Reference

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Srivastava, A., Asati A., Bhattacharya M.,“ A fast and Noise Adaptive Rough-Fuzzy Hybrid Algorithm for Medical Image Segmentation” published in the Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, Dec 2010, Hongkong.
Q1. Why the Medical Image Segmentation is considered an open problem? What are the challenges henceforth? Answer: Medical Image Segmentation is considered a difficult process because of following characteristics of Medical images and imaging techniques 1. Medical images have highly correlated pixels, so it is always difficult to classify them into regions or to detect discontinuity among them. 2. The size of Medical images is huge, due to the large amount of information they carry. So, it is quite timetaking to process such images. 3. The Medical images have considerable amount of noise and outliers, owing to the limitation of sensor and capability of imaging technique (Variation in intensity level). 4. Optimal selection of features for segmentation. 5. Accuracy of segmentation and its verification. Q2. What is the need of Medical Image Segmentation? Mention the four parts of human brain that are usually clustered. Answer: 1. Diagnosis: Multiple sclerosis lesions, tumors treatment, Monitoring lesion volume, radiation. 2. Therapy planning: Differentiating edema, necrotic or scar tissue in response to therapy. 3. Visualization: Surgical planning, simulation, teaching, research. 4. As a pre-processing to Image Registration. The four clusters in which brain is clustered are as: White matter, Grey matter, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and Background. Q3. What is Rough-Set theory? Explain Lower and Upper Approximations of Rough-Sets. Answer: If there is a subset X ⊆ U in the universe, and R is the Equivalence relation of U, then we have: R_(X) = U { Y ∈ U/R | Y ⊆ X } R¯(X) = U { Y ∈ U/R | Y ∩ X ≠ ϕ}, where, ϕ represents Empty set. The lower approximation R_(X) is the union of all the elementary sets which are subsets of X, and the upper approximation R¯(X) is the union of all the elementary sets which have a non-empty intersection with X. The interval B(X) = [R_(X), R¯(X)] is the representation of an ordinary set X in the approximation space < U,R > or simply called the rough set of X. The lower Approximation of a set represents all those elements that definitely belong to X, whereas the upper Approximation is a collection of those elements that definitely belong to X. The important properties of Rough sets are: ● An object xk can be a part of at most any Lower Approximation. ● If xk R_(X), of cluster X, then simultaneously xk R¯(X). approximations. ● If xk is not a part of any lower approximation, then it belongs to two or more upper

Q4. The model (‘T’) illustrating the job prospects of five people in terms of their education is given. Name Education Decision (Good Job Prospects) John High School No Mary High School Yes Peter Elementary No Paul University Yes Chris Doctorate Yes

0 (3) For cluster C: µCk (1) 0. Mary} Q5. The lower approximation c. The boundary region e.0 0. Pixel Xk (0. The negative region d.0) (0. Then fill in the blanks.5. The equivalence classes: E(T) = {{John.0 .5 0.1 (2) 0.3 0.If decision rules (des) taking ‘Education’ as set of attributes are defined as: des (Lower(T)) --> Yes des (Upper(T)) --> No des (Boundary(T)) ~~> Yes (equivalently ~~> No) Then.2 0. The lower approximation and : LOWER(T) = {Paul.0. The negative region: NEG(T) = {Peter} d. Chris} c.4 Answers: (1) 0.0) (1.1) For cluster A: µAk 0.6 For cluster B: µBk 0. Mary} e. (2) 0. The boundary region: BND(T) = {John. Mary}. B and C) as shown in figure. (3) 0. {Paul}. Suppose an image ( 2 x 2 ) is segmented into 3 clusters ( namely A. The upper approximation Answers: a. The upper approximation: UPPER(T) = LOWER(T) + BND(T) = {Paul.1) (1. and µik denotes the fuzzy membership value (the probability of belongingness) of pixel Xk with cluster i. Chris. find the following using the Rough-Set theory concept: a. John. {Chris}} b. Set of equivalence classes b.4 1. {Peter}.

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