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Example calculations 75

Example calculations
The examples are based on Eurocode 0, Eurocode 1 and Eurocode 3, Part 1-3 . Some additional detail
checks are made according to Swedish code for light-gauge metal structures, StBK-N5 

The calculations in the following examples are set out in detail. In most cases, the designer can make
simplifications when he/she has learned by experience which checks are not usually critical.

The examples are worked out in the mathematics program Mathcad, version 2000i. Some of the operators and
notations used in the examples are explained below.

x := 50.6⋅ mm Definition of value

y ≡ 2.5⋅ mm Global definition
x + y = 53.1 mm Calculation result
a=b Boolean equality
0.5 Decimal point must be used
c := ( 1 3 2 ) Row vector
 →
( c⋅ d ) Vectorise operator, i.e. perform arithmetical operation on each element of a
vector or matrix
 →
Example: d := ( 2 4 3 ) a := ( c⋅ d ) gives a = ( 2 12 6 )
 1 8 2
g :=  3 4 7 Matrix

 5 6 9
T Transpose, i.e. rows and columns are interchanged
c

 1  1 3 5
c = 3 g = 8 4 6
Example: T T
 
 2  2 7 9

submatrix( a , 0 , 1 , 1 , 2) Part of matrix ( a=matrix, 0 och 1 define rows, 1 and 2 define columns)
Normally, in a matrix, the first row is numbered 0 and the first column is numbered 0

Example:  1 8 2
 8 2
g = 3 4 7 submatrix( g , 0 , 1 , 1 , 2) = 
  4 7
 5 6 9

augment( f , g ) Augmentation of matrices

Example:  1 1 8 2
augment( c , g ) =  3 3 4 7
T

〈1〉 Column in matrix
 2 5 6 9
f  8
〈1〉 
Example: g = 4

 6
Aef Notation ( ef is not a subscript but part of variable notation)

A Subscript i
i
Example: g =7
1, 2
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 76

Example 1. Insulated building with sheets on rafters

Contents 7.3 End support
7.31 Web crippling
0. Conditions
7.32 Distorsion of profile at end
1. Dimensions and classes
7.4 Intermediate support
7.41 Local buckling of web and web crippling
3. Sheets and fasteners
7.42 Local buckling of web due to shear force
4. SI units
and moment
7.5 Normal force due to wind on end
5. Design of sheets for transverse action
due to snow, wind suction and self weight.
8. Attachments
5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over two
8.1 Design of rivets in side overlaps
bays
8.2 Connection to edge beam
6. Actions on diaphragm due to wind
8.3 Connection of end fitting to sheet
6.1 Wind on long side
8.4 Splicing of edge beam and fixing of edge
6.2 Wind on end
beam to the building structure
8.5 Connection of roof sheeting to end rafter
7. Design of sheeting
8.6 Connection of sheeting to rafters
7.1 Section forces
7.2 Single plate panel
9. Deformations
10. Holes
0. Conditions
An insulated industrial building with normal leakage paths shall be designed for diaphragm action due to wind
action. Diaphragm forces are transferred to the foundation via wind trusses. All columns are pinjointed at the
foundation. Distances between rafters vary and the sheets are spliced as shown in the figure below. See also
Drawing No K3 in Chapter 9. In this example, only the first two bays are treated in detail.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A
hb
broof

1:16
hp

ht

B
crafter crafter2 cgp
lroof broof

1. Dimensions and classes

Roof width broof := 25⋅ m Partial factor for resistance γ M1 := 1.0
Roof length Lroof := 56⋅ m
Column height, long side hp := 7.5⋅ m Beam depth hb := 0.5⋅ m Construction Class I (EN 1993-1-3)
1
Roof slope slope := Reliability class RC3
16 (EN 1990, consequence class CC3, high
Ridge height ht := hp + hb + 0.5⋅ broof ⋅ slope consequence for loss of human life)
Beam spacing crafter := 7⋅ m and ht = 8.781 m γ d := 1.00 (See 2.11)
Beam spacing crafter2 := 5⋅ m
Comment: As γ d := 1.00 then it is not included
End columns cgp := 5⋅ m
in the expressions for the actions
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 77

−2
Snow load, on the ground sk := 1.0⋅ kN ⋅ m Wind load
kN
−2 Peak velocity pressure qp := 0.9⋅
Snow load on roof µ 1 := 0.8 s := µ 1⋅ sk s = 0.8 kN ⋅ m 2
m
−2 Shape factors, wind
Combination value ψ 0 := 0.6 scomb := µ 1⋅ ψ 0⋅ sk scomb = 0.48 kN ⋅ m
Roof, suction cpe.roof := 0.7
Partial factor, snow load and wind action γ Q := 1.5 Wall, pressure cpe.p := 0.7
Wall, suction cpe.s := 0.3
Partial factor, self weight unfavourable ξγ G := 0.89⋅ 1.35 Internal suction cpi := 0.3
favourable ξγ G.inf := 0.89⋅ 1.0
where the reduction factor for permanent
action is ξ := 0.89 see 2.12

3. Sheets and fasteners Sheet := "TRP110"

hw := 112⋅ mm
bd := 237⋅ mm bo := 68⋅ mm bu := 64⋅ mm

(
bw := 0.5⋅ bd − bo − bu )
sw

fyb := 350⋅ MPa

hw

bw
2 2
bu bd bo sw := bw + hw tcor := 0.636⋅ mm t := tcor
−2
gperm := 0.30⋅ kN ⋅ m
Self weight, roof
Resistances of sheeting for transverse action
Width of support ls := 100⋅ mm
and diaphragm action are given by the
producer of the profiled sheeting.

Resistance of fasteners are given in chapter 8.

