accurately as possible. glass and plastic pipettes. local 5066) Ensure that the weight of individual containers does not exceed 40 pounds.1. etc.3. Indicate the composition of the contents. scalpel blades. Designate one sink for this purpose. do not attempt to open or move the container.3.3.g.1.3.2 Infectious laboratory waste • Place in the plastic-lined biomedical containers provided by WMP.2. Corrosives (acids and bases) • • Collect acids (pH<7) and bases (pH>7) separately in the plastic containers provided by WMP.2 Biomedical waste 6. .2.1. Dispose of blood-contaminated materials as infectious laboratory waste.3 Chemicals of unknown composition • • Unknown chemicals cannot be accepted.3.4 Blood and blood-contaminated materials • • • Unclotted blood can be disposed of via the sanitary drains. Store in a refrigerated area.

2.3.4.1.4 Radioactive waste 6.3. Update the information on the label as wastes are placed in the container. Accumulate wastes in the solid radioactive waste containers provided. Deposit vials into the designated 45-gallon drum in your building's waste storage area and enter the required information on the inventory sheet attached to the drum.2). It is illegal to dilute for the purposes of reducing radioactivity to below this level.01 scheduled quantity per litre can be disposed of via the regular drain N.4. without overfilling. 6. • Discard containers of sharps contaminated with radioactive materials as per the procedure for solid radioactive waste (Section6.3.3 Liquid scintillation vials • • Leave fluids in their vials.3. package alpha emitting radioisotopes separately from other radioisotopes.4.g. Laboratory Ventilation And Fume Hoods .3.3. Containers are available for laboratories that are unable to avoid the generation of liquid radioactive wastes. In order to control costs. 6.1) 6.1 Solid waste (except sealed sources) • • • • Whenever possible.3 Empty chemical reagent bottles • • • • Remove the cap from the empty bottle and allow volatile materials to evaporate into the fume hood.3. close and seal the container and place it beside the regular garbage receptacle for pickup by the cleaning staff. 6. puncture proof container (e. Place the uncapped bottle next to the garbage receptacle. 6. • • Accumulate in the designated container. seal it with tape and place it next to the garbage receptacle for pickup by the cleaning staff.3. you are asked to exercise great care to fill the containers with only such materials.2 Sealed and encapsulated sources • • Do not package sealed sources with other types of waste materials. and the name of the Principal Investigator. empty liquid bleach bottle) with the word "SHARPS".B.1. When the box is full.4. • Discard containers of sharps contaminated with infectious materials into biomedical waste containers as per the procedure for Infectious Laboratory Waste (Section 6. TOP OF PAGE 7.3. Contact your local Hazardous Waste Coordinator.g. and place glass inside. Consult with the Radiation Safety Officer if additional assistance is required in determining scheduled quantities.3. Whenever possible.4 Liquid radioactive waste • • Aqueous liquid wastes at or below 0. 6.3. Remove or obliterate the label.3.2 Non-contaminated sharps • Label a puncture-proof container (wide-mouth plastic bottle or a heavy-duty cardboard box lined with plastic) with the word "SHARPS". Rinse the bottle three times with tap water and let dry. biohazard. 6.1 Contaminated sharps Label a plastic.3.3. the appropriate hazard warning symbol (e. When full.2 Broken glassware (uncontaminated) • Designate a cardboard box for broken glass. package long-lived (half life > 10 years) radioisotopes separately from short-lived radioisotopes.4.• 6. label it "BROKEN GLASS".3. radioactive) and the name of the Principal Investigator.

They are able to capture and exhaust even heavy vapours.4 below for information on the safe use of chemical fume hoods. Laboratory air may be exhausted through either local exhaust devices or air returns connected to the HVAC system. Refer to Section 7. or benches.2 Local ventilation devices Local exhaust ventilation systems capture and discharge air contaminants (biological.3 Slotted hoods Slotted hoods. 7. especially in older buildings. Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system or. they provide protection of the environment. the slots are connected to exhaust ducting. user and/or product. Common local exhaust ventilation devices found in laboratories include: • • • • • chemical fume hoods canopy hoods slotted hoods biological safety cabinets direct connections 7. involves dilution of inside air with fresh outside air. have one or more narrow horizontal openings.2 Canopy hoods Canopy hoods are designed to capture heat from processes or equipment. or slots. chemical.1 General ventilation General ventilation. radioactive) or heat from points of release.2.7. These special purpose hoods are used for work with chemicals of low to moderate toxicity only. such as atomic absorption spectrophotometers or autoclaves. The following limitations make canopy hoods poor substitutes for chemical fume hoods.2. depending on the cabinet class.2.1 Chemical fume hoods Chemical fume hoods are enclosed units with a sliding sash for opening or closing the hood. Biological safety cabinets are described in more detail in the McGill Laboratory Biosafety Manual. 7.2. They are not recommended for use with hazardous chemicals because most models recirculate air into the laboratory. via openable windows. and because the HEPA filter that is integral to the protective function can be damaged by some chemicals. humidity and air movement for room occupants dilute indoor air contaminants replace air as it is exhausted to the outside via local ventilation devices such as fume hoods provide a controlled environment for specialized areas such as surgery or computer rooms General ventilation systems comprise an air supply and an air exhaust. 7. because they: • • • • draw contaminated air through the user's breathing zone do not capture heavy vapours provide less containment than chemical fume hoods. 7.2. such as developing black and white photographs. and are more affected by air turbulence do not provide adequate suction more than a few inches away from the hood opening 7. and is used to: • • • • maintain comfortable temperature.5 Direct connections Direct connections provide direct exhausting of contaminants to the outdoors and are used for venting: . The air may be supplied via a central HVAC (Heating. also called dilution ventilation.4 Biological safety cabinets Biological safety cabinets are for use with biological material. at the back of the work surface. and are preferred for all laboratory procedures that require manual handling of hazardous chemical material. a canopy or bonnet is suspended over a process and connected to an exhaust vent.

