PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING – CE 071 2 MARKS UNIT I – COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT 1.

Define Environment: Environment is defined as the holistic view of the world as it functions at a given point of time, with a multitude of spatial, elemental and socio-economic systems, distinguished by quality of space, and the mode of behaviour of the various abiotic and biotic forms. 2. Write down the elements of environment The elements of environment can be broadly divided into two; 1. Abiotic It consists of physical environment consisting of air, water and soil or sediment. The abiotic components are further divided into three; • Lithosphere (sphere of rocks / soil / sediment) • Hydrosphere (sphere of water) • Atmosphere (sphere of gases) 2. Biotic The biotic or biological environment consists of flora, fauna and micro-organisms. The biotic component consists of, • Producers (green plants) • Consumers a. Primary Consumer b. Secondary Consumer c. Tertiary Consumer • Decomposers (bacteria and fungi) 3. What is abiotic environment? Abiotic environment is composed of external physical factors like temperature, humidity, water, minerals and gases etc. 4. What are biotic environment? Biotic environment is composed of all the living components-plants, animals and micro-organisms. 5. What is autecology? It is concerned with the ecology of an individual species and its population. While studying the autecology of a particular species, an ecologist studies its behavior and

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adaptation to the environmental condition at every stage of that individual’s life cycle. Autecology is also called species ecology. 6. Why are plants called as producers? The green plants have chlorophyll with the help of which they trap solar energy and change it into chemical energy of carbohydrates using simple inorganic compounds namely water and carbondioxide.As the green plants manufacture their own food they are known as Autotrpohs. 7. Write the classification of biological environment. 1. Floral/Plant Environment 2. Faunal /Animal Environment 3. Microbial environment 8. Write notes on troposphere This layer is composed of water vapour, clouds and precipitation. It occupies 80% of the mass of atmosphere. At mid-latitudes it extends upto 10 to 12 km from earth’s surface. At the poles it ranges about 5 to 6 km and at equator it is about 18 km height. In this layer the temperature decreases at 5 to 7 0C as we go up. It is due to the wet adiabatic lapse rate. Troposphere is a very turbulent place ie. there are strong vertical air movements that lead to rapid and complex mixing. Mixing is good for air quality since it rapidly disperse pollutants. 9. Write notes on stratosphere Stratosphere is a stable layer of dry air. Since there are no strong vertical movements, the pollutants remain suspended for a long time. They can drift back to troposphere where they are diluted and removed by rainfall or settling. Stratosphere contains ozone which absorbs the short wavelength ultraviolet energy, causing the air to heat up. The resulting temperature inversion makes the stratosphere stable. Both troposphere and stratosphere together account for 99.9 % of mass of the atmosphere. It extends upto 50 km above the surface of earth. 10. Define Ecology and Ecosystem: Ecology is defined as the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. An Ecosystem is defined as a natural functional ecological unit comprising of living organisms (biotic community) and their non-living (abiotic or physiochemical) environment that interact to form a stable self-supporting system.

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11. Write short notes on photosynthesis. The process by which chlorophyll bearing plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars is called photosynthesis. The generalized equation for photosynthesis is,

12. Explain energy flow and write down the laws governing that. The behaviour of energy in an ecosystem can be termed as energy flow. The flow of energy through the ecosystem is unidirectional and non-cyclic. This one way flow of energy is governed by laws of thermodynamics which state that; I) Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can only be transformed from one form to another. This is known as the ‘first law of thermodynamics’. Energy transfer is always accomplished be dispersion of energy into unavailable heat (ie. entropy). This law is known as the ‘second law of thermodynamics’ or ‘the law of entropy’.

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13. Explain food chain and food web. Food chain: In a food chain each organism eats the smaller organism and is eaten by the larger one. All these organisms which are interlinked with each other through food together constitute a food chain. The different species in a food chain are called trophic levels. Each food chain has three major trophic levels – Producers, Consumers and Decomposers. Sunlight  Producer  (Plants) Grass Primary  Consumer (Herbivores) Rabbit Secondary  Tertiary  Quartenary Consumer Consumer Consumer (Primary (Secondary (Omnivores) Carnivores) Carnivores) Fox Wolf Man

Death Inorganic Substances Decomposers (Bacteria, Fungi)

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Fig.: Basic nutritional links in an ecosystem. Food web: Various food chains are often interlinked at different trophic levels to form a complex interaction between different species from the point of view of food. This network is called the food web. The following figure shows the food web from grass to hawk. Grasshopper Grass Mouse Rabbit Snake Lizard Hawk

Fig.: Example of food web. If any of the intermediate stage of the food chain is removed, the succeeding links of the food chain will be affected. The food web provides more than one alternatives of food to most of the organisms in an ecosystem and, therefore, increases their chances of survival. 14. Define Nutrient cycle / Biogeochemical cycle / Material cycle. The cyclic exchange of nutrient material between the living organisms and their non-living environment is called nutrient / material / biogeochemical cycle. As indicated by the name, the nutrients circulate through life (bio) and through earth (geo) repeatedly (cycle). 15. What all will be included under Edaphic factors? Soil, pH, topography, minerals etc 16. Name some of the natural impacts on water, air and land: Natural hazards can be broadly divided into two: 1. Geo Physical 2. Biological Geo Physical can be again divided into; i. Climatic and Meteorological ii. Geologic and Geomorphic Climatic and Meteorological hazards include; Snow & Ice d) Fog Droughts e) Frost Floods f) Hail

a) b) c)

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Faunal Floral hazards include. 19. Name some of the man-made (Anthropogenic) impacts on environment 1. Floral ii. Global warming and green house effect 10. in the 1700’s developed the theory of classical economics. Water catchments and ground water recharge. Gulf war hazards 8. 5 . Minamata disease 5. the increasing scarcity of the finite resources reduces the quality of life. a) Fungal disease b) Hay fever c) Poisonous plants Faunal hazards include. Biological diversity balance. 3. Give two importance of ecological services. Ozone layer depletion 18. i. 1. Chemical composition of the atmosphere and oceans 2. according to this view. Chernobyl disaster 7. “as the population grows. Bhopal disaster 6. Acid Rain 9. London smog 2. a) Bacterial and Viral disease b) Venomous animal bites c) Infestation i) Lightning and Fire e) Shifting Sand f) Tsunamis g) Volcanic Eruptions 17. increases competition and ultimately causes population to fall”. State the theory of Classical Economics Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus.g) Heat waves h) Tropical cyclones j) Tornadoes Geologic and Geomorphic hazards include. Nuclear explosions 4. Mediterranean-a dead sea 3. a) Avalanches b) Earthquakes c) Erosion d) Land Slides Biological hazards can be divided into.