Transverse action

Moment capacity, span Mf.Rd := 10.04⋅ kN

Blind rivets in side overlap
Moment capacity, support Ms.Rd := 10.56⋅ kN
Aluminium drivet := 4.8⋅ mm
−1
Capacity of support Rw.Rd := 27.3⋅ kN ⋅ m
Nominal plate thickness tnom := 0.7⋅ mm

Shear resistance Fv.Rd.riv := 0.88⋅ kN Diaphragm action

table 8.9
−1
Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.riv := 1.35⋅ kN Shear buckling of web Vw.Rd := 27.6⋅ kN ⋅ m
table 8.10
−1
Shear buckling of flange Vf.Rd := 86.4⋅ kN ⋅ m
Screws dscrew := 6.3⋅ mm
Global buckling VgR := 684⋅ kN ⋅ m
Carbon steel t1 ≥ 2.5⋅ t
−1
Shear resistance Fv.Rd.screw := 7.84⋅ kN Distorsion of corrugation Vr.Rd := 4.90⋅ kN ⋅ m
table 8.3 of profile end
Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.screw := 2.83⋅ kN Support reaction factor for RvV := 1.22
table 8.5 end support
Tensile resistance Ft.Rd.screw := 9.41⋅ kN Tensile force factor for Pc2V := 134⋅ mm
table 8.2 fastener at end support
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 78

4. SI units kN ≡ 1000⋅ N
6
MPa ≡ 10 ⋅ Pa

5. Design of sheets for transverse action due to snow, wind suction

and self weight
Nominal sheet thickness t = 0,70 Steel core thickness tcor = 0.636 mm
−2
Self weight, roof gperm = 0.3 kN ⋅ m
−2
Design value for snow qs1 := γ Q⋅ s + ξγ G⋅ gperm qs1 = 1.56 kN ⋅ m
and self weight
−2
Snow at serviceability limit state qs2 := scomb + gperm qs2 = 0.78 kN ⋅ m
and self weight

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over two bays "Bygg" tables Table A24:36a

Spans crafter = 7 m crafter2 = 5 m Sheet = "TRP110"

L1 := crafter L2 := crafter2 Width of support ls = 100 mm

3 3
qs1 ⋅ L1 + qs1 ⋅ L2
Snow, support Ms.Ed := Ms.Ed = 7.607 kN
8⋅ L1 + L2 ( )
qs1 ⋅ L1 Ms.Ed −1 RA
Outermost support A RA := − RA = 4.375 kN ⋅ m = 0.321
2 L1 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd
qs1 ⋅ L2 Ms.Ed −1 RC
Support C RC := − RC = 2.38 kN ⋅ m = 0.174
2 L2 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd

−1 RB
Support B (
RB := qs1 ⋅ L1 + L2 − RA − RC ) RB = 11.971 kN ⋅ m
Rw.Rd
= 0.438

2
RA Mf.Ed
Snow, span, max Mf.Ed := Mf.Ed = 6.133 kN = 0.611
2⋅ qs1 Mf.Rd
ls Ms.Edr RB
Interaction Ms.Edr := Ms.Ed − RB⋅ + = 1.131 < 1,25
4 Ms.Rd Rw.Rd
ls Ms.Edm
Support moment Ms.Edm := Ms.Ed − RB⋅ Ms.Edm = 7.458 kN = 0.706
8 Ms.Rd
(10 % increase in
capacity at support)
Ms.Ed
RB ls

Ms.Edm
4

3 3
Serviceability limit Ief.fielf := 1840⋅ mm Ief.support := 1840⋅ mm Ms.Edr
state, deflection in
outer bay 2⋅ Ief.fielf + Ief.support RB
3
Ific := Ific = 1840 mm ls
3
4 2
5⋅ qs2 ⋅ L1 qs2 Ms.Ed ⋅ L1 L1
y := − ⋅ y = 33 mm = 212 Ok !
384⋅ E⋅ Ific qs1 16⋅ E⋅ Ific y
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 79

6.1 Wind on long side beam depth hb = 0.5 m

Whole roof functions as one diaphragm. bdiaph := broof column height hp = 7.5 m
Max action on diaphragm for case  hp  kN
with hinged columns incl inclination (
Qs := 0.85⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpe.s ⋅ qp⋅ )
2
+ hb + α ⋅ qs2 ⋅ broof

Qs = 4.97
m
(Factor 0.85 when wind on both walls)
Roof diaphragm between lines A and B is treated as a simply supported deep beam on supports
(wind trusses) in lines 1 and 10. Shear forces V assumed to be taken by sheets and moment M
by edge beams (capping beams) in lines A and B.
Lroof
Support force at end Rg := Qs⋅ Rg = 139.3 kN
2
2
Qs⋅ Lroof
Normal force in edge beam Nk := Nk = 78 kN
8⋅ bdiaph

Maximum shear flow

(
Qs⋅ Lroof − crafter ) kN
Vmax := Vmax = 4.87
2⋅ bdiaph m

6.2 Wind on end

Wind is assumed to be resisted by a part diaphragm of width = 2/3 of building width.
Rk

V
Qsg
Nk
2
broof

2broof /3
lroof

1  hp ht  kN
Design diaphragm action ( )
Qsg := γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpi ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅ 
2  2
+ hb +
2
Qsg = 5.832
m
(No factor 0.85 when wind on end only)

Support force in long sides due to cpe.p + cpe.s broof

Rk := 0.85⋅ ⋅ Qsg ⋅ Rk = 62 kN
action on windward and leeward sides cpe.p + cpi 2
cpe.p
Normal force in end rafter (eq. 6.11) Ngg := 0.19⋅ ⋅Q ⋅b Ngg = 19.4 kN
(internal suction taken by the sheet) cpe.p + cpi sg roof

3 1 cpe.p kN kN
Shear flow at long sides Vg := ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Qsg Vmax = 4.875 Vg = 3.06
2 2 cpe.p + cpi m m

Vg < Vmax
Tilting forces due to action on end columns ignored. Tilting
forces along building due to action on columns in long
sides taken by edge beam and wind trusses in long sides.
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 80

7. Design of sheeting
7.1 Section forces
In combination with the design wind action, necessary section forces due to combination value
of transverse action of snow and self weight are calculated. Design values in proportion.

qs2 kN ⋅ m
Moment at support Ms := ⋅ Ms.Edm Ms = 3.728
qs1 m
qs2 kN ⋅ m
Moment in span Mf := ⋅M Mf = 3.065
qs1 f.Ed m
qs2 kN
Reaction at support Rs := ⋅R Rs = 5.984
qs1 B m
qs2 kN
Reaction at end support Rä := ⋅R Rä = 2.187
qs1 A m

7.2 Single plate panel

−1
Shear flow is highest at end. Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m
−1 −1
Local buckling of web Vw.Rd = 27.6 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m

Mf Vmax
Mf.Rd = 10.04 kN + = 0.482 < 1.3 Check = "OK!"
Mf.Rd Vw.Rd

−1 −1
Local buckling of flange Vf.Rd = 86.4 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m

