Business English

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Business English Unit 1 .............................................................................................................7 Pre-Reading Tasks......................................................................................7 Reading.......................................................................................................7 Ways with words........................................................................................8 Grammar Reference .................................................................................12 The verb to be.......................................................................................13 The demonstrative pronoun and adjective............................................13 Question forms......................................................................................13 Controlled practice ...................................................................................14 Unit 2 ...........................................................................................................17 Pre-reading tasks.......................................................................................17 Reading.....................................................................................................17 Ways with words......................................................................................19 Grammar reference ..................................................................................24 The personal pronoun...........................................................................24 Mood, tense and aspect.........................................................................25 Present Simple......................................................................................25 Present Continuous...............................................................................26 Controlled practice ...................................................................................27 Unit 3 ...........................................................................................................32 Pre-reading tasks.......................................................................................32 Reading.....................................................................................................32 Ways with words:.....................................................................................34 Grammar reference ..................................................................................40 Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English......................40 The Imperative......................................................................................40 The possessive pronoun and the posessive adjective...........................41 Controlled practice ...................................................................................41 Unit 4 ...........................................................................................................44 Pre-reading tasks:......................................................................................44 Reading 1..................................................................................................44 Ways with words 1...................................................................................45 2

Business English Reading 2..................................................................................................46 Ways with words 2...................................................................................47 Grammar Reference..................................................................................50 Classification of nouns.........................................................................50 Number of nouns..................................................................................51 The Genitive.........................................................................................51 Controlled practice....................................................................................52 Unit 5 ...........................................................................................................60 Pre-reading tasks.......................................................................................60 Reading.....................................................................................................60 Ways with words......................................................................................61 Grammar Reference .................................................................................68 Past Simple...........................................................................................68 Past Continuous....................................................................................70 Past Simple and Past Continuous.........................................................71 Expressions of quantity.........................................................................71 The Adjective........................................................................................72 The order of adjectives in a series........................................................73 Controlled practice ...................................................................................74 Unit 6............................................................................................................86 Pre-Reading Tasks....................................................................................86 Reading.....................................................................................................86 Ways with words......................................................................................91 Grammar Reference .................................................................................94 Present Perfect Simple..........................................................................94 Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple...............................................95 The Preposition.....................................................................................96 Prepositions of time..............................................................................97 Controlled practice ...................................................................................97 Unit 7..........................................................................................................103 Pre-reading tasks.....................................................................................103 Reading...................................................................................................103 3

Business English Universitatea Ovidius Constanţa – Facultatea de Litere ...........................103 Aleea Universităţii nr. 1 Constanţa 8700....................................................103 Grammar Reference ...............................................................................107 Present Perfect Continuous.................................................................107 Modal Verbs.......................................................................................108 Problematic prepositions of movement and place..............................109 Controlled practice .................................................................................109 Unit 8 .........................................................................................................113 Pre-reading tasks.....................................................................................113 Reading...................................................................................................113 WAYS WITH WORDS......................................................................114 Grammar Reference ...............................................................................114 The Cardinal Numeral........................................................................114 Past Perfect Simple.............................................................................115 Past Perfect Continuous......................................................................116 Controlled practice .................................................................................117 Unit 9..........................................................................................................122 Pre-reading tasks.....................................................................................122 Reading...................................................................................................122 WAYS WITH WORDS......................................................................123 Grammar Reference ...............................................................................124 Future Simple......................................................................................124 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives............................................125 Comparative Sentences.......................................................................127 Controlled practice .................................................................................127 Test.............................................................................................................132 Unit 10 .......................................................................................................135 Pre-reading task......................................................................................135 Reading...................................................................................................135 Ways with words....................................................................................138 Grammar Reference ...............................................................................142 Be going to Future..............................................................................142 4

Business English Future Simple or Be Going To?..........................................................143 First Conditional.................................................................................144 Controlled practice .................................................................................144 Unit 11........................................................................................................149 Pre-Reading Task....................................................................................149 Reading...................................................................................................149 Ways with words....................................................................................151 Grammar Reference ...............................................................................158 The Ordinal Numeral..........................................................................158 The Fractional Numeral......................................................................158 The Multiplicative Numeral...............................................................159 Second Conditional.............................................................................159 Controlled practice .................................................................................160 Unit 12........................................................................................................162 Pre-reading tasks.....................................................................................162 Reading...................................................................................................162 Ways with words....................................................................................165 Grammar Reference ...............................................................................170 The Article..........................................................................................170 Third Conditional................................................................................172 Controlled practice .................................................................................172 Unit 13 .......................................................................................................177 Reading...................................................................................................177 Ways with words....................................................................................182 Grammar Reference ...............................................................................188 The Adverb.........................................................................................188 The Passive Voice ..............................................................................189 Controlled practice .................................................................................190 Unit 14 .......................................................................................................196 Pre-reading..............................................................................................196 Reading...................................................................................................196 Ways with words....................................................................................199 5

...........219 The Conjunction ..................253 6 .............................................220 Direct and indirect (reported) speech.............213 Ways with words....Business English Grammar Reference .................231 Appendix 1.............................................................215 Grammar Reference ...........................................................................203 Punctuation...............................................................................220 Sequence of tenses................................................................................................................................................................................................210 Unit 15......................................................251 Bibliography...................................................................................................213 Pre-reading..........203 The Infinitive...............................207 The Participle..................208 The Gerund.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................219 Subordinating Conjunctions............................................................219 Coordinating Conjunctions.............................................................................220 Grammar Reference ..............................................................................223 Controlled practice ............213 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................224 Test........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Appendix 2..........208 Controlled practice..............................................................................................241 Appendix 3......................................................................................229 Evaluation....................................................

I also hope that in a short time I will improve my English. on the one hand. I improved my Spanish when I went on a two-month holiday to my aunt in Spain. it is very useful to speak foreign languages and on the other hand. In Romania there are lots of 7 . a town in the West of Romania.Business English Unit 1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Social English © The English Alphabet © The Verb to be © The Demonstrative Pronoun and the Demonstrative Adjective © Question forms •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-Reading Tasks What’s your name? How old are you? Where do you live? What do you specialise in? Reading Read the following text about Mihaela Vlad. I might need it for my future job. I came here to study because I have always been keen on economics and I really hope to learn many useful things here. a student in Romania: My name is Mihaela Vlad and I am a student in the Faculty of Economic Sciences at “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti. as. I come from Arad. and I can speak Spanish well and a little English. I’m studying Spanish and English.

scientific and economic publications are very often printed in English. So. Can you keep a conversation going with someone for two or three minutes? Choose a partner who you don’t know well. Incredibly enough. the more opportunities I may have to read interesting materials connected to my field and to get a good job in the future. when English is one of the major languages in the world. 8 .Business English foreign companies where I can work if I am fluent in one or two foreign languages. yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. Again incredibly. with the first settlements in North America. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English.that people started to import English in the seventeenth century. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realise that this is a relatively recent thing . Work in small groups and find out things about your partner. due to the extension of computerized systems and software which are mostly in English. or imagine your partner is a stranger. Today. the quicker I learn it. Everyday English Practise saying the letters of the alphabet according to the vowel sounds: /ei/ a h j l k /i:/ b c d e g p t v /e/ f l m n s x z /ai/ i y /∂u/ o /u:/ q u w /a:/ r Ways with words 1. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. As I could read in an article. International literary.

every day possible.Business English 2. Then find out how to spell his/her name. Then work in pairs. Spell the name of Mihaela Vlad. from films. A passenger on a bus complains you are standing on his foot. Social Exchanges Supply the best word or words: 1.?’ a) Excuse me b) Pardon c) Forgive me d) Pardon me 3. in real situations.I’m late. ‘……………. . so you say. you say.’ a) Sorry/I’m sorry b) Excuse me c) Forgive me d) Pardon me 2. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking 4. so you say. You are late for an appointment. ‘………………!’ a) Sorry b) Forgive me c) Excuse me 9 B without a teacher. in every way possible. ‘………………. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B. TV and records. 3. Spell your name in English to your deskmate. without being told to. You fail to hear what someone says to you.

You are refusing food that is offered. ‘…………. You thank me for holding the door open and my response may be.Business English d) Pardon me 4. Here is your apology for bad behaviour: ‘………….!’ a) Adieu b) Goodbye c) Farewell 8.’ a) It’s nothing b) c) Please d) Nothing 10.London!’ a) Welcome to 10 ..!’ a) Speak b) Hello c) Enter d) Say 6. ‘……………. You answer the phone and you say. You are leaving. You meet a friend at the airport on arrival and you may say.. so you say. You are introduced to a stranger.for my awful behaviour last night. ‘………………. ‘…………………. you say.. ‘………………. thank you c) Thanks 9. ‘………………’ a) Thank you b) No..?’ a) How are you b) How do you do c) What do you do 7.’ a) Please pardon me b) Please forgive me c) I beg your pardon 5. so you say.

New Year!’ a) Lucky b) Happy c) Merry 11 . ‘……………………’ a) Sit yourselves b) Take a seat c) Sit down d) Sit 15.. ‘……………….’ a) Good b) Very good c) Fine d) Very fine 12. thanks.’ a) One moment b) A moment c) One minute d) Just a minute 13. Someone asks you how you are and you answer.’ a) Sit yourself b) Take a seat c) Sit d) Sit you 14.Business English b) Be welcome to c) Welcome in d) I wish you welcome to 11. Your friend is waiting for you to finish what you are doing and you say. ‘……………. This is what you say to a friend on January 1st: ‘………………. You are attending an interview and the interviewer says. The class stands up as you enter the room and you say. ‘……………….

on the verge of = pe punctul de. on the whole = în general. on demand = la cerere. on a sudden = brusc. on the score of = ca rezultat..etc. In the text about Mihaela Vlad. deodatã. la nesfârşit. the radio. din cauzã cã.). on purpose = dinadins.. în întregime. intenţionat. on the other hand which means pe de o parte . în pragul.. you learned the expression on the one hand . and so on = şi aşa mai departe. Let’s learn more expressions containing the preposition on: to be on duty = a fi de serviciu. to turn on/ to switch on (the light. etc.. on behalf of sb. on the first attempt = la prima încercare.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri. pe cale. luând în consideraţie cã. Grammar Reference 12 . radioul. on trial = de probã.Business English d) Good 5. on the contrary = din contrã. on principle = din principiu. pe de altã parte. on condition that = cu condiţia. = în numele cuiva. on the basis of = pe baza. on account of = pe baza. on and on = fãrã întrerupere. pe neaşteptate. on this ground = din acest motiv. din partea cuiva. on record = cunoscut..

I’m an accountant. May.In Spain. Is she an accountant? Yes. I am. she isn’t.Because I need it for my job. The demonstrative pronoun and adjective Form Reference “near” reference “distant” reference Singular this that Plural these those Question forms Look at the following question words: What do you do for a living? .Business English The verb to be Affirmative I am I’m You are You’re He is She is It is We are You are He’s She’s It’s We’re You’re Interrogative am I…? are you…? is he…? is she…? is it…? are we…? are you…? are they…? Negative I am not You are not aren’t He is not She is not It is not We are not aren’t You are not I’m not You’re not / You He’s not / He isn’t She’s not / She isn’t It’s not / It isn’t We’re not / We You’re not / You They are They’re aren’t They are not They’re not / They aren’t Form Short answer Are you a student in Management? Yes. 13 . Where is Madrid? . I’m not. When do you start the meeting? . Why are you learning English? . Who is your teacher of English? – Joan Smith is. 2nd. No. she is. No.On Friday.

Business English How do you come to Ploieşti? .By train. El este cel mai bun student din grupa noastră. My father is a doctor. nu sunt. j. g. What time is it? What kind of chemistry do you study? Which pen do you want. London is a town in England. 2. c. Acela este un televizor. Eu sunt contabil. Whose are these papers? . Is Canterbury a town? Yes. Noi suntem studenţi. f. e. noi suntem ingineri. d. How old are you? How often do you play football? Controlled practice 1. Sunteţi voi economişti? Nu. El este englez. noi nu suntem. a. Turn these sentences into questions and answer them: e. Translate into English: a. What and which can be followed by a noun.They are Victor’s. Acestea sunt cursurile mele. i. Ele sunt chimiste. acestea sunt colegele mele. Sunt ei specialişti francezi? Nu. Cursurile acestea sunt ale lor. Canterbury is a town. Cine nu este aici? Maria nu este aici şi nici George nu este. You are an accountant. the blue one or the green one? How can be followed by an adjective or an adverb. El are note foarte mari. Acelea sunt colegele tale? Nu. h. Acesta este un casetofon. 14 . b. c. it is.g. Cine este aici? John este aici. Monica şi Andra. b.

Choose the appropriate question form in the following sentences: a. What/Which time is the plane due to arrive? b.. It’s over there.. Are …. (for) b. b. mulţumesc. e. Elizabeth II is the queen of England. Ask short questions on these statements. they are. c. Translate the following text into English: a.. Când ai venit prima oarã în Ploieşti? Anul trecut. I’m going to Spain next week. …. 3. is a car. Where/ When are you going now? d. I want to take this notebook with me.Business English d. but they belong to me. ……. is an electric heater. It must be his because it’s got his name on it. Complete the following text using the appropriate pronouns: a. c. De unde eşti? Sunt din Arad. They haven’t got my name on them. I’ve just received a letter. ……. are metals. …. What/ How are you today? c. Thanks. is John’s pencil. Ce mai faci? Sunt bine... We are students. De ce te grãbeşti? 5.g. where: e. e. (by) d.” e. (from) 15 .…… an electric heater?” “No. Those are substances. Who/How are you? I am Mary Jones. that is an electric generator./ Who from? a. Please. Will you please open this box? (with) c. d. what.. Câţi ani ai? Douãzeci şi nouă. is a house. e. get me a glass of water.. b. using who. 4. Is . It’s over here. John? Yes. ……. d.pencils yours. What/ Which of these paintings do you like best? 6.

Business English e. 16 . John is very angry. (with).

In order to solve their problems.Business English Unit 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © A Case Study © The Personal Pronoun © Present Simple © Present Continuous •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks Have you ever written a case study? What parts does it include? Reading Read the following case study on Fournier et CIE. Then read and translate the article on Fournier et CIE published in an economic magazine. Another complaint is that deliveries are not prompt. The general manager was not present due to health problems. 17 . Pay attention to the present tenses: Fournier et CIE is a medium-sized company producing for export hand-made shoes and gloves in natural materials. Yet customers are dissatisfied with the standard of the materials which seem to be too loosely woven. Mr. They obtained good prices for their fashionable designs. which makes impossible for the customers to maintain satisfactory stock levels and fulfil their sale schedules. Here is the minutes of the meeting. they had a meeting with one of their most important clients. Jacobson.

Fournier et CIE experiences difficulties with their biggest customer. as he showed us two different types of gloves and shoes. we would be forced to look for another supplier. we had a short meeting in order to solve the problem of delivery and the complaints concerning the standard materials. Mr. Today they 18 . No longer excellent merchandise for their customers? Several weeks ago we published an incredible story of a medium-sized company producing for export hand-made shoes and gloves in natural materials which amazingly succeeded in attracting customers. when he approved their quality. we had to make our supplier understand that unless they could guarantee to deliver supplies by the dates specified in future orders. Mrs. Jacobson mentioned that delivery order no. As we couldn’t possibly allow this situation to continue. as we had to solve out problems of cloth delivery last week. our production manager explained that due to the extended needs of materials. he was authorized to discuss the terms of an order with us and negotiate a contract. The problem of delivery will also be solved. 2002. 26. R&T Lines. in the sense that the material of the summer shoes seemed to be too loosely woven and was inclined to pull out of shape. Higgins.Business English Today. He said that his representatives relied on the high quality of the materials we sent them and they were all the more disappointed in the case because we supplied the cloth to new customers. 3425 had a problem. Mr. yet Mr. Jacobson explained that the moment his company saw the samples of our hand-made lines. we changed the supplier of materials. and he had been also sent the standard materials at that time. Yet it seems that every dream is over sooner or later. Higgins assured him of a better quality in the future. Mrs. due to their excellent products. Jacobson had been told about this two months before this change. and consequently the difference in texture. April. Yet the quality of the standard materials was much better at that time.

în mãsura în care.Business English obtained good prices for their fashionable designs. as well as lower quality. according to Higgins: We had to solve out problems of cloth delivery last week. they realized that they needed more suppliers of materials. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as compared with = în comparaţie cu. The truth is somewhere in the middle. How could this happen? Higgins. pe cât. as a rule = de regulã. as Jacobson answered our questions in a very ambiguous manner: Yes. as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã. and due to good prices they also accepted lower offers. as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a. 19 . The problem of delivery will be solved. în principiu. Ways with words 1. the representative of R&T Lines explained that his staff is dissatisfied with the standard of the materials which seem to be too loosely woven. as far as = întrucât. as if/ as though = ca şi cum. Yet the answer is very simple: the moment Fournier et CIE extended. should we really believe that? Clients are quite fed up with promises. unfortunately. How do you translate the sentence: As we couldn’t possibly allow this situation to continue…? . as regards = în ceea ce priveşte. as long as = atât timp cât. Yet. I knew about the change of the supplier. the one in charge of production seems not to know. He also admitted that he had approved the standard material for order no 3425. Yet it seems that indeed they are experiencing problems. as this is not the only unsatisfied customers. It seems that the great boon the company had in the beginning has changed a lot nowadays. In a meeting today. as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte. Probably they need a new company policy and a new board. They want facts.

all over = peste tot. as yet/ so far/ up to now/ up to the present = pânã în prezent. weigh up 20 bring up . all at once = dintr-o datã. How do you translate to be fed up with something? Now learn some phrasal verbs containing the particle up. all in all = în întregime. as well as = cât şi. Read the following sentence again: Clients are quite fed up with promises. as shown in Table.Business English as seen = dupã cum se vede. de asemenea. all the better = cu atât mai bine. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: How do you translate they were all the more disappointed in the case? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. asta-i tot. first of all = înainte de toate. of all kinds = de toate felurile. 3. as when = ca atunci când. as soon as possible = cât de curând posibil as such = ca atare. such as = astfel ca. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. 2. as well = deopotrivã. cu totul. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Tabelul 2. it is all one to them = le este tot una. ca în cazul în care. all in good time = toate la timpul lor. Use your dictionary in order to translate them. tot aşa ca. ca de exemplu. that is about all = ca.

Business English take up (three meanings) step up following phrasal verbs. After several weeks of discussions. the group were given the ………………. but once she’s made up her mind she won’t listen to you. I start my new appointment next month. light. g. e.Your point is interesting. We must consider all the possibilities before we decide which market to enter. I’ll have to start playing golf. please? b. (Chairman. c. We have to increase our work-rate if we are going to get the accounts finished in time. We didn’t get many orders last quarter but now sales have improved. 21 . In most countries. b. no matter what you say. Before preparing the contract. You can argue with her until you’re ………………… in the face. but I’d like to discuss it later. Choose the colour (you will need to use some words more then once) black blue brown green grey pink red white yellow draw up pick up Now replace the words in italics in the following sentences with the a. d. f. I’d like to mention the subject of expense claims at our next meeting. If I’m going to have any chance of becoming a member of the Board. may I go over one or two points again. a. if I may. goods that are scarce are usually freely available on the ……………… market – provided you have the money to pay for them. 4. c. and could finally go ahead with the new project. h. Donna. at a meeting).

22 . I was ……………… with envy when my neighbour drove up in a brand-new Jaguar. Joanna was as …………………… as a berry. I’m in her ………………. I don’t think I’d fight. There is a common prejudice that girls who are very beautiful must automatically be lacking in ………………. h. e. I’ve got too much of a ……………. I’d be terrified of getting killed. q. By the way. k.-letter day for my sister and her husband..Business English d. p.. Don’t mention the present government in front of my father. After sunbathing for two hours every day. books at the moment so she’s bound to say no.-eyed boy.. it’s their 25th anniversary. herring. I’m sorry. She had only recently had lunch with her cousin. and ……………! n. as a sheet when she heard about the accident. If there was a war. He just wanted to get off the subject of this month’s poor sales figures. i. streak.. g. it’s like a …………………. James. my husband was tickled …………………. Although we got a lot of nice wedding presents. rag to a bull. The managing director’s reference to the forthcoming sales conference was a ……………. Ever since Tom got that huge order with Saudi-Arabia he’s been the boss’s ……………. I refuse to believe it unless you can show it to me in ……………. o. at your asking him to judge the flower show. j. m. She went as ………………. Next Friday is a ………………. matter – so-called “dumb blondes”. l. There’s no point in asking my boss for a day off next week. so the news of his death came as bolt from the …………… f. we also got one or two ……………… elephants. Joyce.

If I happen …………………… I’m afraid it will mean dismissal. I must remind you that this is a non-smoking office. Sometimes it is better to tell a …………………. of course you’ve got …………………… e. s. I was…………………………. I suspect that some of you have been smoking. out of the blue once in a blue moon to have green fingers in the red to catch someone red-handed in black and white a black sheep green with envy red tape a. which is very strange as there is relatively little pornography in Sweden. 5. The offer of a job sounded very good on the phone but I won’t believe it till I have it ………………… b. Put each of the following phrases in its correct place in the sentences below. but most Parisians only go …………………… h. t. There’s a lot of ………………… d. Swedish films are often synonymous with …………………. The rest of the family were respectable. lie than to hurt someone’s feelings. . It owes a lot of money. f. g.Business English r. If you want to be a successful gardener. I’m afraid he was ……………………. When I saw him in his new sports car. Tourists often go to the Louvre. c. honest people but he was always in trouble. 23 . The firm is ……………………. My wife always goes bright ………………… whenever she gets embarrassed. films. To import firearms into Britain you’ll have to fill in a lot of forms. For some reason.

Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he . I had lost touch with Jake. and then one night he arrived at my flat right ……………………… What a surprise! Grammar reference The personal pronoun The nominative.feminine it .Business English i.objects and animals Plural we you they 24 .masculine she .

Present Simple Present Simple is used to express: • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. Japanese people like to travel. ever. constantly. etc. normally. Roughly speaking. forever. mood presents the attitude of the speaker towards an action or a state expressed by the verb. etc. continually. • a fact which is true for a long time 25 . • a fact which is always true (general truths and states): Wood floats on water. The Earth moves round the Sun. Most evenings we stay in. never. tense and aspect are grammatical categories of the verb. result. hardly. sometimes.): I usually get up at 7. tense gives an indication of when the action happens and aspect reflects the status of action referring to duration.Business English The accusative/The dative. tense and aspect Mood. frequently. regularly. usually. rarely. seldom. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural (to) us (to) you (to) them Mood. The Danube floats into the Black Sea.30. occasionally. often.

She listens quietly. She works in a bank. Does he speak French? No. I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. demonstrations and stage directions: Her drawing shows two parts of a hyperbolic curve. I am living with my parents this week. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. Interrogative Do I work? Do you work? Does he work? Does she work? Does it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Negative I do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work He does not (doesn’t) work She does not (doesn’t) work It does not (doesn’t) work We do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work They do not (don’t) work Present Continuous Present Continuous is used to express: • an activity happening now or around now They are watching TV in their bedroom now. Form Affirmative I work You work He works She works It works We work You work They work Short answer Do you like spring? Yes. Present Simple is used in explanations. Form 26 . • a planned future arrangement: I’m meeting them at 11 o’clock tomorrow. The door bell rings.Business English I live in Ploiesti. I do. he doesn’t.

e.Business English Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). Îmi oferăo carte de contabilitate. Ei nu vorbesc engleza. Translate the following sentences into English: a. dar nu mă aude. e. Have you told they/ them about your project? 27 . Choose the appropriate forms of the personal pronoun: a. Is she watching TV? Yes. b. No. Pe ea o văd la curs. She told me/ to me that she needed five days off. pentru cã el are douã exemplare. El este contabil la o companie importantă. Affirmative I am working You are working He is working She is working It is working We are working You are working They are working Short answer Are you coming? Yes. d. 2. she is. I gave her/him that laptop as he needed it. c. Interrogative Am I working? Are you working? Is he working? Is she working? Is it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Negative I am not working You are not (aren’t) working He is not (isn’t) working She is not (isn’t) working It is not (isn’t) working We are not (aren’t) working You are not(aren’t) working They are not (aren’t) working Controlled practice 1. I am. dar pe el nu îl văd. c. Îl strig pe Victor. No. I think I saw him/ he in the bank yesterday. she isn’t. dar noi îi putem ajuta. d. I’m not. He is studying English as he/we intends to join an American insurance company. b.

We …. like. a have good time and at the same time we ……. about computers.. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it.Business English 3. do something different this year. She (speak) French. Kate 28 . c. So it’s hard work. See you soon. up learn. it here.. but this week. I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. have a post-office in front of the Centre.. get at half past eight every morning and ……. j.. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland.. learn different things. It often (rain) in summer. Love.. But I ……. I (live) in Ploiesti. b. I ……. It (rain) now. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous: a.. and then there are more have lessons.. g. lessons from ten to half past twelve. Maria (come) from Spain this week. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest. We ……. We’re at the Edinburgh Activity Centre. h. lunch at one. Pardon me. The weather is good... but I (think) you (stand) on my feet.. d.. here every come summer to learn more about their hobbies and interests.. i. People…….. He (come) to see me tonight... What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses. English and Italian. 4. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. photography and tennis this week do and John ……. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I …. sir. e.. do We ……. f. where we ……. I (cut) two slices of bread and she (prepare) an omlette.

b. When someone asks you a questions and you’re not sure of the answer. give an answer you think may be right?. try to do something else for them?. B. do you: A. try to change the subject? d. When you forget to do something important for a friend or a member of your family. hope they won’t notice?. He (live) in London at present but he (hope) to move to Edinburgh next year.Business English 5. and if you chose mostly C. B. B. wait happily for the next one?. blame someone else? b. dream of impossible success or wealth?. do you: A. do you: A. start laughing and joking?. When your boss or teacher is away. When you think about the future. 29 . feel guilty? e. C. B. work hard as usual?. I (hope) they (realize) what a difficult job they (undertake). If you chose mostly B. C. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or continuous a. C. When you miss a bus or a train. C. admit you don’t know?. shout angrily?. do you: A. do you: A. C. What do you do in these situations? a. it means you are a pessimistic person. B. worry about what will go wrong? c. plan your future career carefully?. do not work at all? If most of your answers are A it means you are a very optimistic person. 6. it means you are an ambitious person.

My husband usually (leave) his office at 3. d. o. Then you (file) them according to subject. p. g. The teacher (say) that you usually (make) a lot of mistakes. He already (speak) seven foreign languages. Mike and Jack (spend) a fortnight at the seaside. First you (take) the photos and (sort) them into categories. Anybody who (look) at his passenger while he (drive) is a danger on the roads.00 p. But look at that! For once.m. Who (talk) to the pretty girl in the blue dress? e. Jack often (go) to the theatre but his wife (not go) very often. Mary (leave) for London in a fortnight. t. j. He (walk) very slowly because the bottle he (carry) (hold) nitroglycerine and nitro-glycerine (explode) if it (be) shaken. f. i. He (study) for an examination now.Business English c.. Mr Green always (get up) early. m.” k. Now he (learn) an eighth. My dog always (bark) at the postman. Mary (sleep) in the sitting room this week because her bedroom (be) redecorated. l. 30 . Daddy (leave) always lighted cigarettes all over the house. They (clean up) the whole town in preparation for the summer. n. Professor Brown (be) the perfect linguist. r. Let me explain what you have to do. s. She (prefer) comedies. My son (work) very hard. v. They left for London an hour ago. He (like) all sorts of plays. “You (hear) anything?” “I (listen) hard but I can’t hear anything. but this month he (work) late. The path (lead) to the big house that you (see) on the hill. they (come) back next week. I (wonder) whether they (travel) by airplane or by train. h. he (be) friendly to the poor man. We’ll burn down one day. q.

Nu cred că te pot ajuta. The electricians (rewire) the system and the carpenter (build) us some new bookshelves. d. Dear Jane. I (think) you (do) the right thing. When the curtain (go) up. Mama gustă ciorba să vadă dacă mai e nevoie de sare. They (argue). c. dar astăzi fac o excepţie. the hero and heroine (sit) down. sorry to hear about your problem at work. y. El merge cu autobuzul la şcoală în fiecare zi. x. 31 . The action (take) place in Mary’s living-room. The house is a mess because we’ve got the workmen in.Business English w. Noi nu învăţăm decât vinerea. The plumber (put) in a new bath. b. sâmbăta şi duminica. 7. e. Translate into English: a. The play is set in London in 1890. but I (doubt) whether your boss really (know) his job from what you (tell) me. Nu beau cafea de obicei.

English Language and Literature Accountancy and Administration Informatics Primary School.Teachers: English/French 32 . Translate the text into Romanian: The specialisations in the Distance-Learning Department within PetroleumGas university of Ploiesti are: • • • • • • • • Economic engineering in the mechanical field Fiability of Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Drilling-Production and Reservoir Engineering Engineering of Environment Protection and Chemical and Petrochemical Industry Petroleum Technology and Petrochemistry Romanian Language and Literature.Business English Unit 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © A presentation of the distance learning department © Verbs which do not take a Continuous Aspect in English © The Imperative © The possessive pronoun and adjective •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks How did you hear about the distance learning department? Why have you chosen this specialisation? Reading Read the following presentation which was part of a project by which our university inaugurated courses within the distance learning department. Pay attention to the aspect of the verbs (simple/ continuous aspect).

2000.Business English For the above-mentioned specialisations we identified three categories of potential candidates: • persons who want to improve their knowledge in the field of petroleum industry and refining. Some books which were previously published were up-dated last year.ttr.Teachers: English/French. There is a legal basis on distance learning organization and functioning: Romanian Government Decision no. In the beginning the Distance-Learning Department will make use of the resources offered by the new IT Centre (developed within the project 76/1999) which offers internet access.12.com (within the project of distance-learning trainers’ training) we elaborated a course on informatics and communicational technologies which are necessary in the training process as well as a course on pedagogical strategies which may be adapted to such distancelearning. informatics. A Plei@d Programme has been recently elaborated by a university from CNAM. Nantes. video-conference systems Part of the course-books for our future students is already on magnetic support. evening courses) • • persons who want to specialise in very important fields such as accountancy. This will allow us to start such a project in autumn. compatible with the European system. foreign languages primary school-teachers who. yet the daily work programme and the distance from the only petroleum-gas university in Romania does not allow them to enroll in a training programme (day courses. 1214/07.lc. Within our university we could say that we have experience in such programmes due to the fact that we had a project Leonardo da Vinci. At the same time 33 . At the same time on the web www. as a result of the grant CNFIS 39691/2000. in which we worked with our colleagues from Minho University from Portugal. France. must attend the specialisation Primary School. in order to compete with the new undergraduate educational system.