8. Work as far into the hood as possible.1 Hazards of compressed gases Compressed gases are hazardous due to the high pressure inside cylinders. Balancing of laboratory ventilation must take into consideration the amount of air exhausted by local ventilation devices such as fume hoods. Compressed Gases and Cryogenics 8. sample analyzers. 4. Modern laboratories do not have operable windows. argon. Negative pressure draws air into the laboratory from surrounding areas. Remember that sinks inside fume hoods are not designed for disposing of chemical wastes. Do not make quick motions into or out of the hood. TOP OF PAGE 8. To ensure your fume hood provides the highest degree of protection observe the following guidelines: 1. causing serious injury and damage. Cluttering the hood will create air flow disturbances. etc. 2. dryers and vacuum pump outlets 7. radiation or infectious microorganisms from spreading outside the laboratory in the event of an accidental release inside the laboratory. such as perchloric acid. cause leaks in equipment and hoses or result in runaway chemical reactions. Knocking over an unsecured. ovens. The performance standard for fume hoods is the delivery of a minimum face velocity of 100 linear feet per minute at half sash height. 3. some radioisotopes. reducing oxygen levels in poorly ventilated areas and causing asphyxiation. as opening of windows tends to pressurize a room. oxidizing. . will render substantial protection. 7. should be securely supported using suitable racks. Heating devices should be placed at the rear of the hood.4 Safe use of chemical fume hoods Fume hoods properly used and maintained.• • • • flammable liquid storage cabinets other toxic chemical storage cabinets solvent and waste reservoirs.3 Ventilation balancing and containment By regulation. 7. Do not use a hood for any function it was not specifically designed. When it is necessary to keep a large apparatus inside a hood. the resulting rapid escape of high pressure gas can turn a cylinder into an uncontrolled rocket or pinwheel. At least six inches is recommended. or create cross drafts by walking rapidly past the hood. 6. Operate the hood with the sash as low as practical. 5. and serves to prevent airborne hazardous chemicals. dangerously reactive. more air is exhausted from a laboratory than is supplied to it. Poorly controlled release of compressed gas in the laboratory can burst reaction vessels. pushing air from the laboratory into adjacent non-laboratory areas. Keep hood door closed when not attended. Only materials being used in an ongoing experiment should be kept in the fume hood. helium and neon can displace air. corrosive or toxic properties. and also places your head into the contaminated air inside the hood. full or empty.2 Safe handling. Inert gases such as nitrogen. uncapped cylinder of compressed gas can break the cylinder valve. straps. Compressed gases may also have flammable. provided the user is aware of its capabilities and limitations. Opening doors or windows can sometimes cause strong air currents which will disturb the air flow into the hood. Do not lean into the hood. such as for HPLC solvent systems reaction vessels. chains or stands. it should be placed upon blocks or legs to allow air to flow underneath. 10. 9. An anemometer for determining a fumehood's face velocity is available from Environmental Health and Safety. storage and transport of compressed gas cylinders • All gas cylinders. resulting in a net negative pressure (vacuum) in the laboratory. 8. This disturbs the air flow. Reducing the open face will increase the face velocity.

g.• • • • • • • • When cylinders are not in use or are being transported. remove the regulator and attach the protective cap. . bracelets or other jewelry that could trap fluids against flesh should not be worn when handling cryogenic liquids To prevent thermal expansion of contents and rupture of the vessel. Physical Hazards and Ergonomics 9. hydrogen and hydrocarbons) resulting in explosive mixtures 8. oxygen. wear eye protection and insulated gloves. Do not expose cylinders to temperature extremes. Protect skin and eyes from contact. Use materials resistant to embrittlement (e. leave a residual pressure. If cryogens must be transported by elevator. All electrical outlets should carry a grounding connection requiring a three-pronged plug.g. take adequate precautions to prevent possible injury. not the cord.3 Cryogenic hazards Cryogenics are very low temperature materials such as dry ice (solid CO2) and liquefied air or gases like nitrogen. Do not lubricate the high-pressure side of an oxygen regulator. Never remove the ground pin of a three-pronged plug. Verify that the regulator is appropriate for the gas being used and the pressure being delivered. Watches. 8.1 Electrical safety • • • • Purchase and use only CSA-approved electrical equipment. TOP OF PAGE 9. The following hazards are associated with the use of cryogenics: • • • • • asphyxiation due to displacement of oxygen (does not apply to liquid air and oxygen) embrittlement of materials from extreme cold frostbite explosion due to pressure build up condensation of oxygen and fuel (e. Remove cords by grasping the plug. Keep away from sparks or flames. Use and store in well-ventilated areas. Do not rely upon the pressure gauge to indicate the maximum pressure ratings. rings. Chain or strap the cylinder to the cart. helium. do not fill containers to more than 80% of capacity. check the regulator's specifications. Never bleed a cylinder completely empty.4 Cryogenic handling precautions The following are precautions for handling cryogenics: • • • • • • • • • Control ice build up Use only low-pressure containers equipped with pressure-relief devices. argon and neon. Do not use adaptors or Teflon tape to attach regulators to gas cylinders. Send cryogenic liquid tanks in elevators without any passengers and ensure that nobody gets on the elevator while the cryogen is being transported. Store incompatible classes of gases separately. An appropriate cylinder cart should be used for transporting cylinders. latex rubber tubing).

