Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Tanks

Shaji Hakeem
February 5, 2011 1

StorageTanks

February 5, 2011

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Tanks Applicable codes for Design API: 650 Welded steel tanks for oil storage. lightning and stray currents. IS: 2008 Method for Computation of capacity tables for Vertical Oil Storage Tanks. 2011 . 3 February 5. IS: 2007 Method for calibration of Vertical Oil Storage tanks. IS: 1893 Criteria for Earthquake resistant design of structure. API: 2000 Venting atmospheric and low pressure storage tanks. API: RP 2003 Protection against ignitions arising out of static. IS 803 IS: 875 (Part 3) Wind loads Code of particle for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures. API: 620 Design and construction pf large welded low pressure storage tanks.

0 mm for nozzle above 450 mm NB. 2011 4 . B-7. Thickness of gasket shall be 1. B. API. ii) Indian Standard Specification. and A-194 Gr. 2H. IS: 1978 or equivalent February 5.5 mm for nozzle upto 450 mm NB and 3. Bolts and nuts for all nozzle fitted with blind flanges shall conform to ASTM A-307 Gr. A-53.5L.    Gaskets for manholes and nozzles fitted with blind flanges shall conform to grafoil. Floating roof pipe supports and pipe sleeves shall be of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A-106. A-193 Gr.Design Material of Construction Material to be used shall conform to : i) ASME boiler and Pressure vessel Code Section II.Tanks . Bolts and nuts for all structurals shall conform to IS: 1363 of appropriate grade.

-The Roof should be able to float for a liquid with minimum specific gravity of 0. 2011 5 .7 -Should be designed to accept full range of roof movements during unattended operations from low operating level to maximum design liquid level February 5.Tanks .Design Basic Design Loads: Dead Loads Varying Loads Wind Loads Seismic Loads Loads due to Connected Pipeline.

Tanks Design .Floating Roof Tank 6 February 5. 2011 .

Tanks Design –Floating Roof Legs Long legs Short legs The lower position (minimum 1200 mm) shall permit the roof to go as low as possible without interface with any intermit accessories and roof seal mechanism. 2011 . The upper position (for cleaning) shall provide a clearance of 1800 mm between the pontoon / double deck edges and bottom. 7 February 5.

2011 .Tanks – Floating Roof Tanks 8 February 5.

2011 .Floating Roof Tanks 9 February 5.Tanks .

Articulated Roof Drain Metallic articulated pipe drains with swivel joints of approved make and type shall be provided to drain water collecting on the roof. All swivel joints shall be tested to a minimum pressure of 3. Swing check non-return valve with CI body and brass / bronze valve and seat shall be provided for the primary drain for single deck / double deck floating roofs The primary roof drain shall be designed for complete water drainage equivalent to maximumrecorded rainfall per hour for given site without allowing any accumulation of water February 5.Tanks . 2011 10 . Single pipe drain system shall be provided with suitable counter balancing weights.5 kg / cm2 before putting into roof drain assembly.

Tanks Emergency Roof Drains Emergency drain shall be provided to take care of primary drain failure. 2011 11 . February 5. It should start functioning after accumulation of 200mm of rainfall on deck. These drains shall be equipped with water seal sump inside the roof to prevent back flow of the stored product.

2011 12 .Tanks – Floating Roof Seals February 5.

Top curb angle shall be lap or butt welded to the top course with flange fumed outside. 2011 13 .Welding Procedure Code: Welding procedure qualification .  All vertical and horizontal shell joints shall be full penetration and full fusion welds using any one of the edge preparation permitted by the code. Single side butt welds are not permitted.  Vertical joints should preferably be offset by at least 1000 mm.1 for all other welding. High cellulose/ rutile type electrodes a per the AWS classification SFA 5. vertical joints of the shell courses shall also clear the nozzle attachment welds or reinforcement pad welds as per code and applicable appendices.Tanks .  First shell course plates shall be arranged so that the vertical joints clear he annular ring weld or sketch plate weld by at least 300 mm. Curb angle and stiffening ring joints shall not coincide with the vertical shell plate welds.  Low hydrogen electrode shall be used for all welds of shell courses having a thickness of 12 mm or more and for attachment of shell course to bottom or annular plates. February 5. Welding sequence shall be adopted so as to give minimum shrinkage and distortion.ASME Boiler and Pressure vessel Code Section IX.

Construction Fixed Roof a) The roof plate shall be supported by structure as indicated in the drawings / standard. d Roof shall be joined to the shell by means of continuous fillet (5 mm max. February 5.Tanks . otherwise suitable emergency venting shall be provided as per code. The same shall rest on the structure. b) All supporting structure shall be designed to carry the minimum loads as specified in codes. laps shall be arranged with the lower edge of the upper plate underneath the upper edge of the lower plate.) weld on the curb angle. e) Roof plate shall not be welded to the supporting structure. 2011 14 . c) Laps in roof plate shall be 30 mm minimum or 5 t: where t is the nominal thickness of roof with minimum 30 mm. Roof to shell be frangible type.