. When I applied for this position.. use one suitable word from the list that follows. with reason = pe drept. application. g. I asked my previous boss for a .... Not all the words are possible: a. Before I left that oil company.. to do.. i. j. h. applicant.. interview.. all day long. pe bunã dreptate.. work..E.. desk... employer.. with an eye to = urmãrind. job. My first .... employee. c. b.. diploma.000 a month as a sales representative in this company. department. earn. gain. qualifications.. They told me I lacked . resignation..Business English the standards for Authorizing the functioning of distance learning are elaborated by C.. I handed in my .....N. receives a month’s salary... 2.. was helping in a shop at weekends.. office. standards which may be fulfilled by our department..AA (National Council of Authorizing and Academic Assessment).... Ways with words: 1... over 2... Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit. experiences. as I had never had that kind of job before.. The manager told me he couldn’t wait as he had .. in which we worked with our colleagues from Minho University again.. gain. Read the sentence We had a project Leonardo da Vinci. In the sentences below... 34 .. fãrã a pierde din vedere. d. In our company every . Not many people enjoy sitting at a/an . reference. I sent in my . e. to the address given in the advertisement. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã.... You could . f.. wages. salary.. You have to be well-dressed and punctual to succeed in a/an ..

In the first sentence it introduces a direct object clause and in the other it introduces a relative clause. that is to say = adicã. Our problems date from the time we lost that Russian contract. c. d. a. As you can see these are two meaning of the word that. that much = cam atât. Read the following sentence again: Some books which were previously published were up-dated last year. with a view of = în scopul de a. together with = împreunã cu. Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe. in order that = pentru ca. din aceastã cauzã. 4. referitor. like that (just like that) = aşa. b. a termina cu. Look at the following sentences belonging to this unit: Within our university we could say that we have experience in such programmes due to the fact that we had a project Leonardo da Vinci. How do you translate to up-date? Now explain the meaning of the words and phrases in italics in the following sentences. to do away with = a înlãtura. that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat. 3. cu privire la. We try to use up-to-date methods in our Production Department. To date. sã. for all that = cu toate acestea. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. that is the point = aceasta-i problema. Our advertising is beginning to look very dated. as with = la fel ca şi. 35 . but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea.Business English with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. we haven’t received a single order for our new product.

My assistant is someone who can be ……………… on. Most …………………in an organisation can benefit from training. The ………………… workers in our company are the lowest paid because they need no training for their jobs. The ……………… workers in the Production Department are well paid. They are using out-dated plant and machinery to manufacture their products. The Chairman was………………… at avoiding answering awkward questions. b. I’d say he’s virtually ……………… 36 . b. He is a very reliable worker. To be a good manager. The report has been received very……………. 1 rely a. you need many ……………… . I thought her……………… were unfair and not based on fact. f. The………………… are entitled to various social security payments. by top management. c. d. 2 criticise a. b. The Personnel Director is an outspoken……………… of our reorganization. ……………………… is almost 8% in my country — that’s far too high. Word building Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in italics. d. c. c.Business English e. 3 skill a. b. 4 employ a. He’s fairly old and hasn’t had a job for years. Computer sales people have to constantly up-date their knowledge. Her main quality is her ……………… . c. 5..

whether to leave my present job but I must make up my mind soon. Due to our order.Business English 5 sure a. Because we were contract. high technology firms must constantly ………………… or else their products become out of date. 37 ………………we wasted time and lost the ………………… to get certain supplies. we are ………………… to provide the product. Being a currency dealer in a bank. Because of a production hold-up. In many department store groups. delegate. b. initiative a. I am still……………. Performance appraisals help to ………………… that promising staff are not overlooked for promotion. b. 7 decision a. 6. ………………… you agree she’s one of the high fliers in the department. c. authority. my boss bright future in the company. c. innovate. she has to make quick decisions and be very ……………… at all times. authorize. At my interview. buying and finance are two ……………… which are handled by Head Office. we lost the ………………… me that I had a . Managers who like power find it difficult to ……………… responsibility. function. b. This young trainee has considerable …………………… b.. To stay competitive. innovative. control. c. c. delegation. autonomy. Complete the following sentences with suitable forms of the words from the list below. 6 able a.

designs bridges or roads. you lose a degree of ………………… deal of ……………… over certain functions. 6. the General Manager is ………………… to spend up to £1. What’s the name of the ……….. 9.. I work in a garage as a car ……………… 4.they rarely have to consult Head Office. Who’s the …………of the Boston Symphony Orchestra? 8. In some multinational organisations. An …………. He has a car with a uniformed …………… 10. 11. 13.. e.Business English d. 38 m) owner k) mechanic l) medicine j) manager h) engineer i) job g) doctor e) college f) conductor b) chauffeur c) chef d) colleague a) boss .. ask a …………. Nancy has started a new…………. subsidiaries are given a great f. not the owner. Brenda was a university …………. When you delegate authority in a business.. . 7. The ……………of our shop is putting up the rent. h. Mrs. but they seem afraid to show any ………………… . 2. 3.is hard to find nowadays. Supply the most suitable words from the list on the right.of your company? 12. 1. If you want to know the way.. 5. 7.000 a month on repairs and maintenance. The quality of the food in a restaurant depends on its……. at the age of 36. His …………. I like my staff to make decisions for themselves. In our factory. Firms often make the mistake of not concentrating enough on marketing ………………… g. …………. Wilks is the …………of this shop. at school has given him a good report.

17. 16. It’s useful to be a good …………if you use a computer. The person who is in charge of a car is the ……………… 3. If you are one of the people waiting to be served in a shop you are a t) work p) professor q) teacher r) typist s) typewriter n) police o) policeman . The person who is in charge of a restaurant is the ……………… a) patron b) manager 7. 8. Smithers is a …………of mine at the office. A woman who looks after other people’s children is a ……………… a) nanny b) nurse 6. never mind a word processor. so we called the ………… 15. Another word for ‘doctor’ is …………… 9. Supply the best word or words: 1. 20. 18. A person who studies the origins of the universe is a ……………… a) physician a) physician ……………… 39 b) physicist b) physicist c) physics c) medicine 8. A person who prepares food is a ……………… 4. I can’t use a ………….Business English 14. I went into business after I left …………. Gordon is a …………at the local hospital. Has the nurse given you your …………… 19. A person who works in an office is an ……………… a) officer b) office worker 5. There had been a burglary. The person in charge of a business is informally known as the ……………… a) chef a) guide a) cook b) chief b) leader b) cooker c) boss c) motorist d) driver e) conductor 2.

I don’t remember your name. a greeting. realize. a threat: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Let’s go! 40 . I have a very good lathe. He wants to buy a new tool. hear. be. The Imperative The imperative is a mood which expresses an order. dislike. hate. contain. etc. etc. a command. owe. suppose. want. taste. etc. etc. I smell gas. know. remember. forget. belong to. • verbs of having and being: have. • verbs of thinking: think. • verbs of emotion: love. mind. forgive. a wish. own. understand.Business English a) client b) customer c) patient d) guest 10. a piece of advice. notice. like. possess. smell. expect. wish. refuse. I hate people calling me late at night. you are ……………… a) an official b) a shop assistant c) a bank clerk Grammar reference Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English There are verbs in English which generally are not used in the continuous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see. hold. If serve people who come into a shop. matter. recognize. The house belongs to my mother.

Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular mine yours his hers its The possesive adjective. Ea are doar un curs de statistică şi două de finanţe.Business English Form The imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. I’m thinking/ I think of you. Translate into English: a. e. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a. Creionul Rotring este al Mariei. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular my your his her its Plural our your their Plural ours yours theirs Controlled practice 1. b. Acest curs conţine 14 capitole. d. 2. 41 . Affirmative Get ready! Start working! Negative Don’t get ready! Don’t start working! The possessive pronoun and the posessive adjective The possessive pronoun. Aceastã sticlã conţine apă minerală. Urãsc sã mi se cearã sã fac o lucrare de azi pe mâine. c.

5. Translate the following into English: a. e. i. 42 . h. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator. d. We have/ are having dinner now. Make the following sentences negative: a. c. My/ mine father’s car is new. d. Choose the appropriate possessive pronouns or adjectives: a. pentru că o faci degeaba. Luaţi loc. b. la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de statisticã. j. e. We have been looking for these magazines. Someone took them from your/our room. e. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul. Nu pleca. te rog. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt. vã rog. She smells/ is smelling gas. because English people are never late. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi! b. 3. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc. Grăbeşte-te. We’re using the pictures for a project of ours/yours.Business English b. Vino. pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã-l folosesc şi eu. c. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now. Be on time. mai ai doar cinci minute! 4. Work faster as we need to finish this until two o’clock. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna! d. Get ready as we are in a hurry! c. Come here! b. They belong to us. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune. doamnã! f. Mine/my is very old and ugly. pentru că nu am terminat proiectul! g.

I don’t think this is one of Emma’s pens.Business English c. After we have acquired some knowledge about the oil industry and the kind of work that is involved. i. Your/yours article on world economy is a good one. 43 . My/mine speciality is accountancy. Is that book yours/your as I think I saw you when you lent it to your/yours friend. My results are better than yours/your. d. There are five billion people in our/his world and they live in all different corners of it. I know she has lost her/hers calculator. we will prove ours/our knowledge later. j. e. but I haven’t heard her say she has lost a pen . This is her/hers car. What do you think? h. She bought it two months ago. f. g. Tom.

Can you find any improvements? Work with your mates and report your findings to the rest of the class: CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DETAILS Name: Mihaela Vlad Address: 23 Bvd. Bucureşti Ploieşti 2000 Prahova Telephone: 044165342 Date of birth: 1 January 1974 Nationality: Romanian Languages: Fluent English. Conversational French 44 .Business English Unit 4 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Writing a CV © Writing a letter of application © Classification of Nouns © Number of Nouns © The Genitive •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks: What information should your CV contain? What information should your letter of application contain? Reading 1 Read the following CV.

theatre. 45 . etc. very well. EDUCATION 2000-2002: Master of Business and Administration . Math-Lab. conversational and fluent are the only words to use about them. When you state the languages you can speak. Math-Cad. Bold is used selectively. Your name is obviously important. Here are some pieces of advice for you when you write your CV: a. Economy WORK HISTORY Sept. Lotus 1-2-3. Education and qualifications should be listed together. Windows 2000. d.”Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti.CNAM Paris 1995-2000: “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti.Business English Computer literacy: Wordperfect.assistant INTERESTS: cinema. they will surely test you. b. so you should make sure it stands out. The “A” levels are important. reading REFERENCES: available on request. c. Don’t use qualifications such as well. 2001: accountant at GPS Arad Summer 1999-Summer 2000: college position: required to prepare accounts Summer 1998: Bucharest Chemical Services . as you had the best degrees in those objects which are of major importance for your future job. 2000-Sept. Ways with words 1 1. it is vital to highlight your student activities. as they may show that you are suitable for that job. For the Work History section.Faculty of Economic Sciences “A” levels: Mathematics. If they really want to find out about your language skills.

000. Vlad Personnel Manager Petrom Bucureşti Dear Mr.Business English e. D. Skim through the letter and see what information the applicant is conveying about himself: 23 Bvd Bucureşti Ploieşti 200 Prahova Mr A. As you will see from my enclosed Curriculum Vitae. I graduated from “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti last year. Vlad I am writing to apply for the position of chief accountant that you advertised in Bursa on 5 October 2001. You should mention references only if they are very impressive. Accounting skills .developed in my role as university officer where I prepared annual reports and accounts and I was responsible for a budget of 1. D. Ref. Reading 2 Here is the letter of application Mihaela Vlad has written. A. Interpersonal skills . I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add value to your organization: Organizational skills .: chief accountant vacancy 46 .000. and then I have had a successful year working in a scientific environment with GPS Arad.000 lei per annum. as I believe it offers the career challenge which I am seeking.developed through working in a team environment in my current role and through a number of holiday positions when I was a student. Don’t make up a list of names and addresses in your reference section.developed in my current job with GPS Arad.

Business English I have a keen interest in accountancy and would appreciate the opportunity of an interview to discuss why I believe I am good match for your requirements. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Mihaela Vlad

Ways with words 2
1. Here are some lines from different letters of application of several candidates for this job. Choose the most appropriate and convincing sentence in each group. What do you think is wrong with some of the sentences listed below? a. I am familiar with this type of work./ I am totally knowledgeable about this type of work./ I know this type of work. b. I am well-liked by everybody and I am very convincing./ I can maintain friendly relationships with people./ I am a friendly and tactful person. c. I can make decisions when it is really necessary and I am very responsive./ I always make the best decisions in my office, as I am a reliable person./ I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary. d. I feel sure my studies recommend me for this job./ I hope I am right for this sort of work./ I am sure I am the most suitable person for this job. e. I am quite interested in this kind of work./ I have a genuine interest in this kind of work./ I am extremely interested in this type of work. 2. Here is an advertisement which was published in Bursa on 4 April 2001. Look at it and write your CV. Then write the letter to cover your CV applying for the vacancy:

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Business English CONSTRUCT Ltd. Romanian-Canadian company providing expertise, human resources and equipment for the construction industry requires Human Resource Officers Applications are accepted from recent graduates of Sociology or Business Studies with some background in income tax laws and computer literacy, or company management. Applicants should be willing to work in teams and should be able to meet deadlines. Applicants should be fluent in English and French. Please enclose a current CV and your letter of application addressed to Mr Ion Pop, Human Resources Manager, Construct (Romania) Ltd., 13, Piaţa Romanã, Bucharest. 3. Vocabulary building An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. For example, the opposite of short is long, the opposite of old is young. Complete the following sentences with words opposite in meaning to the words in italics. e.g. interesting He does not like his job because it is uninteresting. a. satisfied b. conclusive c. responsible an organisation. d. popular to pay bonuses. e. respect . 48 No manager likes a subordinate to be…………………… Managers become……………………… if they fail Workers become……………………… if their jobs Since the report was so………………… no ………………… behaviour by staff can be costly to offer no challenge. recommendations were made.

Business English f. secure g. social h. efficient A worker who feels…………………. in his job will People who work ………………… hours, for example Nowadays, it is not easy to get rid of an employee who

probably not be committed to the firm he works for. at night-time, generally receive extra – pay. is …………………… 4. Complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being .……..…. b. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……..….. position. c. The first shop he opened was a big SUCCESS but the second was a total ……..….. d. Many people would rather work ………….than FULL-TIME. e. The management said salaries had INCREASED, but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had .…………. 5. Word sets. Try to think of the word time. Now think of words connected to time. In this way you may create a word set which may include among other words: day, month, year, century, year, etc. of money: a. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ……….... b. When she started with the company her …………. was only $10000 a year. Now it’s at least four times that. c. When Mr Michael retired he received a .………… of $300 a month. d. Pierre is very worried because he is in ……….... Nobody will lend him any money. e. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ……….... Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject

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Business English 6. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money; saving and investing money; having a personal bank account. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money; a building society; a current account; a cheque card; a mortgage; to cash a cheque; to buy shares in a company; the Stock Market; to put money in; a monthly statement; a deposit account; to earn 15% interest.

Grammar Reference
Classification of nouns
Countable nouns a girl a man a tool a cup an apple a guitar a pound a car Uncountable nouns water sugar milk music weather money oil/ petroleum coal

a well gas We can say two cups, four girls, ten pounds, twenty cars. We can count them. We cannot count sugar, water or oil. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty. These cups are full. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. The weather is fine. The coal has a good quality. 50

Business English

Number of nouns
Form Variable nouns form the plural in the following way: • • -s is added to the singular: -es is added to the singular nouns ending in -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh, nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant (-y changes to i), nouns ending in -o: bus-buses, box-boxes, match-matches, brush-brushes, city-cities; potatopotatoes (But: photo- photos) • -(e)s is added to nouns ending in -f(e) (which changes to -v): knife-knives, leaf-leaves, shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs) Irregular plural nouns: man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, goose-geese, louse-lice, mouse-mice, child-children, ox-oxen Foreign plurals stimulus-stimuli, larva-larvae, stratum-strata, basis-bases, criterioncriteria, phenomenon-phenomena, datum-data, etc. books-books, tool-tools

The Genitive
The analytical genitive is used with the preposition of, used with neuter nouns: the tower of London, the colour of oil, the cover of the book, etc. The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • • • nouns denoting persons or other beings: nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value: collective nouns: 51 John’s lecture, my parents’ advice a two months’ practice, yesterday’s newspaper, a pound’s worth of pears

The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Johnson (trouser/ trousers)” and “Johnson (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known. etc. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brackets: Johnson Factory for Milchester The Johnson Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. the Parliament’s laws • geographical names. but the information that there will be (work/works) (is/are) hard to find at the moment. (This/These) news (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Johnson yesterday. Controlled practice 1. and 2. The Johnson company (has/have) been in existence for 100 years and (is/are) famous for its (product/products). strategy finance expertise trust skill set up segment right venture planning delegate personnel drawback innovative 52 . natural phenomena.Business English the governement’s decisions.: England’s mountains. vehicles. The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. the spaceship’s crew. Mr Johnson spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Johnson headquarters at Edinburgh. 2. Complete the following passage with the correct form of the words in the box below. the afternoon’s heat. Mr Johnson will not say how (much/many) new (job/jobs) there will be.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town. Complete this newspaper article.

Enthusiasm. so its marketing costs are reduced. they spend too much time trying to gain the………………… (5) of potential customers. When they do try to sell their products. The high-tech firm can get round some of these problems by developing a specialist image.(3). It will offer that company exclusive ………………… (12) to its technology. Basic management…………………. Lack of financial ………………… (7) is a major weakness of such companies. it will be a good idea to bring in professional management. One reason for this is that they don’t have much management ………………. and don’t think enough about how to market them. Their owners have no trouble coming up with………………… (2) products but they often can’t build on their early success. it may arrange a link-up with a larger company. bright ideas ……………………(13) capital and technology are not enough to ensure success. It is difficult for the high-tech firm to attract the right………………… (8) because it cannot offer the same job security as a large organisation.especially financial and marketing 53 . The only ………………… (10) is that it may take some time before customers accept the firm’s new technology.. If a high-tech firm needs money very badly. They are in a rush to develop products. Customers then start seeking out the firm. As soon as the high-tech business has reached a certain size. Therefore. creative scientists. The founder of the firm can then…………………(11) responsibility for activities like marketing and finance. their owners underestimate the future costs of developing and marketing new products. Another mistake they make is to underprice their products so that they have no …………………… (6) for future development. Once the firms begin to grow. they are unable to develop the ……………………(4) which are necessary for their company’s growth. (14) . It can aim at a particular …………………… (9) of the market.Business English The problems of small high-tech firms have attracted a lot of attention recently. Research shows that many of these firms are …………………… (1) by talented.

HEART c. Your office is being redecorated at the moment.are also vital. She said that I had made good ………………………(2) and had had no difficulty in …………………… (3) my goals. using the suitable forms of the words given below. She made it clear that she was going to give me a good……………………… (4). so that the meaning stays the same: a. It was proposed that a new church should be built. I can recite Eminescu’s poems from memory. FORWARD 54 . In my……………………(10). I suppose I should have been grateful to her. it’s vital to listen to employees. My cousin is somebody I can really trust. Since my …………………(7) was obviously to sit quietly and say nothing. However. He was going to leave for London when he heard his flight has been canceled. 4. Why didn’t she get some …………………. CONFIDENCE b. achieve progress reach report feedback role stage objective view performance My boss called me into his office to discuss my …………………… (1) during the last six months. I wondered why she didn’t ask me what I felt about the job. BEING d. using the word in capital letters. I can’t afford to upset my boss. At this …………………… (8) of my career. I shall handle these interviews differently. Rewrite the following sentences. 3. POINT e. so temporarily you will have to share one with John. (5) from me? I thought that was one of the main …………………(6) of the interview. I did just that. one thing bothered me. Complete the following passage.Business English ones . But if I ever……………………… (9) her position.

El foloseşte multe coli pentru a scrie un CV. b. him to participate in that contest. Our manager want us to call him „Sir”. ADDRESSED 5. i. k. They tried to ……………. Aş vrea să cumpăr trei pâini. d. g. n. Ne întrebăm dacă vom putea procesa atâtea informaţii. His opinion is ……………. c. COURAGE b. j. the Government will make a decision. nu erau foarte erau multe studente în colegii. OPEN g. Sfatul pe care mi l-ai dat m-a ajutat foarte mult.000 lei. Once the results of the experiment are made public. Inventatorul televiziunii prin cablu a fost un om bogat. DIFFERENCE 55 . Nu ştiu dacă vom avea bani să cumpărăm şi mobila pe care ne-o dorim (două dulapuri şi trei fotolii). Mi-e teamă că ea are speranţe mai mari decât ar trebui. o. Fulgerul a fost urmat de un tunet asurzitor.Business English f. La începutul secolului XX. Translate into English: a. Nu am primit nişte ştiri foarte îmbucurătoare. we’ll decide in favour of it.. A cumpărat un buchet de flori care a costat 200. We seem never to agree on this issue. m. Cunoştinţele de engleză sunt foarte vagi. Fill each space in the sentence with the correct form of the word in capitals print about it: a. e. ABACK h. as we are rather short on money. h. S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în acest domeniu al cunoaşterii. două ciocolate şi trei săpunuri. from mine. Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de economie. Her answer took the audienc by surprise. f. l. And. Your solution seems to be the most ………………. 6. Părinţii prietenei mele sunt plecaţi în Canada. ECONOMY c.

Winter fodder for cattle is kept in . They really …………. It’s very ……………. torpedo.... In childhood she was ……………… by Mira who helped her a lot. cuckoo) e. photo. ARGUE f.. IMITATE n. came back.. I can’t put up with his coleric attitude. the balloon they had to throw away their luggage. His disappearance is ………… EXPLAIN 7. Use the plural forms: a. echo) b. it is ……………… not to travel to Paris... volcano.... The ship was sunk by well-aimed . over my idea and threw themselves into creating the data basis. FRIEND k. (piano. hit the island with tremendous force. There is no …………….. soprano.. The opera company was advertising for . (potato. ENTHUSIASM i. All the time he proved to be very ………………. hobo.... He threw a stone at the rock and . The doctor gave me pull to ………. The delegates carried their .. silo) d. STABLE j.. REPEAT h. Until you have solved your health problems. COMPEL g.. To ………. ADVICE e. This is the PM’s …………… RESIDE l.... (calico. Choosing this course is entirely voluntary.. Everytime he starts speaking about her scientific research he keeps on speaking about modernism.. The .. (octavo.. dynamo) c.Business English d. the pain in my back.. DEAD m.. Supply the blanks with suitable nouns from those in brackets.. His writing style is really………….. (portfolio. I think I know her sentences by heart now. piano) f. whatsoever. albino) 56 .(tornado. casino..

are rare in the desert. Fill in the correct plural form of the words in brackets: a. e. All good reference books contain .. like the Earth? (axis) b.. It can be dangerous if chemists make mistakes in their . The (deer) have left their usual pastures.... to show their disgust....... There is no (mean) of learning what is happening. There are hundreds of . (alga) 57 ... He was bitten by . (formula). How many.. along the Mediterranean coast. (oasis) d.. Geologists search the rock . (memorandum) g. around the British coast. j. soprano. A great deal of .. They say (fish) are good for the brain. (tomato. He made a living by raising (goose).. c. f... It’s not allowed to hunt (bear). h. cargo.Business English g..... (datum) e.. (analysis)...(hero. A (series) of unexpected events prevented him from going on holiday to Scotland. 9.... There are not many types of .. He spent his time playing with mathematical ... Despite their size (giraffe) are harmless creatures. was collected by the scientist. Fill in the correct forms of the nouns in brackets: a.. h. g. c.... ... piano. kilo) of . b. But still many (bear) are killed.. (hero. it is too dangerous. (index).. (tomato... mosquito) i.. canto. The (Navaho) were almost completely destroyed. d. The consul sent several .. photo) do you need to make 1 liter of juice? 8... (hero. They threw rotten . Do other planets revolve on their . i. back to London. They don’t even try to hunt (lion)..... halo) h. (stratum) i.. casino) j. They raise lots of (duck) on their farm.. and got malaria. for valuable minerals.. f...

j. Physics (was/were) my most difficult subject in high school. Ballistics (is/are) the study of the motion of projectiles. b.. There have been many international . c. e. In every group. Einstein’s mathematics (was/were) a revelation. (retina) s. but his tactics (is/are) deplorable... to the resolution were proposed.... Acoustics (is/are) a branch of science that is growing fast. of animals. of theorists must conform to the real world. d. (genus) o..D. The . h.. n.. of success? (criterion) m. The optician found that both his patient’s eyes had defective . The . k.. m..... are exact positions of things.s (thesis) r... There are many . His motives may be good. i. in algebra rather difficult.... (addendum) 10.. g... Your heroics (is/are) worthy of a better cause.. 58 .. His ethics (leave/leaves) a lot to be desired.. Athletics (has/have) been virtually abolished from smaller schools. Classics (take/takes) a back seat these days. politics (is/are) a subject that arouses interest... What are the . Economics (doesn’t/don’t) require extensive knowledge of mathematics.. (hypothesis) q.(index) n... (focus) l.. (crisis) k. They were all well trained and so they responded like . (automaton) t. .. Tactics (is/are) really short term strategy. Post-graduate students have to write ... The acoustics of this room (is/are) not all they might be. Two . l.. Radical politics (was/were) offensive to the Federalists... since the war. (locus) p.... of these lenses are perfect for distance photography... f. Decide which of the two verb forms should be used in the following sentences: a. to obtain their Ph.Business English j.. I’ve always found the idea of ..

czar. heir. tabby cat. doe. jenny-ass. chauffeuse 59 . wizard. Her hysterics (does/do) not move anybody that knows her. czarina. duke. ram. hind. widower. son.Business English o. landlord. clown. master. countess. What are the feminine forms of the following words: actor. drone. gander. drake. she-wolf. negro. bitch. 11. bachelor. abbess. chauffeur. queen. executor. maidservant. What are the masculine forms of the following words: madam. marquis. driver. nurse. hero. niece. wife. stallion. governess. aviator. fox 12. lord. peacock.

Business English Unit 5 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Business letters © Past Simple © Past Continuous © Expressions of quantity © The Adjective •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks Have you ever written a business letter? What are the basic rules in composing a business letter? Reading Read this text about composing business letters. Read the following business letter and try to distinguish the parts it contains: a. Look at the tenses of the verbs. number.T.A. Translate the text into Romanian: Business letters Business letters are usually typed on notepaper bearing a specially designed heading which provides the reader of the letter with the essential information about the organisation sending it. its telephone numbers and telegraphic addresses. GRAJO LEEDS Leeds 978653 60 . It is becoming increasingly common for firms to print an emblem or trademark on their stationery. Normally the heading will include the company’s name and address. its telex code and V. the type of business it is engaged in. and in many cases the names of the directors.

Dear Sirs We understand from several of our trade connections in Bolton that you are the British agents for Petrou and Galitopoulous AE of Athens.G. g. We look forward to hearing from you. St. Sometimes other initials or figures are added. 13 June 2003 Ways with words 1. b. Graden.A. c. Limited\25 King Edward VII. Graden and Jones Ltd. The date 61 . P. but on the left. Will you please send us price-lists and catalogues for all products manufactured by this company. The parts of the letter a. Jones b. The heading.. J. Oliver Green and Co. The reference This is typed on the same line as the date. Stevens Chief buyer d. Yours faithfully. It is usual to quote the reference initials of the addressee company in a reply. according to whatever may suit the filling system of the firm in question.Business English GRADEN &JONES LIMITED Home and Overseas Merchants Directors: L. JAS/DS Manchester M24 5 BD e. and consists of the initials of the person who signs the letter and those of the typist. Upper Bridge Street Leeds 2 c. L. together with details of trade discounts and terms of payment. f.

This is the usual salutation in British business letters addressed to a company rather than to an individual within the company. f. as well as being quicker for the typist. but an increasing number of firms are eliminating this. then a space is left for the signature. considering the spacing to fulfil the function of traditional punctuation. the complimentary close will take the form “Yours sincerely. “Dear Mr. The inside address A few points concerning the name and address of the firm written to need to be made. but there are alternative ways of writing the date: • • • June 13 20003 13th June 2003. and June 13th 2003 d. The complimentary close This is typed above the name of the firm sending the letter. If the correspondent is addressed by his or her name. normally against the margin. and the style shown in the example is neater. “Dear Miss Prism” etc. the typist or some other employee connected with the letter in question will sign it instead: in such cases he or she 62 . Firstly. Very often a comma is typed after the salutation. e. Since it is often essential to send a letter as soon as possible.” g. “Yours truly”. The salutation Below the address a double space at least is left. The signature It often happens that the person who has dictated a letter is unable to sign it as soon as it has been typed. and the words “Dear Sirs” are typed.Business English The form in which the date is written in this letter -13 June 2003 is probably the simplest and clearest of all the current forms used in the English-speaking world. If the salutation is “Dear Sirs” or “Dear Sir”. The diagonal granding of the name and address is rare nowadays. Brown”. less commonly. the complimentary close will read “Yours faithfully” or. they are typed on the left.

and is followed on the next line by his position in the company or by the name of the department he represents. 63 . but it is becoming more and more common for firms to place them against the left-hand margin.p. this fact is indicated both in the text itself and by the word Enclosure (often reduced to Enc. There are other ways of referring to enclosures – the use of adhesive labels. or the typing of lines in the left-hand margin beside the reference in the text to the document or documents enclosed – but typing the word Enclosure at the bottom of the letter is by far the most common. Traditionally the complimentary close and signature have been typed in the middle of the page.Business English will write the word “for” or the initials “p. for instance.) typed against the left-hand margin some distance below the signature. The name of the person signing the letter is typed below the space left for the signature.” immediately before the typed name of the employee responsible for the letter. or Encl. If an enclosure accompanies the letter.