as can carrying out chemical reactions inside sealed containers. Glass vessels under vacuum or pressure can implode or explode. such as those that occur when removing containers from liquid cryogenics. Glass can rupture even under small pressure differences. Electrical equipment with frayed wires should be repaired before being put into operation. Thin-walled or round-bottomed flasks larger than 1 L should never be evacuated assembling vacuum apparatus so as to avoid strain. a licensed electrician.2 High pressure and vacuum work Pressure differences between equipment and the atmosphere result in many lab accidents. scratches and etching marks before using vacuum apparatus using vessels specifically designed for vacuum work. Ensure that all wires are dry before plugging into circuits. Electrical equipment that has been wetted should be disconnected at the main switch or breaker before being handled. Minimize the use of extension cords and avoid placing them across areas of pedestrian traffic. 9. Use only C02. Use ground fault circuit interrupters for all electrical equipment used for administering electrical current to human subjects or measuring electrical signals from human subjects. Performing certain work tasks without regard for ergonomic principles can result in: • • • • • fatigue repetitive motion injuries strains. aches and injuries from biomechanical stresses eyestrain from video display terminals (VDTs) decreased morale Factors that can increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury are: • • awkward positions or movements repetitive movements . Rapid temperature changes. All wiring should be done by. resulting in cuts from projectiles and splashes to the skin and eyes.• • • • • • • • • • • • All electrical equipment (except glass-cloth heaters and certain models of oscillographs requiring a floating ground) should be wired with a grounding plug. Familiarize yourself with the location of such devices. Maintain free access to panels. Know how to cut off the electrical supply to the laboratory in the event of an emergency. Be sure that all electrical potential has been discharged before commencing repair work on any equipment containing high voltage power supplies or capacitors. halon. Heavy apparatus should be supported from below as well as by the neck taping glass vacuum apparatus to minimize projectiles due to implosion using adequate shielding when conducting pressure and vacuum operations allowing pressure to return to atmospheric before opening vacuum desiccators or after removal of a sample container from cryogenics wearing eye and face protection when handling vacuum or pressure apparatus 9. Tag and disconnect defective equipment. breaker panels should be clearly labeled as to which equipment they control. or dry chemical fire extinguishers for electrical fires. The hazards associated with pressure work can be reduced by: • • • • • • • checking for flaws such as cracks. can lead to pressure differences. or under the approval of.3 Repetitive work and ergonomics Ergonomics is concerned with how the workplace "fits" the worker.

humidity and air supply are comfortable Floors are slip-resistant Noise levels are not excessive 9. lubricate with water or glycerine when inserting through stopper. Discard broken glass in a rigid container separate from regular garbage and label it appropriately (see Waste Preparation Procedures. cracked or star-cracked vessels cannot handle the normal stresses. lettering size and contrast of equipment display monitors are optimized so as not to cause eye strain Work station design does not necessitate excessive bending. reaching. Section 6. and not too small. ensure stopper holes are properly sized. and are adjustable (seat height. not your hands. and use gloves or a cloth towel to protect your hands TOP OF PAGE 10. as chipped. easy to decontaminate and impermeable to liquids has no sharp edges or burrs Every effort should be made to prevent equipment from becoming contaminated. preference should be given to equipment that • • • limits contact between the operator and hazardous material. are sturdy (5-legged). When handling glass rods or tubes: • • • • • • • • • fire polish the ends. Glass is weakened by everyday stresses such as heating and bumping. to pick up broken glass.3). and are positioned so as to avoid glare from lights or windows Computer keyboards and pointing devices are positioned so that wrists are kept in a neutral position and forearms are horizontal Colour. such as vortex mixers and pump-type pipettors are not used for extended periods of time Buttons and knobs on equipment are accessible and of a good size Heavy items are not carried or handled Laboratory workers are using proper techniques when lifting or moving materials Indoor air quality parameters. To reduce the likelihood of equipment malfunction that could result in leakage. with a slight twisting motion. look for the following when addressing ergonomic concerns: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Laboratory bench and workbench heights are suitable for all personnel Laboratory chairs are on wheels or castors. angle. Keep for future reference. Wrapping glass vessels with cloth tape will minimize the possibility of projectiles. Discard or repair all damaged glassware. such as temperature. . keeping hands close together.4 Glassware safety • Use a dustpan and brush.• application of force In a laboratory setting. Equipment Safety Whenever lab equipment is purchased. backrest height) VDTs are positioned at or slightly below eye level. and mechanical and electrical energy is corrosion-resistant. stretching or twisting Vibration-producing equipment. spill or unnecessary generation of aerosolized pathogens: • Review the manufacturer's documentation. Protect glass that is subject to high pressure or vacuum. insert carefully. Handle used glassware with extra care.

