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Chapter 5 Reduction of Multiple Subsystems

Block Diagrams
– Transformation and Reduction Techniques
• Cascade form
• Parallel form
• ….
• feedback
Signal-Flow graphs
Signal-Flow Graphs of State Equations
Alternative Representations in State Space?
Similarity Transformations?

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Components of a block diagram
for a linear, time-invariant system

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. Parallel Subsystems equivalent transfer function Control Systems Engineering. . All rights reserved.

Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. . All rights reserved. Fourth Edition by Norman S.Transformation Rules Control Systems Engineering.

All rights reserved. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons.Loading in cascaded systems Control Systems Engineering. . Fourth Edition by Norman S.

. Feedback Control System simplified model. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. E ( s) = R( s) ∓ C ( s) H ( s) C ( s) E (s) = G( s) equivalent transfer function Open Loop Transfer Function = Loop Gain = G(s)H(s) Control Systems Engineering.

Example Control Systems Engineering. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition by Norman S. . Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons.

More examples ? Control Systems Engineering. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. Fourth Edition by Norman S. All rights reserved. .

Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons.Block diagram Reduction Example (1) ** Control Systems Engineering. . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Block diagram Reduction Example (2) Control Systems Engineering. Fourth Edition by Norman S. . Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons.

All rights reserved.4 Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. Fourth Edition by Norman S. . Nise Figure P5.Example: Control Systems Engineering.

Chapter 5 Reduction of Multiple Subsystems Block Diagrams Signal-Flow graphs – components – Mason’s Rule Analysis and Design of Feedback Systems Control Systems Engineering. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition by Norman S. . Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons.

non-touching: Control Systems Engineering. Fourth Edition by Norman S. All rights reserved. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. Signal-flow graph components system signal interconnection of systems and signals Definitions 1) Branch: unidirectional segment 2) Node 3) Path 4) Loop . .

Fourth Edition by Norman S.18 © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. Nise Copyright Figure 5. All rights reserved. . Example of Building signal-flow graphs 1) cascaded system nodes 2) parallel system nodes 3) feedback system nodes Control Systems Engineering.

All rights reserved. . Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons.Example Control Systems Engineering.

Fourth Edition by Norman S. simplified signal- flow graph Control Systems Engineering.Signal-flow graph development: a. . Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. b. signal-flow graph. signal nodes. c. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Chapter 5 Reduction of Multiple Subsystems Block Diagrams Analysis and Design of Feedback Systems Signal-Flow graphs – components – Mason’s Rule Control Systems Engineering. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. . Fourth Edition by Norman S.

Fourth Edition by Norman S. . Motivation Example A 2-input and 2-output system Control Systems Engineering. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

four. or more at a time. Nontouching loops: loops that do not have any nodes in common. without passing through any other node more than once. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. of a system represented by a signal-flow graph is: where C ( s ) ∑k k k T∆ G ( s) = = k = number of forward paths R ( s ) ∆ Tk = the kth forward-path gain ∆ = 1. + Σ nontouching-loop gains taken four at a time …. ∆k is formed by eliminating from ∆ those loop gains that touch the kth forward path. Mason’s Rule: The transfer function. Forwards-path gain: The product of gains found by traversing a path from the input node to the output node of the signals-flow graph in the direction of signal flow.Σ loop gain terms in ∆ that touch the kth forward path. following the direction of the signal flow. Control Systems Engineering. C(s) / R(s). All rights reserved. Mason’s Rule Defintions Loop gain: The product of branch gains found by traversing a path that starts at a node and ends at the same node. three. ∆k = ∆. Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nontouching-loop gain: the product of loop gains from nontouching loops taken two. In other words.Σ loop gains + Σ nontouching-loop gains taken two at a time – Σ nontouching-loop gains taken three at a time. .

loop G2(s)H1(s) dose not touch loops G4(s)H2(s). Nontouching-loop gain: the product of loop gains from nontouching loops taken two. four.Mason’s Rule: The transfer function. of a system represented by a signal- flow graph is: G2 ( s ) H1 ( s ) G4 ( s ) H 2 ( s ) Loop gain: G4 ( s )G5 ( s ) H 3 ( s ) G4 ( s )G6 ( s ) H 3 ( s ) G1 ( s )G2 ( s )G3 ( s )G4 ( s )G5 ( s )G7 ( s ) Forwards-path gain: G1 ( s )G2 ( s )G3 ( s )G4 ( s )G6 ( s )G7 ( s ) Nontouching loops: e. G4(s)G5(s)H3(s). C(s) / R(s). All rights reserved. three. [G2 ( s ) H1 ( s )][G4 ( s ) H 2 ( s )] [G2 ( s ) H1 ( s )][G4 ( s )G5 ( s ) H 3 ( s )] [G2 ( s ) H1 ( s )][G4 ( s )G6 ( s) H 3 ( s )] Control Systems Engineering. Fourth Edition by Norman S. or more at a time. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons.g. . and G4(s)G6(s)H3(s).

Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition by Norman S.Mason’s Rule illustration Control Systems Engineering. .

All rights reserved.More examples Control Systems Engineering. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. Fourth Edition by Norman S. .