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produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red. In popular culture and commerce, are perennial. They are native to tropical Southeast Asia, and are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. Today, they are cultivated throughout the tropics. They are grown in at least 107 countries,
contrast, Musa cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called plantains. Many varieties of bananas
primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine and as ornamental plants.
Although fruit of wild species (Musa balbisiana) have large, hard seeds, virtually all culinary bananas are "seedless", have only tiny seeds. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types; about 10–15% of production is for export. Bananas are naturally slightly radioactive, more so than most other fruits, because of their high potassium content, and the small amounts of the isotope potassium-40 found in naturally occurring potassium. Proponents of nuclear power sometimes refer to the banana equivalent dose of radiation to support their arguments. Botany The banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. Plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy and are often mistaken for trees, but their main or upright stem is actually a pseudostem that grows 6 to 7.6 metres (20 to 24.9 ft) tall, growing from a corm. Each pseudostem can produce a single bunch of bananas. After fruiting, the pseudostem dies, but offshoots may develop from the base of the plant. Leaves are spirally arranged and may grow 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) long and 60 cm (2.0 ft) wide.
They are easily torn by the wind, resulting in the familiar frond look. Each pseudostem normally produces a single inflorescence, also known as the banana heart.
(More are sometimes produced; an exceptional plant in the Philippines produced five.) The inflorescence contains many bracts (sometimes incorrectly called petals) between rows of flowers. The female flowers (that can develop into fruit) appear in rows further up the stem from the rows of male flowers. The ovary is inferior, meaning that the tiny petals and other flower parts appear at the tip of the ovary. Banana fruit develop from the banana heart, in a large hanging cluster, made up of tiers (called hands) with up to 20 fruit to a tier. The hanging cluster is known as a bunch, comprising 3–20 tiers,
 Others say that Linnaeus. . Bananas grow pointing up. a cultigen) are imported from the tropics. In cultivated varieties. because ripe dessert bananas are easily damaged in transport. The word banana itself might have come from the Arabic banan. simply adapted an Arabicword for banana. assigns Musaceae to the order Zingiberalesin the clade commelinids in the monocotyledonous flowering plants. even when moving only a short distance. the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence. The APG II system. Taxonomy The genus Musa is in the family Musaceae. The inner part of the common yellow dessert variety splits easily lengthwise into three sections that correspond to the inner portions of the three carpels. their remnants are tiny black specks in the interior of the fruit. In common usage. amongst other chemicals. The commercial dessert cultivars most commonly eaten in temperate countries (species Musa acuminata or the hybrid Musa × paradisiaca. The genus contains many species. There is an protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with numerous long. which run lengthwise between the skin and the edible inner portion. a coarser and starchier variant not to be confused with Musa acuminataor the Cavendish variety. and texture from firm to mushy. who named the genus in 1750. which means "finger". mauz. is named for Antonio Musa. The fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". Most production for local sale is of green cooking bananas and plantains. of which approximately 75% is water and 25% dry matter. of 2003 (unchanged from 1998). and can weigh from 30–50 kilograms (66–110 lb). Both skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked. Bananas' flavor is due.or commercially as a "banana stem". average 125 grams (0. while others are cultivated as ornamentals. Food and cooking The fruit Bananas are the staple starch of many tropical populations. Musa paradisiaca is also the generic name for the common plantain. Ripe bananas suffer a high rate of damage and loss. not hanging down. several produce edible fruit. Some sources assert that the banana's genus. thin strings (the phloem bundles). or perhaps from Wolof banana. physician to the Emperor Augustus. Depending upon cultivar and ripeness. Individual banana fruits (commonly known as a banana or 'finger'). bunch applies to part of a tier containing 3-10 adjacent fruits. to isoamyl acetate which is one of the main constituents of banana oil. the flesh can vary in taste from starchy to sweet.28 lb). Musa.