64 .Business English Now look at the following letters and try to write a reply.

Business English 65 .

Business English 66 .

Business English 67 .

Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed. He took off his shirt. yesterday.Business English Grammar Reference Past Simple Past Simple is used to express • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. yesterday morning/ evening. • habitual. put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. • Past Simple is used to describe a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room. etc): They protested against that law in the late eighteenth century. in 1985. There are many common irregular verbs. I met him every day on my way to the office. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago. The chemists reported the results obtained yesterday. She always wore red. Suddenly he remembered something. repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic). In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page @ – Appendix 1) 68 . He stood up and went out of the room.

When did Where did I you he she we you they arrive? go? Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? 69 . Negative The negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t). I You He/She We You They did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday.Business English I You He/She We You They arrived went to Sinaia yesterday. Interrogative The question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did.

70 . Did she report the results obtained? Yes. Past Continuous Past Continuous is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was calculating the balance sheet when you came. • past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6.30 yesterday. he was sleeping. I didn’t. No. When she arrived. No. she didn’t. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative I He She You We They were were (weren’t) not was was not (wasn’t) working.Business English Yes. I did. she did.

and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. ( looking is a long activity. she was. Are there any books of Economy in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie. Expressions of quantity some/any. much/many. but only with a singular noun: 71 . Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes. Something happened in the middle to interrupt it). (I started and finished.Business English Interrogative What was I he were she you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes. a lot of/ lots of. Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. (I was in the middle of the activity. No.) She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room.) I did my homework yesterday. she wasn’t. No. doing? Past Simple and Past Continuous I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night. I wasn’t. few (a few)/ little (a little) 1. I was. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences.

Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much sugar left in the jar. He’s got a lot of money. Position of adjectives Adjectives appear before the noun or noun phrase that they modify (e. As after you finish this course you may write articles on economy or management in English it is of major importance for you to know the correct order of adjectives in a sentence. 72 . We only need a little money to buy this. 2. and when they do. a strange coincidence). The Adjective Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence.g. There’s a lot of paper in this printer.Business English There is some ink in this pen. an interesting course. they appear in a set order according to category. a difficult exercise. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. 4. There are lots of letters here. 3. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few. Is there any paper in the printer? We haven’t got any butter in the house. Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative sentences: How many lawyers work for this company? We haven’t discovered many interesting data.

Spanish. Observation adjectives. because the order seems quite arbitrary. Material denominal denoting what something woolen VIII. brown. short. Size and shape Age Colour subjective measure adjectives subject objective measure adjectives denoting age adjectives colour ancient denoting red. square young. her story. Polish. round. new. orange. yellow. VI. Qualifier is made of final limiter. etc. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. III. V.Business English The order of adjectives in a series It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. adjectives. book 73 . IV. American. violet adjectives French. regarded as part of the passenger car. blue. beautiful. the sixth (numerals. perfect to interesting.) postdeterminers limiter adjectives adjectives subject and real. possessive chapter. Romanian adjectives wooden. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. metallic. Origin denominal denoting source of noun VII. Types of adjectives Determiners Examples articles and other limiters four people. often hunting cabin. demonstrative this tool II. There is however a pattern. old. small. gorgeous to large. green. black. English.

The first important commercial product from crude petroleum was kerosene. it struck/ was striking me as odd to hear their names. i. two quality supervisers and one soft engineer. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. Decide which is the correct verb form: a.studying the planets Copernicus studied the planets. While I was learning/ learnt for my Economy exam. People Actions 74 . h. which quickly was replacing/ replaced whale oil in the kerosene stoves in the 50’s. c. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington. somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. Find the correct action for each person and make a sentence: Example: Copernicus.Business English noun cover Controlled practice 1. We produced/ were producing 10 different types of leather jackets last year. Agriculture played/ was playing an essential part in the development of the Romanian economy 20 years ago. the crew moved/ was moving in. f. 2. e. b. When the programme was completed. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. d. j. g. How did you hear/ were you hearing about their wedding? While I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio. Our crew included/ was including an accountant.

I (decide) to try and shake him off. the man (look) out anxiously to see if I (get) off. He (look) a very respectable type and (wear) very conventional clothes and I (wonder) if he was a policeman or a private detective. just as the bus (move) off. I (leave) the bus and (buy) a ticket at a ticket machine. At Gloucester Road Underground. whom I had seen three times already that afternoon. (turn) right. Then the conductor (come) downstairs and (ring) the bell. Whenever I (stop). (follow) me. so finally I (go) and (sit) beside the man and (ask) him why he follow me. As I (stand) on the platform waiting for a Circle Line train. and whenever I (look) round he (be) still there. Supply the simple past tense or the continuous past tense of the verbs in brackets: I (walk) along Piccadilly when I (realize) that a man with a ginger beard. then left and (stop) suddenly at a shop window. At first he (say) he (not follow) me at all but when I (threaten) to knock him down. my pursuer (come) down the stairs. Every time the buses (pull) at a stop. Both buses (crawl) very slowly along Knightsbridge. I (go) on. Finally.Business English Michael Jackson Marlowe Picasso Neil Armostrong Americo Vespucci Artur Aish Martin Luther King Charles Dickens Edison going to the moon inventing the electric light writing “Doctor Faustus” singing pop music playing tennis discovering America painting “Guernica” working for Black people’s rights creating novels 3. I (jump) on it. To make quite sure. He (carry) a newspaper and when we (get) into the same compartment. he (stop). I (become) rather tired of being shadowed like this. In a few minutes the man with the beard (appear) and (stop) at another shop window. he (change) buses and (get) into mine. he (admit) that he was. I (walk) on quickly. He (look) over the top of the newspaper at every station to see if I (get) out. at some traffic lights. which (follow) the first. and I (read) the advertisements. The man with the beard (miss) the bus but (get) into another 74. Then he (tell) me he (be) a writer of detective 75 . A 74 bus (stand) at the bus stop just beside me. he (sit) in one corner reading it.

Business English stories and (try) to see if it was difficult to follow someone unseen. I (tell) him he hadn’t been unseen because I had noticed him in Piccadilly and I (advise) him to shave off his ginger beard if he (not want) his victim to know he (be) followed. Peter and Ann (decide) to redecorate their sitting-room themselves. They (choose) cream paint for the woodwork and apricot for the walls. When John (look) in to see how they (get) on, Ann (mix) the paint, and Peter (wash) down the walls. They (be) glad to see John and (ask) if he (do) anything special that day. He hastily (reply) he (do) to the theatre and (go) away at once, because he (know) they (look) for someone to help them. They (begin) painting, but (find) the walls (be) too wet. While they (wait) for the walls to dry, Ann (remember) she (telephone), and (do) a whole wall before Ann (come) back. He (grumble) that she always (telephone). Ann (retort) that Peter always (complain). They (work) in silence for some time. Just as they (start) the third wall, the doorbell (ring). It (be) a friend of Peter’s who (want) to know if Peter (play) golf in the following weekend. He (stay) talking to Peter in the hall while Ann (go) on painting. At last he (leave). Peter (return), expecting Ann to say something about friends who (come) and (waste) valuable time talking about golf. But Ann nobly (say) nothing. Then Peter (think) he would do the ceiling. He just (climb) the step ladder when the doorbell (ring) again. Ann (say) she (get) tired of interruptions but (go) and (open) the door. It (be) the postman with a letter from her aunt Mary, saying she (come) to spend the weekend with them and (arrive) that evening at 6:30. 4. Put the verbs in brackets in the simple or continuous past tense according to the meaning. a. He (recognize) the voice that (shout) the loudest as that of the landlady.

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Business English b. I (go) to ask you to help me, but you (sleep) so peacefully when I (look) into your room that I (decide) to do it alone. c. He (not keep) his appointment with you last Tuesday morning because at the time of the appointment he (be seen) by the Personnel Manager about a new job. d. When the dog (bite) Mary again, mother (prepare) dinner and we (listen) to the radio. Mary (shout) blue murder and (have) hysterics again. e. We (have) to go round the back door because Grandfather (have) his front door painted. f. I (see) that the Browns (have) a lot of alterations made to their house, but I (not know) if the parents (go) to pay for them. g. I (walk) down the street some minutes ago when I (see) a curiously dressed man. He (wear) a sports-coat with black trousers, and one of his shoes (be) black and the other (be) brown). h. When they (get married) he (find) a job as a caretaker on a large estate. i. She (wear) green and it (suit) her very well. Her face (be) mildly pretty but, because she (cry) and mascara (run) down her cheeks, she (not seem) as attractive as I (expect). j. The person who (drive) the car on the day of the accident (no be) insured. k. While she (wonder) whether to buy the suit or not, someone else (come) and (buy) it. l. Ann (work) in the branch where the big robbery (take) place. She actually (work) there at the time of the raid? m. While the schoolmaster (write) on the blackboard, he (not notice) that the boys in the back row (steal out) of the room on tiptoe. n. He (come) into the room, (light) a cigarette, (open) the window and (lean) out.

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Business English o. A traffic warden just (stick) a parking ticket to my windscreen when I (come) back to the car. I (try) to persuade him to tear it up but he (refuse). 5. Put the verbs in the brackets into the simple past and the past continuous: a. I lit the fire at 6:00 and it (burn) brightly when Tom came in at 7:00. b. When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor (write) on the overhead projector. c. I (make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark. d. I didn’t want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave). e. Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few words. f. He (watch) TV when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. g. He was very polite. Whenever his wife entered the room he (stand) up. h. The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the game. i. My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr. Pitt’s Pekinese attacked him. j. When I arrived she (have) lunch. She apologized for starting without me but I said that she always (lunch) at 12:30. k. He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he walked to the office. l. I (like) it very much. m. I (share) a flat with him when we were students. He always (complain) about my untidiness. n. He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. o. He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and (throw) out a bucket of water. p. I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand. 78

Business English q. The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He immediately (put) out his torch and (crawl) under the bed. r. When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph. s. You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do)? t. The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father’s steps. They immediately (hide) the cards and (take) out their lesson books. 6. Complete the following sentences with some or any: a. Would you like .……. more tea? b. Could you give me .……. information about the train times? c. If you have …….. trouble, just give me a ring. d. Have you attended …….. good conferences recently? e. I tried to buy …….. Rotring pencils, but I couldn’t find …...... 2. Put much, many, or a lot of into each gap: a. Have you got ……... homework? b. We don’t need ……. oil. c. There are …….. economy books in our library. d. I want …….. pencils because I’m going to draw a helix. e. Is there …….. petrol in the car? 7. Which words in column A can combine with words from column B? A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday!

8. Translate into English: a. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră. b. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Economy Today”. c. El colecţionează vase vechi, frumoase din porţelan. d. Ai încercat să refaci calculele la casa cea nouă cu etaj? e. El calculează rata profitului pentru o companie mică privată. 79

Business English

9. Complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a, b or c). 1 People work harder if they know that someone is ………………… in their progress. a enthusiastic b interesting c interested 2 Nothing has been announced but we’ve heard …………………that the Company Secretary has resigned. a formally b officiously c unofficially 3 Friendly …………………………………………………………. no longer exist between members of the sales department because some got bonuses and others didn’t. a relations b contacts c connections 4 …………………in the Production Department is low because the workers have heard about the plans to reduce the work-force. a morale a equipment b feeling b machine c moral c machinery 5 This is a useful ………………………… . 6 We have carried out………………into the effect of lighting on our workers’ productivity. a a research b some research c researches 7 Strikes can be avoided if managers are………………… to the feelings of their employees. a aware a beat 9 We a cost have b sensible b motion several c sensitive c pace proposals for increasing sales. We 8 Some people like to work at their own ……………………… .

must…………………… the merits of each of them. b value c evaluate 10 Has the change in exchange rates had any ……………… on the cost of your raw materials? a result b affect c effect 80

“You were pretty confident up to ... k. f..... coffee?” “I used to. . shoes – leather – eye-catching – Italian – handmade e... We had ....... “Do you take ... chips for lunch.....Business English 10... .... o. if necessary: a.. letter for you on the desk. It is difficult to get about in that region without .... sugar in ....... normal girl would be heart-broken.......... coat – white – French – second-hand – handmade b.... Supply the when necessary: a.. 12... There is .. p.. Mr. .. self-righteousness is certainly .. . Peter and Jack are much of .... car... canvas – tennis – shoes – American – grey and red 11. Under the circumstances .. He confused the positive and negative terminals...feather flock together.. Smith called while you were out. ... b. j. It colours his whole after-life. polished – beautiful – antique – dining-table – oak – Japanese c.. . He wants to make .. I’m trying to lose weight. l.. Insert the indefinite article in the blank spaces. n.. Write the adjectives a... fish and .. truth is .......... straw. boy’s first toy is very important. i............” m.. serious mistake. 81 . cotton – dress – long – summer – fashionable d.. .. ...... size..... drowning man catches at . weren’t you?” he asked. books for this course are not expensive..... Birds of .. cold drink on . ... complaint about .. e. .... vice.. article in the paper...... g.. h. books are necessary for a student. virtue.... c... but now I’m on . diet.. point.. hot day is acceptable... island is surrounded on all sides by water..

. I was overcome by .. k..... Peter is a . He wanted to see all ... beauty is .. his younger brother is the ...... policy is ... knowledge. gold in the world.” j... ...... I would not do it for all . (tall) 82 . coffee? .. . science of the possible and .... ..... boy.. Those fur hats are all .. She married without . She put ................ g.Business English b.. silver is almost as precious as . art as well as in ............... animals on the farm. knowledge of her parents. European history I studied at school helped me a great deal in my further studies...... .............. roses that I brought her in a vase.people. o. . animals are content to eat and sleep.... But I prefer ...... truth than lies. . He was conscious of . . comparative and superlative degrees of the adjectives in brackets to fill in the blank spaces: a..... is . n..... dress.. truth” is a line from a poem by Keats... record of events.... c.. history is .. e. roses are her favourite flowers. His elder brother.. anger. ....... fashion has always existed in . l......... gold. h. impending danger. English literature of the eighteenth century... honesty of Jane is admirable..... tea or . danger he was in didn’t make him lose heart........ He had an unsatisfied hunger for . He feared .. .... honesty is the best policy. m.art of public speaking must be learnt. 13.. art belongs to ...... art of the impossible.... of them. i..... d... It’s much easier to tell .... f. but...... ... “........English literature?” “Yes.. “Do you like .... coffee you are drinking comes from Brazil... .. sure enough. money policy of this bank is very strict. Which would you prefer ......... ... Use the positive.......... who is a basketball player. I do.anger of his wife.... fashion.............

.............. than he is.. than I thought.. A duck’s egg is . His position is a ............... (narrow) g.... Your street is .... (grave.................... The armchair in my room is .... He knew the situation was ... but the bookcase is the ………... girl I have ever met.... but she was not the .Business English b. (handsome) i.... ...... person I have ever met......... but a robin’s egg is the ………....... (young) f.... .......................... The Carpathians are ... The house was ..... He didn’t like the . of them all.. It is . house........... mountains in the world.. She’s ............ girl............... a hen’s egg is even ………...... but we have the ....... yet the Himalayas are the ... ....... beautiful) b. one. ........ .. ... Insert the appropriate form of the two adjectives in brackets a..... (high) c............... of them all................ serious) 83 ......... (pretty.. The Alps are .... of all was the empty playroom............ and the path leading to your house is the .. but that alley is .......... . when he saw his father’s face........ (humble) 14........ but it seemed even ....... compared to that of an ostrich... Autumn days are …….... (small) e.. Jane was very .. Anne was .. He is insincere. In fact he is the …………. in her class. (heavy) h.... windy days in winter......... peaceful) c. (cold) d.... She is the …….. than other girls I’ve known........ (insincere) j.………. than usual with everyone away..... John is .......... of them. rainy autumn days are ... but his younger brother is ............ You don’t often meet such a ………....... weather of all on clear.................. the desk is ………............ (quiet...

route to Milltown? Well. Not (a) a lot of (b) much ink is spilled...... soldier in the world couldn’t have done more........ d. performance. (great. That was Laurence Olivier’s Hamlet.. I’ve never seen a ............. He doesn’t feel (a) no.... Those little people have (a) a lot of (b) much energy... (b) little friends visit him now.. (b) any months of training. 84 . (b) the better....... It is very .....every day... j.. it was the ……….. I’ve only seen one performance in my life that was . b.. From these two photographs the smaller is (a) the best... He needs (a) some. for the class...... (straight.... c.. It was a ………. thing to do. g.. than anything we had before...... Kenyon fell ill... courageous) h... difficult) e. That was a . i.... They have invited quite (a) a lot of.. I’ve ever seen...... since Mrs. Fill in the adequate form of the adjective: a. (brave. He has retired and (a) few. (b) better than food eaten in a restaurant. They have been very …….. k... (b) many people.. Mr. Kenyon looks. This lesson is …….... (b) more complete than a smaller one... action. (sad. Sometimes food eaten at home is (a) the better... (b) the most well-known English poet. Can you speak (a) some (b) any foreign language? h...... (hard.. What’s the ... Stratford-upon-Avon is the birth place of one of the (a) best known.. It’s the . the road through Duxberry is pretty ………. unhappy) 15... and the little boy is the………….. but the Smalltown road is ………. of all.. I have seen yet... direct) f...........Business English d.. (b) any better today. than this.. e.. wonderful) g.. The ………. A bigger dictionary is always (a) completer.. f...

(sensitive) i. clever) c. Your first paper was …….… room in your hotel? (pleasant.… (good).… things. and the ……. She is much ………. sunny) h.…..… of all. She is always hunting for ……. Is this tie …………… than the old one? (becoming) e. Which is the ………… of these two students? (hardworking) f. Fill in the adequate form of the adjectives in brackets: a. the first born. (dim) d. than I had expected. Her children are all ……. the ……… is by far …….. old. She is ………… of all the group.Business English 16. (clever. Don’t be hard on that girl.. (gay) g. and I can’t see any longer.. Is this the ………. Will you switch the light on? The room has grown ……….… but this one is even …….. b. (cheap) 85 .

86 . Fortythree top companies were studied. For instance. Identify the Present Perfect Simple of the verbs: COMMUNICATION In recent years. few books on management have been more acclaimed than In Search of Excellence. the book identified factors which have accounted for the success of some of America’s best-run companies. The companies do everything possible to ensure that staff meet easily and frequently. few barriers exist to prevent people talking to each other. Many examples of the experiences of these organisations are given in the book. Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman. The authors give many examples to back up their view. People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. In the best-run businesses. and have many unscheduled meetings. One of the points made by the writers is that communications in 10 excellent companies are different from those in other companies. They meet often. These provide useful lessons for all managers. Excellent companies have a ‘vast network of informal.Business English Unit 6 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Communication © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple © Prepositions •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-Reading Tasks What are the advantages and disadvantages of having open-plan offices? Reading Read this text on Communication in business. Written by two business consultants. open communications’.

only 51 % of the employees agreed with this opinion! 87 . communicate as effectively as we think we do. They soon noticed that there were a lot of casual meetings going on with ‘salespeople. chattering about new product problems. However. other companies where managers are encouraged to get out of the office and walk around and some which make a point of informality. like Walt Disney Productions. The department manager believed he had given ‘instruction or decisions in 165 out of 236 episodes. It went on all day — people meeting in a seemingly random way to get things done. they visited the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). manufacturing people — even accounting people — sitting around. In 1984. a study was made of a production department in a British company. but his subordinates considered they had received instruction on only 84 occasions.Business English one day.’ One of the 3M executives told the authors. Research done by Rensis Likert in 1991 (see Figure 1) showed that 85% of the supervisors thought their subordinates felt free to discuss important things with them. ‘We just plain talk to each other a lot without a lot of paper or formal rigmarole. marketing people. in fact. Several studies have shown this. where everyone wears a name-tag with his/her first name on it. We do not.’ The book is full of examples of companies who believe in keeping in touch firms like IBM where the Chairman personally answers any complaint which is addressed by members of staff. One problem with communication is that people think they have got their message across when in fact they have not.

managers must make sure that those instructions have been understood and interpreted correctly. that the information she received was unreliable! One way of reducing social 88 distance — and improving . But if the Chief Executive of the company passes by and asks how things are going. so they give their superior too good an impression of the situation. They do not want to give bad news.Hill Book Company. 1991 themselves employees say about supervisors This finding is important for managers.’ It is risky to tell the truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy they may not like what they hear and hold it against you. One thinks of Cleopatra and the problem she had in her military campaigns. but executed those bringing bad news. She used to give gold to messengers bringing good news. thank you. For this reason. A breakdown in communication is quite likely to happen if there is some kind of ‘social distance’ between people. when in fact it is a month behind schedule! There’s nothing new about all this. a couple of production workers will probably speak frankly to each other about things that are going wrong in their department.’ they say. staff often ‘filter’ information. It is not surprising. people may have difficulty communicating if they are different in status. or if one person has a much higher position than the other. ‘The project’s coming along fine. ‘Just fine. In organisations. 47. when giving instructions. New Patterns of Management. telling the boss what he/she wants to hear.Business English EXTENT TO WHICH SUBORDINATES FEEL FREE TO DISCUSS IMPORTANT THINGS ABOUT THE JOB WITH SUPERIORS – AS SEEN BY SUPERIORS AND SUBORDINATES Top staff says about Supervisors say about Supervisors say about Employees supervisors Feel very free to discuss important 90% 67% 85% 51% things about the job with my superior Feel fairly free 10% 23% 15% 29% Not very free 10% 14% Not at all free 6% Source: Rensis Likert. It suggests that. For example. they’ll probably say. They deliberately alter the facts. therefore. p. New York: McGraw.

for example. too. He showed that if people were more than ten metres apart. Thomas Allen studied the effect of location on communication in engineering and research departments. So. Studies show that the further away a person is. it is interesting to note that employees in such offices will often move furniture and other objects to create mini-offices. Because their knowledge and experience is different. Physical surroundings and physical distance limit or encourage communication. the less he/she communicates. The message becomes distorted. a manager will say something. that in Japanese companies. The physical layout of an office must be carefully planned. Open-plan offices are designed to make communication easier and quicker. another important barrier to communication is selective perception. rather than lifts. It is worth noting. this means that people perceive things in different ways. Therefore. An example of this is given in Figure 2. It is possible.Business English communications — is to cut down on status symbols. Put simply. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Excellent companies use space to create good communications. the probability was 25%. When they were five metres apart. The world of the sender is not the same as the world of the receiver. in their new engineering building because they wanted to increase the chances of employees meeting face-to-face. However. Figure 2 HOW COMMUNICATIONS BREAK DOWN What the manager said What the manager meant What the subordinate heard 89 . it is common for all the staff to wear uniforms. to have a common dining-room for all staff. the probability of communicating at least once a week was about 8%. 90 The Corning Glass Company in the United States installed escalators. sender and receiver are always on slightly different wavelengths. but the employee will interpret his meaning incorrectly.

Your people seem to be having some problems getting their work out on time. If you screw it up more time. We’d like you to go out there and look it over. Talk to your people and find out what the problem is. I’ve got enough problems around here without you screwing things I’m tied up with more important things. Then get with them and jointly solve it. & Winston). I need that report within the week. but I know you can do it. You be the judge. You don’t have to go out to L.Business English I’ll look into hiring another person for your department as soon as I complete my budget review. The most useful question a manager can ask is ‘Did you understand that?’. 305.A. 90 . Organizational Behaviour. Let’s forget about hiring for the indefinite future. I talked to the boss. you can kiss good-bye to your career with this firm. Your performance was We’ll start interviewing for that job in about three weeks. You’re going to have to try harder. If not. I want you to look into this situation and straighten it out. I don’t care how many heads you bust. due to budget problems. (New York: Holt. Feedback is essential. we’ll be unable to fully match your competitive salary offer. it’s yours. I’d take that competitive offer. below par last quarter. with your credentials. However. Rinehart . of course. Communication problems will arise. 1979. but at the present time. Managers should encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what the managers are saying. if you don’t want to. p. you’re out. and I know we’ll be able to do even more for you next year. Communication should be a two-way process. Hodgetts and Steven Altman. I really expected more out of you. from time to time. managers must remember one thing. If I were you. We’re certainly not going to pay that kind of salary to a person If you’d like that job. I’d like that report as soon as can get to it. SOURCE: Richard M. Drop that rush order you’re working on and fill out that report today. just get me that output. in the best-run companies. up too. if you don’t. However. We have a job opening in Los Angeles that we think would be just your cup of tea. to minimise such problems. you can stay here in Denver. We can give you 95 percent of that offer.

Business English Ways with words 1. h. 3. b. One of the problems faced by managers is that their staff do not always feel that they are able to come and discuss important matters freely with them. e. Understanding the main points Number the following ideas 1—8. d. f. Read the sentence: So. c. depending on the order in which they appear in the text. g. So is a word which is generally used in conversations 91 . In In Search of Excellence the authors give many examples of the ways in which organisations try to break down the barriers between management and employees. what advice would you give managers to avoid communications problems? Note down a few of the suggestions you would make. Supposing you were Communications Manager in a large organisation. In the most successfully managed organisations communications are extremely good because staff meet to discuss things openly and informally. 2. Communication problems sometimes occur when employees misinterpret what their managers tell them.The purpose of the book was to illustrate the good management techniques which are used in top American companies. Staff communications are much easier if work places are designed in such a way that people frequently come into contact with each other. a. Better communications between managers and employees can be achieved by trying to reduce the social divisions between them within the company. Subordinates are often reluctant to tell their superiors when things are not going well. another important barrier to communication is selective perception.

Because the cost of living…………………. management decided to ……………(3) the salaries of all the staff. later on.Business English instead of therefore which is used in written English. Complete the following sentences using suitable items from the list below. So now. 4. ca sã zicem aşa. so it seems = aşa se pare. management is talking of lowering our salaries again! 5. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe. How do you translate to arise? Now complete the following passage with the correct forms of the following words. astfel încât. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã.) raise (v.(2) by 6% last year. în mãsura în care. in the best-run companies. so far as = întrucât. so far = pânã acum. in so far as… is concerned = întrucât priveşte. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât. For this reason. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa. product range market share sales revenue growth-rate product-line production capacity resources productivity 92 . (6)in prices made our products uncompetitive. Such a large …………………. Read the following sentence again: Communication problems will arise.) rise (n. pânã în prezent. arise (v. they had to pay for this by …………………(5)the prices of all our products by10%.) rise (v. However. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând.) A serious problem has………………… (1) in my company. so much = atât de mult. from time to time. they gave everyone a ………………(4) of £10 a week.

Most of Shell Oil’s ………………………comes from overseas subsidiaries. 10. you can often increase their ………………… e. change direction h. be situated at took last week. By re-organising the work of office staff. g. We’re a small firm. 5. We’ll have to discontinue it. By extending our factory. c. withdraw from g. hid the truth 2.Business English a. Our garden backs theirs. a. 93 c. so we aren’t able to offer a wide ……………………… . He backed the wrong horse. b. I backed my friend in that argument. With the help of their cheap. 7. restored to its owner j.of 20% a year. He promised to help me but then backed out. made the wrong choice i. supported him d. I took my house back. 8. How do you translate to back up? Now learn some phrases containing the word back. He backed the car into the garage. h. the Amstrad company were able to greatly increase their …………………… in the UK. f. 3.. A well-known advertising agency aims to achieve a …………………. enter (with the back) . The wind backed. 6. I see that he was backed from the position he b. refused me e. Match these sentences with the explanations on the right: 1. 9. 4. This …………………… is unprofitable. Read the following sentence again: The authors give many examples to back up their view. 6. They kept back the truth. He turned his back on me. d. we have been able to expand our …………………… . gave up a claim f. Companies like Unilever and IBM have huge financial …………………… . high-quality word-processor.

How long have you worked as an economist? How long has it taken the oil industry to grow to its present size? Form have/has+verb+(past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. (i. (Since means from a definite point in the past till now. I can tell you the story). • activities completed in the immediate past: She has just met him in the laboratory. He can drive it now). (i.e.e.) Has oil only been used by mankind in the last hundred years? (But: Why was oil used on such a large scale in 1999?) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once. (But: She met him there a few minutes ago. He has never seen such a big computer touch screen. He has fixed his car. and for expresses a duration). Present Perfect Simple is used to express: • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie. 94 . • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996. Affirmative and negative I We have (‘ve) worked in the human resources have not (haven’t) department.Business English Grammar Reference Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Simple relates past actions and states them to the present. There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page @ – Appendix 1).

) F. No. (Now I live somewhere else. I found them behind a couple of other books. I have. Neagu has written very good short stories.) He has worked in this company for four years. I haven’t. (He is still alive.) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. she hasn’t. they he she been to the United Kingdom? has (‘s) has not (hasn’t) Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do. No.) I lived in this flat for two years. she has. (He is dead. (But: He started working in this company in 1997.) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes. on the top shelf. Has she ever worked as a lawyer? Yes. Where did you find them? (certainty). 95 . I have.Business English You They He She Interrogative Have I we you Has Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes.

he disappeared. useful to engineering because we can obtain answers from it. Nouns. gerunds or noun clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions. Therefore. the calculus as used in the linear constant coefficient differential equation. noun phrases. Note that in English. The linear differential equation is a general form. prepositions usually precede their objects: Put it on the chair and leave! Look at him. and statistical theory. As the preposition in English may be different from the preposition in Romanian. pronouns. After telling the whole story. Two areas of mathematics seem broadly basic to engineering: namely. the use of mathematical prediction is increasing over the experimental approach. Here the laboratory still depends on many solutions where analytic methods are not yet fully available 96 . where this form applies to the physical world. Because of you. I can't get any work done. here is a text in which you may learn about the use of the preposition in English: (Also see the list with prepositions which are usually mistaken by Romanian students on page @ – Appendix 2) Now read the following text and pay attention to the use of the preposition in English: It seems generally accepted that Mathematics is indeed fundamental for all engineering education. rigorously solvable in only a few special cases although approximation methods exist. Next is the area of the partial differential equation. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a prepositional phrase.Business English The Preposition Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in a sentence. and for most schools all engineering students take the same mathematics sequence.

good/ bad weather At six o ‘clock.. etc. Tuesday morning. January. e. etc. two weeks. Supply for or since in the following sentences: 97 . h.Business English Prepositions of time In the morning/ afternoon/ evening.. Controlled practice 1. f. Easter/ Christmas. summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb... do you want me to take it into your room. I came here During* the film. your free (spare) time. 25-th. the war. Monday.. midnight. b. etc. i. February. What (happen) to the keys of the car? I can’t find them anywhere. j. Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect: a. Come and see the new furniture I (buy). etc.. We (book) seats for tomorrow.. etc. winter. 11-th January. For seven minutes. the 1930s. g. This parcel (arrive) for you. 1988. during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you. etc. 2. etc. I always (want) to meet Professor Leech. Someone (take) away the umbrella that used to hang behind the door. We (be) to Brighton twice this year. the class.. ages Since June. two weeks’ time. my holidays. I (get) a letter from my brother today. etc. the weekend. my last birthday. c. here they are. I (finish) my letters and am going to the post-office. d. He just (buy) a second-hand car. a long time. the moment On Saturday. summer..