What are the different types of capital in neoclassical economics? Economics distinguish several kinds of capital 1. According to the report. 21. Define Sustainable Development The term 'sustainable development' was introduced in a 1987 report by the World Commission on Environment and Development called 'Our Common Future'. 4. A symbiotic relationship between the consumer human race and the producer natural system. 2. other microorganisms and animals are the heterotrophic components of the ecosystem. Compatibility between ecology and economics. Recycle and reuse technologies. It involves the adoption of technologies such as 1. 22. Natural capital 2. Cleaner technologies for production process.induced risks in all environmental components. Fig: Concept of sustainable development The following general constitutional preconditions must be satisfied while working towards the goal of sustainable development: 1) Economic efficiency . non-photosynthetic bacteria.' 24. Explain the concept of sustainable development The concept of sustainable development has the following underlying promises: 1. Manufactured capital 23. What is PEP? PEP is Preventive Environmental Policy. 2. Human capital 3. 3.20. thus minimizing overall pollution. Integrated technologies that minimize cross-media transfer of pollutants. Replace non-renewable resource base with renewable resource base. the term 'sustainable development' can be summarised as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. What are Heterotrophic components? Fungi.

The term mole can be applied to any particle. Environmental Audit (EA).It is another common measurement of concentration Molality = Number of moles of solute Weight of solvent 29. In general it is the ratio between mass and molecular weight of a particle. Mole is defined as the amount of substance present in a material. Define mole. or neutral. Define pH. A preventive environmental policy b. Write notes on carrying-capacity-based developmental agenda for sustainable development. which includes. Define molality. Molarity = Number of moles of solute Volume of solution . Define Molarity. a. Molarity is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in 1000ml of the solution. Structural economic change c. Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment (EIRA). A carrying-capacity-based developmental agenda for sustainable development ensues. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Natural Resource Accounting (NRA). basic. Molality is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1000gm of the solvent. 27. UNIT II – SCIENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 26. 28. It is the logarithmic scale used to specify whether a solution is acidic.2) Ecologic harmony 3) Equality and Social justice 4) Endogenous choices 25. The enhanced role of environmental management tools like.

iron and other metals. It is mostly destroyed by heating. magnesium and other heavy metals dissolved in it. A solution for which the hydroxyl ions are greater than hydrogen ions. 35. Color . This is not destroyed by heating. Define buffering capacity of water. Permanent hardness is caused due to the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium. Hardness of water is defined as the property of Water which consumes more soap to produce foam or lather. List the properties of acid and base. Define permeability of soil. Define Hardness of Water. 32. 37. Turbidity in water is a measure of the resistance of water to the passage of light through it.30. i) Nitrogen ii) Phosphorus iii) Carbon dioxide 36. it is called as base. What are the principle nutrients required for algae. magnesium and other heavy metals and the carbonates of iron. it is called as acid. 38. It is defined as the ability of movement of water through the pore spaces of soil particles. Define Chemical oxygen Demand This is defined as the amount of oxygen required for chemical oxidation of the organic matter and other reducing agents present in waste water. 34. magnesium. List some physical properties of water. Differentiate between Temporary hardness and Permanent hardness Temporary hardness is due to the presence of dissolved bicarbonates of calcium. It is due to the presence of certain salts of calcium. Define Turbidity. Buffering capacity is the ability of water to maintain a stable pH value even if acids or bases are added. A solution for which the hydrogen ions are greater are than the hydroxyl ions. 33. 31.

ditches. uneconomical and impractical.Temperature Turbidity Taste and odour. 43. Example: total coliforms. Define Bio chemical oxygen demand. Bacteria Fungi Algae Protozoa Viruses 44. What is an point source pollution. What is an non-point pollution ? Water pollution caused in a scattered or diffuse manner having no specific origin or point of entry into a particular body of water are called non-point pollution sources. List the different types of fresh water algae? i)Green algae ii)Motile green algae iii)Blue green algae. 41. etc. BOD is defined as the quantity of dissolved oxygen required by bacteria for the oxidation of organic matter under aerobic conditions 40. are called point source pollution. Instead water is tested using a surrogate that is an indicator of fecal contamination. 39. Explain the basic classification of micro organism. Calculate the number of moles of CO2 in 44 g of CO2? Number of moles = Mass / Molecular Mass . 42. fecal streptococci and clostridium perfingens 45. iv)Brown algae. What is an indicator organism? The detection of pathogens in routine water analysis is difficult. Polluted water discharged from specific locations such as drain pipes.

46. 48. human beings and materials. which contains as much solute as it can dissolve in the presence of solvent at a given temperature. Write the pH of i)Human blood ii)Lemon juice iii)Wine iv)Distilled water Human blood Lemon juice Wine Distilled water : 7. Name all the mass/mass units used for representing concentration of solution? i)percent by weight ii)parts per million iii)molality iv)mole fraction UNIT III – CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 51.4x10-4 mol/l pH = .log10[H+] = . What is an saturated solution? This is a solution. What are the main sources of air pollution? . animals. What is meant by air pollution? Air pollution may be defined as the presence of impurities in excessive quantity and duration to cause adverse effects on plants.534 + 4 = 3. What is a policy? A policy is a plan or statement of intent –either written or stated – about a course of action or inaction intended to achieve certain goals.5 :-2 :-4 : 7 49. 50.= 44 / 44 =1 mole.47 47. Calculate the pH of a solution with [H+]=3. 52.4) – log10(10-4 ) = .0.log10(3.

The temperature in the cylinder ranges from 500oC and the end of compression stroke (before ignition) to about 3000- . Write short note on color-coding of biomedical waste. but auto and diesel exhaust are also prime contributors. γ radiations. The system of using different color bags to collect different types of medical waste is known as color-coding. The biomedical waste can be divided into 3 categories according to the colors. The α particle emission occurs mainly in radioactive isotope and the β radiations are the electron released from a radioactive nucleus. Catalytic converters Manifold air injection Fundamental engine modification 57. 58. Hence it will not produce any heat if re-circulated and will quench the heat of the combustion gases. This can be achieved by recirculating the exhaust gases. which will no longer burn. What do you understand by suspended particulate? Suspended particulate matter is a complex mixture of small and large particles with size less than 100µ varying origin and chemical composition. How can exhaust reduction be done in vehicles? The exhaust deduction in the vehicle may be achieved to some extend by adopting the following technique. List the types of air pollutants. Since high temperature favors the production of nitrogen oxide. This method is called Exhaust Gas Recirculation(EGR). How can you control the emission of nitrogen oxides? OR Explain EGR method. the emission may be controlled by lowering the combustion temperature. Particulate pollutants Gaseous pollutants 54. 55. β particles. 56. Yellow bag waste Eg: Human anatomical waste-Should be incinerated or deeply burried Red bag waste Eg: Plastic waste-Should be disinfected with chemicals Black bag waste Eg: Incinerated ash-Should be disposed for landfills. In the spontaneous break down of the nucleus of an atom.Natural sources and Man made or anthropogenic sources 53. The γ radiations are electromagnetic radiation traveling at speed of light. mainly three types of radioactive materials are found to be hazardous namely: α particles. especially along busy transportation corridors. The largest source of particulate matter is coal-fired power plants. In order to dispose the biomedical waste safely and economically it is necessary to collect the waste by suitable segregation. Write short note on radioactive property of hazardous waste.