Mf Vmax
Mf.Rd = 10.04 kN 0.8⋅ + = 0.301 < 1.1 Check = "OK!"
Mf.Rd Vf.Rd

Global buckling VgR −1 −1

Vg.Rd := Vg.Rd = 14 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m
2 Check = "OK!"
crafter

Shear stress in sheeting (EN 1993-1-3, 10.3.4 (5))

Vmax fyb
τ := τ = 7.7 MPa < 0.25⋅ = 88 MPa Check = "OK!"
t γ M1

7.3 End support at end of building

7.31 Web crippling
Adjustment of support resistance with respect
lsn := 220⋅ mm
to width of support.
lsn ls = 100 mm
Vmax 0.5 + 0.02⋅
t −1
Rä.Rd := 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd ⋅ Rä.Rd = 18.8 kN ⋅ m
Rv Rv ls
0.5 + 0.02⋅
Rä Rä t RvV = 1.22
−1 −1
Rä = 2.187 kN ⋅ m Rv := RvV ⋅ Vmax Rv = 5.95 kN ⋅ m
Check = "OK!"
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 81

Rä Rv
+ = 0.433 < 1.05
Rä.Rd Rä.Rd Check = "OK!"

−1 −1
7.32 Distorsion of profile at end Vr.Rd = 4.90 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m
Check = "OK!"

7.41 Local buckling of web Rs Vmax

0.8⋅ + = 0.352 < 1.1 Check = "OK!"
and web cripplng Rw.Rd Vw.Rd
−1
Rw.Rd = 27.3 kN ⋅ m
7.42 Local buckling of web due to Ms Vmax
< 1.3
+ = 0.53
shear force and moment Ms.Rd Vw.Rd Check = "OK!"

7.5 Normal force due to wind on end

Wind action on the end is transferred to the roof diaphragm via the tops of columns and produces a normal force in
the sheeting. The magnitude of this normal force is governed by the lateral rigidity of the end rafter.

End rafter is an HEA220 with second 6 4

Iy := 19.55⋅ 10 ⋅ mm
moment of area Iy in direction of minor axis

Sheet is fixed to end rafter with two screws bd

nsk := 2 cs := cs = 118.5 mm
in each trough, i.e. mean spacing of nsk
screws is

Shear deformationen in screw connection for k2 := 1.5 d := 6.3⋅ mm and F11 := 1⋅ kN

F11 2
See 3.42 mm
v := ⋅ v = 0.133 mm
t 1000⋅ N
k2⋅ d ⋅
mm
F11 N
Modulus of foundation k and factor β are k := k = 63.6
v⋅ cs 2
mm
0.25
β :=  
k −1
β = 1.403 m
 4⋅ E⋅ Iy 
Force at top of column, for column spacing cgp = 5 m Qy := Qsg ⋅ cgp Qy = 29.2 kN
Qy⋅ β
Maximum deflection wmax := wmax = 0.322 mm
2⋅ k
−1
and maximum normal force in sheet Nt.max := k⋅ wmax Nt.max = 20.455 kN ⋅ m

Maximum force in screws Fx := k⋅ wmax⋅ cs Fx = 2.424 kN

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 82

Check for instability is made at a section Qy

0.25⋅ crafter from end rafter. Force assumed −1
Nt := Nt = 8.332 kN ⋅ m
0.5⋅ crafter
dispersed 1:1 to this section.

Force is however smaller than the −1

distributed action on end rafter
Qsg = 5.832 kN ⋅ m (
Nt := if Nt < Qsg , Qsg , Nt )
−1
Nt = 8.332 kN ⋅ m
Normal force capacity for the span crafter = 7 m
2
mm
Effective area of cross section Aeff := 0.60⋅
mm
Ific crafter fyb
Radius of gyration and slenderness ieff := λ c := ⋅ ieff = 55.38 mm
parameter Aeff ieff ⋅ π E
λ c = 1.643
φ := 0.5⋅ 1 + 0.34⋅ λ c − 0.2 + λ c 
( ) 2
Reduction factor for instability
 
φ = 2.094
1
Buckling curve b χ :=
2 2 χ = 0.295
φ+ φ − λc
1 −1
Nc.Rd := χ ⋅ fyb⋅ Aeff ⋅ Nc.Rd = 61.88 kN ⋅ m
γ M1

Nt   Nt Mf
Check for normal force and moment ⋅  1 + 0.5⋅  1 − + = 0.498 < 1,0
Nc.Rd Nc.Rd Mf.Rd
StBK-N5   

Mf Nt Vmax
Normal force, moment and diaphragm + + = 0.617 < 1,3
action StBK-N5 Mf.Rd Nc.Rd Vw.Rd

 Mf Nt  Vmax
0.8⋅  + + = 0.408 < 1,1
Mf.Rd Nc.Rd Vf.Rd
 
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 83

8. Attachments
Sheets are fixed to building structure and edge beams with φ 6.3 thread forming screws and in side overlaps φ 4.8
aluminium blind rivets. Design values for fasteners are taken e.g. from appendix with tables

8.1 Design of rivets in side overlaps

Side overlaps are fastened with φ 4.8 mm aluminium blind rivets.

Resistance to shear force with respect

to sheet tearing failure for t = 0.636mm Fb.Rd.riv = 1.35 kN

With respect to shear failure of rivet Fv.Rd.riv = 0.88 kN

Shear failure of rivet thus gives lower resistance. To meet EN 1993-1-3, 10.3.4 (6) the resistance of the
fastener is reduced with 25%
 Fv.Rd.riv Fv.Rd.riv 
FRd.riv := if  > Fb.Rd.riv , Fb.Rd.riv , FRd.riv = 0.704 kN

1.25 1.25 

where V is shear force in sheet. Maximum spacing 500 mm. For sake of simplicity, it is assumed that
distances between rafters are equal in every bay.
Half the number of panels nf := 4

Shear force and rivet spacing

(nf + 1 − i) FRd.riv
i := 1 .. nf V := Vmax⋅ c :=
i nf i V
due to wind on long side i

 FRd.riv FRd.riv 
In panels 2 & 3, wind on end k := 1 .. 2 c := if  Vg > V ,
k  k Vg
,
V i (i
c := if c > 500⋅ mm , 500⋅ mm , c )
i
−1 k 
Vg = 3.062 kN ⋅ m V m c
i i
= =
i = kN mm
 0 
 140 1 4.87 144
  2 3.66 193
Rivet spacing is rounded (manually) to cn :=  180  ⋅ mm 3 2.44 289
 280  4 1.22 500

 500 

8.2 Connection to edge beam

Sheet thickness of edge beam is 2.0 mm and its ultimate stress 420 MPa. Design value for shear force is
t1
For t1 := 2⋅ mm = 3.145 > 2,5 Fh.Rd := Fb.Rd.screw Fh.Rd = 2.83 kN
t
Fh.Rd
Required spacing is ck := ck = 581 mm
Vmax
Choose ck := 500⋅ mm

8.3 Connection of end fitting to sheet

End fitting of sheet thickness 1.0 mm fixed with φ 4.8 rivets to crests of roof sheets.