4.. j... He last ate snails when he was a student in Paris.(a week/the beginning of the year). It’s years since I last had a really good night’s sleep. (we bought the car/last week) d.. e.... It’s ages since I last wrote a letter. They have known each other .... She last went to the hairdresser’s for her brother’s wedding..Business English a.. (a month/March). c.. Rephrase the following sentences. It’s quite a long time since he rode a motorcycle. He last shaved last Monday. d. (they were married/ longer than they can remember). I haven’t spoken Italian ..... Brown has been here twice . g. 3. j.... c. I last skated in my childhood.. f. b.. The Jamesons have not been away from Crew . h... e... We have had two breakdowns . (the accident/three months).. using the present perfect tense with for and since.. (you went out/lunch-time).. but he (not sell) his old car yet. (1985/three years).. f. Dr. becomes I haven’t been abroad since 1983... Peter (buy) a new car last month. It’s years since Jane visited us. I last met her the day when she got a job.. according to the model: The last time I was abroad was in the summer of 1983. a. John hasn’t paid any bill.. 98 ... i.. We haven’t had such a lot of snow here .. (their childhood/twenty years).. I’ve asked the same question.. i.. so at the moment he has two cars. It hasn’t rained .. g.. (the war/ten years)... (he moved here/ eighteen months). It’s more than ten years since that house was lived in. We haven’t seen Mary . b.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect or simple past: a. h.

“I (not know) you (be) there. I (be) there last summer. Ann (think) the garage (be) empty and (turn) off the lights. “I’m sorry. You (read) it?” “As it happens it is the only one of Dickens’s books that I (not read).” h.” f. 99 . he (growl). but this (make) me late for the office. “I just (buy) a copy of ‘David Copperfield’. “You (be) to the theatre lately?” “Yes. (reply) Paul. I (run) back home for my umbrella.” i. My boss (look) up as I (enter) the office. “How long you (be) in your present job?” “I (be) there for six months. But this morning George (give) me a lift.(say) Ann. “I (not miss) a bus for years. “Hey”. “You (be) late twice this week”.Business English b. The Telephone Company (tell) us to wait.” “And what you (do) before that?” “Before that I (work) for Jones and Company. I (go) to ‘Othello’ last week. c.” e. “You (be) to Scotland?” “Yes. but we (wait) a year now and our phone still (not come). (shout) Paul from under the car. You (miss) the bus?” “I (not miss) it”.” “You (like) it?” “Yes. When we (move) into our new flat we (ask) for a telephone.” j. Peter (try) to come in quietly but his mother (hear) him and (call) out: “Where you (be)? Your supper (be) in the oven for an hour. d. I (smoke) forty cigarettes a day till the doctor (warn) me about the dangers. Tom (meet) Paul at lunch time and (say): “I (not see) you at the bus stop this morning.” g. Paul”. but I (not see) well. I (be) right at the back. k. I (not even see) the film. When I (be) on my way to the bus stop it (start) to rain.

The new teacher is very patient. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks months. 3-rd. Dan. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet. I (be) on a tram. We are leaving to Sinaia .. It is now 1995. 6. Supply the right preposition: a.Business English l. She is very fond . Dan: Well. Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes.. management. My brother is still out of work. I (not hear) from you for a long time. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. I (not pass) my Mathematics exam yet. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes. Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No. 100 .. Since 1989 (work) in a hospital. 7. us... I have. But what about you. I (pass) in December. not really. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello. children. that’s one piece of good news. 5. I was interested . July. For 5 years I (work).. This means I (work) in a hospital for 6 years. b.. Imagine that you are talking on the phone to an old friend who you haven’t seen for about two or three weeks. how are you? I remember that you were learning for your chemistry test. Write down three of four items of news about yourself that you can tell your friend. but you (not see) me.. They just (give) me a pay rise. …. I (work) as a civil servant from 1985 till 1989. Dan: Hello. Maria: Well. c. d.

your success.Business English e. Have you reminded… him that he can call… me to come if he needs me? A: Yes.. accountancy. 101 . night. B: That’s wonderful.. Put one of these prepositions in each empty space: These ambulance men are making preparations ….. B: Oh? Who? A: James. Write this story. i. A: Well. She has never been successful . h. on. the morning.. on account …. The doctor says he has no objection … his going home tomorrow.. What are you afraid .. 8. I can always count… him to help. his having been knocked down by a car. They take a lot of pride …. We are going there early .. j. but he can’t bear… anyone to feel that he owes him anything. The man is well again now. to or nothing in each empty space: A: I have arranged … someone to look after the shop while I am away... An accountant is a person who has specialised .... I’m proud . The results depended .? f. But it seems… me to be a sign of something strange if one wants… anyone to help one. doing their job as perfectly as possible. This nurse is giving the man an injection as a protection … getting tetanus. B: How sad! I always long … someone to owe something to! A: What do you mean? B: I was only joking. g. yet don’t expect us until late . These young doctors are having a discussion ….. anything she has done so far. 9. taking a man to hospital. I look… you to help James if he needs it – without forcing… him to refuse. operating on the wounded man. the revenues we obtained.. Put for. thanks.

o. by. so we must invite her………… 4. 1. They’ve replied ……………our letter on February 15th. What time did you go …………home last night? f. h. a) in a) after a) again a) in a) in the end a) finally b) after b) later b) back b) at b) at last b) after all 102 2. You may work hard all week. What happened …………the end of the story? 5. with. Who’s the woman …………. for. d.TV. in. I didn’t walk. We missed the train and …………we got a taxi.. but you do nothing when you’re ……………home. The experience was not so bad ………… . Supply at. Did you come all this way ……………foot? b. I came here ………………the bus. 3. 6. Aren’t the children ……………bed yet? e. to. I arrived first and Tom arrived…………. on. g. Where did you hear about this? I saw it ………. or (-) where necessary: a. What time do the children go ……………school in the morning? j. I don’t think it’s much cheaper to go …………bus. I’ll see you …………ten minutes.Business English B: Of course. the bus? n. 10. She invited us. How long have you been waiting ………. he can’t hear ……………you. Supply the best word in the following sentences. I don’t mind being alone ……………the house. c Where’s Harry? – I think he’s gone …………bed. .the black handbag? i. l. 11. He’s …………class. It’s no good raising your voice. m. You can’t speak to him now. k.

10. My name comes ……………in the list. I can’t wait to get to the ……………chapter! a) last a) last a) last a) late b) latest b) the last b) lastly b) lately 8. 9. We haven’t seen much of you …………. Universitatea Ovidius Constanţa – Facultatea de Litere 103 . Read the call for papers carefully and prepare to fill in the registration form. Here is the information they have sent you by mail.Business English 7. Unit 7 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Filling in a conference call for papers © Present Perfect Continuous © Modal verbs © Prepositions of place •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks How many conferences have you attended so far? Reading Imagine you are participating in a conference at University Ovidius Constanta. She phoned me …………Monday.

visual. centre and margin. ‘Balkan identity’ is such a problematic category. cultural specificity has been looked into as local. among so many. etc. the particular and the universal hold a tense. economic. Romania October 14-16. patterns of private and public life. Topics suggested: identity between self and other. and debate at our forthcoming event. analyse. choreographic. self-assertion vs. In the light of current research in the field. national. theories of identity and imagology cultural identity: forma mentis or determinism(s)? one or various Balkan identities? (whys and whereofs) narratives of Balkan identity (literary. relationship. identities in the world of late modernity. regional or continental particularism. Constanta.Business English Call for Papers SECOND BALKAN CONFERENCE BALKAN CULTURAL IDENTITIES Ovidius University. It is the loose nature of this identity that we invite colleagues from the region and from the academies at large to question. past and present (colonial and postcolonial traces. political. if dialectical. geographic. historical. metropolis and colony. 2004 This conference aims at singling out ‘a’ possible Balkan. mainstream and alternative currents. musical. the imperial ‘hangover’) 104 - . Commonly regarded as a basic issue of interdisciplinary approaches to identity. etc.) the Balkan region.

etc. my self – my friend – my foe. Registration fee: ROL 400. toponyms. second home and exile. basic stock and loans. 2004 to Alina Popescu / Ileana Chiru-Jitaru / Mona Momescu / Nicoleta Stanca at the following e-mail addresses: <alinapopescu@univ-ovidius.) the cult-lit path to Balkan identity (national literature at home and abroad.ro> and <nicoletastanca@yahoo.Business English the linguist path to Balkan identity (language – dialect – sociolect – idiolect. Further details on the program will be made available at a later date to those who will have filled in and returned the registration form below. the onomastic factor. national classics.com> IMPORTANT! PARTICIPANTS ARE ASKED TO SEND THEIR APPLICATION FORMS TO BOTH E-MAIL ADDRESSES OF EACH OF THE ABOVE CONTACTS. terms of endearment and swearwords. 105 . etc. to be paid upon arrival.) Balkanism – Orientalism – Occidentalism. minority group literatures and cultures.com> <ileanachiru@univ-ovidius. homeland and diaspora.ro> and <jitaruileana@rdslink.ro> <mmm2120@columbia. theories of modernity Please consider the registration form provided and return it by April 30.000 for Romanian participants / EURO 25 for foreign participants.edu> <nicoletastanca@univ-ovidius.ro> and <alinadpopescu@yahoo. us and them.

Prof]:_________ Affiliation: _________________________________________________ Address (+telephone/fax): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ E-mail: ______________________________________________________ Presentation details Paper title /topic for panel discussion [specify which]: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Suggested/preferred field/section: _____________________________________________________________ Abstract (about 50 words): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Auxiliaries needed (please tick): none OHP cassette player video + TV other – please specify to your message). Dr. _____ _____ _____ _____ Send this registration form as an e-mail (the file will become an attachment 106 .Business English REGISTRATION FORM PERSONAL DETAILS Name:____________________________ Surname:__________________________ Title [Ms. Mr. Mrs.

in negative sentences. I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up. Affirmative and negative I You We They He She has been has not been (hasn’t been) have been have not been (haven’t been) working. etc. • a repeated activity. in which case a nuance of reproach. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses a present perfect simple can be also used. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new petroleum products for several years. I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes.Business English Grammar Reference Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous is used to express: • an activity begun in the past and still in progress at the moment of speaking: They have been creating new jobs for several years. especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect. Why don’t you answer the phone? Its form consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). irritation. • an activity begun in the past which has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late. can be present. Interrogative 107 .

The form is the same for all persons. and there are no -ing or -ed forms. The verb form is the infinitive (without to) She can drive.” 2. Modals do not inflect (There is no -s in the third person singular. Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as not/ n’t immediately after the modal verb. The following are modal verbs: can/ must/ / may/ need/ shall/ will/ would/ should They have the following in common: 1. etc. He can speak English. They “help” another verb. Questions are formed by putting the modal verb in front of the subject. you may. He can speak three foreign language well. French and Italian. “May I open the window?” “Yes. There are no auxiliaries such as do/does/did. 108 . He insisted that Jack must go and see it himself.Business English What have I have you have we have they has he has she been doing? Modal Verbs The modal verbs are a special kind of auxiliary verbs which express the modality of the action and have some specific features. There are no auxiliaries such as don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t. I must go.) She should learn more. Can you type quickly? Could you give me an example? Should I go home now? Need I invite them too? 3. 4. etc.

(=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the promenade. etc. Use Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous: a.. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a. Câte dischete ai folosit pânã acum? d. Te caut de o orã.) Controlled practice 1. Locuim în România de trei ani. even when meaning is different: She goes to house. She wouldn’t like to become a teacher like me. N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea. London. Translate the following sentences into English. I’m tired. not used come.Business English I can’t spell your name. 2. 109 . e. But: I arrived at London Airport. I (read) all day. into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el. b. Pe unde ai umblat? b. with verbs of the movement: I arrived at the university.) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. c. Problematic prepositions of movement and place Movement Place to at used wih verbs of movement: go.

Your eyes are red. I saw her in August. c.” i. What she (do) all afternoon? h. dar ştiu sã schiez şi sã patinez. f. 110 . You (run)? f. d. El nu poate sã scrie în englezã.Business English c. Angela worked/ has been working in this company for ten years and a half. e. She still (not write) the report. j. 3. d. Translate the following into English: a. chiar trebuie. Ei nu ştiu engleza. i. but (not see) her ever since. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? 4. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. b. Choose the best variant which completes these sentences: a. c. pentru cã nu ne place la mare. Nu ştiu sã înot. She can/may/ must go. g. Tu vei sta unde îţi spun. otherwise she will miss the train. How long you (learn) Chinese? e. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. Choose the correct verb form: a. e. Alan has been/ has gone to South America. Ea trebuie sã plece. You (cry). Ea ar trebui sã se strãduiascã mai mult la examene. g. Pot sã închid geamul? d. Vrei sã te cãsãtoreşti cu mine? h. Nu vrem sã venim cu tine. “Chiar trebuie sã ne ducem la curs la ora patru?” “Da. 5. You’re out of breath. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b. dar au început un curs anul acesta. dacã nu. o sã te pedepsesc.

Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. I went ……. the rock concert. Ei nu vor să meargă în excursie. as he is in Portugal. but I am free now so could/ should/ may you tell me your problem? 6. e. g. d. the road. f. 111 . He strolled carelessly . altfel întârziem la cursul de econnomie şi nu mai putem intra în sala de curs. Physics when I was a child. e. j. Aş putea să îl ajut. Eu ştiu să vorbesc franceza de când aveam patru ani. El trebuie că a plecat.Business English b. I can’t/ couldn’t/may not help you at that time.……. He cannot/ mustn’t/ may not come to this wedding. I met her ……. El poate să vină mai târziu. Noi vom vota să se schimbe constituţia. li se pare prea scump.. 7. dar aştept să-mi ceară el ajutorul. spunea că nu şi-a terminat lucrarea la finanţe. E necesar să îmi las bagajele aici? i. Should/ Could/ Will I attend this optional course? d. e. d. Noi trebuie să ne grăbim. g. She ran all the way ……. c. The baby crawled ……. Nu ai voie să dai drumul la curent de aici. the kitchen. Translate into English: a. the station. I’m afraid she may not/ can’t/ mustn’t help you at the moment.. the shop. I used to be interested ….. They arrived late .. as I was extremely busy. c. Instalaţia este defectă şi se poate întâmpla vreun accident. c. Paris last year.……. Mă îndoiesc că el a putut face aşa ceva. b. h. f. b.

Business English h. There’s a strike …….. our factory. i. She has left. She must be …….. work. j. The money fell ... my pocket. 8. Put in the missing prepositions: …….. a Monday evening …..... September 1931, …….. about eight o’clock, the ship “Voyager” sank. The ship had been sailing …….. the end of September, when she left London, and was on her way …….. England .……. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called Wilfred Batty, who saved himself …….. swimming two miles. He spent three years …….. an island ……. the middle of the Indian Ocean. The island was quite small, and he could walk …..... the whole of it …….. an hour. He climbed …….. the one hill and put a flag ….... it …….. a signal. ……. night Batty slept .……. a cave, where he felt quite …….. home …….. the day, he often fished …..... a home-made net. He cooked the fish …….. a wood fire. Batty stayed …….. the island ……... almost three years. …….. August 1934, a ship was sailing ……. the island, and the captain saw Batty’s signal. The sailors found a man .……. a long blue coat …….. dark hair and a beard, looking rather …..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia …….. air.

112

Business English

Unit 8
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn:

© Useful tips for businessmen who do business in Romania © The Cardinal Numeral © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continuous
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Pre-reading tasks
If you decide to start any kind of business do you know what you are supposed to do? What would you advise a foreigner who wants to start doing business in our country?

Reading
Read this text containing useful tips for those who want to do business in our country. Identify the cardinal numerals: So you have decided to make the great leap and try to do business in Romania. For whatever reason – career advancement, experience, opportunity for fantastic profits or simply for losing a bet, you are surely in for one hell of a ride! One way or another, while working here, you will feel every emotion – frustration, anger, frustration, joy, frustration, loneliness, frustration. For this reason you have two choices after 5 p.m. – the first choice would be: develop a good sense of humour, and the second: develop a drinking problem! Any pre-conceived ideas of Romania you might have should be put aside. The country is hugely wealthy, though extremely under-developed. The gap between the rich and the poor is immense and easily recognizable. Almost everybody under the age of 35 years old is university educated and 113

Business English speaks at least two languages. Also the idea of making quick profits have been thought and tried by many and they almost never work. Many billionaires have come here and left as millionaires! The bureaucracy is the hardest nut to crack. It doesn’t matter the size of your company you may have more than one hundred employees, the money in your bank account or how big or influential you are in your country, you are a big zero here. Don’t expect to find any “friends” for at least two or three years. Friends don’t come cheap. Those two or three years will be the most frustrating of your life. With your local employees, don’t assume that any directive has been carried out. Check and double-check everything not done directly by you. Although immensely laborious, it is necessary and saves you agony later.

WAYS WITH WORDS
Special terms: Pre-conceived: [only before noun] preconceived ideas, opinions, etc are formed before you rrally have enough knowledge or experience Under-developed: a country, region that is poor and where there is not much modern industry or not having grown or developed as much as is usual or necessary Bureaucracy: a complicated official system which is annoying or confusing because it has a lot of rules, processes or the officials who are employed rather than elected to do the work of a government, business Laborious: a job or piece of work that is difficult and needs a lot of effort or seeming to be done slowly and with difficulty

Grammar Reference
The Cardinal Numeral
The form of the cardinal numeral 114

Business English 1 one 2 two 11 eleven 12 twelve 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 100 a (one) 1,000 a (one)

hundred* thousand* 103 a (one) 1,003 a (one) hundred and two hundred and three four and three three 3,476 thousand hundred

3 three

13 thirteen

23 twenty-three

306

hundred and six

4 four

14 fourteen

30 thirty

744 hundred fourty-four

seventy-six seven 4,578 four and thousand hundred five and

5 five

15 fifteen

40 fourty

999 hundred ninety nine

seventy-eight nine 1,000,000 one and million

6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten

16 sixteen 17 seveteen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty

50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety

The numerals hundred and thousand do not take the plural form: 500 sheets of paper - five hundred sheets of paper. Notes: 1. When you read phone numbers, you should read them figure by figure. For example: My phone number is 142357- My phone number is one four two three five seven. 2. When you read years, you should read them in pairs of two figures. For example: He died in 1987. - He died in nineteen eighty-seven.

Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Simple is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: 115

Business English What happened to the officer who had been rude to the company’s clients? He had read his lecture before he went to university. • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 we had composed about 5000 business letters for five years. He had lived in this flat since he was born. Its form consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb. Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t. Had he spoken English before he started the English course? Yes, he had. No, he hadn’t. done? had had not (hadn’t) left.

Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous is used to express: • an action in the past begun before the time of speaking in the past and still going on that time or possibly after: By that time we had been working on the project for two years. They had been living for generations in that house. 116

After she had counted the money. Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? Yes. last year? had been had been not (hadn’t) working for a year.Business English Its form consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main perfect. she gave it to me. I had. Example: The bank clerk gave it to me. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect./ She looked at my cheque. been working on by that time. Decide the order in which these things happened. she counted the money. No./ She counted out the money. 117 . I hadn’t. Controlled practice 1. After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque.

or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below: a. Nu crezuse că o să i se întâmple tocmai lui să nu-şi amintească aşa nişte noţiuni elementare de engleză. 118 . Abia se terminase ploaia că a şi început un vânt îngrozitor./ He jumped out of the window. De îndată ce a terminat tema./ She interviewed the people there. g. The reporter wrote a report on the accident. It was getting late. Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat? d. la o conferinţă de petrol./ She went to the scene of the accident. c. b. The tourists got out of the coach. a sunat telefonul. b./ He took the wheel off the car. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant. c. The mechanic put a new tyre on. b. Use the simple past./ She wrapped it.Business English a. 2. j. Ei se cunoscuseră cu zece ani în urmă. Îl aşteptam de o orã. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was./ He climbed over the wall. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. e. i. Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni./ She showed it to me. Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? f. so we (decide) to go to bed. c. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she (write). d. The prisoner ran across the yard. când am aflat cã avusese un accident de masina. Translate into English: a. 3. e./ He put the wheel back on. Noi cunoşteam adevărul în momentul în care te-ai decis tu să ni-l spui./ They got back in the coach./ They took photos. h.

When the following words and phrases begin a sentence. e. She (say) that she (study) for two hours. f. i. I (write) for five hours. How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain? j. the subject and verb are inverted. e.g. A Make all the changes and additions necessary to produce correct sentences from the following sets of words and phrases./ Never has the company had such a successful year. 4. Inversion e. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o’ clock? She (watch) TV for an hour. as everybody (be) interested in the story of the prime minister. under no circumstances no sooner at no time not until Study the following pairs of sentences. No sooner/I start/write/report/someone/telephoned/me. Inversion is used mainly in formal English. 119 hardly scarcely rarely never (before) seldom only little . h.Business English d. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie on Channel 1. No sooner had I started to write the report when someone telephoned me. No wonder I (be) so tired. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes. No sooner has he hung up than Bill drops by his office for a chat. Note that the second sentence of each pair is more emphatic than the first and that the subject and auxiliary verb are inverted. a You should not smoke in this area under any circumstances. We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring. b The company has never had such a successful year.g. It (be midnight)./ Under no circumstances should you smoke in this area. g.

I my office sooner no in arrive rang did telephone the than c. d. disturbed no I be must circumstances under d. Rarely/our company/fail/meet/delivery dates. little redundant that soon he be made he realise does will h.Business English a. He (wait) for that letter for weeks when at last arrived. so as to make correct sentences. I (work) for about two hours when John came with a letter e. Begin each sentence with the word underlined. d. Under no circumstances/manager/rely on/memory/log/time. on did a only of lot the market put research after they the product e. been seldom after so I meeting have tired a b. have efficient I met a more rarely manager Rarely have I met a more efficient manager. my boss dropped my hardly report started had the I when 5. a. b. b. It was twenty minutes to three and he (wait) since two o’clock. f. e. 120 . e. Only/after three hours negotiations/we succeed/reach agreement/the final contract. Supply past perfect simple or continuous forms and past tense where necessary: a. Hardly/I finish/phone/my boss/drop into/my office. He (hope) to find John and was very disappointed when he didn’t. Mark looked at his watch. c. any to relax does she rarely have time f. c.g. Their hands were quite numb because they (make) a snowman. 1986 not factory our able to until were we buy own g. We (cook) all day for the party and by 8 o’clock we still weren’t ready. B Put the following words in the correct order. Not until/two years ago/company/begin/make/profits.

They (bring) in a patient who (swallow) a diamond ring. They all (look forward) to the excursion and were disappointed to hear it (be cancelled). She (know) about the accident because someone from the office (phone) her before I (arrive). When the police (enter) the bank the robbers already (escape). When I (see) her I (be) sure that we (meet) before. n. h. When I (get) on the train I (realize) that I (forget) my passport. j. He (not understand) a word until they (bring) an interpreter. 121 . q. i. we (find) that the plane (crash). She (be) up for three hours when the rest of the household awoke.Business English g. She (tell) me that she only once (see) a kangaroo in her life. k. He (wonder) where he (lose) his keys. o. m. When we (reach) the airport. p. l. r. Everyone (pack) until the last minute and no time (be left) to take the dog round to their neighbours.

which involved high human and material costs. Pay attention to the use of tenses: Past Tense for actions which were completed in the past (prior to 1989) and Future for actions which will take place later: Prior to 1989. The forced industrialization of the country had serious social repercussions: a great part of the population migrated to industrial areas. Look at the tenses of the verbs. 122 . Romania’s economy was organized on the communist model: it was hyper-centralized and nationalized. After 1989. the lack of competitiveness of domestic products on western markets and the collapse of the communist economic system called for a total reorganization of industry. Translate the text into Romanian.Business English Unit 9 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © A Short Presentation of the Romanian Economy Today © Future Simple © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks What do you understand by economy? What do you know about your county’s economy? Reading Read this text about Romanian economy.

WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Ownership: the fact of owning something: a dispute over the ownership of the land Estate: a large area of land in the country. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: 123 . Collectivization and state ownership of large estates led to a nationalized. usually with one owner or all of someone’s property and money. Soon after the communist regime was overthrown in 1989.Business English The agriculture also underwent essential changes during communism. The general political trend after the Revolution (the end of 1989) started to be and will still be the state’s almost complete withdrawal from the economy and construction of a freemarket economy. Thinking of the future. Romania’s main objective was… the preposition in introduces an Adverbial of time (in 1989). based on free competition and private initiative. Romania’s main objective was to bring real estate back into private ownership and to re-launch the freemarket economy. especially everything that is left after they die Achievement: something important that one succeeds in doing by his/her own efforts or the act of achieving something Prerequisite: something someone must have before they can be allowed to do something. we hope the Romanian economy will go on developing and meet European standards. inefficient agriculture. or which must exist before something else can happen In the sentence: Soon after the communist regime was overthrown in 1989. The prerequisites for development of a modern banking system are an independent National Bank and privatization. One of the most important economic achievements will represent the reviving of the credit system by reorganizing the banking system.

I shall be thirty next year. please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) 124 . in search of = în cãutare de. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary.) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me. Grammar Reference Future Simple Future Simple is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. We use will and shall in many other ways. in particular = în special. in quantity = în cantitate. in all together = în total. apart from predicting the future: e. Notes: 1.: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday. in common with = în comun cu. in return for = în schimbul a. in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã. in progress = în curs de. in such a manner = în aşa mod.Business English in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile. pentru ca. in order to/ that = ca sã. in itself = în sine. in contrast to/with = în contrast cu.g. in the beginning = la început. in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de.

I shall. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in -y early Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier 125 Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest . help him? shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She They Interrogative When shall will I we you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my project? Yes. That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me.Business English -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way. it may mean I don’t want to help you. we stay inside.) 2. I won’t is not common because it is impolite. Note: No. I’ll be grateful to you. When it rains.

the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John.).). the latter is a student in Foreign Languages). hot/ hotter/ the hottest. quantity. the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J.). etc. people used whale oil for lamps. 126 . the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play was probably lost. in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four).Business English heavy Adjectives with careful two or syllables expensive more than interesting rapid good bad little far* fore** late*** near**** not ending in -y difficult two syllables Irregular adjectives heavier more careful more expensive more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse less farther/ further former later/latter nearer the heaviest the most careful the most expensive the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the the first the latest/ the last farthest/ foremost/ the the furthest many/ much more the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives with one vowel and one consonant double the consonant: fat/ fatter/ the fattest. *** Later means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Management.) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times. * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you. the first means initial (Americans claim that the first underground oil well was drilled in the United States. further/ the furthest are used in relation to time. (Give me further details in order to understand it better. Fowles.).).). °° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively. The latter has also an abstract meaning.

Crezi cã veţi avea timp faceţi proiectul la contabilitate? 2. Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. e. the bigger your salary will be. there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives which are very common in technical English texts: Form: the+ comparative ./ Forces are not of least importance for an engineer. c. (The next bus comes in an hour. the+ comparative .. Va deveni necesar sã gãsim noi resurse de energie.) Examples: There are two forces F1 and F2. Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã.. Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã./ This welder is the foremost worker in our workshop. This is a good conductor of electricity./ This is Newton’s first law of motion. The more efficient you become. the next refers to order. The faster you are in typing.. Comparative Sentences In relation with the degrees of comparison..Business English ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest oil pump?). b. Translate into English: a.../ This is the best machine in the exhibition by far. the less time you will need. There is little advantage in using rotary drilling on this field. Controlled practice 1./ We need a better conductor. d. the former is the greater. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A 127 B ../ There is less oil in this tank than in the other one.

expressing future hope e. Will you send me an e-mail? 5. threatening they’ll understand. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. Will there be a general strike? 3. f. Explain it to them again. 8. Aceastã ofertă devine din ce în ce mai tentantă. He is (lazy) student in the class. promising/ stating an intention time. 9. 10. h. g. Presiunea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul. e. cu atât mai uşor îţi va fi în viitor.b. Translate into English: a. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. i. Shall we take a drive into the b. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. I’ll report you to the police next g. Avem nevoie de mai multe calculatoare ca să fim mai eficienţi. a. Will you have dinner with us on i. The wedding will take place next h. 128 . dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta. . stating a planned arrangement I’m sure. expressing future uncertainty f. Cu cât înveţi să faci calculele mai repede. Shall I go to the library for you? 6. b. 2. j. 11. Perhaps j. asking for a prediction Saturday. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets: a.Business English 1. c. cu atât mai bine. iar al doilea este mai mare. making an invitation Friday. Ideea ta e mai bunã. We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight. making a prediction c. making a request d. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4. offering country later? 7. Dintre cele douã rapoarte. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã. d. Contabilul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi. primul este mai mic. 4. making a suggestion Sunday? 3.