Use unbreakable tubes whenever possible. leak or tube breakage occurs. Decant supernatants carefully and avoid vigorous shaking when resuspending.pdf] form and attach it to the equipment before it leaves the lab. attempt to stop a spinning rotor by hand or with an object. paraffin or silicone oils. Ensure that equipment leaving the laboratory for servicing or disposal is appropriately decontaminated. Install a HEPA filter between the centrifuge and the vacuum pump when working with biohazardous material. with bath temperatures ranging up to 300oC.2 Electrophoresis equipment • • • • Ensure that electrophoresis equipment is properly grounded and has electrical interlocks. Avoid using lightweight materials such as aluminum foil as caps. 10. or interfere with the interlock safety device. Decontaminate the outside of the cups or buckets before and after centrifugation.3 Heating baths.• • Use and service equipment according to the manufacturer's instructions. additional practices should include: • • • • • • • Connect the vacuum pump exhaust to a trap. Locate equipment away from high traffic areas. When using high-speed or ultra centrifuges. water baths Heating baths keep immersed materials immersed at a constant temperature. They may be filled with a variety of materials. To avoid contaminating your centrifuge: • • • • • Check glass and plastic centrifuge tubes for stresslines. 10. Ensure that anyone who uses a specific instrument or piece of equipment is properly trained in setup. Never exceed the specified speed limitations of the rotor. Record each run in a logbook: keep a record of speed and run time for each rotor. Inspect o-rings regularly and replace if cracked or dry. use and cleaning of the item. hairline cracks and chipped rims before use. The following sections outline some of the precautions and procedures to be observed with some commonly used laboratory equipment. Do not bypass safety interlocks. mineral oil. Use sealed centrifuge buckets (safety cups) or rotors that can be loaded and unloaded in a biological safety cabinet. Complete a Certificate Of Equipment Decontamination [. away from flammable and combustible materials including wood and paper • • • relocate only after the liquid inside has cooled ensure baths are equipped with redundant heat controls or automatic cutoffs that will turn off the power if the temperature exceeds a preset limit use with the thermostat set well below the flash point of the heating liquid in use . The following precautions are appropriate for heating baths: • set up on a stable surface. and away from wet areas such as sinks or washing apparatus. Failed mechanical parts can result in release of flying objects.1 Centrifuges Improperly used or maintained centrifuges can present significant hazards to users. depending on the bath temperature required. Avoid filling tubes to the rim. 10. glycerin. Inspect electrophoresis equipment regularly for damage and potential tank leaks. Display warning signs. Ensure that the centrifuge is properly balanced. Use caps or stoppers on centrifuge tubes. they may contain water. hazardous chemicals and biohazardous aerosols. Do not open the lid during or immediately after operation. The high speed spins generated by centrifuges can create large amounts of aerosol if a spill.

Wear safety glasses and lab coats (and other appropriate personal protective equipment as specified) for all procedures. and have the continuity-to-ground checked regularly ○ ○ 10. Verify on a regular basis (by wipe testing) that the equipment has not become contaminated. Discard damaged items. blenders. modification and repairs of analytical equipment are carried out by authorized service personnel. checking integrity of gaskets.1 Scintillation counters • • • Use sample vials that meet the manufacturer's specifications Keep counters clean and free of foreign material To avoid contaminating the counter and its accessories with radioactivity. dehydrating samples and drying glassware. change gloves before loading racks in the counter or using the computer keyboard. The hazards associated with this type of equipment can be minimized by: • • • • • • • selecting and purchasing equipment with safety features that minimize leaking selecting and purchasing mixing apparatus with non-sparking motors.6 Analytical equipment The following instructions for safe use of analytical equipment are general guidelines. When using a water bath: ○ clean regularly. Read and understand the manufacturer's instructions before using this equipment.6. blenders and sonicators When used with infectious agents. for example) Never use laboratory ovens for preparation of food for human consumption Glassware that has been rinsed with an organic solvent should be rinsed with distilled water before it is placed in a drying oven 10. sonicators. when using biohazardous material when using a sonicator.• equip with a thermometer to allow a visual check of the bath temperature. off-gassing. such as a phenolic detergent. consult the user's manual for more detailed information on the specific hazards: • • • • • Ensure that installation. allowing aerosols to settle for at least one minute before opening containers covering tops of blenders with a disinfectant-soaked towel during operation. • • • • • Select and purchase an oven whose design prevents contact between flammable vapours and heating elements or spark-producing components Discontinue use of any oven whose backup thermostat. can be added to the water ○ avoid using sodium azide to prevent growth of microorganisms. 10.5 Ovens and hot plates Laboratory ovens are useful for baking or curing material. The most common heating bath used in laboratories is the water bath. caps and bottles before using. Equipment such as blenders and stirrers can also produce large amounts of flammable vapours. sodium azide forms explosive compounds with some metals raise the temperature to 90oC or higher for 30 minutes once a week for decontamination purposes unplug the unit before filling or emptying. Do not attempt to defeat safety interlocks. grinders and homogenizers can release significant amounts of hazardous aerosols. mixing equipment such as shakers. pilot light or temperature controller has failed Avoid heating toxic materials in an oven unless it is vented outdoors (via a canopy hood. immersing the tip deeply enough into the solution to avoid creation of aerosols decontaminating exposed surfaces after use 10. .4 Shakers. and should be operated inside a biological safety cabinet whenever possible. a disinfectant. Make sure that preventive maintenance procedures are performed as required.