Design value for shear force Fv.Rd := FRd.riv Fv.Rd = 0.704 kN

t1
för t1 := 2⋅ mm = 3.145 > 2,5
t
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 84

Fv.Rd
Required spacing is cä := cä = 289 mm
0.5⋅ Vmax

8.4 Splicing of edge beam and fixing of edge beam to structure

Number of screws in splices designed Nk = 78 kN
for normal force
Fb.Rd := 7.12⋅ kN
Required number of screws increased by 25 %
to allow for eccentricities in the connection Nk
nk := 1.25⋅ nk = 14
due to the sheets being fixed to the bottom Fb.Rd
flange of the edge beam.

Number of screws in connection of edge beam into wind truss in wall is increased by 25% since shear strength of
screw governs.

Screw φ 6.3 and sheet thickness 2.0 mm give Fv.Rd := 7.84⋅ kN Rk = 62 kN

Rk
Required number of screws is nv := nv = 6
1.25⋅ Fv.Rd

8.5 Connection of roof sheeting to end rafter

Connection to end rafter is designed for wind on both the end and the long side, since wind on the end produces
large local shear forces at the tops of columns. The most highly stressed screw is that in the side overlap in the
vicinity of the top of the column.

Flange thickness of end rafter HEA220 is tfl := 11⋅ mm and its ultimate stress is 420 MPa.
For sheet of t = 0.636 mm with four φ 6.3 screws in each trough, design values for screws are as follows

Sheet tearing failure Fb.Rd := Fb.Rd.screw Fb.Rd = 2.83 kN

Pull-over failure, table 8.4 last column Fp.Rd := 2.10⋅ kN Fp.Rd = 2.1 kN

Less of pull-out from parent material Ft.Rd := Ft.Rd.screw Ft.Rd = 9.41 kN

and tensile strengt
Number of screws in trough nsk = 2

8.51 Wind on long side

Shear force transmitted to rafter −1
Fa2 := cs⋅ V V = 4.875 kN ⋅ m Fa2 = 0.578 kN
1 1
Shear force due to force from top
of column determined as follows
For wind on long side, there is suction
cpe.e := 0.8
on end with a factor

and point load from column top is cpe.e

= 1.143 cpe.p = 0.7
therefore corrected by factor cpe.p
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 85

cpe.e
Force at top of column P := ⋅ Qy P = 33.33 kN
cpe.p

Fc

Fa

Fb

cpe.e
Maximum force in screw due to P Fb1 := ⋅ Fx Fb1 = 2.77 kN
cpe.p
Vmax
Shear force in side overlap Fb3 := cn ⋅ cn = 140 mm Fb3 = 0.341 kN
1 nsk 1

Pull-out force due to wind suction (

Fc1 := cs⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.roof ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ gperm ) Fc1 = 0.281 kN
−2
where cpe.roof = 0.7 ξγ G.inf = 0.89 qp = 0.9 kN ⋅ m cs = 118.5 mm

2
Pull-out force due to sheet torsion: Fc2 := Pc2V ⋅ Vmax⋅ where Pc2V = 134 mm Fc2 = 0.653 kN
See figure on in 7.31 above. nsk

Resulting forces: Shear force Fv :=

2
(
Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 )2 Fv = 3.165 kN

Pull-out force Ft := Fc1 + Fc2 Ft = 0.934 kN

Fv Ft
Check, failure of sheet + = 1.244 > 1,0 Check = "Not Ok !"
1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd

Fv Ft
Check, failure of screw + = 0.503 < 1,0 Check = "OK !"
Fv.Rd Ft.Rd
Use 4 screws in the three troughs
nearest the column tops, 2 in the rest
8.52 Wind on end
Vg −1
Shear force transmitted to Fa2 := cs⋅ Vg = 3.062 kN ⋅ m Fa2 = 0.181 kN
end fitting at end of building 2

Shear force due to force from Fb1 := Fx Fb1 = 2.424 kN

column top
 2⋅ cgp  1
Shear force in side overlap at Fb3 := cn ⋅ Vg ⋅  1 − ⋅ cn = 140 mm Fb3 = 0.129 kN
1 broof nsk 1
wind column nearest corner  
Pull-out force due to wind suction (
Fc1 := cs⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.roof ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ gperm ) Fc1 = 0.281 kN
−2
where cpe.roof = 0.7 ξγ G.inf = 0.89 qp = 0.9 kN ⋅ m

2
Pull-out force due to sheet torsion Fc2 := Pc2V ⋅ Vg ⋅ Fc2 := 0⋅ kN Fc2 = 0 kN
nsk

Resulting forces: Shear force Fv :=

2
(
Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 )2 Fv = 2.559 kN

Pull-out force Ft := Fc1 + Fc2 Ft = 0.281 kN

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 86

Fv Ft
Check, failure of sheet + = 0.263 > 1,0 Check = "OK !"
1.4⋅ Fv.Rd Ft.Rd
Use 4 screws in the three troughs
nearest the column tops, as above!
Forces shall be transferred to end
Fa2 := cs⋅ Vg Fa2 = 0.363 kN
rafter via the end fitting
Let us suppose
( )
2 2
Fv := Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 Ft := Fc1 + Fc2 Fv = 2.578 kN
Fh.Rd := 2.74⋅ kN
Ft = 0.281 kN
Fg.Rd := 3.45⋅ kN
Fv Ft
Check, failure of sheet + = 0.785 < 1,0 Check = "OK !"
1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd

Fv Ft
Check, failure of screw + = 0.359 < 1,0 Check = "OK !"
Fv.Rd Ft.Rd

8.6 Connection of sheeting to rafters

Connection to rafters is designed for wind on the long side, since shear forces are highest in this case. The most
highly stressed screw is that in the side overlap on the rafter with end overlap.