What are the main components of municipal solid waste? Garbage (or) food waste Rubbish Ashes and Residues Special wastes Construction and demolition wastes Treatment plant waste 63. 65. The green house gases absorb and hold heat from the sun. Hence to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides the temperature must be maintained as low as 1300 oC which can be maintained by adopting EGR method. and finally to harmless products. skin burns. the bonds between the molecules break and free radicals are formed leading to violent reactions. bone fluorisis. animals and humans. 62. physics and thermodynamics. 61. nutrients. Some reactions are also speeded up by catalysts at high temperature. textile and fertilizer industries. . 60. which causes more changes in climate.o C after ignition. What are the sources of hydrogen fluoride? Hydrogen Fluoride is released by aluminium industry. What are the effects of global warming? More heat waves Expansion of desert area Natural fires in forest land More evaporation of water from oceans and water bodies Melting of ice caps in artic and Antarctica regions More cloud formation in the atmosphere Rise in sea level More drought More impacts on plants. 64. The green house effect is a naturally occurring process that makes the earth warmer by trapping more energy in the atmosphere. Define green house effect. The incineration process is very complex and involves chemistry. preventing it from escaping back into the space. and destroys the crops. 59. HF affects the respiratory track. Write short note on incineration process used in managing hazardous waste. chemical industries. What is landscape diversity? Landscape diversity involves more than just the spatial arrangement of habitats across a large area but also includes the flux of energy. Define global warming Global warming is defined as the increase in temperature of the earth. which produces nitrogen oxides. disturbances and organisms across the area. During this process.

If there is any need for incineration of sludge from treatment plants. grease. 71. Explain drying and dewatering. The overall process is referred to as nitrification / denitrification. What are major vehicle pollutants? The major pollutants due to vehicles are Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of nitrogen Lead components and Suspended particulate matter. What are the types of autoclave systems used in treatment of biomedical waste? Gravity system Pre vacuum system Retort type systems 69. When is a waste said to be hazardous? A waste is said to be hazardous if it posses one or the more of the following characteristics Toxicity Reactivity Ignitability Radioactivity Corrosivity 70. What are the two main classifications in sources of radioactive pollution? Natural sources Man-made sources . etc by skimming tanks is called as skimming. The shredded waste material is pre-dried to decrease its weight by removing the amount of moisture. 73. 72.66. UV treatment 68. Write short note on nitrification / denitrification An approach to nitrogen control utilizes aerobic bacteria to convert ammonia(NH4+) to (NO2-) which is nitrification followed by an anaerobic stage in which different bacteria converts nitrates to nitrogen gas(N2) which is denitrification. The process of removal of floating matters such as oils. Define screening and skimming. 67. then dewatering is essential. The process of removing the large matters from sewage by allowing it to pass through screens is called screening. Ozonation. Name any three disinfection method Chlorination.

iii)Product quality requirements and initiative. iii) Reduced the waste disposal and its cost reduction. ii) Preventing environmental degradation caused by unnecessary release of waste materials. What are the factors to which the effect of radioactive pollutants depend on? Duration of exposure to the radiation Strength of the radiation Half life period of the radioactive pollutant Rate of diffusion of the pollutant Environmental conditions UNIT IV – ENGINEERING INTERVENTIONS TO REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES 76. 75. What is DRE? DRE refers to the destruction and removal efficiency that evaluates the measurement of qualitative functioning of an incinerator. . What is the aim of national committee of environmental planning and coordination. 77. What are the objectives of waste minimisation? i) Reduced hazard to human health from the generation of toxic wastes. 78. What is half-life of a radioactive substance? The half-life of a radioactive substance is defined as the time taken for decaying half of the material present. What is flow diagram and what are its advantages? Flow diagram is a graphical representation of various processes involved in various methods of treatment plant. i)Conservation of natural resources. What are the factors involved in the amount of waste generation process? i)House keepinng practices ii)Extent of process control.74. ii) Easy to understand and can easily identify if anything goes wrong. ii)Control of environmental pollution. 80. The advantages are i) It shows the sequential processes involved in a particular type of treatment method. iv)Managing system and initiative.000 molecules of pollutant treated by the incinerator.99 indicates that one molecule of an organic compound is released in to the atmosphere for every 10. 79. iii)Environmental education. A DRE value of 99.

It produces products and provide services at a higher efficiency . How the waste audit is divided? a) Pre assessment b) Material balance . iii) Carry out environmental audit on suppliers of services. 84. 88. What are the advantages of clean technology? i)It helps to use fewer raw materials and energy and generate less waste. What do u mean by end of pipe approach? In this case waste treatment is done at the end of pipe (ie) after the manufacturing process is over.increased profitability and reduces risk to the environment. ii)Establish environmental policy duly acknowledged by the executive officer. i)Undertake environment review and create the awareness of environmental issues. 87. ii)To neutralise the waste. which reveals the actual generation of waste in an industrial unit. What are the steps to be taken to implement cleaner production in an industry. ii)It helps to ensure worker safety. 89. iii)To reduce the volume of waste. What are the objectives of waste treatment? i)To recover the material or energy resources from the waste. 86. is the waste audit. 85. What is environmental waste audit? The most important process.the waste treatment alone is called End of Pipe approach.iv)Environmental laws. 83. ii) Increase knowledge of the production process. What is waste treatment? Waste treatment technique or process change the physical. 81. iii)It reduce the impacts for products along the entire life cycle from material extraction to disposal. iii)Help to improve process efficiency. less energy and generate less waste than an existing technology.chemical and biological character of waste. What are the important points of good waste audit? i) Help set targets for waste reduction. Therefore . What is an clean technology? Clean technology is an integrated preventive environmental and business strategy which uses fewer raw materials. 82. Steps are taken to mininise the waste during the manufacturing processes and also the generated wastes are not reused.