an enzyme which breaks down the pectin between the cells of the banana. which have a dark brown color and an intense banana taste. baked or mashed in much the same way as potatoes. and notably in the Burmese dish mohinga. are sold in markets in Indonesia. The trunk The tender core of the banana plant's trunk is also used in South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine. influencing the taste of bananas. Bananas fried with batter is a popular dessert in Malaysia. the forerunner of the common domesticated banana. Steamed with dishes they impart a subtle sweet flavor. either raw or steamed with dips or cooked in soups and curries. Extracting juice is difficult. They are often used as ecologically friendly disposable food containers or as "plates" in South Asia and several Southeast Asian countries. The leaves Banana leaves are large. and waterproof. baked in their skin in a split bamboo. The flower Banana hearts are used as a vegetable in South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine. it simply turns to pulp.During the ripening process. Especially in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu in every occasion the food must be served in a banana leaf and as a part of the food a banana is served. an enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar. As with artichokes. Dried bananas are also ground to make banana flour. Seeded bananas (Musa balbisiana). This has elicited the expression Banana Pancake Trail for those places in Asia that cater to this group of travelers. which indirectly affects the flavor. ethylene stimulates the formation of amylase. Bananas can be made into jam. The flavor resembles that of artichoke. Banana pancakes are popular amongst backpackers and other travelers in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Furthermore. causing the banana to soften as it ripens. Singapore. The greener. bananas produce a plant hormone called ethylene. Bananas are eaten deep fried. Among other things. or steamed in glutinous rice wrapped in a banana leaf. yellow bananas taste sweeter due to higher sugar concentrations. A similar dish is known in the United States as banana fritters. flexible. They . both the fleshy part of the bracts and the heart are edible. less ripe bananas contain higher levels of starch and. Banana chips are a snack produced from sliced dehydrated or fried banana or plantain. Plantains are used in various stews and curries or cooked. ethylene signals the production of pectinase. consequently. because when a banana is compressed. have a "starchier" taste. On the other hand. and Indonesia.
367 mg (28%) 20 μg (5%) 8. B3) Pantothenic acid (B5) Vitamin B6 Folate (Vit. sometimes with the addition of honey. raw. manganese and potassium.031 mg (2%) 0. possibly contributing to electrolyte balance. Thiamine (Vit. vitamin C.7 mg (15%) 5 mg (1%) 0.23 g 2. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Potential health benefits Along with other fruits and vegetables.26 mg (2%) 27 mg (7%) 22 mg (3%) 358 mg (8%) 0.15 mg (1%) One banana is 100–150 g. B1) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) Niacin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database Fibre .334 mg (7%) 0. B9) Vitamin C Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Zinc 371 kJ (89 kcal) 22.665 mg (4%) 0. and for kidney stones. Banana.073 mg (5%) 0. Individuals with a latex allergy may experience a reaction to bananas. juice is extracted from the corm and used as a home remedy for jaundice.84 g 12. Bananas contain moderate amounts of vitamin B6.5 oz) Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber Fat Protein Vitamin A equiv. consumption of bananas may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and in women. In India. breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma.09 g 3 μg (0%) 0. protect food from burning and add a subtle flavor. edible parts Nutritional value per 100 g (3. The leaves contain the juices.6 g 0.often serve as a wrapping for grilling food.33 g 1.
which features a banana on the front cover. Cultural roles Symbols Bananas are also humorously used as a phallic symbol due to similarities in size and shape. leaves and shoots are cut from the plant periodically to ensure softness. In the Japanese system. mechanical fiber extraction. Religion In Burma. This is typified by the artwork of the debut album of The Velvet Underground. For example. the fibers are sent to the Kathmandu Valley for use in rugs with a silk-like texture. After that. In Japan. and small pieces are subjected to a softening process. These banana fiber rugs are woven by traditional Nepalese hand-knotting methods. bunches of green bananas surrounding a green coconut in a tray form an important part of traditional offerings to the Buddha and the Nats. Paper Banana fiber is used in the production of banana paper. mainly used for artistic purposes. obtained with an industrialized process from the stem and the non-usable fruits. or paper made from banana fiber. bleaching and drying. In a Nepalese system the trunk is harvested instead. Banana paper is used in two different senses: to refer to a paper made from the bark of the banana plant. and are sold RugMark certified. In South Indian state of Tamil Nadu after harvesting for fruit the trunk (outer layer of the shoot) is made into fine thread used in making of flower garlands instead of thread. the outermost fibers of the shoots are the coarsest. The paper itself can be either hand-made or in industrial processes. Harvested shoots are first boiled in lye to prepare fibers for yarn-making. yielding yarns and textiles with differing qualities for specific uses. yet on the original LP version.Textiles The banana plant has long been a source of fiber for high quality textiles. all performed by hand. banana cultivation for clothing and household use dates back to at least the 13th century. . This traditional Japanese cloth-making process requires many steps. while the softest innermost fibres are desirable for kimono and kamishimo. These banana shoots produce fibers of varying degrees of softness. the design allowed the listener to 'peel' this banana to find a pink phallus on the inside. and are suitable for tablecloths.