Flange thickness, sheet thick- tfl := 6⋅ mm t = 0.636 mm fyk := 275⋅ MPa

ness and yield stress of rafter
Two screws in each trough d := 6.3⋅ mm

Spacing of screws cs2 := bd cs2 = 237 mm

Shear force between sheets and
shear force transferred to rafter 1 (
Fa2.1 := cs2 ⋅ V − V
2 ) Fa2 := cs2 ⋅ V
2
Fa2.1 = 0.289 kN

To be on the safe side, whole shear force Fa2 = 0.867 kN

between sheets is considered in the check

2 2 2

Pull-out force due to wind suction (

crafter.m := crafter + crafter2 ⋅ 0.5 )
(
Fc1 := cs2 ⋅ crafter.m⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.roof ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ gperm ) Fc1 = 0.964 kN

2 2
Resulting forces Shear force Fv := Fa2 + Fb3 Fv = 1.088 kN

Pull-out force Ft := Fc1 Ft = 0.964 kN

Fv Ft
Check, failure of sheet + = 0.734 < 1,0
1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd Check = "OK !"
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 87

Deformations
Sheets directly on rafters 2
α 1 := 1 α 4 := 1  b
Quantities in the formula for c1.1
a := broof b := crafter pr := 
 a
a = 25 m pr = 0.078 bo hw  bw  180
= 0.287 = 0.473 θ := atan ⋅ θ = 25.115 K1 = 0.209
b = 7m bd bd
  π
hw
2.5
a⋅ bd ⋅ α 1⋅ α 4⋅ K1 mm
Deformation at ends of sheets c1.1 := ⋅ pr c1.1 = 0.107
2.5 2 kN
E⋅ t ⋅b

Quantities in the formula for c1.2 α 2 := 1 ν := 0.3

 hw 
2⋅ a⋅ α 2⋅ ( 1 + ν ) ⋅  1 + 2⋅
bd
Shear deformation in sheets c1.2 :=
  ⋅ pr c1.2 = 0.011
mm
E⋅ t ⋅ b kN

Quantities in the formula for c2.1 −1

sp := 0.35⋅ mm⋅ kN α 3 := 1 p := bd

Displacement in connection between 2⋅ a⋅ sp⋅ p⋅ α 3 − 3 mm

c2.1 := ⋅ pr c2.1 = 6.636 × 10
sheets and edge beams 2 kN
b

−1 −1 a
Quantities in the formula for c2.2 ss := 0.25⋅ mm⋅ kN sp := 0.35⋅ mm⋅ kN nsh := nsh = 35
3⋅ bd
b
cn = 280 mm ns := ns = 25 β 1 := 1 np := 2
3 cn
3

Displacement in the connection (

2⋅ ss⋅ sp⋅ nsh − 1 ) mm
c2.2 := ⋅ pr c2.2 = 0.026
in side overlap 2⋅ ns⋅ sp + β 1⋅ np⋅ ss kN

Quantities in the formula for c2.3 −1

n := 9 ssc := 0⋅ mm⋅ kN nsc := 100

Displacement in connectiom between 4⋅ ( n + 1) ⋅ ssc mm

c2.3 := ⋅ pr c2.3 = 0
sheet and shear connector 2 kN
n ⋅ nsc

Quantities in the formula for c3 2

α 3 := 1 A := 3000⋅ mm

2 3
n ⋅ crafter ⋅ α 3 mm
Axial strain in edge beams c3 := c3 = 0.0103
2 kN
4.8⋅ E⋅ A⋅ broof

Total shear flexibility c := c1.1 + c1.2 + c2.1 + c2.2 + c2.3 + c3 mm

c = 0.160
kN
crafter mm2 mm
Compare with diagram in Fig. 3.26 cdiag := 0.45⋅ ⋅ cdiag = 0.176
broof ⋅ t kN kN

2 Lroof
n
Deflection ∆ := ⋅ c⋅ Qs⋅ crafter ∆ = 50.29 mm = 1114
8 ∆
2
5⋅ Qs⋅ Lroof
4  broof 
Compare with flexural deformation alone I := 2⋅ A⋅ 
y :=  2  y = 3.24 mm
384⋅ E⋅ I
SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 88

10 Holes
In the roof diaphragm there are two holes in all bays except one, even in the panels next to the ends. They increase
shear flow and reduce the capacity to resist transverse action.

Hole width bh := 1200⋅ mm

−1
Hole length lh := 2000⋅ mm Vmax = 4.875 kN ⋅ m

Vmax⋅ broof −1 −1
Shear flow in section through hole V0 := V0 = 5.393 kN ⋅ m > Vr.Rd = 4.9 kN ⋅ m
broof − 2⋅ bh
Check = "End reinforcement needed !"

Provide reinforcement of extra sheet on both sides of hole and trimmer joists at right angles to these. The width of
the extra sheet is slightly greater than half the width of the hole, and since the self weight of the window is no greater
than the self weight of the roof itself, the extra sheet can take over the load which the strips of sheet through the hole
cannot resist. Load is transferred laterally through trimmer joists on each side of the hole.

Axial force in trimmer joist (

Fb := V0⋅ 0.5⋅ broof − 2⋅ bh ⋅ 0.33 ) Fb = 20.109 kN

2 Fb
Angle 80x80x8 AL := 1230⋅ mm σ c := σ c = 16 MPa Negligible
AL
3 3
WL := 12.6⋅ 10 ⋅ mm

Flexure M :=
( ) (
qs1 ⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter ⋅ bh⋅ 2⋅ bh ) σ b :=
M
σ b = 139 MPa
2⋅ 4 WL
hh
>hh / 2

Double sheet
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 89

Example 2. Uninsulated building with sheets on purlins

Contents
0. Conditions 7.5 Maximum shear stress
1. Dimensions and classes 8. Attachments
2. Loads and actions 8.1 Design of rivets in side overlaps
3. Sheets and fasteners 8.2 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connectors
4. SI units along end of building
5. Design of sheets for transverse action due 8.3 Connection of roof sheeting to resist tensile
to snow, wind suction and self weight forces due to action on end
5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over five 8.4 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connectors
bays along other rafters
6. Actions on diaphragm due to wind 8.5 Connection of sheet at corners and in edge zones
6.1 Wind on long sides 8.51 Corner zone
6.2 Wind on end 8.52 Edge zone
7. Design of sheeting 9. Effect of temperature difference
7.1 Section forces 9.1 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connecors
7.2 Single plate panel along the end of the building
7.3 End support 9.2 Single plate panel
7.31 Web crippling 9.21 Temperature difference
7.32 Distorsion of profile at end 9.22 Combination of actions wind + (1/3) temperature
7.4 Intermediate support 9.23 Maximum shear stress
7.41 Local buckling of web and web crippling 10. Support brackets for purlins
7.42 Local buckling of web due to shear force and 11. Design of purlins
moment 12. Deformations

0. Conditions
An uninsulated industrial building with normal leakage paths shall be designed for diaphragm action due to wind
action and the effect of temperature difference between the building structure and the sheets. Diaphragm forces
are transferred to the foundation via wind trusses. All columns are pinjointed at the foundation.