as pump exhaust may contain traces of the samples being analyzed.3 Mass spectrometers (MS) Mass spectrometry requires the handling of compressed gases and flammable and toxic chemicals. chemical and toxicological properties of these materials and follow the recommended safety precautions. Never leave the flame unattended. Avoid viewing the flame or furnace during atomization unless wearing protective eyewear. A fire extinguisher should be located nearby. Specific precautions for working with the mass spectrometer include: • • • • Avoid contact with heated parts while the mass spectrometer is in operation. inlet and detector. toxic and corrosive products. To avoid electrical shock. Glass or fused capillary columns are fragile: handle them with care and wear safety glasses to protect eyes from flying particles while handling. Hollow cathode lamps are under negative pressure and should be handled with care and disposed of properly to minimize implosion risks. Familiarize yourself with the physical.6. as toxic gases. and flammable and toxic chemicals. Measure hydrogen gas and air separately when determining gas flow rates. 10. 10. ensure that a column or cap is connected to the inlet fitting whenever hydrogen is supplied to the instrument to avoid buildup of explosive hydrogen gas in the oven. Used pump oil may also contain traces of analytes and should be handled as hazardous waste. Turn off the hydrogen gas supply at its source when changing columns or servicing the instrument. 10. When using hydrogen as fuel (flame ionization FID and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors NPD). empty the drain bottle frequently when running organic solvents. solvents and reagent gas.6. Allow the burner head to cool to room temperature before handling. Atomic absorption equipment must be adequately vented.35 mCi) or greater. hydrogen.2 Atomic absorption (AA) spectrometers Sample preparation for atomic absorption procedures often require handling of flammable. Use only helium or nitrogen gas. connect the split vent to an exhaust ventilation system or appropriate chemical trap if toxic materials are analyzed or hydrogen is used as the carrier gas.4 Gas chromatographs (GC) Gas chromatography requires handling compressed gases (nitrogen. Follow the manufacturer's instructions when installing columns. to cool down before touching them. helium). to condition a chemical trap. Ensure that the exhaust from (ECDs) is vented to the outside. pump. Ensure that pumps are vented outside the laboratory. fumes and vapours are emitted during operation.6.6. Specific precautions for working with gas chromatographs include: • • Perform periodic visual inspections and pressure leak tests of the sampling system plumbing. Consult product MSDSs before using such hazardous products. Other recommendations to follow when carrying out atomic absorption analysis are: • • • • • • • Wear safety glasses for mechanical protection. as well as connected hardware.5 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) equipment • • • • • • • • • . never hydrogen. Inspect the drain system regularly. Verify gas. When performing split sampling. argon. drain and gas systems before use.10. Check the integrity of the burner. Perform a radioactive leak test (wipe test) on electron capture detectors (ECDs) at least every 6 months for sources of 50MBq (1. turn off the instrument and disconnect the power cord at its receptacle whenever the access panel is removed. Consult MSDSs for products before using them. Turn off and allow heated areas such as the oven. cutting or installing capillary columns. fittings and valves. exhaust and drain system tubing and connections before each use.

Refer to Section 11. Measure stray fields with a gaussmeter. advise users that the magnetic field can erase magnetic media such as tapes and floppy disks.6 High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment HPLC procedures may require handling of compressed gas (helium) and flammable and toxic chemicals. as well as recommended precautionary measures.The superconducting magnet of NMR equipment produces strong magnetic and electromagnetic fields that can interfere with the function of cardiac pacemakers. disable credit and automated teller machine (ATM) cards.1 Eye and face protection All students.. pump exhaust and drain system tubing and connections before each use. empty the waste container frequently when using organic solvents. moving particles and/or rupture exist . steel. Be sure to use a heavy walled flask if you plan to use vacuum to degas the solvent. faculty and visitors must wear appropriate eye and/or facial protection in the following: • • All areas where hazardous materials. as well as open radioactive sources as defined by Canadian Nuclear Safety legislation. iron) at least 2 metres away from the magnet. Consult product MSDSs before using them. Note that hazardous materials include those defined by WHMIS legislation as "controlled products". wear a protective face mask and loose-fitting thermal gloves during dewar servicing and when handling frozen samples. Test the pressure switch for the exhaust line before each use. Users of pacemakers and other implanted ferromagnetic medical devices are advised to consult with their physician. and restrict public access to areas of 5-gauss or higher. Avoid positioning your head over the helium and nitrogen exit tubes. • • • • • • • Inspect the drain system regularly. Never clean a flowcell by forcing solvents through a syringe: syringes under pressure can leak or rupture.1) and protective clothing (Section 11.6. 11. staff. Specific precautions for working with LC/MS equipment include: • • • Verify gas. Keep all tools. The strong magnetic field can suddenly pull nearby unrestrained magnetic objects into the magnet with considerable force. used or handled All areas where the possibility of splash. Ensure that pumps are vented outside the laboratory. 10. Personal Protective Equipment The University’s policies regarding eye and face protection (Section 11.6.7 Liquid chromatography (LC/MS) equipment LC/MS requires the handling of compressed nitrogen and flammable and toxic chemicals. handle them carefully and reserve them for NMR use only. and damage analog watches. Ensure that waste collection vessels are vented. resulting in sudden release of syringe contents. Familiarize yourself with the hazardous properties of these products. Shut down and allow the system to return to atmospheric pressure before carrying out maintenance procedures. Though not a safety issue. High voltage and internal moving parts are present in the pump. the pacemaker's manual and pacemaker manufacturer before entering facilities which house NMR equipment. equipment and personal items containing ferromagnetic material (e. NMR tubes are thin-walled. by referring to MSDSs.g. 10. Precautions for work with NMR include the following: • • • Post clearly visible warning signs in areas with strong magnetic fields. Ensure that ventilation is sufficient to remove the helium or nitrogen gas exhausted by the instrument.2) are outlined below. Switch off the electrical power and disconnect the line cord when performing routine maintenance of the pump. are stored. Avoid skin contact with cryogenic (liquid) helium and nitrogen. • • • • • 11. Never use solvents with autoignition temperatures below 110oC. flying objects. or substances of an unknown nature. "Compressed Gases and Cryogenics".