In countries such as Uganda. that bananas were brought at least to Madagascar if not to the East African coast during the phase of Malagasy colonization of the island from South East Asia c400CE. the large leaves are sometimes used as umbrellas. Banana sap leaves indelible dark stains on clothes. History Early cultivation Southeast Asian farmers first domesticated bananas. There is linguistic evidence that bananas were known in Madagascar around that time. the the king Vessantara has found a banana tree (among some other fruit trees) in the jungle. however. Burundi. In East African highlands bananas are of greatest importance as a staple food crop. The banana (Tamil:வாைழ or வாைழப்பழம்) is one of three fruits with this significance. and Rwanda per capita consumption has been estimated at 45 kilograms (99 lb) per year. Areas of secondary diversity are found in Africa. East Africa Most farms supply local consumption.In all the important festivals and occasions of Tamils the serving of bananas plays a prominent part. and possibly to 8000 BCE. can be tied together to form a floatation device. Recent archaeological and palaeo environmental evidence at Kuk Swamp in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea suggests that banana cultivation there goes back to at least 5000 BCE. Cooking bananas represent a major food source and a major income source for smallhold farmers. The Buddhist story Vessantara_Jataka briefly mention about banana. that bear bananas of the size of an elephants tusk. It is likely. Southeast Asia is the region of primary diversity of the banana. The pseudostems. It is likely that other species were later and independently domesticated elsewhere in southeast Asia. being floatable. Phytolith discoveries in Cameroon dating to the first millennium BCE triggered an as yet unresolved debate about the date of first cultivation in Africa. Other uses Banana sap is extremely sticky and can be used as a practical adhesive. from the peelings. or from the flesh. the others being mango and jack fruit. In regions where bananas are grown. Sap can be obtained from the pseudostem. . the highest in the world. indicating a long history of banana cultivation in the region. The earliest prior evidence indicates that cultivation dates to no earlier than late 6th century AD.
The banana may have been present in isolated locations of the Middle East on the eve of Islam. Bananas were introduced to the Americas by Portuguese sailors who brought the fruits from West Africa in the 16th century. There are numerous references to it in Islamic texts (such as poems and hadiths) beginning in the 9th century. and passed into English via Spanish or Portuguese. from the Wolof language. and western Africa. During the medieval ages. although they were available. banana consumption increases significantly in Islamic countries during Ramadan. Islamic conquerors brought the banana to Palestine. The word banana is of West African origin. Modern cultivation While the original bananas contained large seeds. triploid cultivars with tiny seeds are preferred for human raw fruit consumption. bananas formed the basis of large commercial empires. The life of a banana plantation is 25 years or longer. which created immense plantations especially in Central andSouth America. Lacking seeds. The plant is allowed to produce 2 shoots at a time. As late as the Victorian Era. From there it diffused into north Africa and Muslim Iberia. Indonesia. In 650. which makes them sterile and unable to produce viable seeds. By the 10th century the banana appears in texts from Palestine and Egypt. Jules Verne introduces bananas to his readers with detailed descriptions in Around the World in Eighty Days (1872). These are propagated asexually from offshoots. These were usually commercially exploitative. Usually this is done by carefully removing a sucker (a vertical shoot that develops . Many wild banana species exist in New Guinea. Nowadays. and the term "Banana republic" was coined for states like Honduras and Guatemala. Plantation cultivation In the 15th and 16th century. during which time the individual stools or planting sites may move slightly from their original positions as lateral rhizome formation dictates. a larger one for immediate fruiting and a smaller "sucker" or "follower" to produce fruit in 6–8 months. exemplified by the United Fruit Company. Malaysia. The spread of Islam was followed by far-reaching diffusion. Portuguese colonists started banana plantations in the Atlantic Islands. and the Philippines. Cultivated bananas are parthenocarpic. Brazil. representing the fact that these companies and their political backers created and abetted "servile dictatorships" whose primary motivation was to protect the companies. In the early 20th century. the month of daylight fasting. propagation typically involves removing and transplanting part of the underground stem (called a corm). bananas were not widely known in Europe. bananas from Granada were considered among the best in the Arab world. There is some textual evidence that the prophet Muhammad was familiar with bananas.