1 11
A
cpurlin
broof

B
1:10
hp

C
crafter
lroof broof

1. Dimensions and classes

Roof width broof := 36⋅ m Partial factor for resistance γ M1 := 1.0
Roof length Lroof := 72⋅ m
Construction Class I (EN 1993-1-3)
Column height,long side hp := 7.0⋅ m (depth of roof truss at
column top negligible) Reliability class RC2
1
Roof slope slope := (EN 1990, consequence class CC2,
10 medium consequence for loss of human
Ridge height ht := hp + 0.5⋅ broof ⋅ slope ht = 8.8 m life)
Beam spacing crafter := 7.2⋅ m
γ d := 0.91 (See 2.11)
Purlin spacing cpurlin := 2⋅ m
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 90

kN
Wind Peak velocity pressure qp := 1.02⋅ −2
2 Snow load, on the ground sk := 1.5⋅ kN ⋅ m
m
Shape factors, wind
Snow load on roof µ 1 := 0.8 s := µ 1⋅ sk
Roof, suction cpe.roof := 0.7
Combination value ψ 0 := 0.6 scomb := µ 1⋅ ψ 0⋅ sk
Wall, pressure cpe.p := 0.7
−2
Wall, suction cpe.s := 0.3 scomb = 0.72 kN ⋅ m
Internal suction cpi := 0.3
Edge zone cp.edge := 1.8 Temperature difference ∆T := 40o C
(
bedge := if 0.1⋅ broof < 0.2⋅ ht , 0.1⋅ broof , 0.2⋅ ht ) bedge = 1.76 m
Inclination of columns α := 0.005
from vertical
Corner cp.corn := 2.6

(
ledge := if 0.25⋅ Lroof < 0.5⋅ ht , 0.25⋅ Lroof , 0.5⋅ ht ) ledge = 4.4 m Partial factor, snow load and γ Q := 1.5
wind action (main variable)
Characteristic value of wind suction
Partial factor,
−2
qroof := cpe.roof ⋅ qp qroof = 0.714 kN ⋅ m self weight unfavourable ξγ G := 0.98⋅ 1.35

Characteristic value of wind suction in edge zone

favourable ξγ G.inf := 0.98⋅ 1.0
−3 where ξ := 0.85 is a reduction factor for
qedge := cp.edge⋅ qp qedge = 1.836 × 10 MPa
permanent action, see 2.12

3. Sheets and fasteners Sheeting := "TRP22" hw := 22⋅ mm

bd := 90⋅ mm bo := 25⋅ mm
sw

bw := 10.5⋅ mm bu := 44⋅ mm
2 2 t := 0.587⋅ mm
sw := bw + hw sw = 24.4 mm
bu bw bo
fyb := 350⋅ MPa
−2
Resistances of sheeting for transverse action Self weight qgrav := 0.07⋅ kN ⋅ m
and diaphragm action are given by the
Width of support ls := 50⋅ mm
producer of the profiled sheeting.

Moment capacity span Mf.Rd := 1.59⋅ kN

Rivets in side driv := 4.8⋅ mm
overlaps Fv.Rd.riv := 0.88⋅ kN Moment capacity, support Ms.Rd := 1.61⋅ kN
aluminium
Fb.Rd.riv := 1.19⋅ kN −1
tnom := 0.65⋅ mm Capacity of support Rw.Rd := 49.9⋅ kN ⋅ m

Screws, dscrew := 6.3⋅ mm Diaphragm action

stainless steel
Fv.Rd.screw := 6.8⋅ kN −1
Shear buckling of web Vw.Rd := 166⋅ kN ⋅ m
t1 ≥ 2.5⋅ t
Fb.Rd.screw := 2.61⋅ kN −1
Shear buckling of flange Vf.Rd := 113⋅ kN ⋅ m
tnom = 0.65 mm
Ft.Rd.screw := 8.16⋅ kN
Global buckling VgR := 66⋅ kN ⋅ m
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 91

end lskpl := 1.8⋅ m tskpl := 2⋅ mm

−1
Distorsion of profile at corner Vr.Rd := 31⋅ kN ⋅ m
hZ := 202⋅ mm fy.skpl := 350⋅ MPa
Support reaction factor for RvV := 0.51
rafters, 2 lskpl2 := 0.85⋅ m tskpl2 := 2⋅ mm end support
hZ2 := hZ fy.skpl2 := fy.skpl Tensile force factor for Pc2V := 21⋅ mm
fastener at end support
rafters, 3 lskpl3 := 0.85⋅ m tskpl3 := 2⋅ mm
hZ3 := hZ fy.skpl3 := fy.skpl

4. SI units kN ≡ 1000⋅ N
6
MPa ≡ 10 ⋅ Pa

5. Design of sheeting for transverse action due to snow,

wind suction and self weight
Try single sheet t = 0.65, with possible exception of outermost portion of outer bay where double sheet
t = 0.65 is used
−2
Self weight, sheet qgrav = 0.07 kN ⋅ m

Design value of snow and −2

qE1 := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ sk + ξγ G⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav qE1 = 2.132 kN ⋅ m
self weight
Snow and self weight in qE2 := scomb + qgrav −2
qE2 = 0.79 kN ⋅ m
serviceability limit state
Design value of upward wind and qE3 := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ qedge − ξγ G.inf ⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav −2
qE3 = 2.44 kN ⋅ m
self weight in edge zone

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions Support moment reduced with
over five bays respect to width of support
Sheeting = "TRP22"
Span lp := cpurlin cpurlin = 2 m Width of support ls := 50⋅ mm