2011 15 . Also same operation should follow in the clean-out position. They shall provide with pressure relief valve of approval make. b) Adequate number of earthing shunts shall be provided for the seal. Earthing and Floating Roof a) Wire cables size shall be provided between ladder and track and also between ladder and shell. b) Rim vents of 150 NB about 30 meters peripheral spacing (minimum two nos. This shall also act as anti rotational device.) shall be provided for venting the dead space between stored liquid and seal. February 5. Two such independent connections should exist in parallel. Gauge Well / Anti-rotational Device Gauge hatch shall have a quick opening cover. set at 20 mm water column.Construction a) Roof shall be provided with automatic bleeder vents designed to open before the roof reaches its lowest position and to class when the roof rises above this point. Gauge hatch shall be spark proof type.Tanks .

c) Pipes sleeves shall project sufficiently above the roof to take care of flooded condition of roof and extend sufficiently below the roof to prevent escape of vapour ( minimum 200 mm) February 5. tank shall be capable of holding its design capacity. 2011 16 .Tanks Construction Floating Roof a) Tanks having diameter greater than 12 m but less than or equal to 60 m. a) Deck shall have level surface with a permanent slope towards the drain sump to avoid stagnation of rainwater. d) Floating roof shall be of low deck (minimum vapour space) type. shall be of single deck annular pontoon type construction or without buoys. c) When floating roof is in the highest position.

all opening in the roof shall be closed and internal air pressure shall be applied equivalent to the weight of roof plates. Leak test shall be performed with penetrating oil after removal of slag.for detection of leaks in the tank bottom. welding the outer fillet. in case of fixed roof tanks.Tanks – Inspection/Testing at Construction Stage Radiography test for weld Joints – As per Code. Fixed Roof Test: After filling the tank upto curb angle. Liquid penetrant / magnetic Particle Examination / Ultrasonic Examination –as per code Vacuum box testing . February 5. Oil shall be removed before. shall be upto the curb angle and in case of floating roof tanks shall be restricted to the maximum height so their so that weather shield does go beyond curb angle. 2011 17 . All welded joints in roof shall be checked with soap studs for detection of leaks. Annular Plate weld Joint Test . Hydrotest: The filling height.Inner fillet weld of bottom to shell joints shall be inspected and tested prior to welding the outside fillet weld.

2011 18 . Foam Seal shall be installed only after flotation test. Nozzle Reinforcing Plate Test. This test shall be carried out before filing the tank for hydrostatic testing. February 5.Tanks – Inspection/Testing at Construction Stage Floatation Test for Floating Roof Tanks : With primary drains closed. Pontoon Puncture test: For annular pontoon type floating roofs the condition of deck and two adjacent pontoon compartments punctured shall be simulated and the submergence of inner rim and outer rim at the punctured pontoon shall be compared with the calculated value. Roof Drain Test. the roof drain valve shall kept open and observed for leakage of the tank contents into pipe drain.Drain pipes in floating roof tanks shall be pressure tested with at 3. Pontoon leak test: All compartments shall be tested for liquid tightness. Nozzle reinforcing plates shall be pneumatically tested at 1.05 kg / cm2g with soap solution. water equivalent to 100% of max rainfall over the tank area shall be poured on the deck and in the stabilised state submergence of outer rim shall not exceed 65% of its height at any point. During the flotation test.5 kg / cm2.

has a tendency to revert to that state under the action of oxygen and water.Tanks – Corrosion What is Corrosion ? Any Metal that has been extracted from a naturally combined state. This action is called as Corrosion The commonest example being the “ Rusting of steel” CORROSION CURRENT Fe = Fe + 2e E0 = +0. 2011 .44 V 2+ - Fe ++ CATHODIC AREA ANODIC AREA Fe ++ CATHODIC AREA Fe (OH) 3 Fe (OH) 2 METAL SURFACE (CATHODE ) (ANODE) ++ Fe = Fe + 2e ½ O2 + H2O + 2e = 2OH (IN SOLUTION) ++ Fe + 2OH = Fe(OH)2 Fe (OH)2 + O2 = Fe (OH)3 + ½ O2 19 February 5.

• Roof sleeve pad may get corroded at the underside if sealing run between roof plates and pad is not carried out. 2011 20 . • Roof legs get severely corroded at the liquid-vapour phase junction.Tanks – Corrosion Parts Prone to Corrosion • External parts of Annular Plates are prone to corrosion at the edges due to seepage/accumulation of water between the foundation and the plates • Bottom plates get corroded rapidly incase of sea water /sulphide content. • Pontoon boxes on the floating roof are prone to corrosion at the fillet weld between the pontoon and deck plates • Rim plates at the outer periphery of the floating roof get corroded where liquid-vapour phase is maintained. • The roof leg sleeve gets corroded near fillet weld junction to the roof plates and at the bolt hole area. • The water draw-off nozzles pipe get corroded due to water stagnation. • Roof drain sump gets corroded due to water accumulation/ stagnation. • Underside of the roof and roof structural come under corrosive attack due to vapour corrosion • Atmospheric corrosion can occur on all external parts of the tank • Floating roof deck plates are prone to corrosion due to rain water accumulation on the deck. February 5.

Tanks – Repairs Code – API 653 Tank Inspection Repair. 2011 . Alteration and Reconstruction 21 February 5.

Std. design. addition. welding. Major Repairs are subject to additional testing including hydrotest of complete tank before returning to service.Tanks – Repairs Code – API 653 Tank Inspection Repair.Operations that require cutting. shell to bottom weld. removal and/or replacement of Annular plate ring. and testing. or a sizable portion of the shell. Alteration and Reconstruction Proper Application of This standard ensures that tanks are adequately inspected.10 – gives practices and procedures for exemption from full hydrotest after major Repairs. One method for exemption is Fitness for Service evaluation as per API RP 579 API February 5. 653 Sec. 2011 22 . and necessary repairs are made in a manner that acheives quality and integrity API 653 thas guidelines for new materials. Major Repairs .

2011 .Tanks .Repair API 653 23 February 5.

2011 24 .Thank you February 5.