In some countries. Although both flavor and texture of tree-ripened bananas is generally regarded as superior to any type of green-picked fruit. severed suckers without root material can be propagated in damp sand. Even though it is no longer viable for large scale cultivation. this reduces shelf life to only 7–10 days. However. This method is preferred since it ensures disease-free planting material. It is unclear if any existing cultivar can replace Cavendish. a fungus which attacks the roots of the banana plant. .5 and 15 °C (56 and 59 °F) during transport. Ease of transport and shelf life rather than superior taste make the Cavendish the main export banana. The Cavendish gained popularity in the 1950s after the previous massproduced cultivar. which accounts for the majority of banana exports. The skin of ripe bananas quickly blackens in the 4 °C (39 °F) environment of a domestic refrigerator. These rooms are air-tight and filled with ethylene gas to induce ripening. commercial propagation occurs by means of tissue culture. When using vegetative parts such as suckers for propagation. mass-market banana. Gros Michel is not extinct and is still grown in areas where Panama disease is not found. ripening permanently stalls. It is not necessary to include the corm or root structure to propagate bananas. bananas are available fresh year-round. and ripen in special rooms upon arrival in the destination country. Likewise. and turns the bananas gray as cell walls break down. Bananas are refrigerated to between 13. As a non-seasonal crop. representing not yet elongated suckers. so various hybridisation and genetic engineering programs are attempting to create a disease-resistant. "Tree-ripened" Cavendish bananas have a greenish-yellow appearance which changes to a brownish-yellow as they ripen further. by far the most important cultivar is 'Cavendish'. At lower temperatures. they require minimal care and can be shipped in bulk. are easier to transplant and can be left out of the ground for up to 2 weeks. but it may leave supermarket shelves if disease makes it impossible to supply the global market. small sympodial corms. Cavendish is in no danger of extinction. there is a risk of transmitting diseases (especially the devastatingPanama disease). although this takes somewhat longer. became commercially unviable due to Panama disease. Cavendish In global commerce. although the fruit inside remains unaffected.from the base of the banana pseudostem) with some roots intact. The vivid yellow color normally associated with supermarket bananas is in fact a side effect of the artificial ripening process. Gros Michel. Ripening Export bananas are picked green.Flavor and texture are also affected by ripening temperature.
e. On arrival. or green bananas that have not been gassed will never fully ripen before becoming rotten. To obtain maximum shelf life. the fruit begins to ripen and is distributed for final sale. cooling. This property is attributed to the degradation of chlorophyll leading to the accumulation of a fluorescent product in the skin of the fruit. ethylene. The chlorophyll breakdown product is stabilized by a propionateester group. rapid transport to ports.g. This treatment has been shown to more than double lifespans up to 3–4 weeks without the need for refrigeration. these bananas are best suited to cooking. Trade Top banana producing (in million metric tons) India China nations - 2007 21. Bananaplant leaves also fluoresce in the same way. This effect can be exploited by packing the fruit in a polyethylene bag and including an ethylene absorbent. After a few days. and may show up at the supermarket fully green. Storage and transport Bananas must be transported over long distances from the tropics to world markets. potassium permanganate. as seen in Mexican culinary dishes. Green bananas do not fluoresce. This technology allows storage and transport for 3–4 weeks at 13 °C (55 °F).04 .. Instead of fresh eating. then eaten like an ice pop or cooked as a banana mush. on an inert carrier. "Guineo Verde". A 2008 study reported that ripe bananas fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light. and refrigerated shipping.77 8. They can be stored indefinitely frozen. Ripe bananas can be held for a few days at home. The goal is to prevent the bananas from producing their natural ripening agent. The study suggested that this allows animals which can see light in the ultraviolet spectrum (tetrachromats and pentachromats) to more easily detect ripened bananas. harvest comes before the fruit is mature. Unripe bananas can not be held in home refrigerators because they suffer from the cold.Bananas can be ordered by the retailer "ungassed". The fruit requires careful handling. Recent studies have suggested that carbon dioxide (which bananas produce) and ethylene absorbents extend fruit life even at high temperatures. bananas are held at about 17 °C (63 °F) and treated with a low concentration of ethylene. The bag is then sealed with a band or string.