blistering skin or dry flaking skin with cracks and sores) that seem to be associated with the wearing of latex gloves should be reported to a physician when symptoms first appear.g. peeling. lab coats.1 Latex gloves and skin reactions Natural latex is derived from the sap of the rubber tree and contains rubber polymers. biohazardous material and physical hazards such as abrasion. rash. and can be caused by: • • • chronic irritation from sweating of hands inside gloves or from gloves rubbing against the skin sensitization to the chemical additives used in the manufacturing process reaction to naturally-occurring latex proteins Frequent handwashing.g. cleaning agents and disinfectants may further irritate the skin. wearing latex gloves can cause skin reactions. for some people. coveralls) is required in all experimental areas where hazardous materials are handled. lipids. During the manufacturing process additional chemical agents are added to impart elasticity.. chemical products. phospholipids and proteins. If safety glasses with correction lenses are needed. latex gloves are used for many laboratory procedures. as well as residues from scrubs. first consult with your optometrist or ophthalmologist.g.• All areas where there are other eye hazards.2 Lab coats Appropriate protective clothing (e.3 Hand protection In the laboratory.3. non-powdered or low-protein latex gloves polyethylene. Work with significant risk of splash of chemicals. and because of their high tactile strength and low cost. carbohydrates. red. Because of these properties. e. soaps. or possible explosion: full face shield. puncture and exposure to temperature extremes 11. Unfortunately. tearing. flexibility and durability to the latex. PVC or cloth liners under latex gloves non-latex gloves under latex gloves Occurrences of skin problems (e. Using one of the following alternatives may reduce the risk of skin problems associated with the use of latex rubber gloves: • non-latex gloves • • • "hypo-allergenic". or projectiles: goggles. 11.3. these can be either irritant or allergic in nature. Work with significant risk of splash on face. aprons. itching.2 Glove selection guidelines Base selection of glove material on: • identification of the work procedures requiring hand protection . gloves are used for protection from radiation. 11. • • • • • Instructions for selection and use of protective laboratory clothing are as follows: select knee-length lab coats with button or snap closures wear a solid-front lab coat or gown with back closures and knitted cuffs when working with highly toxic or infectious agents wear protective aprons for special procedures such as transferring large volumes of corrosive material remove protective clothing when leaving the laboratory remove protective clothing in the event of visible or suspected contamination 11. plus goggles. UV or laser light Instructions for selection and use of protective eyewear are as follows: • • • • Light-to-moderate work: CSA approved safety glasses with side shields..

leather Thin-film plastic.g.3. glove manufacturer or permeation chart. nylon Low to moderate radiotoxicity Any disposable rubber or plastic glove Asbestos Zetex™ Neoprene-coated asbestos. terry cloth. as all electrical work must be done by licensed electricians. terry cloth (aramid fibre) Nomex. "breakthrough time" refers to how long it takes the chemical to seep through to the other side of the material. heat-resistant leather with linings.Recommended glove materials for a variety of laboratory hazards Trademark names were included because the reader is likely to encounter them in the literature: consult laboratory or safety equipment suppliers. PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). polyester. Gloves not listed here may also be suitable. cotton Choice depends on chemical.3 Chemical glove selection No single glove material is resistant to all chemicals. nitrile or butyl rubber. 4H™. occasional or splash vs..4-M1979) with leather outer glove Cotton. for more information on brand name gloves. a need for high tactile sensitivity. The section on electricity is included for information purposes only. lightweight leather. Chemrel™. cotton Over 350oC Up to 350oC Up to 200oC Up to 100oC Electricity Rubber-insulated gloves tested to appropriate voltage (CSA Standard Z259. Consult MSDS. These resources may use the following terms: • • "permeation rate" refers to how quickly the chemical seeps through the intact material: the higher the permeation rate the faster the chemical will permeate the material. Teflon™. terry cloth (aramid fibre) Lightweight leather. Responder™ Cold Heat General duty Product contamination Radiation 11. Determine which gloves will provide an acceptable degree of resistance by consulting the MSDS for the product.Examples: natural. Barricade™. Kevlar™ Chrome-tanned leather. polyester. etc. staple-reinforced leather Rubber. Viton™. nor will most gloves remain resistant to a specific chemical for longer than a few hours. wool. cotton Metal mesh. would restrict glove thickness. staple-reinforced heavy leather. aramid-steel Leather. neoprene. insulated plastic or rubber. for example. polyester. or the manufacturer. and some protocols may require the use of gloves with non-slip or textured surfaces type and length of contact (e. polyvinyl chloride. nylon. prolonged or immersion contact) whether disposable or reusable gloves are more appropriate Table 5 . nylon. manufacturer or permeation chart Leather. terry cloth Reinforced heavy rubber. cotton. Nomex. refer to the MSDS. leather. polyvinyl alcohol. contact time. contacting glove manufacturers or by referring to a compatibility chart or table for permeation data. plastic. Kevlar. Kevlar™ Heat-resistant leather. and .• • • flexibility and touch sensitivity required. Hazard Degree of Hazard Recommended Material Abrasion Severe Less severe Sharp edges Severe Less severe Mild with delicate work Chemicals and liquids Varies depending on the concentration. Saranex™.

even if they appear not to be contaminated do not reuse disposable gloves follow the manufacturer's instructions for cleaning and maintenance of reusable gloves before using gloves.4 Respirators Respirators should be used only in emergency situations (e. Correct use of a respirator is as vital as choosing the right respirator. Consult the MSDS or the Environmental Safety Office before purchasing and using a respirator assigning respirators to individuals for their exclusive use. whenever possible fit-testing: evaluation of facial fit for all users of respirators. test rubber and synthetic gloves by inflating them make sure that the gloves fit properly ensure that the gloves are long enough to cover the skin between the top of the glove and the sleeve of the lab coat discard worn or torn gloves discard disposable gloves that are.3. Emergency Procedures . and are used in oxygen-deficient atmospheres or when gases or vapours with poor warning properties are present in dangerous concentrations. hazardous spills or leaks) or when other measures. cannot adequately control exposures. or may have become. learn how to remove them without touching the contaminated outer surface with your hands 11.• "degradation" is a measure of the physical deterioration (for example. before an individual is assigned to work in an area where respirators are required. softer or weaker) following contact with the chemical 11. glove material may actually dissolve or become harder. use and care of protective gloves Guidelines for glove use include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • choose a glove that provides adequate protection from the specific hazard(s) be aware that some glove materials may cause adverse skin reactions in some individuals and investigate alternatives inspect gloves for leakage before using.4. mists. to verify the person's ability to function under increased breathing resistance. 11. and replacement of defective parts medical surveillance. An effective program for respiratory protection should include the following: • • • • • • • written standard operating procedures and training selecting a respirator that is suitable for the application.1 Selection. beards.4 Selection. There are two classes of respirators: air-purifying and supplied-air. contaminated avoid contaminating "clean" equipment: remove gloves and wash hands before carrying out tasks such as using the telephone always wash your hands after removing gloves. such as ventilation. metal fumes etc. long sideburns.) or gases and vapours from the surrounding air. TOP OF PAGE 12. use and care of respirators Follow proper procedures for selecting and using respiratory protective equipment. cleaning and sanitary storage of respirators regular inspection of the respirator. glasses or the wrong size of respirator may prevent an effective seal between the wearer's face and the respirator protocols for using. The latter supply clean air from a compressed air tank or through an air line outside the work area.g. Air-purifying respirators are suitable for many laboratory applications and remove particulates (dusts.