I’ll never eat and drink as much as that again! I was sick as a ………………on the way home. The latest Mercedes model is of course ……. Where is everyone? It’s as silent as……………in here! a Sunday b the grave c death d a tomb 2.. Now learn a few idioms of comparison.……. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working for now.. a an athlete b sunshine c rain d roses 3. too expensive. they are …….. for common people. b. 6. yet if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it. e. Yet at the same time you should think that. She found (little) errors in John’s programme than in Mary’s one. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly. Today. Jimmy’s feeling a bit under the weather today. a dog b horse c pig d poodle 129 . c or d): 1. (Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology. The Electrolite is . d. the largest. (great) care is taken to prevent accidents. Fill in the blanks with one suitable word (a. than the others as it is equipped with a filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it.Business English b. c.. The pressure in such working conditions was (big) than expected. more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. He was unable to get (far) information. g. f. and …….. 5. but I expect he’ll be as right as…………by the weekend. the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. the most expensive.. even if their cars are very ellegant and ……. In this unit you have learnt about comparison.

Business English 4. a ditchwater b a don as…………………. You shouldn’t have frightened her like that. No matter what happens. Liz. but don’t worry. “I hope children didn’t play you up. Honestly. You’re not getting enough to eat. Pam. We can’t eat this meat-it’s as tough as………………. a a pony b snowflakes c a lamb d washing-up liquid 14. both my wife and I found it to be as dull as……………….! a a sheet b snow c milk d whitewash 8. He’s as strong as……………… a an elephant b a mountain c a gorilla thin as a ……………. It’s hard to believe Brian and Stephen are brothers. My father’s as deaf as………………. Poor thing! She went as white as……………. a Mars from Jupiter b milk from honey margarine from butter 11. a stick insect b rake a canvas b old boots c finger c rubber d wire d stale bread 6. isn’t it? They’re as different as……………. Karen! Look at you! You’re as 130 . Doreen?” c a dungeon d a museum 12. a a fighter b a fiddle c a frog d an athlete 13. he always seems to remain as cool as………………… a cold feet b ice-cream c a cucumber d an Eskimo 9. 7. I’m afraid. a a leaf b a post c a politician d a stone 10. You’ll have to shout. Fido’s as gentle as…………………-especially with children. ever since I’ve given up smoking I feel as fit c chalk from cheese d d a horse 5.. Our dog looks very ferocious. Nothing ever seems to bother Collin. Ask David to give a hand moving the furniture. Although we had been told that the film was very exciting.

a punch b a poppy c a sunflower d pound notes 20. we have. Mrs Gardener. They’ve been as good as…………….” a Solomon a a pancake d a bell 19. I hope the computer course starts this term. The joke’s as old as………………. it’s as light as………………” a dust b lighting c a feather d a fish 16. We’ll all as keen as ……………… to get going. “The suitcase isn’t too heavy. I wish the new secretary would cheer up! She’s been as miserable as………………for the past week. Kathy was as pleased as………………when she heard she had passed the exam. Of course he loves you! It’s as plain as ……………… b the knob of your door 131 . have you heard the one about the Welshman. not at all. the Irishman and the pig?” “Yes. a a monk b death c a banker d sin 17.Business English “No. is it?” “No. “By the way. a coffee b mustard c a gigolo d cornflakes b the hills c a dinosaur d Jupiter c the nose on your face 18. a religion b gold c God d brass 15.

A. soon/ happy. B. better/ happy. 12. sooner/ happier.. B. A. better/ happier. You …….. D. What exactly are you looking……. in.? I ……. wasn’t/ was. If this proposal is …….. have you been/ have looked. there …. Where ……. 132 . were writing/ entered. C. didn’t know/ had to 8. A. B. D. 4. good/ good. were you/ looked. B. isn’t going/ took.. B.. B. D. I am. D. doesn’t go/ has taken. A.. but last week there was a strike of the tram workers and he ……. possibly accept his offer. the ……. What are you looking ……. better/ best. my glasses and I can’t find them anywhere. B. The ……. I ……. we don’t mind.? A.Business English Test I. wrote/ entered.. for you everywhere. D. can/ the worst. C. ? I ……. A. haven’t known/ must. have you been/ have been looking. an essay when I ……. C. Where ……. 3. C. won’t/ worst. C. C. for/ have lost.. 9. A. Choose the best variant: 1. The ……. B. B. hasn’t been/ was. D.. on.. last summer? I ……. couldn’t/ worse. than the other one. C. for 7. wasn’t/ has been. were you/ was looking. I ……. doesn’t go/ took. was arriving/ in.. I arrive home. wouldn’t/ bad. arrived/ in. to the seaside. to school by tram. was arriving/ on 6.. the nick of time.. D. the room. 5. C. 10.. arrived / on. at/ lost.here since she ……… 14. didn’t know/ have to. He ……. D. B. A. D. doesn’t go/ takes. than ours. A. C. better/ better. in/ have lost. hasn’t been.. don’t know/ had to. A. C. better/ good.. of/ lost. D. about. 2. She ……. what decision to make. wrote/ entered. C. so I ……. 11. one will be appreciated by everybody. the bus. ask my supervisor. as it was ……. A. B. were writing/ was entering. I …….. D..

18.. B.. The quicklier we learn English. C. The sooner we learn English. The quicklier we teach English. The translation of Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. C. 17. faster/ faster. Have you read/ saw. the faster/ the fastest. D. 15. The quick we learn English. have gone/ have gone. but the plane is ……. so he ……. D. When ……. C. B. D. 13. of. How much did you sell your car ……. Had you read/ had seen. D. at. for/ didn’t hear. I ……… to him for ages. ……… the novel before we ……. Had you read/ saw. 16. C. A. did you go/ have gone. did you go/ went. the better it is. D. II. B. the better it is.. with/ didn’t hear. with. to John? Oh. C..Business English A. B. what I was saying. Put each of the following phrases in its correct place in the sentences below. He was preoccupied …… solving that problem. A. the better it is. Did you read/ saw. of all. B. B. B. in/ hasn’t heard. for.? A. have you gone/ went. Naturally the President’s wife received the ………… on her visit. D. the better it is. a white-collar job a white lie rose-coloured spectacles a green belt 133 . C.. have you last written/ haven’t written. The train is ……. than the bus. faster/ the faster. C. did you last write/ haven’t written. faster/ the fastest. 14. red-carpet treatment a red herring blue-eyed boy to see red black sheep a. for/ hasn’t heard. did you last write/ wrote. A. have you last written/ wrote.. is : A. D.. the film? A. cu atât mai bine.

A. B. C. D. i. 12. 2. red carpet treatment. h. f. a.. 5. B. 7. a red herring.50 points per each good answer 1 point + 1 point per each good answer 134 . You can’t go through life looking at the world through …………… h. Everybody in the family knows that he is the …………. In class. A. 17. 6. to see red. Answer key: 1. i. c. Everyone thinks he’ll be Director of the firm one day. b.. g. d. 18. d. of open country where building is restricted. e. a green belt.. A. He told ………………. A. All round the city there is ……………. A. c. B. 1 point + 0. 9. f. He’s the …………………. 8.. a white lie. A.. A. when she sees one being badly treated.to avoid hurting his wife’s feelings. 4. 14. B. She loves animals and tends ……………. D. g. C. D. 13. 10. a white-collar job. 3.. 15. Be realistic. blue-eyed boy. He said he didn’t want to have ………………and sit in an office all day. 11.. D. to distract the teacher from correcting their homework. rose-coloured spectacles. black sheep.Business English b. 16. C. pupils sometimes introduce ………………. e..

Pay attention to the use of Future tenses. One of their key tasks is to make major decisions affecting the future of the organisation. For example. whether new products will be developed within the organisation or acquired by buying other companies. PLANNING AND STRATEGY The top management of a company have certain unique responsibilities. the management must be sure of one thing. how expansion is to be financed. These and other such decisions shape a company’s future. They must decide what is the mission and purpose of their 135 . top managers must decide which markets to enter and which to pull out of.Business English Unit 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Planning and Strategy © Be going to Future © Future Simple or be going to? © First Conditional •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading task How important do you consider planning an action before actually performing it? Why? Reading Read the following text on planning and strategy. These strategic decisions determine where the company is going and how it will get there. Before doing any kind of strategic planning.

Vail and his colleagues decided that giving service would be the mission and purpose of the organisation. As soon as it has established its more 136 . They also need to decide what it should be in the future. Ten years later there were nine market stores. and Marks had taken into partnership Tom Spencer. Most people have heard of Marks and Spencer. They decided on their mission some sixty or so years ago. At that point. Michael Marks opened his first penny bazaar in 1884. the cashier of one of his suppliers. If the company didn’t perform well. at reasonable prices. it had to give efficient service to its customers. Later on. For example. Another objective may be to increase its market share by 10% in the next five years. One of the strategies they used was to concentrate on selling clothing and textiles. food products were added as a major line of business. The second example concerns the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. an organisation will have worked out certain more specific objectives. Their later success was founded on this idea. Having decided on its mission and purpose.Business English business. the other American. Providing value for money was their mission and purpose. Two examples will make this point clear — one British. in Leeds. England. the public would call for its nationalisation. around that time. In other words. This became the overall objective of the company. one of the biggest and most successful retailers in the world. to customers from the working and middle classes. They decided that the company was in business to provide goods of excellent quality. they developed a clear idea of Marks and Spencer’s mission and purpose. Deciding the mission and purpose is the foundation of any planning exercise. To avoid this fate. In 1926 Marks and Spencer became a public company. they could have rested on their laurels! However. Theodore Vail. The head of the organisation at that time. realised that a privately-owned telephone and telegraphic company might easily be nationalised. they must know why the business exists and what its main purpose is. and has remained so ever since. a car firm may have the objective of producing and marketing new models of cars in the medium-price range.

output and productivity. Next. medium-term objectives. it carries out an analysis. Its purpose is to indicate the strategies the management will use to achieve its objectives. It also examines the activities of competitors. products and facilities. assessing its strengths and weaknesses. sometimes called a SWOT analysis (strengths. It also examines its resources — financial. First. the company may develop another strategy. However. On the other hand. weaknesses. For example. the issuing of new shares to the public. opportunities and threats). Having completed the SWOT analysis. It looks at performance indicators like market share. The organisation decides what actions 80 it will take and how it will provide the resources to support those actions. from the point of view of opportunities and threats. the planners have to look at the company’s present performance. sales revenue. a department store chain may have stores in good locations — a strength — but sales revenue per employee may be low — a weakness. The department store chain. before deciding strategies. increasing competition may be a threat to its very existence. economic and political trends in the markets where it is competing. They will ask themselves questions such as: Are we producing the right products? What growth rate should we aim at in the next five years? Which new markets should we break into? The remaining task is to develop appropriate strategies to achieve the objectives. To finance this.Business English specific. the company looks at external factors. for example. Once they have been carried out. may see the opportunity to increase profits by providing financial services to customers. the company can draw up a corporate plan. objectives and targets 137 . and at any external factors which might affect its future. social. the organisation examines its current performance. the company can now evaluate its objectives and perhaps work out new ones. It is trying to assess technological. Company planning and strategic decision-making are key activities of top management. To do this. One strategy may be to build a new factory to increase production capacity. human.

an organisation may re-consider its objectives. pânã la. The first step in planning the (long-term) future of a company is to decide on its overall objective.Business English can be set at lower levels in the organisation. from the point of view of opportunities and threats. opportunities and threats. depending on the order in which they appear in the text. 138 . to = de la. How do you translate from? Now learn some expressions containing this preposition: from first to last = de la A la Z. de la început pânã la sfârşit.. a. d. Read this sentence again: Next. The purpose of a corporate plan is to state how management intends to achieve the objectives. g. management needs to decide what actions it should take in order to achieve its objectives. 2. It is necessary for management to analyse the company’s current performance as well as external factors affecting its future before they can draw up a corporate plan. Marks and Spencer’s aim to provide excellent value for money has led to their becoming one of the world’s most successful retailers. weaknesses. After analysing its strengths. from. e. c. f.. h. The second planning stage is to establish more specific (mediumterm) objectives. b.. Understanding the main points Number the following ideas l—8. Ways with words 1. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company decided that its principal objective was to provide customers with an efficient service. Finally. the company looks at external factors. from this point of view = din acest punct de vedere..

) 2 set-up (n. Use an English-Romanian dictionary in order to translate their meaning. separat de. far be it from me = departe de mine. far from it = departe de acest lucru. How do you translate to set? Now learn some phrasal verbs and compound nouns with set. 1 When the Managing Director …………………… to change the management structure.Business English from experience = din experienţã.g. no one thought he had a chance of succeeding. 139 of our .) 7 set out (v. make a record of B Complete the following sentences. e.) 6 set in (v. Read the following sentence again: Once they have been carried out.) a keep for a special purpose b establish a business or organisation c something that slows or impedes progress d an organisation or arrangement e start to do.) 3 set back (v. or deal with.) 4 set-back (n. 3. 1 set up (v.) 5 set about (v. using suitable verbs and nouns from the list above.No one seems to have any money at the moment. objectives and targets can be set at lower levels in the organisation. 4 The new Marketing Manager doesn’t understand the department yet.) 9 set aside (v. 2 The strike of our shop floor workers …………………….) j write. production at least three months. apart from = în afarã de.) h start and probably continue 10 set down (v. a journey i balance against 8 set against (v. something f put back or delay the development of something g begin an undertaking of some kind. 3 It looks as if a recession is about to …………………………… . A Match the following verbs and nouns with the correct definitions.

How annoying! 7 How on earth are we going to ……………………… reducing our costs? 8 Most companies …………………… a part of their profits for future investment. Although our company wants to expand rapidly. After we had listened to him. e. Now complete the following sentences with appropriate verbs... etc. what happened in a report. The money is kept in their reserves.. It is important to …………………into account all options to ………………… a decision.… the conclusion that we must reduce costs by 10%. we were able to ………………… to an agreement. b. 10 If an employee has an accident at work. The Financial Director has…………. we must…………… in mind that we have limited cash to do so. we …………………… the 140 . Finally. to solve a problem. last year when our warehouse caught fire and our stock was destroyed. f. Other examples could be: to take into account. Read the following sentence again: One of their key tasks is to make major decisions affecting the future of the organisation. If we don’t come up with new products.Business English 5 It is a common practice of companies to ………………. the Chairman ……………………his opinion about the matter. 4. a. certain business losses ………………taxes. 6 One of our competitors has ……………………a distribution network covering the whole country. c. 9 We had a big ………………. Patricia …………………… an interesting suggestion at the meeting. d. A collocation refers to words which are frequently grouped together. he or she has to……………………. To make a decision is called a collocation.

After you have made a deal with an overseas agent. What do you do if your main competitor is doing better than you in the market? (work out) c. Our chairman is too old for the job.Business English risk of falling behind our competitors. Read the following sentence again: Having completed the SWOT analysis. i. h. 5. what do you usually do? (draw up) d. How can you find out if there will be a demand for a product you wish to develop? (carry out) e. I have …………………… a great deal of thought to our financial problems. What does a firm often have to do if it is not successful in a market? (pull out) b. I don’t want to ……………………… action until I’ve heard everyone’s opinion. l. After five hours’ negotiation. The writer has ………………… some recommendations in his report. What conclusion have you …………………… from the facts given in his letter? j. How do you translate to work out? Now learn more phrasal verbs containing the particle out. pull out break into brackets. k. a. Look them up in the dictionary and translate them. Some of the directors ……………… pressure on him to resign. g. the company can now evaluate its objectives and perhaps work out new ones. What can you do if the demand for your products in your home 141 carry out draw up work out Answer the following questions in any way you wish using the verbs in . we finally …………………… agreement.

When reviewing my performance. intention. Patricia? f. point out hold out make out (two meanings) have out stand out cut out (two meanings) a. e. c. so at my next salary review. I’m going to ………………… it…………………… with him. h. I think I …………………… among all the candidates because my qualifications for the job were so good. How long are they going to stay in Brasil? She isn’t going to attend this optional Economy course. She’s too busy to hold them then. d. Now learn more phrasal verbs containing the particle out. 142 . using the suitable forms of the verbs given below. Mr Jones……………………… several weaknesses. Sheila wants to……………………… the training sessions she runs on Friday afternoon. Complete the following sentences. Grammar Reference Be going to Future Be going to Future is used • to express a future decision. I’m fed up with my boss criticising me all the time. He said that I was not ………………… for a career in banking.Business English market is saturated? (break into) 6. I shall …………………for a lot more money. b. g. or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. How did you ……………………… in the interview. I’m a valuable member of the organisation. Can you read David’s writing? I can’t …………………… what he’s put on this report.

Future Simple or Be Going To? Look at the use of Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: 143 . I’m going home. Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes.Business English Note: The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement. I’m not. particularly with the verbs go and come. • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain. Its form consists of the verb to be in Present+to+infinitive Affirmative and negative I He She It We You They Interrogative When am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they going to arrive? am (‘m) am (‘m) not is (’s) is not (isn’t) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) going to work. I am. No. She’s coming on Monday. Watch out! The box is going to fall.

I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you.) First Conditional The first conditional is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes. we you are late. we you are not polite. We’ll destroy the environment if you don’t look after it. (I decided to learn English at the moment of speaking.. (I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge). Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. I’ll buy this car. I ’ll she has enough money. “My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. I know. buy that new book on MathCad. she pass my exams. won’t she we don’t hurry up. pass her exams Mathematics. talk to you anymore. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. What language shall I learn? Er. she she doesn’t learn. Main Clause Present/ Future Affirmative and negative If I work hard..Business English I’m going to improve my English. Interrogative What Where will will you do she go if you don’t go to any university? she can’t find a job? If Clause Present in Controlled practice 1. be late wait for you. This is replaced by the present. I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea. he’ll go to university. If he passes the baccalaureate.” 144 .

i. h. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week. g. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. He (make) a speech. We bought our new garage in sections and we (assemble) it ourselves. That man with the tomato in his hand (throw) it at the singer. I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on trip to Kilimanjaro. Use be going to or shall/will future with the verbs in brackets: a.” c. Use the be going to-form with the verbs in brackets: a.” 145 . 3. Now I (read) the book. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain. Those swans (eat) all our sandwiches.” “I’m sorry to hear that. e.” d. c.” b. The Lord Mayor is standing up. d. I (come) and help you if you like. I (telephone) for them right now. d. It’s impossible to do it unless you take everything out. c. I (stop) here for a moment to get some petrol. no I forgot. I (send) him some grapes.” e. I’ve lent you my car once. The pressure cooker (explode). I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations! e. it’s leaking and I think a tile has slipped.” 2. “Why do you want all the furniture out of the room?” “Because I (shampoo) the carpet.Business English b. “He has just been taken to hospital with a broken leg. I (not do) it again. The man in the helicopter (try) to rescue the man in the water. f. You (miss) the train if you carry on like this.” “That sounds rather interesting. “Did you remember to book seats?” “Oh. “Where are you off with that ladder?” “I (have) a look at the roof. I have seen the play. b.

I (not get) all wet and muddy and pretend that I’m enjoying it. he (confiscate) the camera.Business English f. “Why have you brought your camera? You (try) to take photographs? It’s not allowed. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? 5. o sã ţi-l spun.” i. e. f. d. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. but what do you want them for?” “I (make) a bonfire at the end of the garden. c. be careful. eşti binevenit. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper? d. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani. 146 . “You (wear) that nice dress in a dinghy?” “Of course not! I (sit) on the pier and (watch) you all sailing. I want to burn that big heap of rubbish.” g. What happens if you don’t pass this exam? b.” 4. “I can’t understand this letter. Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. Translate the following sentences into English: a. If the fire gets too big it (burn) the apple trees. What presents will you buy if you go to that party? c.” “Never mind. If a policeman sees you. Dacã voi putea. Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti.” “I (call) my son. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job? e. you know.” h.” “Well. How much do you want?” j.” “No. I (lend) you some. “I’ve come out without any money. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. b. Voi spãla paharele în apã fierbinte. He (translate) it for you. I (try) to sell the camera. either.” “That’s not allowed. “Here are the matches.

7. Dacã le vei pune în apã fierbinte se vor sparge. If you read in bad light you (ruin) your eyes. k.Business English Nu. Dacã aştepti o clipã. I (lend) you my car if you promise to take care of it. Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work. If the police catch him they (arrest) him. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. m. John: Good. darling. voi mai sta un an aici. f. şi vrea sã renunte la şcoalã la sfârşitul semestrului. If he (be) late we’ll go without him. h. If you eat all that you (be) ill. nu-i de mirare cã lumea te ocoleşte. d. n. I (arrive) at the hotel.. If I see him I (give) him a lift. voi începe studiile în toamnã. Dacã va face asta. o. I (ring) you ………. Put if. Dacã voi primi permis de lucru. Have a good trip. întrebã-l pe tatãl tãu. vom impune mãsuri şi mai severe. h. but remember I’m going out. i. Maria: Thanks. j. If you heat ice it (turn) to water. and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye. j. 6. spune-i sã-mi telefoneze. e. Câinele nu te va ataca dacã vei sta liniştit. b. Dacã îl vei întâlni pe Jerry la facultate. Unless you work very hard you (not be) successful. l. 147 . c. Dacã tot faci remarci nepotrivite. g. i. when. Dacã nu mã crezi. vin si eu cu tine. Are doar şaisprezece ani. Dacã cumva aceste mãsuri nu vor restabili ordinea. g. o sã-i parã rãu mai târziu. nu face asta. If he (not start) at once he’ll be late for the train. Dacã voi fi acceptat la colegiu. or as soon as into each gap.

. and I (pick) you up.00. the plane (arrive) on time. Give me a ring ………..00 your time.Business English Maria: Well. I (be) at the hotel at about 10... Maria: Thanks. you know the time of your flight back. I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely. Bye! 148 ... What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: ………. That’s 8. darling. John: All right.. John: Great. I (ring). And remember. you (be) out ……….. …….

The Quality of Working Life Over the last thirty years. Followers of the Quality of Working Life movement (QWL) have been trying out various methods of making work more interesting.Business English Unit 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © The Quality of Working Life © The Ordinal Numeral © The Fractional Numeral © The Multiplicative Numeral © Second Conditional •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-Reading Task Which is the best way to increase workers’ efficiency? Work in pairs and make a few suggestions. Those favouring it say that the way to increase workers’ efficiency is to improve their job satisfaction and motivation. With job enlargement. a new approach to management has been developing. the worker is given additional tasks to perform. Job enrichment involves giving extra responsibilities to workers such 149 . Reading Read the following text on the quality of working life. the operator of a word-processor may be asked to do filing duties as well. Pay attention to the ordinal. fractional and multiplicative numerals. These include job enlargement. job enrichment and new forms of group work. Thus.

assembly workers do not work on a moving production line. quality control and technical development of equipment. especially their social relationships at work. at the Volvo car plant in Kolmar. the researchers soon directed their attention towards studying people. Once again. To help them in their search. therefore. even challenging job. As it can be seen. In some organisations. like assembling heating and electrical systems. They are organised into thirty teams of fifteen to twenty members. The roots of the QWL movement can be traced back to the 1920s and 1930s. However. to be sensitive to the needs of employees. Their aim. This led them to look for the human factor influencing efficiency. It all began when the Hawthorne Company investigated the effect of factory lighting on production and workers’ morale. they brought in Professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues. They have their own tasks. USA. 150 . it was found that there was an increase in productivity whether conditions were made better or worse. special types of work groups have been formed where workers share responsibility for certain tasks. and they work in their own part of the factory. The researchers generally discussed the changes with the girls before putting them into effect. lunch times. They found out that the groups of workers who were studied increased their output whether the lighting was improved or not. In the early experiments.Business English as production planning. QWL encourages managers. Such things as lighting. his subjects were a group of girls who assembled telephone equipment. These were held at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago. He directed a series of experiments on how working conditions affected output. rest periods. pay and temperature were varied to see how they affected productivity. It was at this time that the famous Hawthorne Studies were carried out. For example. was to evaluate the factors influencing productivity. Sweden. a Harvard University psychologist. wall colours. initially. the basic idea of QWL is that a worker should have an interesting. Most of the studies were directed by Professor Elton Mayo. from 1927—32.

This was because they had been fairly free to work at their own pace and to divide their work up amongst themselves. and his/her status within that group. The feeling of belonging to a group. Ways with words 1. Another important finding was that a worker needs more than money and good working conditions to be productive. strongly affect his/her behaviour — even if the group is an unofficial or informal one. The idea of job enlargement is to make work more satisfying for an 151 . He directed and publicized the Hawthorne experiments which have been so influential to this day. a. Both men. changed the course of management thinking. Managers who believe in QWL are experimenting with new ways or organising work. It is said that Elton Mayo founded the Human Relations School whose offspring is the Quality of Working Life movement. The researchers came to the conclusion that social relations. Secondly. among workers and between workers and their bosses. They realised that their study was also about workers’ attitudes and values. This high morale was put down to several factors. Understanding the main points Decide whether the following statements are true or false.Business English The researchers began looking for other factors which would explain the increased productivity. Lastly. It was clear that the girls had developed a high morale during the experiment and had been motivated to work hard. The conclusions of the study challenged the theory of Scientific Management put forward by Frederick W. affect output. This experiment was followed by many others. b. they had developed good relationships with each other and with their superior during the experiment. however. the girls had enjoyed feeling they were especially selected for the study and were receiving a lot of attention from management. the quality of work and motivation. Taylor. First. the good relationships and social contacts had made their work more enjoyable.

to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî. to make up for lost time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut. Read this sentence again: Once again. a ceda. a pretinde ca şi cum. to make over = a transfera. to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile. e. The Kolmar car plant is efficient because workers specialise in one task. to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum. a închide etanş. to make believe = a face sã creadã. d. to make short work of/ sth = a scurta. to make a stand = a se opune. a finaliza. The QWL approach makes managers more aware of their workers’ interests. a (se) pregãti. to make use of = a întrebuinţa. a demonstra. to make it clear = a clarifica. to make it possible = a face posibil. Job enrichment involves giving workers more tasks of the same level of difficulty. a etanşeiza. a face ca şi cum. to make sure of = a se asigura de. a face ceva repede. a termina. it was found that there was an increase in productivity whether conditions were made better or worse. a redacta. to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma. to make tight = a ermetiza. c. to make ready = a fi gata. to make for = a contribui. 152 . to make an attempt = a face o încercare.Business English employee. 2. a profita la maximum de. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs. to make out = a înţelege.

……..…. a mistake. someone a favour.…….. He ………… his own way in life. to do wonders = a face minuni.. …. ……. . . a face ceva cu ochii închişi. a mess.... an appointment. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.……. ……. ……. to do sbd. Why do you ………… a lot of ado? It’s cold in here. to do one’s best = a face tot ce-i posibil. 3. an excuse.. to do with = a avea de-a face cu.. 4. .. to do the donkey work = a munci din greu. . Put make or do before the following nouns: ……. ………… haste! 153 .…….... Fill in with DO or MAKE: I …………it my way. What shall I ………… without her? He ………… a name for himself. ……. ….g... a cup of tea.. to have sth.. you’d better ………… the fire. to do harm = a face rãu..Business English to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru. ………… they? They had to ………… away with it.……. your bed. with your eyes closed = a şti ceva foarte bine..……. sense. .. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way. They work hard. . my homework. How did you ………… this problem? He recognized that he had ………… a mistake.a noise. Oh.up your mind.. your best. there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make: e. a phone call. a good turn/ a favour = a face cuiva o favoare. …. the shopping. 5. to do sth.sure. .

How do you translate them? Now complete the following sentences. (clean) He ………… a copy of his birth certificate. to carry out. 6.Business English Are you …………science at school? I can’t ………… this sum. I’ll ………… all I can. We are bound to ………… progress in this field. That’s a practice that should be ………… away with. using suitable forms of the verbs in the box below. Please. Old Mr. sort out make out pull out spell out 154 carry out sell out turn out . I’ll ………… a man of you. Don’t ………… a fool of him! Go and …………your hair. In the text you have read there are some phrasal verbs containing out: to find out. You’ll ………… it a start. He ………… his best to help us. He ………… eyes at me. I have a lot of correspondence to ………… . He ………… a success in appearing on TV. I am sure he is ………… for. (ruined) This room needs ………… out. Can you ………… the difference? He ………… a speech in my honour. He ………… a gesture of disgust. Brown has been ………… for me since my wife died (perform domestic services) Poor fellow. He ………… an interesting discovery. don’t ………… such a fuss. Tell the housemaid to ………… the bedrooms.

using the suitable words and phrases given below. f. Givenchy have …………………… an exciting new perfume. We’re looking for a new chief executive. h.our production problems soon. Use some of the verbs above in sentences of your own. . A group of senior managers want to take over the firm by ……………… it……………… j. In order to develop new products. And if you needed extra money 155 . (2) too. d. pharmaceutical companies have to ………………. The firm………………………. carburettors. We were well paid and we had a productivity ………………. If the firm doesn’t make a profit.. the owners will probably …………………. about five hundred sports cars a year.. Things like spark plugs. please? g. I understand one or two possible candidates have already been …………. and so on. We hope to ………………….. b. Several leading banks such as Barclays have……………………… of South Africa. c... but would you first………………… the advantages of the system. i.Business English bring out buy out sound out a.… a lot of research.. Complete the following passage. assembly line bonus capacity component foreman lay off layout redundant schedule incentive overtime shift quality control robot ‘I used to work in a company which made …………………… (1) for cars. I’m willing to consider introducing flexitime. please? e. 6. Would you …………………… the cheque to David Cotton.

(14) to do my job! So I’ll be out of a job again soon. They gave prizes. our production ………………… (10) did increase and stock levels became high again. c or d). At first.. such as car radios. Would you believe it. The ……………… (8) people weren’t too pleased either because a number of carburettors had faults. (3). you usually had the chance to do a bit of …………………. the company brought in some management consultants. The management was generous. I’m working on an ………………… (13) in a car manufacturing factory. They studied our methods of work. That meant changing the whole ………………… (9) of the factory. the management decided to cut down the work-force. Well. we did as they said. It is only a……………………… a matter of time b course of time c length of time 156 before the firm closes down. That was a real……………………(4) for us not to be sick! We worked two………………(5) at the factory — I usually worked at night.Business English for a holiday. 1. I hear they’re bringing in ………………. He let you get on with the job. I spray the car bodies. In the end.’ 7. Nowadays. How do you translate at this time? Now complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a. so they were thrown away. I liked the …………………(6) a lot. The trouble is. (7). . I must say. Things changed two years ago. only a few workers were ……………… (11). The Production Manager got really upset when we got behind……………….. b. to workers who attended regularly. We got several big orders at once and just couldn’t cope. but later staff from all departments were made………………… (12). then recommended automating part of the plant. Read the following sentence again: It was at this time that the famous Hawthorne Studies were carried out.