00 1.91 0. Costa Rica. they provide an extremely valuable food source during . One banana provides about the same calories as one potato.00 0. or chipped and have similar taste and texture when served.08 2.87 0.36 1. and Colombia.60 1. Most producers are small-scale farmers either for home consumption or local markets. Bananas are cooked in ways that are similar topotatoes.5 Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries.62 72. Because bananas and plantains produce fruit year-round. In most tropical countries.50 2.88 0.96 1.Philippines Brazil Ecuador Indonesia Tanzania Costa Rica Thailand Mexico Burundi Guatemala Vietnam Kenya Bangladesh Honduras Egypt Papua New Guinea Cameroon Uganda World total 7.46 3. representing approximately 23% of the worldwide crop. each contributing more than 1 million tons. green (unripe) bananas used for cooking represent the main cultivars.57 1. Ecuador alone provided more than 30% of global banana exports. boiled.19 1. The four leading exporting countries were Ecuador.48 7. In 2003.86 0.00 5. the Philippines. mostly for domestic consumption. Both can be fried.10 6. which together accounted for about two-thirds of exports. India led the world in banana production. baked. according to Food and Agriculture Organization statistics.
The withdrawal of these indirect subsidies to Caribbean producers is expected to favour the banana producers of Central America. Bananas and plantains are therefore critical to global food security. Some commentators remarked that . andHonduras. In the 1930s. The banana has an extensive trade history beginning with the founding of the United Fruit Company (now Chiquita) at the end of the 19th century. As late as 1960. Its predecessor 'Gros Michel'. Honduras.000 ST) were grown in Hawaii in 2001. and Fyffes grow their own bananas in Ecuador. Price competition among grocers has reduced their margins. leading to lower prices for growers. Del Monte. The European Union has traditionally imported many of their bananas from former European Caribbean colonies. the two crops accounted for 67% of the exports from the region. they tended not to be distributed together. Chiquita.000 tonnes (14. The United Fruit Company based its business almost entirely on the banana trade. Costa Rica. bananas and coffee dominated the export economies of Central America. For much of the 20th century. Guatemala. which makes it vulnerable to diseases. principally the United States. threatening both commercial cultivation and small-scale subsistence farming.000 LT. Colombia. diseases. but from a strict economic perspective only Costa Rica. and natural disasters While in no danger of outright extinction. Dole. Most banana farmers receive a low price for their produce as grocerycompanies pay discounted prices for buying in enormous quantity. The United States produces few bananas. in which American companies have an economic interest. Like almost all bananas. suffered this fate. Pests. bananas and coffee made up as much as 75% of the region's exports. Cavendish lacks genetic diversity. and Panama had economies dominated by the banana trade. As of 2005. Banana plantations are capital intensive and demand significant expertise. the most common edible banana cultivar Cavendish (extremely popular in Europe and the Americas) could become unviable for large-scale cultivation in the next 10–20 years. these arrangements were in the process of being withdrawn under pressure from other major trading powers. The majority of independent growers are large and wealthy landowners in these countries. A mere 14. The term "banana republic" has been applied to most countries in Central America. paying guaranteed prices above global market rates. because the coffee trade proved too difficult to control. Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. Though the two were grown in similar regions.the hunger season (when the food from one annual/semi-annual harvest has been consumed. 15. discovered in the 1820s. and the next is still to come). Producers have attempted to raise prices via marketing them as "fair trade" or Rainforest Alliancecertified in some countries. Bananas were once grown in Florida and southern California.