92.5 kg/1000 tones of crude processed 14 kg/1000 tones of crude processed 94. leaking or placing of waste in to or any land. 97. 1. water or air.pH 2. What are the possible solutions of waste disposal? i)Install a fume incinerator. injection.5 to 9. What is the percentage removal of suspended solids and BOD in primary treatment? The primary treatment is aimed to remove 60% of suspended solids and 40% of BOD.BOD at 200c 4. Disposal.Sulphide 3.0 mg/lit 95. 90. Reduction at source b. Mention the standards of a few chemical parameters in the oil refinery industry. Mention the standards of a few chemical parameters in the cotton textile industry 1.35 kg/1000 tones of crude processed 10.0 mg/lit 2. dumping. What is disposal? Disposal is the discharge. 96. 93.c) Synthesis.BOD at 20 0 c 4.7 kg/1000 tones of crude processed 0. Recycle/Reuse c. spilling.Sulphides 5. What is standard of performance? The minimum allowable concentration of each chemical agent in a waste water or effluent that is prepared by suitable acts or amendments is called standard performance. deposit.Phenol 2.Suspended solids 3.0 100 mg/lit 150 mg/lit 2. Treatment d. What is the objective role of standards of performance in the control of pollution? The standards of performance function to monitor and assess the overall concentration of toxic pollutants in the effluent and enable the analyst or investigators to check whether the prescribed limit of those pollutants do not exceed the allowable level.Total chromium content 5.Suspended solids 0. 91. What are the elements of waste minimisation strategy? a. .

or legislative actions relative to the physical-chemical. Write down the objective of EIA: The objective of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to ensure that environmental aspects are addressed and potential problems are foreseen at the appropriate stage of project design. What are the operations included in ETP? i)Blending ii)Equalization iii)Neutralization iv)Precipitation v)Chemical or Biological Oxidation . The operations included in ETP(effluent Treatment Plants) are Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can be defined as the systematic identification and evaluation of the potential impacts (effects) of proposed projects.ii)Install a condenser to recover the solvent for reuse 98. Hence this EIA is carried out in order to ensure the depletion of resources and the alterations and effects on the quality of environmental parameters. What is MINAS? Effluent standards were designed on techno economic grounds called the ’Minimal National Standards’ 99. plans. 102. UNIT V – TOOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 101. What is the need of EIA? All the developmental activities are proposed to facilitate the public. programs. What is LSS? Effluent standards are calculated on the basis of the assimilative capacity of the receiving environment. called the ‘Location Specific Standard’ 100. Define Environmental Impact Assessment. What are the goals of EIA? 104. . and socioeconomic components of the total environment. 103. For that the resources are used more and that may alter and affect the environmental parameters. EIA should be envisaged as an integral part of the planning process and initiated at the project level from the start. biological. cultural.

Rapid EIA is done quickly based on one season data whereas Comprehensive EIA will be detail and normally takes at least one year for its preparation.  Recovery of by-products. iii. List the key elements of EIA. Write down some of the benefits of EIA: The benefits of the EIA are. ii. Assessment performance. Increase project acceptance and improve project performance. Avoid impacts and violations of laws and legislations. 107. Write down the types of EIA: Rapid EIA Comprehensive EIA There are two types of EIA. Organizing the job. iv. 105. Decreased resource use and fewer conflicts over natural resource use. Reviewing of Environmental Impact Statement. Reduce cost and time of project implementation ii. i. v.  Minimization of wastes. provides full and fair discussion of significant environmental impacts and must inform the decision makers and public the reasonable alternatives which would avoid or minimize adverse impacts or enhance the quality of human environment. i. Approval of Plan with or without modifications.The goals of EIA are:  Conservation of resources. Preparation of Environmental Impact Statement. 109.  Utilization of efficient equipments. 108. Write down the major objectives of ISO 14000 series: The major objectives of ISO 14000 series is to promote more effective and efficient environmental management in organization and to provide useful and . Define Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement which serves as an action-forcing device. Improved human health and maintenance of biodiversity.      106.

Write down the key requirements specified under ISO 14000: The key requirements specified under ISO 14000 are. should pay for that’. What do you know about risk management? Risk management is a process of resolving various policies regarding acceptable risk. when human health or the environment are threatened. Write down the subjects covered under various ISO 14000 : ISO 14000 – 14009 : Environmental Management Systems ISO 14010 – 14019 : Environmental Audit ISO 14020 – 14029 : Environmental Labeling ISO 14030 – 14039 : Environmental Performance Evaluation ISO 14040 – 14049 : Life Cycle Assessment ISO 14050 – 14059 : Terms and Definitions ISO 14060 : Environmental Aspects in Product Stand 111.’ the people who get benefited due to an activity. flexible and reflect the best organizational practices available for gathering.  Risk estimation. precautionary measures should be taken even if cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established scientifically. 116. quantifying and evaluating the risk. i. interoreting and communicating environmentally relevant information. Planning iii. 113. Define risk assessment? 115. What is the beneficiary pays principle? According to this principle. Checking and corrective action v. . It contains risk determination and risk evaluation. The intended end result is the improvement of environmental performance. . In other words. Implementation and operation iv.usable tools-ones that are cost-effective. Write notes on Precautionary Principle: The precautionary principle emphasizes that we should plan a margin of safety for error or surprises in natural systems. which increases the pollution. It consists of risk assessment and risk control. system based. 114.  Risk acceptance. 110. Management review 112. What are the activities covered in risk assessment?  Risk identification. Environment access ii. Risk management is defined as the process of identifying.

the polluter is responsible and he should pay for his action. The pollution control boards are in no position to assess the actual costs imposed by pollution. Article 51-A (g). decisions and actions concerning environmental quality. 2. natural resources and ecological sustainability. State the Article-47 of the Indian Constitution. 118. What are the limitations of Polluter-Pays Principle? 1. In case of the polluter pays principle. Article 48-A. 121. 3. Whereas. The principle becomes effective with Environmental Law. 1. Article 47. "The State is to ensure as its primary duty of. Write down the components of Environmental Law: Environmental Law includes official rules. What are the major constitutional provisions in India for environmental protection?     122. Pollution taxes enacted through the political process are likely to reflect political priorities rather than environmental ones 119. This is known as the ‘polluter pays principle’. 2. the benefited persons should pay for enjoying a clean and safe environment. 117. Risk aversion. The polluter pay taxes would be used to enrich government funds.To increase the level of nutrition of the people.To bring improvement in public health". Article 253. Write notes on Polluter Pays Principle: The basic environment law of the land requires that a polluter bear the remedial or clean-up costs as well as the amount payable to compensate the victims of pollution. . State the Article 48-A of the Indian Constitution. not to compensate those who were harmed by the pollution. Compare and contrast polluter pays principle with beneficiary pays principle. 120.Raising standard of living of its people. Article 47 of the Constitution states that. There is no need to pay by the polluters according to this principle. 123. incase of the beneficiary pays principle.