Some workers like to ………………………… doing a job. a wait their time b spare their time c spend their time d take their time 7. When I visited our subsidiary in West Germany.everyone was most hospitable. a mark b image c sight d sign 5.Business English d stage of time 2. We must not have it too early or too late. The fact that many small shops are closing down is a ……………………… of the times. but they can be very……………………… a time-consuming b time-saving c time-losing d time-costing 4. a time-log b time-delay c time-hold d time-lag 3. a wonderful experiences 157 . I had ………………… . It is important that we get the…………………… of our sales campaign right. There is usually a………………………between when you sell goods and when you get paid by your customer. a moment b point c timing d time 6. Meetings are necessary.

06 one point nought six 158 .Business English b the best of times c good times d the time of my life 8.000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1. We had a drink together …………………… . a for the sake of good times b for old times sake c in memory of good old times d for the good old days Grammar Reference The Ordinal Numeral The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seveteenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieh 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1.000. I bumped into a former colleague recently.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.04 (nought) point nought four 1.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second The Fractional Numeral The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56.

I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles. etc. ranches. have to work so hard. (But I’m not Prime Minister.Business English The Multiplicative Numeral The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single. If I were Prime Minister. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold. ten times 100x a hundredfold. tell it to us immediately. she I didn’t have debts. We can always say But. I’d have a party. palaces. If Clause Past Subjunctive you were me? . Main Clause Present Conditional Affirmative and negative I had more money. I she knew the answer. four times 10x tenfold. a hundred times Second Conditional The second conditional is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future.. (But my house is very small.) If I lived in a big house.) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive). three times 4x fourfold. The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. I Interrogative What would you do 159 If would (’d) wouldn’t if buy a new computer.. the verb in the conditional clause is in the past subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons.

ţi le-aş spune. E aşa deprimant sã aştepti în întuneric. Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest anticlinal. Este moştenire de la bunicul meu. d. b. Dacã am avea chibrite am putea face focul. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. E asa de bogat? Dacã n-ar fi bogat. cu sigurantã cã n-ar sta la “Savoy”. l. g. 2. h. i. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta? c. N-aş vinde acest tablou pentru tot aurul din lume. Dacã n-ar fi aşa timidã. I’d like to hear her news if she were here. e. d. k. we would go inside. L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit. Dacã ar fi aici am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. Dacã i-as şti adresa i-aş putea scrie. you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. e. If I knew it. Translate the following sentences into English: a. Dacã ai vrea. Dar sã-ţi spun cinstit n-am chef sã lucrez toatã noaptea. If you could do it. m. Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. b. c. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. Dacã am munci toatã noaptea am putea termina la timp. f.Business English Which countries would you visit you travelled round the world? Controlled practice 1. De-am avea o luminã. j. I would have told you the truth. ar putea sã se afirme mai mult. Stã la Hotelul “Savoy” la Londra. Ce-ai face dacã te-ai întâlni cu o stafie? n. Dacã mi-ar spune ce necazuri are. poate aş putea face ceva sã o 160 . If it rained.

n-aş spune nimic despre asta. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. g. c. what you (do)? j. 161 . If you saw somebody drowning. f. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? g. i. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. I’d ask him to dinner more often if he (be) more amusing. f. e. e. h. 3. Dacã aş fi în locul tãu. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I’d give up my job. I (not go) there if I were you. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. b. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come).Business English ajut. 4. c. d. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use. h. d. i. If I (have) a degree I could get a job easily. If I knew his address I (give) it to you. If I (know) French I could tell you what this means. If I thought that I’d be any use I (offer) to help. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: a. b. o. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arab.

MOTIVATION The work of managers is to ensure that staff work efficiently in an organisation. he presents a hierarchy of needs. By understanding the factors influencing motivation. they can create the conditions in which employees will perform to their maximum potential. Abraham Maslow. If you won a great deal of money. Pay attention to the use of articles. then. b. in groups of two or three. compare your answers. Compare the article in English with the article in Romanian. in a book entitled Motivation and Personality (1954). In his theory. He identified certain basic human needs and classified them in an ascending 162 . for example in a lottery. do you think you would lose anything by giving up work? Reading Read the following text on motivation. a. One of the best known theories of motivation was put forward by an American psychologist. would you continue working? If not. To achieve this. What sort of things motivates people to do their job well? List all the things you can think of.Business English Unit 12 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Motivation © The Indefinite Article © The Definite Article © Zero Article •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks Answer the following questions. it is clear that managers must know what motivates people.

they want to have selfrespect and to be esteemed by others. it stopped being a motivating factor. At the higher levels in a company. Maslow said that people satisfied their needs in a systematic way. Security needs They are the needs to be free from danger. Self-actualisation needs These are the highest needs. Maslow believed. water. to feel accepted by others and to develop affiliations. if a person was starving.Business English order of importance. air. status. he would start thinking about those other needs. according to Maslow. Until these needs are satisfied. social and security needs may be dominant. Basic needs were at the bottom of the hierarchy. he would not be too concerned about security and social needs. Social needs A human being needs to belong to a group. Herzberg conducted a number of studies in the region of Pittsburg. self-actualising needs may be very strong whereas at lower levels. higher needs at the top. He concluded that at work there are certain factors which cause job satisfaction 163 . They have a need for power. They include the need for clothing and shelter. USA. Studies have tended to show that needs vary greatly among individuals. is Frederick Herzberg’s ‘two-factor’ theory. to be liked and loved. to maximise potential and to achieve one’s goals. sleep etc. Another theory of motivation. But once he had enough food. They are the desire to develop. other needs will not motivate people. respect and self-confidence. Physiological needs These were things required to sustain life like food. When a need had been met. Research into Maslow’s theory has not been very conclusive. which has been very popular with managers. For example. physical pain and loss of a job. in the late 1950s. Esteem needs After people have satisfied their social needs.

work conditions. personal life. production workers have complete control over the work process in the grinding and polishing department. job security. As a result. The idea of such programmes is to make jobs more challenging and to give the worker a sense of achievement. They include things like a challenging job. The motivators deal with the question ‘Why work harder?’. Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory Motivators: achievement. 164 . At one car plant. As one writer has aptly put it. Hygiene factors are essential if workers are to be motivated. In a glass factory. status. challenging work. These include company policy and administration. Sweden has been leading the way in this respect. advancement. These factors give rise to positive satisfaction. relationship with colleagues. If Herzberg’s theory is true. Hygiene factors: company policy and administration. If they do not exist. recognition etc. status and personal life. they cause dissatisfaction. give increased satisfaction. It is worth noting that the hygiene factors refer to the context of the job . Herzberg’s two-factor theory is shown in the following diagram. These factors are considered to be only ‘dissatisfiers’. responsibility. Volvo workers assemble the whole of a car rather than do a few simple operations. If they do exist in quality and quantity. The group of factors bringing about satisfaction were called motivators. for example. responsibility recognition. it means that managers must pay great attention to job content. they deal with the question: ‘Why work here?’. salary and fringe benefits. not motivators.Business English while others lead to dissatisfaction.while the motivators refer to job content. They must find ways of making jobs more challenging and interesting. managers in the USA and elsewhere have recently been showing great interest in job enrichment programmes. job security. they do not. Herzberg called the other group of factors ‘hygiene’ or ‘maintenance’ factors.the conditions of work . quality of supervision. career prospects. however. the work itself. salary and fringe benefits.

believes that people satisfy their needs systematically. Esteem needs) e.Business English Other workers have helped to build and design paper mills. putting an end to uncertainty (paragraph 4) f. Senior managers who want to become company directors have selfactualisation needs which they wish to satisfy. Understanding the main points Decide whether the following statements are true or false. The purpose of job enrichment programmes is to increase worker motivation. d. a person’s position in relation to others (paragraph 2. 2. e. Job enrichment is undoubtedly catching on fast in Sweden. b. According to Maslow people are not concerned about achieving their personal goals in life unless they have satisfied their physiological needs. Herzberg believed that workers would not necessarily work harder if they earned more money. admired (paragraph 2. a. like Maslow. system of lower and higher ranks (paragraph 2) c. Ways with words 1. the most somebody or something is capable of (paragraph 1) b. Vocabulary focus Find words or phrases in the text which mean the same as the following: a. c. Herzberg. respected. Job security is one of the most important factors that motivates employees. f. final. feeling (paragraph 9) g. Esteem needs) d. becoming popular or fashionable (paragraph 10) 165 .

I put his mistake down to inexperience. scheme) explain or communicate clearly move to a later date postpone or delay give someone information about. to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva. e.Business English 3. Phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions with put put down to put forward put across put back put off put on to attribute. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte. How do you translate the phrasal verb to put forward? Now learn some phrasal verbs with put. to hand = la îndemânã. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. ici şi colo. 4. mai degeaba. Read the following sentence again: One of the best known theories of motivation was put forward by an American psychologist. Let’s learn some more containing the preposition to. I can put you on 166 . short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect. How do you translate the sentence A human being needs to belong to a group.g. propose (an idea. to the letter = întocmai. You need expertadvice about this. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum. suggest.g. e. în cea mai mare mãsurã. ad litteram. to advantage = cu profit/ folos. to this effect = în acest scop. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu. to date = la zi. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva. to little purpose = cu puţin efect.

c.g. put through put up put out put up with put one’s finger on put one’s foot in put paid to put in a good word for connect by telephone invest. Apparently a foreign investor has provided $lm to finance the project. Make any other necessary changes. Our sales have been low this quarter. Make any other necessary changes.Business English to a very good lawyer. a put someone out . I can’t postpone my visit. She knows a lot about the use of computers but she can’t seem to express her ideas clearly to the rest of us. His accident put paid to his chances of being promoted. B Complete the following sentences with phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions from the list above. h. provide money for. d. They’ve put up £50. I’m not surprised by our poor financial performance. a. replacing the words in italics with phrasal verbs or idiomatic expressions from the list above. e. endure find the cause of the trouble say the wrong thing or make an awkward mistake destroy.g.inconvenience him or her. recommend someone A Re-write the following sentences. My boss won’t accept any inefficiency from his staff. e. Our chairman has presented a proposal for a profit-sharing scheme.000 for the project. I’ve been trying to discover why the morale of the sales department is so low but I just can’t understand what the problem is. g. e. a. b. At such short notice. That’s ………………… to 167 . b put oneself out . f. I think we’d better hold the meeting a week later. ruin completely. I think it was caused by ineffective leadership.make a special effort tolerate.

You want to know the prices of houses in the United States? Sorry.. I can’t help. (on the phone) Hello . d. I …………………… it when I asked Mr Johnston how his wife was.. it is . the PX2 model. b. 5. the Marketing Manager ………………… (1) the subject of our new lawnmower. Complete the following passage with suitable verbs from the list above.. . 1 bring up 2 bring out 3 bring about 4 bring round to 5 bring down a reduce (a price) b persuade someone to change his/her opinion c raise. f. she’s just left him! g.. At our management meeting. Hold on a second.. yes. e.. I hope I’m not ………………… you ………………. mention a matter d cause to happen e put on the market ……………to make their stay 6. He mentioned that sales had been disappointing. You’d like to transfer to the Personnel Department. you ………………… to someone who can.Business English my chances of a bonus. The 168 . How do you translate to bring about? Now match the following verbs with the correct definitions. Apparently. When senior managers from head office come to visit us we really………………ourselves enjoyable.. I’ll……………you ………………. Read the following sentence again: The group of factors bringing about satisfaction were called motivators’. would you? Perhaps I can …………………… for you when I see the Personnel Manager. It’s very kind of you to ask me to dinner. but I can ……………. Mr Smith? Certainly. c.

1 catch sight of (v. find someone unprepared 9 catch fire (v. He advised us to forget about the PX2. technologically speaking.) 5 catch ones eye (v. How do you translate to catch on? Now learn some idiomatic uses of catch.something that would be a real breakthrough. show someone to be at fault. He presented his arguments well and.) 6 catch (n.) i become involved in 169 .) 7 catch-phrase (n. In his view.Business English Production Manager said that problems with the PX2 had been ………………… (2) by bad timing. the Chairman gave his opinion. We had put the mower on the market at the wrong time of the year. However. Finally. We should ………………… (3) its price. Read the following sentence again: Job enrichment is undoubtedly catching on fast in Sweden.) 4 catch up with (v. he thought.) 3 catch out (v.) 2 catch on (v. in the end almost everyone ……………(4) to his point of view. Match the following with the correct definitions. it was a lemon! He thought we should ………………… (5) an entirely new model . he also thought the mower was too expensive.) 8 catchy (adj) a attract attention b pleasant and easily remembered c draw level with d start to burn e notice suddenly f a hidden or unexpected difficulty g become popular or fashionable h trap someone in an error. Which words in the above passage mean: a not as good as expected? b to introduce a new product? c a failure (slang)? d an important development or discovery? 7.

class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. to take a seat. Here are the basic rules.Business English 10 become caught up in (v. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession. when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill.) while j a phrase which become popular for a Grammar Reference The Article The use of articles in English is complex. to have a good time. The course I’m reading is very interesting. to develop a disease. The Definite Article: the is used: • before a singular or plural noun. She is an engineer. • in phrases: to be in a hurry. to have a headache. religion. Mind the baby! 170 . The Indefinite Article: a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used • to refer to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one. etc. I’m reading a course for my exam now. as a matter of fact. and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. or it doesn’t matter which one): They live in a flat. He is a Christian.

seas. etc. nationality. channels.is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. prison. regions.: Mary/ Mount Everest. the United States. • in phrases: 171 . magazines and periodicals. the Netherlands. hotels. Newsweek • nouns like school. countries (if they are in the plural. The English are very polite. • proper nouns denoting persons. on the one hand. January. newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons. on the whole. by the way. etc • before nouns converted from adjectives. streets. the Hilton. the Orient Express. chains of mountains. shops. means of transport. institutions. denoting groups of islands. continents. denoting a class. especially when referring to them in a general way: I went to the cinema last night. etc. Paris. when we imply the use made of the building: He goes to school (to learn). the Time. towns. days of the week. the Alps. months. oceans. Gas is cheaper than electricity.Business English • before nouns expressing certain public places.. or if they represent a union). Oxford Street. Zero Article: . Money is the root of all evil. I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. festivals. countries. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural).. mountains. on the other hand. lakes. Sunday. or an abstraction: The rich should help the poor. church. the Bahamas. Europe. the Pacific. • in phrases: to tell the time. at the moment. deserts. the Sahara. rivers. the Suez Canal.

it contradicts reality. to make friends. by sea. The condition is highly hypothetical. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb). 172 .. authority. passed wouldn’t have the failed Interrogative What would you you have if have you had seen such a wonderful movie? you had travelled round the world? done Which countries would visited driving If clause Past perfect subjunctive licence test. to take place. have bought would have the exam.Business English at night. Third Conditional The third conditional is used to express impossible condition referring to the past.. to shake hands. she I hadn’t made so many mistakes. B or C best fits each space: a. which can no longer be changed. to be in trouble. etc. I would (‘d) this ellegant car. Controlled practice 1. by mistake. He is speaking to . I she had known the answer. day by day. while the verb in the conditional clause is in the past perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect). Main clause Past/Perfect conditional Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. Decide which answer A.. at dawn.

/the. . I did my homework and then went directly to . A. B. the b. ..Business English A. the/ . C. He’s geologist.... A.. an/a/the g... an. B. very good time at . A. C. Work in pairs to find one mistake in each of the following sentences: a. A. an/the. A. a/the/the/the h.. a/ ... hardest of all. C. 173 ../a j.. so he studies the physical features of the earth.. yet not everyone admires . an/the/ . A. seat and waited for ... ... in London.. .. the/ a e. B. I thought you had passed . Hilton./the. I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment... He had . Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example.... you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening./a/the.. C. A. C. a/ some d... Mathematics.. B. B. best teachers in our highschool. home now. degree in ./ . a/ the./the. A.. a/ .. director to come./ . C. In order to survive. hammer and . way. c. B. . exam but it seems that it was . water../ .. C. B. a.. . the/the f. a./ . Smiths are at . They had . sincerity with which he spoke.. ./the 2. the/ . C.. B. plants need . the c./ . sincerity in such . the i. C.... excellent dinner and had ../the. ... b... In order to fix the armchair he needs . a/the. . the/ the./ . A. C. . yet they are busy at the moment. I took .. so he was one of ... B.. Everyone was impressed by . Physics and one in ./ .. B. nails. .. bed as I was very tired.

e. I want to borrow one hundred pounds. c. If I (know) this from the beginning. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. nu aş fi picat acest examen. Aş fi venit şi eu la petrecere. Dacã nu ar fi nins. Dacă aş cunoaşte amănunte. i. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. h. 174 . Se uită la mine ca şi cum nu ar înţelege o iotă din ce spun. f. I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confrunted with) such storms. dar nu am avut timp. 3. Nu ştiu dacă aş mai încerca o dată să alerg atâţia kilometri. e. I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me. te-aş putea ajuta. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. b. She goes to the work in the City by train every day. d. If she (go) to university so late. Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. pentru că s-a întrerupt curentul. I (pass) the exam in the winter session. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun. Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. n-aş putea. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place. If I had known how to solve the problems in economy. g. Translate into English: a. e. b. Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile. j. Her office is in the Baker Street.Business English d. Chiar dacă aş vrea să mă apuc de lucru. If it had rained it (be) a disaster. c. d. nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. 4.

.. c... I would lend it to you if. If he had asked you to do that job.. You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly. Finish these sentences. b. i. If the fire had been noticed earlier. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way. h. g. If he had taken my advice. j. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.. I’d have brought my compass if. a. If she practised more. b. If she rings while I’m in the tunnel. j. 175 . The substance would look better if. d. If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off.. c. h. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. These are mixed conditional sentences... i. If the river rises any higher.. g. 7.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: a. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. taking care to use the correct tense. f...Business English 5. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money.. f. you (accept)? e.. 6.. e. b. If you had arrived ten minutes earlier you (get) a seat... If you had asked his permission. d.. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes.. I shouldn’t have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. If I buy this machine .

you (accept)? d. j. g. Translate into English: a. Dacã i-as fi ştiut numãrul de telefon. nu te-ar fi înţepat. ai fi reuşit cu sigurantã sã treci examenul. h. Nu te-aş fi invitat sã petreci vacanţa cu noi dacã nu ne-ar fi fãcut mare plãcere.Business English c. Dacã aş fi avut timp. i. aş fi vizitat mai multe muzee din Londra. i. e. d. Nu ai fi fost aşa de obosit dacã ai fi fost mai obişnuit cu munca în grãdinã. h. j. Dacã ar fi urmat sfatul mãtuşii Betty. c. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. 8. If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn’t have answered the wrong questions. g. 176 . f. b. If I (know) that you were coming I’d have met you at the station. If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. e. Dacã aş fi ştiut ieri. nu s-ar fi întâmplat nimic din toate acestea. ar fi acum un om bogat. If the pilot (make) one mistake the ship would have run around. i-aş fi telefonat şi n-ar fi trebuit sã fac atâta drum pe jos. Dacã ai fi lãsat în pace viespea. If he had asked. am fi putut ajunge mai repede. Dacã ai fi urmat instrucţiunile. If I had known what a bad driver you were I (not come) with you. Dacã n-ar fi fost furtuna. poate mai puteam face ceva. If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) the wrong street. f. Dacã ai fi învãţat mai mult.

or 2. but most people pay on – arrival. and tends to leave you walking back to the ‘Other Nationals’ queue feeling ridiculous and being stared at by all the ‘Other Nationals’. see fantastic sights. Negative issues and incidents are very rare. but interesting. After receiving your visa.1. but as in every country. Immigration/Customs Visas can be obtained from Romanian embassies around the world. present the (again extremely cheerful looking) 177 . 1. and have a fantastic time – and mostly at fantastic prices. one should be aware of the local pit – falls and traditions. Comment on Jess Mackenzie’s impressions: Romania is great – you can meet fantastic people. a swagger and an attitude. and when confronted. As soon as you have fought your way off the bus that takes you from the airplane to the terminal building. you are a diplomat. At your arrival at the passport control booth. and ‘Diplomatic’.Business English Unit 13 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Romania seen by foreigners © The Adverb © The Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Look at the way others see us. ‘Romanian Passports’. Run to the counter advertising VISAS/EXCHANGE and give your immigration form and passport to the cheerful looking person on the other side of the window. This isn’t so much easier. but this latter attempt rarely works. There are two ways of trying to get through the ‘Diplomatic’ booth: . head towards the passport control booths sign – posted ‘Other Nationals’ (ie. gasp in mock surprise “Do you realize who you are talking to?”. not Romanians). you shove on a pair of sunglasses. grab a cream and a red coloured immigration form and fill it in with a pen that you had prepared.

One thing to be wary of though. this will be due to one of two reasons: 1. to speak the ‘lingo’ will always go down well. Some of the local places do not have Englishwritten menus and it is good to know what you are eating. or 2. it is a good idea to carry a Romanian phrase book on you at all times. either because you have just arrived (or because you are typically English). 3. to ask the advice of a local friend or colleague. when practising the use of language. when you thought you were asking the time can get a bit awkward. One piece of advice – during rush hours all forms of public transport get very packed. however small. Language Should you not speak Romanian. metro and tram timetables can be brought from kiosks along all the main streets of the city. it is very cheap. and some are also very similar to each other – it can be a bit embarrassing asking for a large dog when in a bakery. It is also a good idea. Another place where you will find a grammar book useful is when visiting restaurants. the airport staff have gotten bored and hidden your luggage for a laugh. 2. taxis do come with their safety 178 . Some Romanian words seem impossible to pronounce.Business English gentleman/lady with your passport and visa. As in every city around. therefore a hand squashed against your bottom is most probably unintentional. make your way past the customs staff without bothering their important magazine. it hasn’t arrived yet. then be incredibly surprised and make your way to the luggage carousel.reading time. Bus. As in all countries an attempt. Don’t fear. If he/she finishes the constant stamping of your passport without a barrage of extraordinarily irrelevant questions and within 15 minutes. Once with your luggage and senses. Transport In recent years. your luggage will either arrive quite quickly or you will find where the staff have hidden it – usually in quite simple places. public transport has come up to good Western standards and added to that. and down the aisle to meet your friends/family/driver. when asking advice – make sure it is from someone you trust. Asking a stranger to make love to you on the spot. Should you not be able to see your luggage.

of course. In Bucharest.Business English problems. you may be in the middle of nowhere. but one should be wary just in case (especially.. thirdly. use your common sense. if you do not know your bank’s daily working hours may regularly find yourself staring at ‘INCHIS’ sign. but it is still a very good idea. and that you count your money before leaving the premises. make sure the driver has a taxi license number that looks official. which would be changed into Lei at the numerous exchange offices. Firstly. Money Until recent years. use a taxi company where you telephone in advance. safe and pleasant (the taxis. As you may be changing an amount of money in one day that the average local earns in one month. every street corner has one. Ask an old – timer to recommend one – most are extremely cheap. If you need to change hard currency. this may not seem as necessary. if you are a single woman). they do regularly run out of cash (or should I call my bank manager?). keep a lit cigarette or lighter in your hand throughout the journey as a form of defence if you do not feel completely safe (this sound pathetic but does make you feel as though you have some kind of weapon). 179 . know where you are going or have a map on you. Now that automatic cash machines and top – standard international banks are the norm in most major cities in Romania.make sure you check the rate of exchange is correct. be aware of the following: Exchange offices are not run by very nice little men simply wanting to make you happy . not the old – timers!). it was seen as necessary to have some amount of hard currency on you when in Romania. more importantly. that you get a stamped receipt. although automatic cash machines seem to be popping up everywhere. The best advice is to get to know a friendly taxi driver and use the same one as often as possible or. instances have been few and far between. make sure you use an official liking establishment. if not. Exchange offices are abundant in Romania. secondly. Always – agree on a price before getting in. 4.

5. Therefore. hospitals rarely have the equipment and technology that you may be used to. who are seen on the streets. Most services are happy to accept U. For the same reasons doctors’ and nurses’ salaries are so ridiculously low that many of the medical staff take under-the-table payments to make up the difference. a good supply should be brought with you as a supply here cannot be guaranteed. or contact one of the private clinics which are expensive but top-standards are guaranteed. secure place when leaving – even the most stupid of potential pick – pockets will know that you are not walking out of the door with empty pockets. do not be surprised or angered if it is made obvious that cash is wanted – this may also hasten medical attention considerably. tampons. you can either try your luck at the state emergency hospitals.S. As with public transport. Should you need emergency care. contraceptives. cleansing products. Should you feel adventurous and try the first option. so it is useful to take some on you just in case you need it. there are some things you should know: Doctors and nurses in Romania have very good qualifications. but due to a huge lack of funds. and basic drugs. dollars instead of Lei. Never change money on the street. but should you be taking regular medicine. 180 . Health For non-emergencies. All you will get from the nice looking man promising a much better rate than the exchange offices is one 10. Western standard pharmacies (many open 24 hours) can be found on most main streets and stock most things such as plasters and first-aid products. It is also illegal to change money on the street and you will be arrested and fined by the eagle – eyed policemen.000 Lei note wrapped around 50 pieces of toilet paper (and not very nice toilet paper at that).Business English Keep your exchanged money in a safe. instances such as the above are few and far between. but you should be wary.

gypsy carts should be overtaken with great care – their tendency to stay in the middle of the road will one day win awards. 7. even from very close friends. your mother has come to pick you up”. Homosexuality At the time of writing.m. be prepared for the NOISE! – Romanian dogs seem to like to sleep most of the day and then party all night until about 7 a. to call most Romanians intolerant of gypsies – would be an understatement. they are quite harmless as long as you leave them alone. Trust me. For these reasons. when a woman on a gypsy cart past will result in a huge silence. Also. meaning they are thrown scraps of food and given corner in hall ways. that leaves you with about one half hour of sleep before your alarm clock goes off. but it is a good idea to bring some with you just in case. Latest figures show that in Bucharest alone. homosexuality is still. Gypsies In general. There are unofficial clubs that cater for the gay population. an illegal offence in Romania. The feeling is so strong that to make even a light – hearted joke aimed at a local friend such as “Look. When driving. For the same reason be extremely careful when driving on the country roads after dark. some locals can have a 181 . due to lack of education. unfortunately. Due to this.5 million stray dogs – and this number is ever – increasing. Street lightning is non-existent. until the law jumps into this decade and changes.Business English Disposable needles are now used almost 100 percent. there are at least 1. but due to obvious reasons these are few and often change venues. and are hard to get information about. 8. as is lightning on the carts. or check what is being stuck into you! 6.. Dogs They are a big problem that will be obvious after a matter of hours in Bucharest. it is a good idea to keep a low profile in this aspect. Many of the dogs are ‘sort – of owned’ by the locals. BUT BEWARE – the odd stray dog happens to think he/she is the Romanian version of Godzilla (Godzillescu?) Apart from the physical problems involved with stray dogs in Romania.

Special terms staff – the people who work for an organization. important etc than they really are or a statement that is not strong enough to express how good. a se prevala de. day after day = zile în şir. Ways with words 1. In this text there are several occurrences of the preposition after and of the verb to take. A Sense of Humour Get one. soon after = curând dupã. bad. especially a school or business or the members of such a group. 10. 2. a se folosi de ocazia. Patience Gain some. 182 . stray .an animal that is lost and cannot find its home or has no home. to speak the ‘lingo’ – to speak a language. bad impressive etc something really is. Now learn more phrases containing the preposition after and the verb to take: after all = la urma urmelor. 9. understatement . to take an active part in = a lua parte activã la. or at least to know some useful phrases.a way of describing things as being less good. especially a foreign one. to look after = a avea grijã de. after a while = dupã câtãva vreme. a valorifica. to take advantage of = a utiliza.Business English negative attitude regarding this subject so it is best to keep your opinions to yourself – or at least not be surprised or angered by what you may find to be archaic views.

to take the liberty of (+-ing form) = a-şi lua libertatea de a… (e.g. to take over = a prelua. situation or organisation that can be criticised 5 spot-check 183 e immediately or at the place of . How do you translate on the spot? Below there are some phrases each containing the word spot. to take its course = a-şi urma cursul. to take control of = a-şi asuma controlul..Business English to take account of = a ţine seama de. a privi.. a avea grijã de.. to take note/ notice of = a ţine seama de. to take a view of = a considera. to take on = a lua asupra sa. to take for granted = a lua drept sigur. to take a weight off somebody’s mind = a elucida o problemã. a lua o poziţie. Match the phrases with the correct definitions. She took the liberty of doing it in her own way. to take into account/ consideration = a lua în consideraţie. 1 on the spot 2 in the spot 3 in the spotlight 4 spot-on a at the centre of public attention b quick. Read the following sentence again: Asking a stranger to make love to you on the spot.. to take warning = a fi prevenit. = a manifesta interes faţã de. to take one’s own way = a-şi urma calea proprie.. a se însãrcina. when you thought you were asking the time can get a bit awkward. to take care of/ to take charge of = a-şi asuma rãspunderea. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.). to take a stand = a adopta un punct de vedere. 3. a considera indiscutabil. random examination c cash on delivery d aspect of a character. to take an interest in.