2 Mf.Sd
Snow, span Mf.Sd := 0.0779⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin Mf.Sd = 0.664 kN = 0.418
Mf.Rd

−1
R1
Snow, support next to R1 := 1.132⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin R1 = 4.826 kN ⋅ m = 0.097
outermost one Rw.Rd

2
ls Ms.Sd R1
Interaction Ms.Sd := 0.1053⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin − R1⋅ + = 0.617 <1.25
4 Ms.Rd Rw.Rd

2
ls Ms.Sd
Over centre of support Ms.Sd := 0.1053⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin − R1⋅ Ms.Sd = 0.868 kN = 0.539
8 Ms.Rd

3 3
2⋅ Ief.fält + Ief.stöd 3
Ief.fält := 60⋅ mm Ief.stöd := 51⋅ mm Ifik := Ifik = 57 mm
Serviceability limit 3
state, deflection in 4
outer bay qE2⋅ cpurlin cpurlin
y := 0.644⋅ y = 6.8 mm = 294
100⋅ E⋅ Ifik y
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 92

qE3 Ms.Sd
Wind suction in edge zone, in proportion ⋅ = 0.618
qE1 Ms.Rd

6. Diaphragm forces due to wind action

6.1 Wind on long sides
Qs

A
Rg Nk
broof /2

V
cpurlin

B
crafter
lroof
1 11

Roof diaphragm is divided into two at the ridge, line B. Each part functions separately and shares the
action due to wind on the long side
bdiaph := 0.5⋅ broof bdiaph = 18 m

Maximum action on a part diaphragm, for case with hinged columns: column height hp = 7 m

hp kN
( )
QE := 0.5⋅ 0.85⋅ cpe.p + cpe.s ⋅ γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ qp⋅
2
+ α ⋅ qE2⋅ broof QE = 2.213
m
(Factor 0.85 when wind
on two walls simultanously)

Roof diaphragm between lines A and B regarded as simply supported deep beam on supports
(wind trusses) in lines 1 and 11. Shear forces V assumed to be resisted by sheets and moment
M by the two outermost purlins in lines A and B.
Lroof
Support force at end of building Rg := QE⋅ Rg = 79.7 kN
2
2
QE⋅ Lroof
Normal force in purlin Nk := 0.58⋅ Nk = 46.2 kN
8⋅ bdiaph
QE  Lroof crafter  kN
Maximum shear flow Vmax := 1.15⋅ ⋅ − Vmax = 4.58
bdiaph  2 2  m
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 93

6.2 Wind on the end

Wind is assumed to be resisted by two partial diaphragms in each end. The width of the partial
diaphragms is 2/3 of the width of the building. (Index g for gable, end)

Rk

V
Qsg
Nk
2
broof

V hb := 0⋅ m

2broof /3
lroof

1  hp ht  kN
Design diaphragm action ( )
QEg := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ cpe.p + cpi ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅ 
2  2
+ hb +
2
QEg = 5.5
m
(No factor 0.85 for wind on one end only)

cpe.p + cpe.s broof

Support force in long sides due to action Rk := 0.85⋅ ⋅ QEg ⋅ Rk = 84.1 kN
on only windward and leeward sides cpe.p + cpi 2

cpe.p
Normal force in end rafter (eq. 6.11) Ngg := 0.19⋅ ⋅ QEg ⋅ broof Ngg = 26.3 kN
(internal suction taken by sheeting) cpe.p + cpi

3 1 cpe.p kN kN
Shear flow along long sides Vg := ⋅ ⋅ ⋅Q Vmax = 4.581 Vg = 2.89
2 2 cpe.p + cpi Eg m m

Vg < Vmax
Tilting forces due to action on end columns are ignored.
Tilting forces along building due to action on columns in
long sides resisted by edge beams and wind trusses in
long sides.
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 94

7. Design of sheeting
7.1 Section forces
In combination with design wind action, necessary section forces due to usual transverse action of snow and self
weight are calculated. Formulae for beam continuous over 5 bays, are used. Support moment is reduced with
respect to width of support

kN
Reaction at support Rs := 1.132⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin Rs = 1.789
m
2 Rs⋅ ls kN ⋅ m
Moment at support Ms := 0.1053⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin − Ms = 0.322
8 m
2 kN ⋅ m
Moment in span Mf := 0.0779⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin Mf = 0.246
m
kN
Reaction at end support Rä := 0.3947⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin Rä = 0.624
m

7.2 Single plate panel

Shear flow is concentrated at the end at the points in the centre of the diaphragm whose movement is restrained.

Assume that the fixed length on

lskpl = 1.8 m i.e. 0.5⋅ lskpl = 0.9 m
each side of the beam centre

A

For a check on local buckling,

the shear flow is 0.5⋅ broof
Vlb := ⋅ Vmax Vlb = 45.81
kN 1:3
lskpl

lskpl m

Global buckling is checked at a section situated at half the purlin spacing

outside the attachment at the end. It is assumed that diaphragm force is
distributed over the width of the sheeting in the proportion 3:1. See the figure.
Check according to StBK-N5 
B
0.5⋅ broof
Design diaphragm force Vgl := ⋅ Vmax
(
lskpl + 2⋅ 3⋅ 0.5⋅ cpurlin ) Vgl = 10.57 kN ⋅ m
−1

−1 −1
Local buckling of web Vw.Rd = 166 kN ⋅ m > Vlb = 45.814 kN ⋅ m

Mf = 0.246 kN Mf Vlb
+ = 0.431 < 1.3
Mf.Rd Vw.Rd Check = "OK!"
Mf.Rd = 1.59 kN
−1 −1
Local buckling of flange Vf.Rd = 113 kN ⋅ m > Vlb = 45.814 kN ⋅ m

Mf = 0.246 kN Mf Vlb
0.8⋅ + = 0.529 < 1.1
Mf.Rd Vf.Rd Check = "OK!"
Mf.Rd = 1.59 kN
VgR −1 −1
Global buckling: Vg.Rd := Vg.Rd = 16.5 kN ⋅ m > Vgl = 10.6 kN ⋅ m
2 Check = "OK!"
cpurlin
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 95

7.31 Web crippling

−1
Rv := RvV ⋅ Vmax Rv = 2.34 kN ⋅ m
Vmax
−1
Rä.Rd := 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd Rä.Rd = 25 kN ⋅ m
Rv Rv Check = "OK!"