State the Article 253 of the Indian Constitution.To conserve the environment 3.Montreal protocol. According to Article 51-A(g) of the Constitution. Name some of the acts enacted by the Indian Government to protect the environment. Article 253 of the Constitution empowers the parliament to make laws regarding preserving the environment. 124. association or other body'. lakes. "the State shall endeavor for protection and improvement of the environment and for safeguarding the forest and wild life and improving the natural environment of the country". rivers . It states 'The parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India for implementing any treaty.and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures'. agreement or convention with any other country or countries or any decision made at any international conference. 125. What are the common objectives of environmental legislation? All the Acts were enacted to achieve the following: 1.To create authorities to administer the policy and contents of the legislation.The Earth Summit 3.The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Cess Act 1977 3.The Public Liability Insurance Act 1991. 1. it shall be the duty of every citizen of India 'to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. 126. 1.Article 48-A of the Constitution states that. List the major environmental conventions of 20th century. 4. 130.World summit on sustainable development 2.Kyoto protocol 2. State the Article 51-A(g) of the Indian Constitution. 127.To control further damage to the environment and ecosystem 2.To restore the environment in areas damaged including such measures as reclamation of degraded land. 1. 128. 5.The Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1981 4. Write notes on NGOs: .World conference on women.To provide penalties and prosecution for violation of laws.The Environment (protection) Act 1986 5. List the major environmental protocols of 20th century.The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974 2. 129.

These are mainly designed to regulate the following activities: 1. Chennai. 9. Chandigarh. Trade in endangered species 5.Ethical inconsistencies in environmental decision-making are illuminated and kept to a minimum. 133. Global warming and 6. 135. 4.Environmental Society of India (ESI). Intercontinental shipping of hazardous waste 2. Over the past 25 years. Wildlife protection. 4. How does the community participation involve in protecting the environment? Community participation requires involvement in several areas: 1. Madhya Pradesh. 7. List some of the NGOs available in India. 3.World Wide Fund for Nature India.Better theoretical knowledge about the environmental information (both Scientific and traditional) 2. When the activities are concerned with environmental issues they are called environmental NGOs.Better educational support. 8. seal hunters and others who threaten very specific and visible resources. carries out well-publicised confrontations with toxic waste dumpers. Over-fishing 4.6 million contributing members.Ramaswami Ayer Environmental Education Centre.Indian Environmental Association.Centre for Environmental Education. .P. 10. more than 170 treaties and conventions have been negotiated to protect our global environment.Eklavya. Write short notes on the history of implementation of international treaties and conventions.Sastrakalayatha.Better practical guidelines and tools are need.SEARCH. Write notes on ‘Green Peace’: ‘Green peace’ is one of the largest NGOs in the world with 1. 132. Bangalore. Ahmedabad. 5.C. Mumbai. 3.Madras Environmental Society. Reforestation 3. 2. 1. 134. Kerala. 6. 131. Mention the standards in EPR: There are three types of standards mentioned in Environment Protection Rules (EPR).Friends of River Narmada.The groups working for social changes are called Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

140. 3. the water. c. Take all necessary steps to protect and improve the quality of environment. The place of entry in India 2. Ambient standards. b. Storage and Import of Hazardous chemical Rules. This law defined an air pollutant as “any solid. The purpose of The Water Act is “to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintenance or restoring wholesomeness of water for the establishment. Product standards. 1974. Regulating the handling of hazardous substances 2. with a view to and carrying out the purpose of aforesaid of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution. 1981 define air pollutant: The Air Act was passed for the “prevention. Some important features of the Environmental (Protection) Act. Write down the purpose of The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. According to The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. 136. 1986: Mention some important features of Environmental (Protection) Act. Has power to order the closure of the non co-operative industry. The trees. 139. The name of address of the importer . It was Dharma of each individual in the society to protect the natural resources. control and abatement of air pollution”. the land and the animals gains important position in the ancient time. Write notes on environmental law in ancient period in India: Production. The importers of hazardous chemicals should inform the Board authorities of the below given details within 30 days. to set maximum pollutant loads in the air and to guide regulation on the environmental quality that ought to be maintained for healthy living. conservation and judicious use of natural resources were the ancient approach. These rules are applicable to three different types of flammable substances and about 450 hazardous chemicals. 1986 are 1. 137. 1989. which fix the pollution norms for new manufactured products such as car. for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith”. liquid or gaseous substance present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment”. Source standards. People worshipped the objects of nature. Write notes on Manufacture. 1. which require the polluter to restrict the emission and discharge of environmental pollutants at source.a. 138.

_________________________ 16 MARKS UNIT I – COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT UNIT I 1)Explain in detail about the components of environment?(16) Hydrosphere (6) Atmosphere (5) Lithosphere (5) 2)Explain in detail sustainable development? (16) Definition (2) Diagram (4) Agenda (5) Example (5) 3)Explain Nitrogen . Mode of transport 4. The quality of the chemicals and 5.3. Carbon cycles? (16) Nitrogen cycle Diagram(3) Theory (3) . The safety details of the product.Sulphur.

Masters Page :241-252 12. M. Masters Page:253-267 13. Explain in detail the physical& chemical properties of air.air. Henry & Henike 10.Sulphur cycle Diagram(3) Theory (2) Carbon cycle Diagram(3) Theory (2) 4) i)Explain in detail about the man made impacts on water.Discuss about solid waste management. Ecological economics(4) Concept of sustainable Development (6) Example(6) UNIT II 6. Henry & Henike 7.How is hazardous waste managed? G. Explain in detail the Biology of water.land? (16) ii)Explain about a)London smog b)Bhopal gas tragedy i) Man made impacts on Water (4) Man made impacts on Air (4) Man made impacts on Land (4) ii)London smog (2) Bhopal gas tragedy (2) 5) Explain the concept of sustainable development with necessary examples. . Explain in detail the Biology of indoor air outdoor air. Henry & Henike 8. soil. G. M. Explain in detail the physical& chemical properties of land.Explain in detail the physical& chemical properties of water. Henry & Henike 9. . Henry & Henike UNIT III Explain the waste water treatment for municipal solid waste.