Our distribution system doesn’t cover certain areas of the country. Even the Chairman lets his hair down. you’re really ………………me ……………… I don’t know how many we have in stock. The income tax officials often do a ………………… on taxpayers to make sure they are giving accurate information. and everyone has been talking about the takeover battle. He owed us a lot of . h.Business English action 6 put someone on the spot 7 spot-cash f outstanding moment g ask someone a difficult question or put someone in a difficult situation 8 high spot 9 weak spot 10 knock spots off h be much better than i in a difficult situation j exactly right 4. Can’t you give me a decision ……………………. The Distillers company has been ……………………… . i. It’s the ……………… in our business. b. Two companies have been fighting to take it over. I don’t know how they manage to be so accurate. We’re ……………… …… at the moment because one of our biggest customers money. The forecasts of our Marketing Department have been……………………… . a. I don’t want to wait for an answer. Our terms for this consignment of rubber are……………………… e. d. ~ Can we give you twenty machines for immediate delivery? ~ Now. The …………………… of our year is our staff party. Recently. c. 184 has gone bankrupt.? f. g. Now complete the following sentences with suitable phrases from the list above.

He’s been smoking …… while he had the flu. e. our computer products ……………………… those of our competitors. Use a noun or pronoun object after OF and use an object after OFF. In my opinion. That’s the city …… Dublin. k. d. I think well …… them. b. 5. i. This man is hard …… hearing. Are you sure …… it? r. How kind …… you to help him. He’s …… to Leeds. A ship anchored …… the entrance to the harbour. or use it on its own to suggest separation. p. Finish …… one job before you start another. j. m. g. OFF may indicate: distance: it is a mile off departure: off with it! separation: his head was cut off completion: have you finished it off? disconnecting: turn it off Now fill in with of or off: a. Why don’t you have that funny beard …… ? h. What is a Master …… Art? n. The battle was fought …… Cape Trafalgar.Business English j. l. It’s time I was …… or I must be …… . Read the following sentence again: As soon as you have fought your way off the bus that takes you from the airplane to the terminal building… How do you translate to fight your way off the bus? What is the difference between of and off? Never use OF and OFF in place of each other. Well. c. Help her …… with her coat. The door handle has come …… . what’s …… it? 185 . I’ll have to get rid …… it. f. o.

Harry has really gone to the ………………since his wife died. We were hoping to keep the wedding a secret.with one stone and visit my old school as well.Business English s. Looking at him now. I’ll go to the theatre on my next …… day. We must pay …… our debts before we buy a new car. You’re flogging a dead ……………. She loved tennis and could watch it until the …………. Turning up half an hour late for the interview really cooked 186 . Although he had only known her for two weeks he decided to take the ……………by the horns and asked her to marry him. i. I’ll do it in my …… time (free from duty). He was accused …… crime. As I had to go to Swansea on business. h. z. She married at thirty years …… age.trying to get Harry to change his mind! d. y. Their engagement is …… . b. I decided to kill two……………. In this text you have read about stray dogs in Romania. It’s not that I mind giving her a lift home every Tuesday. bull dog goose pig cat donkey horse rat cow fish kitten stag a. v. x.came home.out of the bag. He is a man …… humble origin. t. 6. Now lean some idioms with animals. g. e. I don’t think I’d recognize her now. but what gets my ……………is the fact that she’s never once offered to pay for the petrol. Choose the animal bird crocodile goat lion his……………… . f. c. but my brother soon let the ………………. it’s………………’s years since I last saw her. w.. it’s hard to believe he was once a successful barrister.

as there are state (10) ………………………… and the options of customers are severely restricted. that is employing more personnel than actually required. Don’t be fooled! She’s not a bit sad. overstaffing. m. subsidized 187 . thus allowing them to survive in spite of their non-satisfactory economic performance. ownership. When their grandfather died.Business English j. k. Market economy leads to high (7) ……………………… of goods and services. Robert and his sister got the…………. quality. In a free market economy efficiency is the key word.. while on the other hand command economy most likely leads to (3) ………………………………… . But you’ll soon forget her-after all. This enables the latter type of economy to resort to (6)………………………………. they’re just …………………tears. customers..’s share of his money. state. 7. You’re upset now.of himself last night. inefficiency. In a free market economy inefficient businesses go (4)……………………………… . while on the other hand planned economy will not focus on offering high quality goods and services to (8)…………………… . bankrupt. Fill in the gaps with words from the list at the end of the text: A market economy is based on private (1) ……………………………… in contrast to planned economy where (2)………………………………ownership prevails. whereas in a command economy businesses are (5)…………………………… . there are plenty more………………in the sea. I know. That’s the last time I invite Steve for a meal. This is due to the fact that in the latter type of economy there is actually no (9)…………………. competition. He really made a ……………. monopolies. l.

afterwards. early Adverbs of quantity. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. when. degree and approximation: awfully. carefully. a quality thereof. where. extremely. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. ever. 188 . for this reason. fore. a noun: Only John knows the whole truth. enough. result and concession: consequently. hence. wherefore. Form Simple adverbs Far fast here late near now Then Today Well Derived adverbs likewise afloat homeward(s) repeatedly hardly monthly bitterly happily excellently Compound adverbs everywhere outdoors outside thereby therefore today tomorrow wherein wherefore Adverbial phrases at least at once by the way by all means in full in general in all probability now and then of old Adverbs of manner: badly. excellently. a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. after. It can modify: • • • • • • a verb: We are talking about your report today. reason.Business English Grammar Reference The Adverb The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. aboard. why. little Adverbs of frequency: always. forever Adverbs of cause. above. an adjective: He was bitterly disappointed. again. every time. fast Adverbs of place: away. measure. a pronoun: Me too. so that Interrogative adverbs: how.

to speak to. performer of the action. I am called I am being called I have been called I was called I was being called I had been called I shall be called Let me be asked 189 . to look after. who are seen on the streets. This is the passive voice. etc. to look at. Translate it into Romanian. The local cinema was closed down three years ago. etc. to attend to. The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. The indicative mood Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Future The imperative mood Uses: • • • It is not used in the present perfect continuous. Its form consists of the respective tense of the auxiliary verb to be + the past participle of the lexical verb. There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the pasive voice such as: to have. to hold. to resemble. to possess. Now learn about the passive voice in English. perfect continuous or the future continuous. the past When the receiver of the action is more important than the When the performer of the action is not someone specific. to send for.Business English The Passive Voice What voice are the underlined verbs in the sentence: It is also illegal to change money on the street and you will be arrested and fined by the eagle – eyed policemen.

I saw a marvellous film. • We can use by + the performer of the action after a verb in the passive if we want to say who or what did it. get elected. I don’t keep my plan.Business English • A way of avoiding placing responsibility on any specific person or organization. Is it five months really since I last wrote? I’m sorry. get dressed. I’ve planned my revision. It was called “The English Patient”. Subject + passive + to-infinitive: She is considered to be the best singer in the group. Thank you for your letter. get Controlled practice 1. She’s rather tired. but I’ve been very busy. get killed. get lost. constructions: It + passive + that clause: It is expected that many people will die from starvation in the next decade. get hit. Have you 190 lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet . Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. There + passive + to be: There are believed to be many homeless teenagers living on the streets. I’m working for my exams. get married. It is often used with verbs of saying and believing in these I went by train and was met at the station by my aunt. I am sorry that your letter was mislaid • • To avoid a change of subject in the sentence. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. I’ve finished for today. Get is often used with certain past participles: get engaged. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary. • drunk. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening.

. I got off first in the race but managed to come. (express.... falsely) t. dearly) i. Treat him .. yours. worked this week..... . I had a lovely time last year. (hard.... . you accused me ..... You played me . deeply) f. (last/lastly) 191 actually. coolly) j. fairly) c.. ... She swam ..... shocked.... Send this letter . I’m trying to save some money. He was . Still waters run .. hardly) k. I hope to visit England again. Birds can fly . (cheap. (high.... Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning: a.... (deep. lowly) o. hardly) m... .. highly) d.. (kind.. . (false... often here a lot next year there again hard soon ... expressly) s...Business English seen it? I don’t go out.. hardly) l.. kindly) n.. I did not... (low. His position is . The book cost . deeply) g. .... to me. (dear... He loves his son . (low... (hard. (false. (deep.. Maria 2. cheaply) r.. falsely) u.. (deep.. for the exams.. .... It would be great to see you.. in the lake..... Suzanne comes about once a week. deeply) e.. prettily) q.... That was a . . He has .. (fair..... (hard... He acted . you shall pay for it...... lowly) p. (pretty. good attempt. That was a .. . Boxers are not allowed to hit .. This is a . I’ll sell you the car ... (dear.. He was .... (cool. mountain.. in the sky. (high. highly) b.. We talk.. task. .... dearly) h. Love... How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply.. He works .

În timpul discursului s-a ridicat si a plecat. m. Sistematic uitã sã stingã lumina la baie. I . Nu e cazul sã mã priveşti atât de neprietenos. i. Se pare cã tot nu a priceput. 4. I’ve been working (in my office/all morning/hard) b. l. a. Voi cere sã vãd actele în cursul acestei dimineţi. I don’t think you’ve been treated very. (last/lastly) x. Nu l-am vãzut de foarte mult timp.(just/justly) z. te rog iartã-mã.. Mã întâlnesc cu John tot a doua zi. j. Deci l-am vãzut ultima oarã acum 15 ani. The postman comes (in the morning/very early) 192 .. Nu voi putea ajunge la 5 ci doar la 6. Nu mi-e deloc fricã.(late/lately) y. . Tot nu a terminat sã se aranjeze pentru petrecere. De-abia mi-am dat seama despre ce vorbea.Business English v. She’s been sleeping (in that chair/all afternoon/soundly) e. Nu voi putea ajunge decât la 5. k. f. put them in the more usual position. d. I’d like to thank all those who helped me. e. We were listening (all evening/carefully) d. He is (at this time of day/usually/at the college) f. h. M-am purtat prosteşte. fell off the edge of the platform! (near/nearly) 3. c. n. Translate into English: a.. He speaks to me (in the mornings/never/nicely) c... o. S-ar prea putea sã aibã dreptate. And.. Write the sentences with the adverbs/adverbial phrases in brackets in the correct position.. dacã mã gândesc bine nu l-am vãzut de când am terminat facultatea. g. We’ve been receiving a lot of junk mail. If the adverbs can go in more than one position. A dat un rãspuns obraznic.. b.

f. b. e. d. When was your car stolen? c. c. d. When no agent is given supply one: a. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã compoziţia acestei substante. Translate the following sentences into English: a. I thought you spoke (in that meeting/very well/yesterday) h. e. People in my town built this hospital last year. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000. AIDS is thought to be curable. We go swimming (on Saturdays/generally/at the local pool) i. b. Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. 6. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea internetului. Children had cast stones. 7. i. Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. d. The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. I bought these jeans (in the sales/very cheaply/last week) j. c.Business English g. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. Who drew this asymptote? b. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. g. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. h. Mi s-au furat banii. 193 . Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. Doctorul a fost chemat. John can’t have done this. He’s been (to a dentist/never/in his life) 5.

Mention the agent each time: a. 194 . Thirst and fatigue overcame the explorers. will broadcast this play again next week. 8. All the ministers will see him off at the airport. g. The preposition or adverb must be retained when the combination is put into the passive. We called in the police. j. Mr. Falling rocks killed two of the climbers. Last night’s storm blew those telephone poles down. Turn these sentences into the passive voice (sometimes the agent is required): a. A jellyfish stung her. i. d.B. West pinned up the notice. Fog held up the trains. h. Edison invented the electric bulb. l. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. Burglars broke into the house. They didn’t look after the children properly. d. People often take him for his brother.C. j. e. They took down the notice. c. b. 9. The B. Put the following into the passive. e. Everyone looked up to him. Her story didn’t take them in. c. A policeman called Steward caught the thief. g. They threw him out. b. Beavers make these dams. f.Business English e. No one has taken out the cork. He hasn’t slept in his bed. Lightning struck the old oak. i. In this exercise the sentences contain a verb + preposition/adverb combination. k. h. f.

Business English 195 .

sugar beet. but more than half of Britain’s foodstuffs are bought abroad. Scotch whisky. beef and lamb. Rolls Royce cars! Famous British exports! But Britain also exports complete aircraft. are called ‘visible’ exports. cotton can only get them from foreign countries. zinc. plastics. All exports which the eye can see. Coal and North Sea oil and gas are the great exceptions. British industry requires raw materials. products like whisky and cars. All Britain’s imports must be paid for by exports. chemicals and. mainly from the profits of investments in other countries 196 .Business English Unit 14 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Britain’s trade with the world © The Infinitive © The Participle © The Gerund •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading What does Britain import? What does Britain export? What about Romania? Reading Britain’s trade with the world Britain is too small and crowded to produce all the food its people need. Most of these. too. of course. have to be bought abroad. copper. dairy products. as well as electric and electronic equipment such a s computers and communications systems. But Britain obtains 50% of its earnings abroad from ‘invisible’ exports. British farms produce large quantities of wheat. Industries which need silicon. oil.

People sometimes ask. Unemployment During the 1980s. The City houses the world’s greatest concentration of banks. finance and insurance have been the fastest growing areas. There are many reasons for this growth in the demand for services. At the same time. insurance and so on. Only two countries. In 1950 40% of the working population worked in manufacturing industry. are concentrated in a small area of central London called ‘the City’. foreign exchange market and commodities market. and financial services like banking. the world’s biggest insurance market. Now the figure had dropped below 25%. new technology is making possible many services that were not possible before. The problem is particularly bad in the industrial areas of northern Britain where most workers once earned their living in factories. These financial services. People also have more leisure time and longer holidays so more entertainment and travel services are needed. In fact. 12% of the working population were unemployed. there were more people out of work in Britain than ever before.Business English and from ‘services’ – transport. so vital to Britain’s economy. ‘Why don’t they go and look for work somewhere else?’ 197 . Banking. earn more from invisible exports than Britain. tourism. medical and other health services and distribution service. then hotels and catering. although these changes have been good for Britain. A few of the old factories have even been turned into museums. the USA and France. as in many other countries. So where do the majority of people work now? More than 65% work in service industries. More people have more money to spend than they used to. the loss of jobs in manufacturing industry has made life very hard for some people. Changes. in 1986. and the world’s most advanced stock exchange. However. development and new directions Working life today is very different from the way it was in the middle of this century.

Trade unions Today more of Britain’s workers belong to a trade union than in other major Western country. Britain’s slow economy was growing faster than any other country in the European Community. They believed that new jobs would appear if controls and restrictions on businesses were taken away. and a huge increase in the number of ordinary people who owned shares in companies. Other results of Conservative policies were more self-employed small business owners. Government and industry The government of the 80s changed the relationship between government and industry. e. The government also decided to fight the power of the trade unions. fewer people employed by the state. as most people cannot afford such expensive journeys and there are not enough jobs in the south anyway. Sometimes there was great bitterness and even fighting between workers who decided to strike and those who refused to. He only sees his family at weekends. They cannot all move to London because a house in London costs three times as much as a house in York and they couldn’t pay for it. British Airways and British Telecom.g. He travels 320 kilometres every Sunday evening to work in London.Business English One man who found work somewhere else is Don King. But Don considers to be a lucky person. but this may be true for much longer because during the 1980s the unions lost much of their strength and popularity. privatization of many industries that had belonged to the state. Although the first results of their policy were huge increases in unemployment. 198 . an engineer from York. more civilised and fairer country by representing and protecting the interests of working people. During the last hundred years the unions have helped to make Britain a more democratic. The Conservatives believed that previous governments interfered too much in the economy.

shops. the number of people who work in factories b. the number of hotels and restaurants e. Complete the sentences: a. etc can be traded. ports. copper and cotton are examples of ……………… . the number of industrial museums c. employees in service industries d. foreign exchange market = a place where large amount of currencies can be bought and sold the stock exchange = the place where stocks and shares can be bought and sold. self-employed people f. etc.Business English Ways with words 1. c. d. distribution = the transporting of goods to and from factories. tourism and banking are examples of ……………… . b. the power of trade unions 199 . the actual commodities do not need to pass through Britain. 3. oil. transport services and insurance are examples of ……………… . metals. Transport. cheese and yoghurt are examples of ……………… . state-owned industries g. Special terms commodities market = a place where sugar. Milk. Wood. silicon. Which of the following have increased in Britain in recent decades and which have decreased? a. trade unions = the national organisations which represent workers in their negotiations with employers about pay and conditions of work 2. Only the trading is done here. Profits on investments in other countries. Other famous stock exchanges are Wall Street in New York and La Bourse in Paris. Banking. e. insurance and foreign exchange are examples of ……………… .

097.I.896. Since its establishment the bank has evolved into a powerful institution counting presently for 1000 employees and 61 branches agencies and points of sale which cover almost all the important economic centres in Romania (at the end of 2003).I. the bank has benefited from an excellent international reputation which was further enlarged when the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) became a shareholder of the bank in April 1993 – EBRD’s first participation in a Central and Eastern European bank. was listed for the first time in year 2000 among the first 75 banks in Central and Eastern Europe. The C. which upgraded the bank’s rating for two years in a row. Since the beginning.443.I.T. in December 2002 the Commercial Bank Ion Tiriac has been presented with “Bank of the Year” award by the prestigious local magazine “Capital”. 200 . The implementation of the plan “Banca Tiriac 2000 – 2002” has pushed the bank up to the ladder of best performing financial institutions acting in Romania.T.T.B. As recognition of the bank’s achievements.Business English 4. according to the classification made by the prestigious international rating agency Standard&Poors. Translate the following text into Romanian: The Commercial Bank Ion Tiriac (C.000. also reconfirmed the positive trend of the bank’s development.B.I.B. totalling presently ROL 1.The bank is the result of the courage and the vision of its founding members “Ion Tiriac Group of Companies”. became operational in April 1991 with an initial share capital of 3 billion that successively increased.) is the largest Romanian private bank and was established after 1989. Some 5500 individuals and companies joined this initiative as shareholders. The C. also ranks among the first five Romanian commercial banks listed in top 100 in Central and Eastern Europe by “The Banker” magazine. The C.T. Fitch IBCA.B.

proper. our ……………… of view I have my doubts. sufficient) suitable (right for the purpose) 201 . state of mind) moral (right. but he is the only ………………… ……………………one? millionaire I’ve met. be present at) a) b) Please state the name and address of the college you Criminals are known to …………………the clubs and bars ………………… . existing now) a) b) Carter and Bush are former American presidents. Put each word in its correct place in the sentences which follow each pair.Business English The C. the first word is the false friend and the second is the word it is often confused with. JCB. AMERICAN EXPRES.I. The Commercial Bank Ion Tiriac is a member of: SWIFT. morale (spirits. adequate (enough. REUTERS and ROMCARD. dropped. VISA. frequent (go to often) attend (go to a school. MASTERCARD. actual (real) present (current. in this street.B.T. DINERS. Who is the I’ve known many rich men. but from the ………………point As we became aware of the difficulties. virtuous) a) b) It was a good move financially. is permanently engaged to establish correspondent relationships with various bank’s the development of its operations as well as providing high quality banking services to all its clients. False Friends In each pair of words below. course. 5.

so we want someone with a what happens. produce in a factory) a) b) To avoid suspicion. he decided to ………………… a This is the factory where they …………………the new completely false story. c) He and his wife had a heated ……………………about which car to buy. The best …………………against smoking is its effect on . I hope I ………………it. the exam. colleagues after separation) 202 If I ……………….000 pesetas should be enough. party. lot of ……………… . b) c) We’ll try an …………………with these chemicals and see This is a very responsible job. sports-car. b) I …………………my driving test tomorrow. I’ll celebrate by giving a Meeting the president was an …………………I’ll never My favourite ………………at school was geography.. make up something false) manufacture (make. or is it too formal? argument (i: disagreement ii: supporting reason) subject (something talked or written about or studied) a) b) health. reunion ( gathering of old friends. exam) a) party.Business English a) b) Make sure you have ……………………money for the trip. experience (i: previous knowledge or work ii: event) experiment (test carried out to see results) a) forget. pass (be successful in test. exam) take (attempt test. fabricate (invent. Do you think this dress is …………………for tonight’s 10.

remark (say. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to o make their meaning clear. someone organized a ………………… . it with a period.Business English meeting ( gathering of people for social or formal discussion) a) b) We have a …………………at the office every Friday to talk I haven’t seen my old school friends for 15 years. you ………………him? Grammar Reference Punctuation There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. Independent clauses The forecast promised Guidelines Examples made into a sentence by Others think it is useless. 1. Sentence . ordinaly and Some of us think we should in this company.Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks . make a comment) notice (happen to see) a) b) He enjoyed his stay with us. independent clause is invest beginning it with a capital letter and ending . may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea. Here are some punctuation rules. but it rained 203 . It’s time about plans and problems. Did hadn’t slept well. At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. but he did ………………that he I thought I saw a strange-looking man outside the house.

Separating Elements in Clauses When one of the elements in a clause is compounded. The Draw the figure and solve the first clause is usually problem. when there are two or more subjects. others are closely think it is useless connected by joining : them with a semicolon. nor. 2. and so. predicates. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feeling may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an exclamation mark.Business English the words and. charged to a major credit card. they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. that is. . objects. every day. but. yet. and so forth. When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are they compounded. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? ? capital letter. Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have ! mark. punctuation is necessary. are usually I’m 204 taking Chemistry and Guidelines Examples reduce next year’s . or. followed by a comma. The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that clauses independent invest in this company. exemplifies it.

with words sheet. or or any with a words such without punctuation. Occasionally more than two elements are joined in this . occuring the last two items.Business English joined as and.Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences. 205 . and test of and teacher have vocabulary. separation commas confusing. 3. When the items in Students were selected on the a series are very basis long internal punctuation. semicolons may be used instead. such as and or or usually between . memory. series. to separate items in photocopy on both sides of a a series. There are also punctuation marks that are used with words. can by be and or reading. and use ceramic cups. recommendations. and Wales the island of Great contain more than share called two elements are Brittain. of grades. way. Environmentally conscious Commas are used businesses use recycled paper. together Physics and Maths this semester. Compounds that England. Scotland. Word .

they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations. numbers have been . Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Marks “ Guidelines Examples When writers use the exact In 1841. ABC’s. are joined together.” 206 . K.Business English Punctuation Marks ‘ Guidelines The apostrophe Examples is The company’s management used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. show possession. J.. Ralph Waldo words of someone else. Tell me what set them off from the rest of you know. four in constructions to o’clock.m.. didn’t. show where letters or 45’s. A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used are twenty-four. Ma’am. self-confidence to . 4:00 mark shortened forms p. insta - form compound words When two modifiers The study included first. like abbreviations and initials.and containing hyphens second-year students. 24 ft. common elements are often not repeated. omitted. Lawrence.. A period is used to Prof. An apostrophe is used He’s. let’.

207 . to get a When the omission comes in proper job.. and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight many the . .W. is doing is of greatest carried sufficiently comprehensive pattern. layers of rock to slip.. told him the omitted..” one or more sentences. three proper wife. the the earth] has cracked insertion should be set off with and − caused different brackets. it [the crust of within a quoted passage. the omission must be following: “If you want marked with points of ellipsis. If part of a quotation is She .” The dash can be used to “Well − uh − I’d like to try indicate hesitations in speech.Business English the text..... he offered.A. to find the the middle of a sentence. B. four “Work of the tyre that points are used. When the give omission includes the end of ideas. [] The Infinitive The infinitive is considered to be the base form of the verb. again − if you let me”.R.” When writers insert something “In a fault.. to settle down. you should points are used. There are factors types which value out when in a up your selfish affect a pressure vessel of commonly used...

208 . past or future expressed by the finite verb: I thanked him for letting me know. where the adverb which modifies the verb is inserted between the particle to and the verb proper: He was too disappointed to really care about the circumstances of the accident. Your hair needs cutting. • has a passive meaning after verbs as desire. The Gerund is formed ith the help of the -ing suffix added to the verb. The Participle There are two participle forms in English: • • the -ing participle which denotes a continuous action or state: the past participle (the third form of the verb) which denotes the action as a result: The police wanted the law respected. require. want. thank. • expresses anteriority after verbs as excuse.Business English Form It appears as long infinitive (preceded by the particle to): I didn’t want to tell you that. Form Indefinite Participle Perfect Participle Active Voice asking having asked Passive Voice being asked having been asked I saw smoke coming through the door of the chemistry laboratory. remember. etc. or as short infinitive (not preceded by the particle to): She made me do it eventually. etc. forgive. The Gerund • denotes an action simultaneous with the present. need. A special use of the infinitive is the split infinitive. Thank you for letting me know.

Business English Form Indefinite Gerund Perfect Gerund Active Voice helping. with certain expressions: can’t help. being read having helped having been helped having read having been read In order to improve your knowledge about Gerund/ Infinitive. finished. d)with adjectives: busy and worth and a few adjectives accompanied by prepositions. be used to. The Gerund must be used after the following verbs: admit. keep (=continue). prevent. look forward to. excuse. keep on. be accustomed to. enjoy. can’t stand. it’s no good/use. 2. What about swimming to the island and back before lunch? c) as the subject of the sentence. used to. If a verb follows a preposition the Gerund forms must be used: e. when the action is being considered in a general sense or as a habit: e. delay. defer. 1. anticipate. see about 3.g. suggest. Structures: gerunds and infinitives When the . you may look at Appendix 3 (page 189). accustomed to. It is used in the following situations: a) with verbs and verbal expressions. reading Passive Voice being helped. etc. don’t mind. g. understand. with certain phrasal verbs: be for/against. Swimming everyday is good exercise for your physical condition. give up. stop (=cease). mind (=object). detest. such as: keen on. care for. b) with prepositions. Swimming underwater is easy if you remember to breathe deeply before going down. consider. proud of.ing form of the verb is used as a noun it is called the Gerund. avoid. exempt from 209 . fancy.

They were delighted (see) their father standing on the deck. Certain verbs can be followed by either Gerund or Infinitive. he]s very unreliable. and others by an object +to+Infinitive a) verbs followed by to+Infinitive: afford. arrange. sad. you know you don’t really. but her husband preferred the hills. Controlled practice 1. 2. teach. sometimes with a different meaning. The children are looking forward to (row) on the lake in the afternoon. It isn’t worth (rely) on him. demand. angry. shall. Put the verbs in brackets into either a Gerund or Infinitive form: a. promise.Business English Certain verbs are followed by to+Infinitive. fail. j. etc. etc. (drive) or (sail)? d. delighted. He simply cannot give up (smoke). tell. b. possible. must as well as let. e. c) verbs followed by the Infinitive without to: the auxiliaries will. have (=be obliged). request. What do enjoy most. warn. She wanted (go) to the coast. etc. difficult. hope. make help (followed by an object) To + Infinitive can be also used after adjectives of emotion such as: amazed. learn. c. can. should. hard. others by the Infinitive without to. g. don’t waste your time anymore! h. Don’t pretend (like) him. prepare. decide. happy. easy. would. remind. disappointed. b) verbs followed by object +to+Infinitive: advise. Remember (phone) him in the evening. f. seem. may. order. I can’t afford (buy) a new car as they are still owing me some money. i. do. pleased. He was very keen on (sail) and went to the coast most weekends. Explain the meaning of the verbs in italics in the following sentences: 210 . ashamed. invite.

/ He tried sailing across the bay first. I used to live on a houseboat. j./ I propose going to the theatre on Sunday./ I am used to sailing single-handed. went on to talk about minor problems of sailing. I think she’s mad. i.Business English a. 3. people are not allowed…………………………… d. I don’t need any help./ The speaker went on talking about sailing although most of his audience had gone home. Complete the following sentences using a suitable Gerund or Infinitive form of a verb and any necessary phrases a./ Helen has been learning cooking for years. My father taught me to swim. He encouraged the children ……………………………………… b./ I’ll learn how to use a computer even if it means practising all day. Do you remember ………………………………………………… I 211 ./ My father taught me swimming. c. f. g./ I stopped smoking when I started to train for the Olympics. d. I stopped to speak to the teacher as I wanted his advice. and he broken is used nose to denies………………………… fisherman ……………………………… f. Answer the phone. Please. She proposes to live on a houseboat all winter./ I really regret speaking to Jack like that! h. Alice has learnt to cook. The That man with the is black very eyes patient. b. it keeps on ………………………………… c. He tried to sail across the bay but there wasn’t enough wind. I regret to inform you that you were turned down. e. e. I mean to find out who stole the club funds. having finished his main theme. sit down. I’ll remember to tell him about the fair when I see him!/ remember telling him about the fair on Saturday. The speaker.

Business English 4. Why are you loking at me? Go on (to work)! i. Ploaia oprindu-se. ne stricãm buna dispoziţie. Translate into English: a. pentru cã are o treabã importantã de rezolvat. Îţi mulţumesc pentru cã m-ai ajutat sã rezolv acest exerciţiu la geometrie. You are always late. 212 . Dacã nu faci maşina sã porneascã. b. h. Put the verbs between brackets in gerund or past participle: a. Te-a rugat sã scrii un raport. 5. you certainly must have your watch (to reapair). when they discovered that they had some short ones too. g. e. h. Iatã câteva formule pe care sã le învãţaţi. Studentul a dovedit cã este foarte bun la matematicã. I should like the World Championship (to win) by the Romanian team. c. f. Thank you for (to tell) me the truth. Sper sã termin de învãţat ultimul curs. e. After (to wait) for you for half an hour. Te deranjeazã dacã închizi fereastra? i. They stopped (to cut) the pipes. I’ll make them (to answer) all my questions about Canadian drilling. El vrea sã plece mai repede. b. f. We need to have our roof tiles (to replace) d. putem pleca la universitate. motivând de ce gândeşti aşa. I don’t mind your (to stay) here and (to wait) for my daughter. I left the hotel c. d. g.

