KLAUS A. HOFFMANN
STEVE T. CHIANG
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6 Chapter 1
(19)
The domain of solution for an elliptic PDE is a closed region, R, shown in Figure
12. On the closed boundary of R, either the value of the dependent variable, its
normal gradient, or a linear combination of the two is prescribed. Providing the
boundary conditions uniquely yields the solution within the domain.
au av
=a (631a)
at ax
av au
=a (631b)
at ax
Therefore a solution of the original model equation (628) may be obtained by
solving the firstorder equations (631a) and (631b).
In conclusion, when one broadly compares the implicit and explicit methods just
explored, it is clear that, for linear hyperbolic equations, the explicit formulations
provide better solutions than implicit methods. The advantages of implicit methods
(which are usually unconditionally stable) are lost, since large step sizes produce
poor results.
au
=u
au (632)
at ax
which, in a conservative form, may be expressed as
a;: =  :x (~) or
au aE (633)
at ax
where E = u 2 /2. Equation (632) can be interpreted as the propagation of a wave
with each point having a different velocity and eventually forming a discontinuity
in the domain. This is similar to the formation of shock waves by a series of weak
compression waves.
362 Chapter 9
~  ~(x,y) (91)
."  .,,(x, y) (92)
The chain rule for partial differentiation yields the following expression:

a a~ a a." a
ax=ax 
ae +axa."
 (93)
The partial derivatives will be denoted using the subscripts notation, Le., ! = ezo
Hence,
a a a (94)
ax = ez ae + "'z a."
and similarly,
a a a (95)
ay = el/ae + "hi a."
Now consider a model PDE, such as
au
+a=Q
au (96)
ax ay
This equation may be transformed from physical space to computational space using
Equations (94) and (95). As a result,
(97)
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