With necessary flow sheets explain the waste management in textile industry.features .Explain various engineering interventions.M.How can air pollution be controlled? S. Dhameja 15.M.flow chart .elements contained EIA study .Masters and draw flow sheets 20.definition .Describe in detail about EIA and EIS.Discuss in detail the waste minimization techniques.definition .Explain the clean technology options.EIA report Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) . Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) . Dhameja 14.M.Masters and draw flow sheets UNIT V 21.K.With flow sheets explain the waste management in paper and pulp industry.objective .Masters384-390 UNIT IV 16. Refer theory from G. Refer theory from G. Henry & Henike 19.K. Henry & Henike 17.S.Explain Green house effect and ozone layer depletion G.types . Henry & Henike 18.

statement of Supreme court .Explain (i) Environment Management System (MIS) Standard (ii) Precautionary Principle (iii) Polluter Pays Principle Environmental Management System Standards . .ISO .definition .Write down the functions of Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Board in India.ISO 14000 series o Objectives o Subjects covered under ISO 14000 o Key requirements of ISO 14000 Precautionary Principle .basic components of precautionary action Polluter Pays Principle .reasons to use collaborative approaches .definition .Conservation International Community Participation .classification of groups and their area of activities . 23.definition .Define Environmental law and explain Indian Environmental Law scenario.scope & promoting it.definition .fundamental norms recognized by court article 253 and environmental legislation 24. definition of environmental law environmental law in ancient period environmental law in British period constitutional provisions and the environment .Green peace .examples .Describe the role of non-governmental organizations and community participation in environmental management Non-Governmental Organizations .example .22.EXNORA in India for clean surroundings 25.

of the proposed project. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT “Environmental Impact Assessment” (EIA) can be defined as the systematic identification and evaluation of the potential impacts or effects of proposed projects. Baseline data collection : This includes the present and past data on meteorology.Functions of CPCB . socio-economic survey of people in the project area. Rapid EIA. 4. and socioeconomic components of the total environment. programs. 1981 assigned different functions to the Central / State Pollution Control Board. Summary. EIA REPORT An EIA report normally contains the following. 1. which are more environmentally compatible. . The primary purpose of the EIA process is to encourage the consideration of the environment in planning and decision-making and to ultimately arrive at actions. which is done quickly based on one season data whereas Comprehensive EIA will be detail and normally takes at least one year for its preparation. Introduction of the project : This includes technical details. or legislative actions relative to the physical-chemical. EIA should be envisaged as an integral part of the planning process and initiated at the project level from the start. 3. Prediction of impacts on the proposed project on local environment. cultural. plans. conclusion and recommendations .- The Water (Prevention and Control) Act. present air and water quality monitoring. 5. There are two types of EIA. floral and faunal survey. The objective of the EIA is to ensure that environmental aspects are addressed and potential problems are foreseen at the appropriate stage of project design. economic feasibility. 2.Functions of SPCB (atleast 8 points in each) ___________________ Elaborative Answers 1. Mitigation measures and environmental management plan. etc. 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control) Act. biological.

The various steps required to conduct an EIA are shown in Fig. . Project proposal Expert team Proposal to conduct the study Proposal Evaluation Finalisation of the proposed study Report satisfactory Commence EIA study Database and impact identification Interim report Evaluation of interim report Finalise the modalities Report satisfactory Meet to finalise reject proposal DataReport accepted Accept / Policy analysis and the recommendations Final Report .

The Environmental Impact Statement has some unique features such as. environmentalists can appeal in the courts. The EIS is the result of EIA Study. Absolute need of the project in a particular geographical location. 1. . It gives adversaries time to rally public opposition and to research information. if required. 4. 3. 6. just requesting an EIS is enough to sideline a questionable project. provides full and fair discussion of significant environmental impacts and must inform the decision makers and public the reasonable alternatives which would avoid or minimize adverse impacts or enhance the quality of human environment. Sometimes. which is usually time consuming and expensive. 3. The statements generally depend on content. Based on information given. geography and the balance of beneficial versus harmful effects. 1. 2. 2. Every EIS must contain the following elements. Purpose of the project proposal. scientific or historical importance might be affected. Alternatives to the proposed action. It should also highlight whether any areas of cultural.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement which serves as an action-forcing device. 5.

Implementation and operation . 2. 6. flexible and reflect the best organizational practices available for gathering. Advantages of the project in a particular location. 5. Similarly. 1. Environment access 2. It should clearly mention the relationship between short-term resources and longterm productivity. ISO 14000 series on environmental management systems addresses the needs of a wide cross section of people in the society to protect the environment and for this purpose the following key requirements were specified under ISO 14000. Planning 3. interoreting and communicating environmentally relevant information’. system based. i) Environment Management System Standards – ISO 14000 Series The preparatory work on the first international standards on Environmental Management Systems was undertaken by the International Organisations for Standards (ISO). Cost benefit analysis 7. These norms come under ISO 14000 series. Complete statements on the negative aspects of the project. The objectives of ISO 14000 series is ‘to promote more effective and efficient environmental management in organization and to provide useful and usable tools – ones that are cost-effective.4. The intended end result is the improvement of environmental performance. as well as any irreversible commitment of resources resulting from project implementation. The subjects covered under the various ISO 14000 series are given in Table ISO Number Range ISO 14000 – 14009 ISO 14010 – 14019 ISO 14020 – 14029 ISO 14030 – 14039 ISO 14040 – 14049 ISO 14050 – 14059 ISO 14060 Subject Environmental Management Systems Environmental Auditing Environmental Labeling Environmental Performance Evaluation Life Cycle Assessment Terms and Definitions Environmental Aspects in Product Stand The ISO 9000 series on quality management system is focused mainly on ensuring customer satisfaction.

In other words. due to pollution. then there is an obligation to try to stop it. Here lies. process. the Polluter-Pays Principle is the legal requirement that the person responsible should bear the costs of pollution for causing the pollution and the consequential costs. or chemical. which results from classifying a person legally as a polluter. In protecting the environment. Management review (ii) PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE The Precautionary Principle emphasizes that we should plan a margin of safety for error or surprises in natural systems. The burden of proof of carelessness of a new technology. . but modest. and the application of rules relating to competition and subsidy. stand that chooses among the best possible policy options. we should understand that provisions for the application of the polluterpays principle are clearly justified by the understanding of the term ‘polluter’ and the responsibility to pay for pollution. 2. we need to take a courageous. In many cases. According to the principle as interpreted by decision-makers.4. Checking and corrective action 5. If there is a reasonable suspicion that something bad might happen. 1. People have a duty to take anticipatory steps to prevent harm. the importance of Precautionary Principle. including the alternative of not using it. not with the general public. process. Decisions applying the precautionary principle must be open. chemical or new activity people have an obligation to examine a full range of alternatives. lies with the proponents. 4. if we wait until we have an absolutely certain solution. activity. 3. informed and democratic and must include the affected parties. There are four basic components of precautionary action. The polluter-pays principle can also inspire the use of economic instruments. We need the best information available to make an important decision. Before using a new technology. when human health or the environment are threatened. precautionary measures should be taken even if cause-andeffect relationships are not fully established scientifically. (iii) POLLUTER-PAYS PRINCIPLE According to literature. it may be too late to act. but sometimes. the polluters must pay for: • • • The cost of pollution abatement The costs of environment recovery and The compensation costs for victims if any.