Pay attention to the use of conjunctions in English: The Management School Lancaster has one of the largest and most experienced management schools in the United Kingdom. 213 . Our students benefit from contributions of staff who are researching and undertaking specialist teaching at the forefront of their subjects. We also have about 100 active research students. There are over 80 members of the faculty covering the full range of management subjects with a commitment to high quality and innovative teaching. In the most recent Higher Education Funding Council assessment we were also rated Excellent for our teaching of Business and Management. We are therefore one of the three UK Business Schools to have achieved the top rating for both our teaching and our research. What were your expectations when you came here? Reading Here is a presentation of Lancaster Management School. Lancaster was one of only three Business Schools in the UK to have been awarded the top rating – 5*signifying international excellence research. The Management School has about 20% of the whole University’s staff and their departments were among those which helped found the University in 1964.Business English Unit 15 Pre-reading Make a short presentation of the distance learning programme within the Faculty of Economics. In the 1996 Research Assessment Exercise. Management teaching and research have a high profile at Lancaster. As you would expect from a School of such distinction and size. we have a balanced portfolio of teaching: over 300 students graduate with Bachelor’s degrees in management subjects every year and 350 with Master’s degrees.

in-company projects undertaken by our students. of course. but also with leading researchers in North America business schools and with the People’s Republic of China and other SE Asian countries. our International Master’s or Postgraduate Diploma programmes. India) 214 . chiefly into networks of the leading west European business schools. offices. well-equipped Graduate Management School. seminar and tutorial rooms. our Executive MBA. It is close to the centre of the Lancaster campus and comprises lecture. Institute of Management (Bangalore. services and public authorities through our long experience of collaborative research. Our commitment to postgraduate programmes is reflected in our decision to build a new. Hitotsubashi University (Japan). These links have been reinforced by the launch in 1996 of our prestigious International Master’s programme taught collaboratively and Lancaster. including British Airways. complementing the Management School’s main building. by leading staff at INSEAD. These programmes are supported by a wide range of organisations. McGill University. We have strong international links. computing laboratories and common rooms. North West Water and Royal Mail. Lancaster is also unusual among UK graduate business schools in providing both a leading MBA programme and a range of Master’s courses covering the management specialisms. British Aerospace. post-experience teaching and.Business English Co-ordinated through our Management Development Division. Graduates from all our programmes are notably successful in obtaining excellent positions to launch or enhance their careers. We are able to maintain strong links with manufacturing. The School has a major cluster of terminals and PCs connected to the University’s main computing network and to others beyond the University. there are over 500 practising managers following our Senior Executive programme. This provides first class facilities for our growing number of Master’s and research students. the achievements of our alumni.

pl. the opposite of short is long. -ni = a person. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a …….. e. The management said salaries had INCREASED. d.Business English An extensive collection of management books and journals is housed in the centrally located University Library.…. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another.. Many people would rather work ………….…. who has attended or is a graduate of a particular school. c. a boy or man. b. 215 . take over as a charge cluster = a number of things of the same sort gathered or grouped together 2. -taken = to make oneself responsible for. -nae = a girl or woman alumnus to enhance = to improve the quality or condition of something to launch = to start (a person) on some course or career to undertake. Special terms specialism = concentration on or specialization in a branch or field of a study. profession. For example.. etc.than FULL-TIME. alumnus. the opposite of old is young. pl. -took. The first shop he opened was a big SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. esp. alumna.. etc. position.. Complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a. Ways with words 1. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had .…………. college. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being .…….….

d. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ………. Pierre is very worried because he is in ………. etc. having a personal bank account. c …………………… per worker will increase with the introduction of the new machines. c. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. a building society. to put money in. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money. Word building Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in italics. Now it’s at least four times that. was only $20000 a year.. century..………… of $200 a month. year. of money: a. 4. a current account. Now think of words connected to time. to earn 15% interest. to buy shares in a company. a cheque card. produce a Our production of washing-machines increased by 5% last year. nobody will lend him any money. to cash a cheque. the Stock Market. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. In this way you may create a word set which may include among other words: day.. d Word processors have helped to make office workers more ……………………. Try to think of the word time. a deposit account. saving and investing money. e.. b. When Mr Michael retired he received a .. . a monthly statement. 216 Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject . a mortgage. year. When she started with the company her …………....Business English 3. Word sets. month. b We have recently put on the market two new …………………… ..

if you are still unsure of the meanings of any of the above. analyse a Managers needs to have an …………………mind.…………. timekeeper…………………………………………………………. time-limit……………………………………………………………. . it is wise to show him a business …………………. time-lag……………………………………………………………. to be on time………………………………………………………… j... c Our company’s main objective is to keep ahead of the …………………………. check them 217 eggs. time-card …………………………………………………………. Compound nouns and phrases with time What do the following mean? a. . f. b. i. time-zone…………………………………………………………… e. etc. g.. b Our…………………. b We try to stay……………………… by investing heavily in advertising and promotion. plan a The meeting did not go as ………………….Business English e The company is well known in the agricultural industry.. b Some projects take years of ………. time-sharing (referring to a computer)……………………………… h.showed that we needed to put more emphasis on marketing. c We must look at the problem………………… 5. . c. time-and-motion study……………………………………………… d. to be in time………………………………………………………… Now. time-switch (referring to a machine)………………………………. butter. c Before asking a bank manager for money. milk. It sells mainly farm …………………… compete a Coca Cola’s main ……………………is the Pepsi-Cola company.

g. 6. Times have changed! h. d. replacing the words in italics with words and phrases from below. Make any other necessary changes. Make sentences of your own using five of the above. e. I eat out at restaurants regularly and often go abroad for holidays. f. 3 This machine uses much less fuel than the previous one. I am going to retire earlier than expected. Complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a. The technology used in the Lotus car is very advanced indeed. Now.Business English in your dictionary. I can get these brochures and price lists off to you almost immediately. I must stay with my company for the moment because jobs are hard to find. I’m Managing Director. a sparing b economic c effective 218 d economical at one time from time to time work against time before one’s time a. b. The salesman decided to get to the meeting fairly early so that he . c or d). c. b. My …………………is much higher than it used to be. for the time being in no time at all in good time ahead of its time could prepare his presentation. 1 Nowadays. Formerly I worked on the shop floor of the factory. It is far more ………………. 7. a standard of living a duty b work b cost of living c job d function c lifestyle d way of life 2 Writing reports is not a ……………………that everyone enjoys. We check the machines at intervals. We have little time left to complete the project. Rewrite the following sentences.

..and. (But joins two adverbs) • Conjunctions both. (but also). phrases and clauses: He slipped and fell on the floor. a fill b meet c make d do Grammar Reference The Conjunction Conjunctions join words. either. a designs b plans c purposes d objectives 7 Several machines have broken down.Business English 4 The management has worked out a …………………… to improve our market share.or... not only. 219 . They are also called correlative conjunctions: Both Lisa and I will go to the party. (And joins two verbs) He moved quickly but quietly. a strategy b policy c target d planning 5 Many of the ………………… in the Personnel Department are part – time workers..... neither. We won’t be able to ……………………. Neither money nor power can make him happy. a staff b staffs c employers d personal 6 One of the company’s main …………………… is to increase sales by 10% per year. Please watch my baggage while I buy my train ticket.nor make the connection more intense.an important order. Coordinating Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically ( have the same function in the sentence): He slipped and fell on the floor.

Grammar Reference Direct and indirect (reported) speech Indirect speech is the term used to refer to the means of expressing what a person has said by reproducing either the exact words uttered or the essence of the utterance. I. how. although. what. before. whom She never saw him after he left town. who. because. The changes involving the tense of the verb are those mentioned in connection with the sequence of tenses. unless. She has been very ill since her operation. when the reported utterance is introduced by a verb in the past tense. as much as.Business English Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank. that. The rules are the following: DIRECT SPEECH Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Past Continuous Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous INDIRECT SPEECH Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future-in-the-Past Future-in-the-Past Continuous Future Perfect in-the-Past Future Perfect Continuous inthe-Past 220 . Here are some common subordinating conjunctions: after. if. where. as. when. since.

Adverbs or adverbial phrases of time and place also change to suggest remoteness.” She promised she would do it.” I advised her that she should be more careful. “I was at home when the TV news started. “You should be more careful.” The teacher told them that English is an analytic language. he would do it now. she said.” He told us that we mustn’t smoke in the classroom. e. must (especially in its prohibition sense) do not change. she answered. e. She exclaimed that she had already answered those letters. she exclaimed. Would.g. Should. Ought (to). She informed him that she was making a cake. he would do it now.g. a universal assertion. “I feel dizzy”.” She insisted that she was at home when the TV news started. e. Here. Used (to). No change of the past tense occurs when the time of the main clause is fixed by an adverbial clause of time. “I will do it. “I talked to him yesterday”. the Conditional and the Subjunctive usually remain unchanged if the time reference and the place are the same. She answered that she had talked to him the day before.g. “You mustn’t smoke in the classroom.Business English The Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous remain unchanged. that In that place Then (on) that day 221 .” She said that if he had time. She said that she felt dizzy. “English is an analytic language. “If he had time. an eternal truth. I promise. II. e.g. These rules are not observed in certain cases: No change of the present tense occurs in the reported clause when the statement contains a natural law. “I have already answered these letters!”. this In this place Now Today There. “I’m making a cake”.

e. “What a terrible noise!” She complained of the noise. Reported exclamations are frequently paraphrases of direct exclamations or are object clauses. what. “Good morning!” She greeted me. they may become finite object clauses with the verb in the subjunctive mood. e. where. after certain verbs. The word order of indirect speech is the same with that of a statement: there is no subject-auxiliary inversion. which are introduced by the question words (who. which. V.Business English Yesterday Last night/week Tomorrow Ago Next day/week (on) the previous day/the day before The previous night/week Next day/the following day Before The following day/week III.g. She wished me a good morning. She asked/ordered that I (should) shut the door after me. IV.g. when. etc). 222 . “What are you doing here?” He wondered what I was doing there. “Shut the door after you!” She asked/ ordered me to shut the door after me. “Does she always wear hats?” He asked if she always wore hats. Reported questions are introduced by if or whether.g. “How nice to meet you again!” She said/exclaimed she was delighted to meet me again. Imperatives or direct orders become infinitive clauses (accusative with the infinitive constructions) in reported speech or. e. how. “Darling I love you!” He called her “darling” and professed his love for her. except for the reported special questions.

e. When the verb of the main clause is in one of the past tenses. 223 . the tense of the verb in the secondary clause is conditioned exclusively by context and by the speaker’s intention.g.g. the verb of the secondary clause may be in any tense required by the logic of communication or dictated by the moment when the utterance is made.g. the same happens if the secondary clause expresses some general truth or refers to some lasting situation. In attributive or relative clauses: e. I knew that they would not agree. It was certain that he worked well. the future-in-the-past is used in the secondary clause. I knew that she had been very upset. When this is the case.g. e. the rule given under II may not be observed in the following types of clauses: In object clauses: e. That was what I had been doing until then. I suppose he knows about it / he knew about it / he will find out about it. It was certain that we would have guests again.g. the past perfect is used in the subordinate clause.Business English Sequence of tenses I.g. That was what I thought. She bought the ring which she is wearing when he was away. III. e. Even if the main clause verb is in the past. When the verb of the main clause is in one of the present tenses or in one of the future tenses. If the action of the secondary clause verb is posterior or subsequent to the past action of the main clause verb. e. If the action of the secondary clause verb is anterior or previous to the past action of the main clause verb. the past tense of the main clause is followed by a past tense in the secondary clause. He insisted that the earth moves around the sun. II. the following rules are applied: If the action of the secondary clause verb is simultaneous with the action of the main clause verb.

The simple present is used to express simultaneity. on the Olympic Peninsula.g. primordial coastline of Olympic National Park. Along this coast. If the verb of the main clause is in the future-in-the-past. She sang beautifully. Controlled practice 1. creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides.. No future can be used in the adverbial clauses of time after a future tense in the main clause. Her grades were better last year than they will be next term. Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate conjunction: A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and unforgettable walk on the wild side. some sixty active glaciers slow224 . He promised he would call you as soon as he had a spare moment. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer stone. d. and anteriority by the past perfect: e. In adverbial clauses of cause: e. You will be my friend again after you have proved more loyalty.g. The great rocks rising from the sea were once a part of the landmass. ……. than): e. that I shall remember her for a long time. into the Olympic Mountains.g. majestic white-robed peaks. is the brooding. ………. To the west. because I am leaving soon. It is to feel once more the power of the old myths. Within the park are alpine meadows.g. He will call you as soon as he has a spare moment. ……… craddle endlessly rocking. ……. c.g. nature is the hand setting b. to once again know that the land is the cradle of life. IV. a. and the present perfect to express anteriority: e. and beyond. In adverbial clauses of result: e. is one of the most diverse wilderness areas in North America..Business English In adverbial clauses of comparison (after as … as. He said that they would meet when he had finished his work. simultaneity is expressed with the help of the past tense. I had to talk to her.

are seemingly endless groves of oak.000 feet. For the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon. ……. Some of these patriarchs have stood for more than 2000 years. On the western slopes of the mountains. Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest. islands and hyacinth pools. In the ancient mountains of southern Appalachia. hickory. maple and other hardwoods.. most mountain ranges. the Colorado River must surely be the most powerful river of them all. in Shenandoah National Park i. Slowly flowing through the entire southern reaches of the Florida Peninsula... 50 miles wide. e. the Tetons have no foothills. To walk these cool. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Although relatively small. vaulted byways is to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man and nature are too often strangers. and averages only 6 inches deep. River. ……. there is a remarkable rainforest. live more than 350 species of birds. may be the most unusual river in the world. 225 . Sea. "Grassy Water. In Wyoming are the rugged. Far to the east. A river that is 100 miles long. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles. The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke. there is a more gentle forest. in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.Business English sliding their relentless way down from the heights. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps. These are softer mountains. ……. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest.. the giant sequoias are the survivors of a forest realm that has endured for millennia. serene. laying comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist. The Seminoles called it "Pa-hay-okee. the Everglades teems with an extraordinary variety of life.. Mountain. Sometimes the walls of the canyon are less than a half mile wide. ……." g. h." Bryce Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed. They rise dramatically to a height of almost 14." Here is the central feature of Everglades National Park. They are the largest living things on earth. majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains. Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f. Each has had a powerful impact on human experience. ……. hammocks.

The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o.. ……… seem to have once been alive. minarets. n. his sister promised. e. “I can’t think where my umbrella is”. m. Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high. said Sarah. towers. powerful strokes. arches.Captain George Vancouver first explored these shores.. all cut from stone by the delicate. ……. said Peggy. Here is where glaciers come to die. ……. mother”. ……. “I didn’t want to wash my face. “When John comes back.for the soul. “I shall ask them what they have been doing”. the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold. l. said Tony. Mr. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they will dwell in the eye of the mind forever. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved. Put the following sentences into reported speech: a. b. No longer shrouded in ice. Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of liquid crystal. said the little boy. he will ring up at once”. ……. time and wind. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the valley floor. the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is performed. j. the glacier has receded more than 75 miles. ……. “I haven’t found my bag yet”.. Within the avenues of the city are magnificent silent shapes k.. d. f.1794. Holmes told the pupils. Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs towering taller than anything man has made. 2. 226 . c. Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of Zion National Park. Waterfalls dance in the heights like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap of the valley. powerful hand of water.Business English There are castles and whimsical skylines. “The highest mountain in Britain is Snowdon”.

c. she said. He knows that if he tells his friends about it. he will not lag behind his group and will study much better.” k. Everybody is sure that. h.” j. “and you can take your time about paying it back. d. She promises that by the end of the month they will have finished their work. 3. after his father’s return to London. You tell me you have read this play in translation. Change the verb in the main clause into the Past Tense Simple. “If you are short of money I can lend you fifty pounds”. m.” i. “The engine has been running for more than ten minutes”. Make all the other necessary changes. g. a. l. “From one of the windows of my flat I can see the Tower”. I said to her. Mary said. e. “but I hope to have a flat of my own shortly. “The goldfish has jumped out of its bowl and I can’t find it anywhere. said I. “I am living with my parents at present”. I feel sure that when he goes home he will not fail to tell his father everything he has done at school. I’ll mend the fuse for you”. I advise you to read it in English. “I have something to show you”.” n. Mother has said Adam is coming on Saturday and will stay for a very short time. f.Business English g. “I am quite a good cook and I do all my own washing and mending. and what hopes he has about going to the university where he can continue his studies. I know that the meeting has already been held. said my cousin. too. they will not be surprised. h. b. said my aunt. Jack said to the mechanic. He tells me that two minutes are left before the train leaves. “If you give me some wire. 227 . He said.

Business English 228 .

-/ already. in your place. scarcely/ then. C. wanted. 9. had been able to. B. I would gladly acept his invitation.. D. C. Have you ……. Do you think we ……… call him so late? 229 . 5. so I had to tell them the truth. was sent for. 12. B. has been sent for. B. one hand I would like to start such a project. Hardly/ when. 6. D. A. 4. a. in. had been sent for. will rain.. call me at this number. I couldn’t make ……… a story. had I entered the door ……. A. coming/ the. 3. cinema last night. Have I known. could. B. coming/ -. 11. Should I know. an. D. A. had rained. was he moved/ was. No sooner ……. On ……. I went to ……. He would have helped you if he ……… A. rains. -. C. The doctor ……. D. Did I know. Had I known. had been. D. on ……… other I think I shan’t have the time to finish it. finished your homework ………? A. need. 13. come/ -. C. was. up. ……. I would have told it to you. 7. B. hardly/ than. C. D. D. chemistry laboratory.. B. had he moved/ was. a/ the. C. has been able to.. B.. ……… the truth.Business English Test Choose the best variant: 1. has been. A. will need.. he had moved/ was. D. hard/ when. 10. D. C. A. D. B. 14. had he moved/ has been. If it ……… tomorrow we’ll postpone our businees trip. B.. has needed. needed. In case you ……… my advice. -. come/ the. If I ………. A. C. C. rained. A. C. B. A. out. A. C. C. -. B. B. 8. was being sent for. A. promoted. D. I saw smoke ……… through the door of ……. B. were.. the phone started to ring. -/ yet. the/ a. the/ the. C. D. 2. on that drilling rig when he ………. A. already/ -. the. several hours ago. of. D. just/ -.

C. Answer key: 1. must. 3. 7. A. 2. B.. extreme loud.. need. B.Business English A. should. 11. C. C. had to. 14. hasn’t understood. A.. He was looking at me as if he ……… that easy equation. C. 13. A. . D. B. She spoke……… A. C. The paper addresses a basic question……. A. B. B.. 10. B. of to do. C. 17. of doing.. extremely loud.... 18. 1 point + 0. D. D. D. 5. . She took the liberty ……… it in her own way. 4. B. B. didn’t understand. 16. D. extremely loudly. 12. extreme loudly. C. A. A. D. . : . B. 8. understood. B. 15. to doing. A.50 points per each good answer 230 . 15. 6. hadn’t understood. C. A. 9. B. to do. C. 17. How can we take steps needed to protect the environment? A. 16. A. 18.

What didn’t you enjoy about it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 231 . What did you enjoy about it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.Business English Evaluation 1. What have you learnt from this book? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.

Business English _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 232 . Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently.

Business English Appendix 1 Irregular verbs Base form to be to beat Past Simple was/were beat Past Participle been beaten Translation a fi a bate a lovi to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade to bind bound become bent begun bid bidden bound a învinge a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi a uni a lega to blow blew blown a obliga a sufla a to break broke broken arde (fuzibilul unei siguranţe) a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma a concasa to bring to build to burn brought built burnt brought built burnt a degrada a aduce a produce a clãdi a construi a arde a calcina to burst burst burst a ataca a izbucni a exploda to buy to cast bought cast bought cast 233 a crãpa a cumpãra a arunca .

Business English a turna a prinde a capta a bloca to choose to cleave chose cleft clove to come to cost to creep came cost crept chosen cleft cloven come cost crept a colecta a selecta a alege a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa a veni a ajunge a costa a (se) târî a aluneca to cut cut cut a se alungi a tãia a fasona a secţiona to deal dealt dealt a opri (un motor) a se ocupa (cu) a contracta a distribui to dig dug dug a repartiza a sãpa a excava to do to draw did drew done drawn a explora a face a desena a schiţa to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall dreamt drank drove ate fell dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen 234 a atrage a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce a mânca a cãdea to catch caught caught .

Business English a da la rebut a alimenta a hrãni to feel to fight to find felt fought found felt fought found a aproviziona a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta a gãsi a descoperi to fling flung flung a constata a lansa a arunca to fly to forecast to forbid to forget to freeze to get flew forecast forbade forgot froze got flown forecast forbidden forgotten frozen got a izbucni a zbura a lansa a prevedea a interzice a uita a îngheţa a refrigera a obţine a primi to give gave given a deveni (a ajunge) a da a acorda a transmite a aviza to go went gone a preda a merge a funcţiona to grow to hang grew hung grown hung a circula a se mãri a dezvolta a suspenda a agãţa to have to hear had heard had heard 235 a pune receptorul în furcã a avea a auzi to feed fed fed .

Business English to hew hewed hewed hewn to hide to hit hid hit hidden hit a ciopli a degroşa a tãia a ascunde a lovi a ciocni to hold held held a izbi a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa to hurt hurt hurt a cuprinde a rãni a lovi to keep kept kept a avaria a ţine a reţine a menţine to knit knit knit a întreţine a înnoda a tricota to know to lay knew laid known laid a îmbina a şti a cunoaşte a pune a aşeza to lead led led a întinde a conduce a avansa to lean leant leant a comanda a înclina a (se) apleca to learn to leave learnt left learnt left a se sprijini a învãţa a pleca a pãrãsi 236 .

Business English to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet lent let lay lit lost made meant met lent let lain lit lost made meant met a împrumuta a lãsa a permite a se afla a consta în a aprinde a pierde a fabrica a face a însemna a vrea să spunã a (se) întâlni a intersecta to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise paid put read rode rang rose paid put read ridden rung risen a încrucişa a plãti a achita a pune a aşeza a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) a (se) ridica a (se) urca to run ran run a rãsãri a alerga a funcţiona to say to saw to see to seek to sell to send to set said sawed saw sought sold sent set said sawn seen sought sold sent set a administra a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta to shake shook shaken 237 a stabili a bate .

Business English a scutura to shear sheared shorn a vibra a tãia a mãrgini to shed shed shed a forfeca a arunca a difuza to shine to show to shoot to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to smell to smite to speak to speed to spell to spend shone showed shot shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung smelt smote spoke sped spelt spent shone shown shot shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung smelt smitten spoken sped spelt spent a vãrsa a strãluci a polisa a arãta a manifesta a împuşca a filma a se contracta a freta a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa a arunca a lansa a mirosi a izbi a vorbi a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi a petrece a cheltui to spill spilt spilt a întrebuinţa a vãrsa a risipi to split split split 238 a turna a cliva .

Business English a scinda a despica to spin spun spun a disocia a centrifuga a roti to spread spread spread a presa a rãspândi a acoperi to spring sprang sprung a extinde a sãri a izvorî to stand stood stood a se arcui a sta (vertical) a rezista to steal to stick to strike to string stole stuck struck strung stolen stuck struck strung a suporta a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa a lovi a izbi a înşira a lega to strive to swear to swell to swim to swing strove swore swelled swam swung striven sworn swollen swum swung a încorda a se strãdui a se lupta a jura a (se) umfla a creşte a înota a oscila a (se) balansa to take took taken a pendula a lua a capta to teach to tear to tell taught tore told taught torn told 239 a necesita a preda a rupe a spune .

Business English to think thought thought a reflecta a gândi to throw to thrust threw thrust thrown thrust a socoti cã a arunca a împinge a înfige to understand understood to wake woke to wear wore understood woken worn a apãsa a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a uza to weep wept wept a toci a plânge a picura to win to wind to wring won wound wrung won wound wrung a se prelinge a câştiga a rãni a stoarce a rãsuci to write wrote written a smulge a scrie 240 .

to be bored with sth. to be in love with sb. in the beginning to be afraid of./ sb. to be in charge of sth. to be good at sth. sth. attentive at sth. about sth. to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth. at the beginning of sth. to be fed up with sth. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth./sb. to argue with sb. to be at home to be aware of sth./ sth.= somebody. an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb. to be careful about sth. on sth.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth.Business English Appendix 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb. to assist in sth. to be full of (energy) to be fond of sb. sb. to be in a mess 241 .= somenthing) (break sth.

/ sb. to cooperate with sb./ sth. to die of sth. to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb. to deal with sth. in the distance 242 ./ sb. with sth. to believe in sth. to benefit from sth. to belong to sb. to develop into sth./sth. deficiency in sth. else to complain about sth. to be proud of sth. to be tired of sth. in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth.Business English to be interested in sth. to debate on sth. to be impressed by sth. change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth. to go by bus/ train/plane. to be married to sb. in the (20-th) century certain of sth./ deficient in sth. to depend on sb. to be different from sb. to cope with sth. to be similar to sth./ sth. etc.

/sth. to look forward to doing sth. to forget about sb. by mistake at the/that moment to operate on sb. to listen to sth. to find put about sv. to go home to have a degree in sth./ sb./ sth. to get on (well) with sb. to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South. from sth. to get in touch with sb.Business English to distinguish sth. etc./sth./ sth. to fight against sb. to look for sth. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb./ sth. 243 . to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. else to dream about sb. owing to sth./ sth. in the end at the end of sth. to laugh at sb. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb. to look at sth. to have an interview for a job to invite sb. to merge with sth./sth. to go out with sb. to originate in sth.

to suffer from sth. resistance to sth. a ticket for sth. on the way (to school) to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth./ sth./ sth. to pay ($5000) for sth. to search for sth. about sth. to talk to sb. at sb. about sth. with sb./ sth./ sb. to speak to sb. to sell sth. to point at sb. a story about sth. thanks to sb. to spend money on sth./ sth representative of sb. to specialise in sth./ sb. a letter) to sb. for ($300) to share sth. to point sth. to write (an e-mail./ sth.Business English to participate in sth. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you thinf of von Laue?) to throw sth. in view of sth. (a gun) at sb. preoccupation with sth./ sth. to rely on sb./ sb. 244 . to wait for sb. similar to sb.

laugh. differ. indemnify. distinguish. call. purge. work. receive. confide.Business English Verbs with Obligatory Preposition: ABOUT: argue. sneer. AGAINST: clamour. walk. mock. write. complain. mutter. murmur. rejoice. deal. expect. call. withdraw. BY: begin. ensue. insert. pull. AFTER: aspire. grieve. defend. learn. buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc. guard. shoot. pine. strike. ask. hope. say. cry. rush. break. pass. extricate. cry. FROM: absolve. knock. answer. fall. put. fish. spring. consist. insure. banish. assess. do. know. throw. recover. gaze. talk. paint. rage. yearn. fire a shot. last. swear. derive. drive. sail. suffer. smile. merge. point. differentiate. bargain. revolt. send. look. exact. thunder. atone. AT: aim. lament. start. select. FOR: account. INTO: alter. search. speak. hanker. believe. puff. look. look. OF: 245 . turn. profit. interfere. care. long. fight. IN: abound. thrust. reach. manufacture. prepare. pay. descent. refrain. languish. borrow. take. protect. tell. sigh. see. divide. obtain. exclaim. leave. purchase. stay. stand. entangle. think. write. warn. change. employ (sb). strive. divide. die. wait. excerpt. doubt. set. repine. pitch. fret. buy/sell (sth) at a price. flee. take. hunt. succeed. wish. worry. hammer. crave. finish. hunger. glance.

allow. go. take. dream. correspond. exult. vie. talk. avail (oneself). consist. resort. ON: act. appeal. remind. rest. subscribe. TO: adapt. bet. adjust. contend. hear. point. think. play (~one’s feelings). reply. jar. frown. aspire. drink. refer. rhyme. agree. cling. compare. approve. attest. muse. belong. relieve. disagree. do. insist. disapprove. doubt. chance. tend. suspect. comment. differ. speak. side. shiver. help (oneself). quarrel. seem. fix. complain. interfere. force. depend. tremble. compare. correspond. attach. listen. beware. mingle. call. meet (~hardships). join. bear. amount. agree. count. 246 . reconcile. learn. acquit. cry. smile (about fate). stumble. contrast. WITH: agree. embark. impose. trample. die. consent. inculcate. tattle. apologise. fight.Business English accuse. attend. comply. congratulate. tell. adhere. rely. prove. stick. look. complain. announce. deprive. succeed. oppose. rule. become. speak. combine. come. ruminate. enter. quarrel. intermeddle. insist. entitle. concentrate. connect. sympathize. fall. cure. lead. UPON: act. trifle. dispose. operate. respond. object. allude. quiver. explain. gloat. depend. set (to work). return. deal. nod. give. talk. OVER: brood.

Business English Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition: Addicted to adequate for (smth.e.) charmed with (smb.) clever at (mathematics) compatible with concerned about /with concerned for (smb) connected with consistent with contended with 247 .) appalled by apprehensive of (i.) adverse to affected by amazed at ambitious after annoyed at anxious about (smth.) adequate to (smb.) anxious for (smb. worried about) apt for ashamed of averse to bad at beneficial to bent on busy with capabale of certain of charmed at (smth.

) convenient to (smb.) displeased at dissatisfied with doubtful of (smb.) crazy about cruel to deficient in (smth.) dying for eager for/about earnest about enraged by essential for excited at/over fit for frightened at full of good at greedy of hostile to (smb.Business English convenient for (smth.) delighted at derogatory to devoid of dexterous at diffident in disappointed at disgusted by (smth.) hungry for identical to/with ignorant of immersed in (debts) 248 .) disgusted with (smb.

Business English immune against immune from impolite to inadequate for smth/to smb incensed at/with inclined to /for inconceivable to independent of smb indignant at/with infatuate with intent on irritated at offended at opposite from parallel to paralyzed with partial to particular about pleased at smth prepared for proficient in prone to resolved on rude to secure of skillful at/in slow at solicitous about sorry about smth. sorry for smb subject to suffering from sufficient for 249 .

vexed with smb 250 .Business English suited to sure about smth sure of smb sympathetic to tired with true to unfit for unjust to vexed at smth.

begin continue prefer start 251 . afford agree appear decide expect hope intend need offer plan pretend promise refuse seem want Verbs which are followed by either an INFINITIVE or a GERUND Nowadays many countries prefer to generate/generating electricty from renewable sources of energy.Business English Appendix 3 Verbs which are always followed by a GERUND: The drilling engineer denied experiencing a gusher. admit appreciate avoid celebrate consider defer delay deny detest dislike dispute enoy escape excuse explain find finish forgive mention mind miss pardon postpone practice prevent recall risk suggest understand Verbs wich are always followed by an INFINITIVE: The regional Electricity companies expect to earn an additional 23% profit this year.

Business English 252 .

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randomhouse. http://www.htm 18.edu/grammar/adjectives.com 254 . http://ccc.Business English 17.commnet.

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