even if they don't appear to be serious. • • • For heat burns. First aid procedures for chemical burns to the eyes are described in Section 12. laboratory lamps and lasers. open flames. flames.). from the burned area. advise emergency medical personnel of the characteristics of the laser and the distance between the victim and the laser.1 Burns In the laboratory. If the victim remains in contact with a power source. unplug the device or shut off the main power switch at the electrical distribution panel. in your area (Refer to Section1.1 Burns to the skin First aid treatment of skin burns encompasses the following: • If the burn is electrical in origin. The emergency first aid procedures described below should be followed by a consultation with a physician for medical treatment. Dial 911 if the burn is serious.1. Learn first aid: Contact Environmental Health and Safety for a schedule of CSST (Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail)-approved workplace first aid and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course dates. Expose the burnt area. 12. Keep instructions readily available and easy to understand. If the burn is the result of exposure to a laser beam. Burns caused by ultraviolet. such as showers and eyewashes. lacerations or puncture wounds include the following: • • wash the wound and surrounding area with mild soap and running water remove any dirt around the wound • • • • • • • • • . immerse burnt surfaces in cold water for at least 10 minutes. including watches.1.1. scratches.4 below. first aid treatment for chemical burns is described in Section 12. ointments or disinfectants to a burn. or apply cold wet packs. General first aid procedures for thermal and radiation burns to the eyes are as follows: • Prevent the victim from rubbing or touching the eyes. visible or near-infrared radiation may not produce symptoms until 6-8 hours after exposure. Locate and know how to test and operate emergency equipment. thermal burns may be caused by intense heat. Do not burst blisters. steam. Avoid applying lotions. Send the victim for medical care. 12. cuts. flush the eyes with cool water until the pain subsides.4 below. Familiarize yourself with the contents of the first aid kit and learn how to use them.1. but avoid removing clothes that are stuck to the skin. etc. 12.2 Burns to the eyes Burns to the eyes may be caused by chemical substances. etc. Seek immediate medical treatment for all electrical burns. as they form a natural barrier against infection. 12.1.1. ascertain that the victim is not in contact with the power supply before touching him/her. electrical current passing through the body generates heat.1. heat (hot liquids. apply dry compresses to third degree burns and to entry and exit wounds of electrical burns. apply a wet compress to the eyes if it is too painful to close them.2 Cuts First aid treatment for minor scrapes. Corrosive liquids or solids such as bases and acids can cause chemical burns. Cover the eyes with dry sterile gauze pads. In electrical burns. First and second degree burns can be washed with soap and water after the cool down period. steam.4). Cover first and second degree burns with a moist bandage.1. If possible.1 First aid Know how to handle emergency situations before they occur: • • Become familiar with the properties of the hazardous products used in your area.12. molten metal. Remove jewelry. or radiation from welding procedures. molten metal.

e. Apply direct pressure to the wound unless an object is protruding from it (in this situation. Direct pressure can be applied with the fingers of the hand. against a bone. as this may interrupt the clotting process.1. proceed to the nearest drench hose. go to the nearest shower and rinse thoroughly for at least 20 minutes. Hold your eyelids open with your fingers. always ensure that the victim receives medical attention. ingestion or injection. If you are wearing contact lenses.1. apply an additional dressing on top of the first. provide the ambulance technicians with a sample of the vomitus. even if the exposure seems minor. soiled or grimy objects should be examined by a physician. For splashes to the eyes: • • • • • • Go to the nearest eyewash and rinse for at least 20 minutes. 12. the palm of the hand or with a pressure dressing. as in the case of a severed limb. it should be applied only as a last resort. Consult a physician immediately. Cover the injured eye with dry sterile gauze pads while waiting for medical attention. the first aider should attempt to stop the bleeding as quickly as possible: Elevate the injured area above the level of the heart. as post-exposure prophylaxis or immunization may be required. If a wound is bleeding profusely.• • • • ○ ○ cover with an adhesive dressing or gauze square taped on all sides with adhesive tape wounds caused by dirty. remove them as quickly as possible. Do not remove a dressing that has become soaked with blood. if possible. remove contaminated clothing while in the shower For splashes involving a small skin area.1. in order to reduce the blood pressure to the area of the wound.1. 12. the victim must be seen by a physician immediately. so that water can flow over the entire surface of the eye. i. When assisting a victim of poisoning: • call for an ambulance (dial 911) for serious poisoning • • ensure that the area is safe to enter before attempting to aid the victim move the victim away from the contaminated area and provide first aid as required do not induce vomiting unless advised to do so by a reliable authority such as the Quebec Poison Control Centre ( 1-800-463-5060 ) provide emergency medical personnel with the MSDS for the poisonous product. • • • . This involves compressing the artery between the wound and the heart. Roll your eyeballs. remove contaminated clothing and jewelry and rinse for 15 minutes. while continuing to flush. apply pressure around the injury). who will determine whether a tetanus immunization is needed if the wound was caused by an object that has contacted human blood or body fluids. absorption through the skin.3 Needlestick injuries Treat bleeding needle-related injuries as described in Section 12. toxic substances can enter and poison the body by inhalation.2above.. apply pressure to the arteries supplying the injured area. If bleeding cannot be controlled with direct pressure. do not cut off the blood circulation to limbs. as immunization or post-exposure prophylaxis may be required. If the victim was overcome by an unknown poison and has vomited.5 Poisoning As described in section 3. Avoid over-tightening of the dressing. As a tourniquet completely stops the flow of blood to beyond the point of application.1. ○ ○ ○ ○ 12.4 Chemical splashes to the skin or eyes For splashes to the skin: • • If the splash affects a large area of skin. Lift your eyelids frequently to ensure complete flushing.