the motivation and the sanction were the basic postulates. it will be more appropriate to study the evolution of the environmental laws from ancient time to present period in general and to evaluate specific environmental law in particular. and thus the environmental law changes from country to country. It was Dharma of each individual in the society to protect the natural resources. The trees. The first approach is ‘direct regulation and control’. observed in its report that “we have in about 500 or more environmental laws in India but we have not undertaken systematic review of these laws till date”. which regulated . ANCIENT APPROACH Production. to evaluate various existing environmental laws in India. while others might reduce pollution or avoid charges by using different raw material or improve energy consumption. The fourth approach is the one consisting of ‘substantial subsidy for individual treatment’. N D Tiwari Committee. Some find it cheaper for example to pay a pollution tax. the implementation of these strategies requires much information on the technology of each industry to enable regulation. the land and the animals gains an important position in the ancient time. under torts. Indeed. Here. Economists prefer this approach as well as the pollution-pays principle. a pollution victim can seek redress in court for damage suffered. In ancient times.There are several policy and strategic approaches to the control of environmental pollution through the application of the polluter-pays principle. the water. appointed by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1980. 3. they believe pollution results from a failure of the pricing system and that the best way to correct the failure is through system itself. the government can decide what each polluter must do to reduce pollution by setting certain uniform standards and subjecting violators to legal penalties. but the assignable damage might be ambiguous in many cases. However. While dealing with environmental laws in India. natural resources and ecological sustainability. conservation and judicious use of natural resources were the ancient approach. to enable the users to bear the cost of pollution prevention and control measures. The second approach is the ‘fixing of charges for various levels of pollution’. Polluters respond differently to these approaches in their own interest. This method is effective when the identity of the affected parties is known. People worshiped the objects of the nature. ENVIRONMENTAL LAW Environmental law includes official rules. because as a strategy. the knowledge. Every country has different legislative and legal processes. This brings to us the present status of the environmental laws in India even today. The third approach involves the ‘enforcement of torts and property rights through the judiciary’. decisions and actions concerning environmental quality.

In true sense. In India the environmental laws comes under the criminal section. 2. Boiler Act.the eco-system. 1912. aimed at the resources use and the exploitation by the State and industries under State patronage. Madras Town Planning. Explosive act. The notable fundamental norms recognized by the court are. British India rule also enacted a number of legislations.. wild life and birds including elephants. Industrial development required legislations for Regulation of the Factories. which had a direct bearing on one or the other components of the environment. the Supreme Court has intervened and has often stated that. The above enactments had two main goals: 1. the British did not enact Central Specific Legislation in relation to the environment protection and therefore. birds and animals. Workmen Compensation Act. The directive principles and the fundamental duties chapters explicitly enunciate the national commitment to protect and improve the environment.In many cases. 1908. ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS IN INDEPENDENT INDIA The Indian Constitution is amongst the few in the world that contains specific provisions on environmental protection. Bombay. 1884.10. U. Explosive Substance Act. 1923. 1. Bihar and Orissa Municipality.000/. but the British-India Rule was mainly concerned with the trade and commerce and therefore. Every resource was viewed as a commodity that deserves to be exploited. the Calcutta Improvements. 1905. An attempt was made for the first time to control specifically water and atmospheric pollution through criminal sanctions. Concern for the protection of animals. the Destructive Insects & Pest Act. This involves a maximum of 3 year imprisonment and a fine of Rs. Three specific areas and one general area were selected for preserving the environment. the common law principles were brought into play by the courts of law such as remedy for tort. 4. 1983. BRITISH INDIA PERIOD It was considered a landmark period in the history of legal control in the environmental pollution. Concern for the protection of forest made enactments such as the Cattle Trespass Act. 1971.P. Municipality. “the issue of environment must and shall receive the highest attention from this Court”. General areas such as the Smoke Legislations of Bengal. The Dharma of environment was to sustain and to ensure progress and welfare of all. 3. 1914. negligence and nuisance etc. . The concern for gradual deforestation and the extinction of wildlife. The care of public health and 2.

Article 253 read with Entry 13 apparently gives Parliament the power to enact laws on virtually any entry contained in the State List. In view of the broad range of issues addressed by international conventions. The power conferred under an environmental statute may be exercised only to advance environmental protection and not for a purpose that would defeat the object of the law. Article 253 and Environmental Legislation Article 253 of the Constitution empowers Parliament to make laws implementing India’s international obligations as well as any decision made at an international conference. 9. The ‘precautionary principle’ requires government authorities to anticipate. association or other body’. Every person enjoys the right to a wholesome environment. The state is the trustee of all natural resources which are by nature meant for public use and enjoyment. forests and ecologically fragile lands. Entry 13 of the Union List covers: ‘Participation in international conferences. running waters. association or other body. 5. Enforcement agencies are under an obligation to strictly enforce environmental laws.1. 2. (b) the sustainable development and utilization of natural resources. Government development agencies charged with decision making ought to give due regard to ecological factors including (a) the environmental policy of the Central and State government. conferences. Parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India for implementing any treaty. These resources cannot be converted into private ownership. The public at large is the beneficiary of the sea-shore. 7. Government agencies may not plead on non-availability of funds. 8. 4. . Stringent action ought to be taken against contumacious defaulters and persons who carry on industrial or development activity for profit without regard to environmental laws. treaties and agreements. air. prevent and attack the causes of environmental pollution. The ‘polluter pays principle’ which is a part of the basic environmental law of the land requires that a polluter bear the remedial or clean up costs as well as the amounts payable to compensate the victims of pollution. This principle also imposes the onus of proof on the developer or industrialist to show that his or her action is environmentally benign. 3. 6. Article 253 states: ‘Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter. inadequacy of staff or other insufficiencies to justify the non-performance of their obligations under environmental laws. which is a facet of the right to life guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. associations and other bodies and implementing of decisions made thereat’. agreement or convention with any other country or countries or any decision made at any international conference. and (c) the obligation of the present generation to preserve natural resources and pass on to future generations an environment as intact as the one we inherited from the previous generation.