which prevents evolution of disease resistance. eventually killing the entire leaf. The fungus has shown ever-increasing resistance to treatment. almost all commercial banana production centered on 'Gros Michel'. In addition to the expense.5 acres) exceeding $1. It has yet to reach the Americas. Starved for energy. which enters the plants through the roots and travels with water into the trunk and leaves.those variants which could replace what much of the world considers a "typical banana" are so different that most people would not consider them the same fruit. Tropical Race 4 TR4 is a reinvigorated strain of Panama disease first discovered in 1993. which was highly susceptible. However. Cavendish was chosen as the replacement for Gros Michel because. but none has yet received commercial acceptance due to taste and texture issues. All plants are genetically identical. Researchers are examining hundreds of wild varieties for resistance. Several resistant cultivars of banana have been developed. and over time. This is how Tropical Race 4 travels and is its most likely route into Latin America. soil fungi can easily be carried on boots.000 per year. however. Panama Disease The Panama Disease is caused by a fusarium soil fungus (Race 1). there is the question of how long intensive spraying can be environmentally justified. causing the plant to wilt. fruit production falls by 50% or more. According to current sources. or tools. and exposing the rest of the plant to lethal amounts of sunlight. Prior to 1960. Cavendish is almost certain to disappear from commercial production by this disease. and its quality compared to Gros Michel is debated. clothing. the only known defense to TR4 is genetic resistance. Black Sigatoka Black sigatoka is a fungal leaf spot disease first observed in Fiji in 1963 or 1964. It affects all main cultivars of bananas and plantains. and the bananas that do grow ripen prematurely. This virulent form of fusarium wilt has wiped out Cavendish in several southeast Asian countries. producing gels and gums that cut off the flow of water and nutrients. Cavendish is highly susceptible to TR4. In East Africa . making them unsuitable for export. more care is required for shipping the Cavendish. a deadly form of Panama disease is infecting Cavendish. Unfortunately. and blame the decline of the banana on monogenetic cultivation driven by short-term commercial motives. it produces the highest quality fruit. with the current expense for treating 1 hectare (2. impeding photosynthesis by blackening parts of the leaves. Black Sigatoka (also known as black leaf streak) has spread to banana plantations throughout the tropics from infected banana leaves that were used as packing material. among resistant cultivars.
^ http://enochthered.net ^ a b "FAOSTAT: ProdSTAT: Crops".12. These new cultivars taste different from the Cabana banana. May 2002 . The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and NARO. 5. although mild strains exist which allow some production. ^ www. 2. resulting in a "bunched" appearance. References 1. Technology. an infected plant does not produce fruit. banana production in eastern Africa fell by over 40%. or a disease other than BBTV. Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) This virus jumps from plant to plant using aphids. It stunts leaves.com/category/banana-dose/ ^ Yes.org. during the 1970s. we have more bananas published in the Royal Horticultural Society Journals. CRC Press.. however.9 LT. 7. 09. Uganda produced 15 to 20 tonnes (15 to 20 LT. Retrieved 2007-09-18. which has slowed their acceptance by local farmers. these new cultivars have substantially increased yields in the areas where they have been tried.3. published online June 4. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. 2005. bomb tests. The situation has started to improve as new disease-resistant cultivars have been developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the National Agricultural Research Organisation of Uganda (NARO). its effect can be minimized by planting only tissue-cultured plants (in vitro propagation). Vol 1 pg. Retrieved 2006-12- 4. Corinna Wu (2007).With the arrival of Black sigatoka. Discover: Science. by adding mulch and manure to the soil around the base of the plant. controlling aphids.traditionaltree. 6. the air. 17 to 22 ST) of bananas per hectare. Today. bedmates. ^ a b "Tracing antiquity of banana cultivation in Papua New Guinea". Generally. 3. However. such as FHIA-17 (known in Uganda as the Kabana 3).. The Australia & Pacific Science Foundation. These mild strains are often mistaken for malnourishment. and the Future. Food and Agriculture Organization. It is developing cultivars specifically for smallholder and subsistence farmers. production has fallen to only 6 tonnes (5. funded by the Rockefeller Foundation and CGIAR have started trials for genetically modified bananas that are resistant to both Black sigatoka and banana weevils. 2007 6. 620 Table A.wordpress. and immediately removing and destroying infected plants.7. There is no cure.6 ST)per hectare. ^ CRC Handbook on Radiation Measurement and Protection. 1978 ^ Stephen Cass. Everything Emits Radiation—Even You: The millirems pour in from bananas. For example. Musa species (banana and plantain) agroforestry.
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