If someone else is on fire: • • Immediately immobilize the victim and force him/her to roll on the ground to extinguish the flames. Anyone discovering smoke. and following the instructions of Evacuation Monitors.5 ("Evacuations").2.2. 12.g. Telephone the City Fire Department from a safe location by dialing 911. corrosive. Assist in smothering the flames. shop or chemical storeroom: Evacuate all personnel from the room Be sure the hood/local exhaust is turned on If flammable liquids are spilled. and Roll to smother the flames As soon as the flames are extinguished. should immediately: • • Inform Security. 12. magnitude and nature (e. the following procedures should be followed: • • • ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ If there is fire.1.3. using whatever is immediately available. local 3000 (local 7777 at Macdonald Campus). Evacuate the premises in a swift. toxic. Laboratory personnel should attempt to extinguish a fire only if it is clearly safe to do so (Refer to Section 5. electrical) of the fire. Drop and Roll" rule: • • • Stop where you are Drop to the floor. Macdonald 7777) to request additional assistance if you cannot manage the clean-up yourself. Inform the Building Emergency Warden of the location. . as described in Section 5. follow the fire evacuation procedures.1 above). Remember the "Stop. individuals requiring assistance.2 Known fires • • • • • • Shout "FIRE!" repeatedly to give the alert. it is important not to run. orderly fashion using the stairways and/or fire escapes. Building Serviceperson or Building Director. Pull the fire alarm. the open evacuation routes.3 Clothing fires If your clothing should catch fire. move away from the doors to enable others to exit. If the spill is in a laboratory. Give appropriate first aid (refer to Section 12. go to the nearest emergency shower to cool burned areas with copious amounts of water. but NOT the elevators. strong smell of burning or smell of an unusual nature. 12. disconnect the electricity to sources of ignition if possible Call the campus emergency telephone number (Downtown 3000. as this would provided additional air to support the flames. reactive or flammable) chemical. 12. Once outside the building. If the spill is in a corridor or other public passageway: Evacuate all people from the area and close off the area to keep others out. pull the nearest alarm. If you are unable to control or extinguish a fire. Alert the Building Emergency Warden. and other pertinent details.3 Hazardous chemical spills In the event of a spill of a hazardous (volatile. "Fire Extinguishers").2. such as a fireproof blanket or clothing.2 Fires The immediate response depends on the size of the fire.1 Suspected fires All members of the University should familiarize themselves with the locations of the fire alarms and evacuation routes in the areas that they occupy.12.

2. Then inform campus security services at: ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 514-398-3000 514-398-7777 (downtown) (Macdonald) Related sites: Emergency Measures & Fire Prevention Health & Safety Security Services University Safety .3 ("Guidelines for Specific Types of Spills") of this manual.4 Natural gas leaks Have the natural gas valves closed if you don't use gas. Macdonald 7777). <60 5 20 20 FP <22.6. Note: For more detailed information on spill clean-up action. TOP OF PAGE Appendix 1: Flammability Classification and Permissible Container Sizes (NFPA.8 0. <93 20 20 20 Ethylene glycol FP ≥93 20 20 20 Benzyl alcohol *NFPA 6.8 FP ≥22. Call local 3000 (local 7777 at Macdonald campus) if the odour persists. Dial 911 if there is a confirmed gas leak.○ Call the emergency telephone number (Downtown 3000.8 BP <37. <37. If you do use gas. if the required liquid purity (such as ACS analytical reagent grade or higer) would be affected by storage in metal containers or if the liquid can cause excessive corrosion of the metal container. Refer to Section 3.3. Next: Manuel de sécurité au laboratoire Emergency? For serious emergencies call 911 immediately. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.5* 5 10 Glass Container type(L) Metal or plastic Safety can 1B 1* 20 20 1C 5 20 20 Combustible Liquids Class II IIIA IIIB FP ≥60. 12.2: Class 1A and Class 1B liquids shall be permitted to be stored in glass containers of not more than 5L (1. to have the air system in the area shut down (to prevent contamination of other areas) and to request additional assistance.8 BP >37. and detect a natural gas smell: • • • Check that all gas valves have been turned off. 2003) Flash & Boilingpoint ranges DegoC Flammable Liquids Class 1A Example Acetaldehyde Ethyl Ether Pentane Acetone Ethanol Toluene Isobutanol Styrene Example Kerosene Acetic anhydride Aniline Octanol FP ≥37.8.3 gal) capacity.8 FP <22.8.

Quebec H3A 1Y2 Tel. 2010 at 1:44 PM . 5.: 514-398-4563 | Fax: 514-398-8047 | [Email] Copyright © 2011 McGill University Page last updated: Nov. Mctavish 3610 [Map] Montreal.○ Waste Management QuickLinks ○ ○ ○ ○ Correct a hazard RAIR Web Rethink McGill Waste Management Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) [Unit detail] Room 426.

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