participatory public action and media events. Some instances are. Some groups undertake direct action to protect a specific resource. 1. Committed people are a basic requirement. civil disobedience. ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS The groups working for social changes are called Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Some of the NGOs are located in developed countries. 7. Always involve multiple stakeholders and multiple sources of information. Many work for political change. 2. especially by gathering and disseminating information. 6. The activities of NGOs vary depending on their area of concentration. . demonstration. A few are highly professional. “Conservation International” has been a leader in dept-for-nature swaps to protect areas particularly rich in biodiversity. one of the largest NGOs in the world with 1.4. 2. 3. which will enrich the process. activities involve public education. combining private individuals with representatives of government agencies on quasi-governmental boards or standing comities. 4. protest marches. When the activities are concerned with environmental issues they are called environmental NGOs. with active groups world-wide. • “Green Peace”. by seeking products made by local people that will provide income along with environmental protection. 1. Some of the organizations are meant for self-popularity and are inactive. seal hunters and others who threaten very specific and visible resources. The groups and their area of activities are broadly classified into the following. Some of them are global. with considerable power. To identify such people and to involve them is an important process. this will lead to the development of acceptable solutions in the end. but focus their attention on the problems of developing countries. The important reasons to use collaborative approaches are. carries out well-publicized confrontations with toxic waste dumpers.6 million contributing members. • COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WORKS Working with local communities can trap into traditional knowledge and gain early acceptance for management plans that finally emerge from policy planning. The members also concentrate on economic development. NGOs that are located in the developed countries and work on local issues. Generally. 5. The collective view should be incorporated in the early stages of project implementation. 3.

these ideas were to be EXcellent NOvel and RAdical (EXNORA).4. The basic premise with which EXNORA begin its operations are that community participation at all levels of functioning was essential to make their work a success. not only set good examples for friends and neighbours. having a good support group helps to maintain speed. Generally. but also strengthens the sense of involvement and commitment. 5. Radical environmental group. Radical environmental organization 4. should be invited for active co-operation. Non-Governmental Organization. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION Environmentally concerned citizens have many opportunities to influence government policies. environmental action groups are broad spectrum. For the effective implementation and enforcement of the different pollution control Acts and rules statutory authorities at National level (including Union Territories) Central Pollution Central Board and at State level State Pollution Control Boards have been constituted. and other eco-friendly work. And EXNORA wanted to provide a service to the public. action may differ. which would turn these excellent novel and radical ideas into practice. 5. Taking personal responsibility for environmental impact can have many benefits. preferences. All the stakeholders involved directly or indirectly in the process. . 6. Active involvement by local residents is essential to the process. The interest. Collective Action Collective action multiplies individual power. Student environmental group 2. 1974 confers the power to Union Government to constitute Central Pollution Control Board and State Governments to constitute State Pollution Control Boards. Some of the types of collective groups can be. POLLUTION CONTROL BOARDS The water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. The knowledge and understanding needed by those who will carryout subsequent phases of a project can be achieved only by active participation. buying ‘green’ products. It’s easy to discouraged by the slow pace of change. As the acronym suggests. the objective is to create civic and environmental awareness among the citizens. A participant is an important management tool. 1. Recycling. Mainline environmental organization 3. EXNORA in India can be said as an example for the community participation for clean surrounding. EXNORA is a broad based voluntary. It is responsible to obtain encouragement and useful information from meeting regularly with others who share the same interests. This will provide access to situation-specific information and experience.

To perform the functions of the State Board where the State Board has defaulted in complying with the directions of the Central Board resulting into grave emergency and where it is required to do so in the public interest. treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents and disseminate the information connected therewith: Lay down. Organize through mass media comprehensive programmes in connection with the prevention and control of water and air pollution. codes or guides relating to air pollution. control or abate air pollution in the country under Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. modify or annul. Collect. Advise the Central Government on any matter. prepare manuals.FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD The water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1974) and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1981) assign different functions to the Central Pollution Control Board. control or abatement of air pollution. carryout and sponsor investigations and research relating to problems of water and air pollution and for their prevention. They are mainly: . similarly for the improvement of the quality of air and the prevention. 1981. Provide technical assistance and guidance to State Boards. in consultation with the state government concerned. concerning the prevention and control of water pollution. They are mainly: • • • To promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the states under Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. control or abatement of water and air pollution on such terms and conditions as the Board may specify. Collect and disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution. Coordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them. To improve the quality of air and to prevent. Establish or recognise a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its function effectively under Water Act including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of sewage or trade effluents. devise measures for their effective prevention and control. 1974. the treatment for a stream or well under Water Act and lay down standards for the quality of air under Air Act. • • • • • • • • • FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1974) and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1981) assign the following functions to the State Pollution Control Boards. compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution. Plan and organize the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes for the prevention. control or abatement. and similarly air samples under Air Act.

control or abatement of air pollution as specified in the Air Act. • • • • • • • • • • • . in consultation with the Central Board and having regard to the standards for the quality of air laid down by the Central Board. To inspect air pollution control areas at such intervals as it may think necessary. control or abatement thereof. To collect. conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water and air pollution and prevention. control or abatement thereof. industrial plant or manufacturing process and to give. by order. To lay down. control or abatement of air pollution in such areas. control or abatement of water and air pollution and to organise mass education programmes relating thereof. To encourage. To advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention. To inspect at all reasonable times any control equipment. To inspect sewage or trade effluents. such directions to such persons as it may consider necessary to take steps for the prevention. To collaborate with the Central Board in organising the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention. standards for emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere from industrial plants and automobiles or for the discharge of any air pollutants into the atmosphere from any other source whatsoever not being a ship or an aircraft. works and plants for the treatment of sewage and trade effluents and to review plans specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the treatment of water works for the purification thereof and the system of the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by the Water Act. climate and water resources of different regions and more especially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells which render it impossible to attain even the minimum degree of dilution. To advise the state government with respect to the suitability of any premises or location for carrying on any industry which is likely to cause air or water pollution.• To plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the state and to secure the execution thereof under Section 17 of the Water Act and similarly for the control of air pollution in the state under Section 17 of the air Act. assess the quality of air therein and take steps for the prevention. modify or annual effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters (not being water in an inter-state stream) resulting from the discharge of effluents and to classify waters of the state under Water Act. To evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents having regard to the conditions of soil. control or abatement of water and air pollution. compile and disseminate information relating to water and air pollution and the prevention. Similarly to lay down.

To establish or recognise laboratories for analysis of water samples of any sewage or trade effluents and air samples. . be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government. To perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may from time to time.• • • To evolve methods of utilisation of sewage and suitable trade effluents in agriculture.

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