Rä Rä Rä Rv
+ = 0.119 < 1.05 Check = "OK!"
Rä.Rd Rä.Rd

−1 kN
7.32 Distorsion of profile Vr.Rd = 31 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.581 Check = "OK!"
at end m

7.4 Intermediate support

−1
7.41 Local buckling of web and Rw.Rd = 49.9 kN ⋅ m
web crippling
Rs Vlb
0.8⋅ + = 0.305 < 1.1 Check = "OK!"
Rw.Rd Vw.Rd

7.42 Local buckling of web due to shear force and moment

Ms Vlb
+ = 0.476 < 1.3 Check = "OK!"
Ms.Rd Vw.Rd

7.5 Maximum shear stress

According to EN 1993-1-3 paragraph 10.3.4 (5) the shear stress due to diaphragm action shall not exceed
0.25 fyb /γM1

Vlb fyb
τ := τ = 78 MPa < 0.25⋅ = 87.5 MPa Check = "OK!"
t γ M1
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 96

8. Attachments

8.1 Design of rivets in side overlaps (seams)

Side overlaps are fixed with φ 4.8 mm aluminium blind rivets.
t = 0.587 mm
Resistance to shear force with
Fb.Rd.riv = 1.19 kN
respect to sheet tearing failure
With respect to shear failure of rivet, Fv.Rd.riv = 0.88 kN

Shear failure of rivet thus gives lower

resistance. To meet EN 1993-1-3,  Fv.Rd.riv Fv.Rd.riv 
FRd.riv := if  > Fb.Rd.riv , Fb.Rd.riv , FRd.riv = 0.704 kN
10.3.4 (6) the resistance of the  1.25 1.25 
fastener is reduced with 25%

Maximum spacing is 500 mm. The critical actions is wind load on the long side, except in the panel next to the
outermost one (i = 3 och 4) where wind load on the end may govern.

( 7.5 − k) FRd.riv
V := Vgl V := Vgl V := Vmax k := 4 .. 7 V := Vmax⋅
1 2 3 k 4.5 i := 1 .. 7 c :=
i V
i
 FRd.riv FRd.riv 
Wind on end: k := 3 .. 4 c := if  Vg > V ,
k  k Vg
,
V i (i
c := if c > 500⋅ mm , 500⋅ mm , c )
i
k 
V m c
i i
i = Panel = =
kN mm
1 1st side overlap 10.57 67
2 2nd side overlap
(Division into 1st and 2nd side overlap 10.57 67
3 others
to enable insertion of double sheet at 4.58 154
the outside. See below) 4 2
3.56 198
5 3 2.55 277
6 4
1.53 461
7 5 0.51 500

The shear connector is a lskpl = 1.8 m long Z profile of thickness tskpl = 2 mm

and depth hZ := 202⋅ mm

According to the table in chapter 8, φ 6.3 thread forming

screws for double sheet of t = 0.65 mm, have
Strength with respect to sheet tearing failure Fb.Rd := 2⋅ Fb.Rd.screw Fb.Rd = 5.22 kN

Rgg
No of screws required Rgg := Rg − QE⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter ng := 1.2⋅ ng = 16
Fb.Rd
Rgg = 71.7 kN
In the above formula, the factor 1.2 has been inserted to allow for the fact that the shear
connector must also resist the combination wind + (1/3) temperature.
The effect of temperature will be checked later.
lskpl
Screws are placed in a row at centres = 109 mm
ng
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 97

It has been assumed above that pull-out forces due to wind suction on the roof do not act on the
screws in the shear connector. Forces due to wind suction are assumed to be transferred to the
end rafter via the purlins.
Rgg
Shear stress in the web of the Z section is = 19.9 MPa
lskpl⋅ tskpl

According to EN 1993-1-3, the design value of shear stress with respect to buckling is

kτ := 5.34 fy.skpl = 350 MPa E ≡ 210000⋅ MPa

hZ fy.skpl
λ w := 0.346⋅ ⋅ λ w = 1.427
tskpl E

fy.skpl⋅ lskpl⋅ tskpl

VRd := 0.67⋅ VRd = 415 kN > Rg = 79.7 kN
2 Check = "OK !"
λw

8.3 Connection of roof sheeting to resist tensile forces due to action on the end

It is assumed that the force Ngg = 26.3 kN is resisted by the two rafters situated approximately
2⋅ broof
= 24 m from the end.
3

The shear connector is a lskpl2 = 0.85 m long Z section of thickness tskpl2 = 2 mm

and depth hZ2 = 202 mm

According to the table in chapter 8, φ 6.3 thread forming screws for t = 0.65 mm and
tskpl2 = 2.0mm have the following strength with respect to sheet tearing for a single sheet
Fb.Rd.screw = 2.61 kN

1 0.5⋅ Ngg
Number of screws required n := ⋅ n= 5
1 Fb.Rd.screw
1− ⋅ 0.157
3
1
In the above formula, the factor has been inserted to allow for the fact that the shear
1
1− ⋅ 0.157
3
connector must also resist the combination of actions wind + (1/3) temperature. It has been
taken into consideration that temperature alone stresses the screw to 15.7 %. See 9.1

lskpl2
The screws are placed in a row at centres = 160 mm
n
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 98

8.4 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connectors along other rafters

The length of the shear connector is determined by local and global buckling of the sheets next
to the connector. As before, global buckling is checked at a point situated half the purlin
spacing outside the connection. The diaphragm force transferred from the shear connector is
assumed to be dispersed over the width of the sheeting in the proportion 3:1.
An lskpl3 = 0.85 m long Z section of thickness tskpl3 = 2 mm
and depth hZ3 = 202 mm is used as shear connector.

The shear connector shall transfer the diaphragm force crafter⋅ QE = 15.94 kN

This force represents a local shear flow, in the QE kN

sheets next to the shear connector, of (
Vlo := 1.15⋅ crafter
lskpl3
) Vlo = 21.56
m

At half the purlin spacing outside the Vlo⋅ lskpl3 kN

Vred := Vred = 2.675
shear connector, shear flow is reduced to lskpl3 + 2⋅ 3⋅ 0.5⋅ cpurlin m

The existing shear flow in the sheeting, which

kN
in the bay next to the outermost one Vg := V Vg = 3.563
4 m
is superimposed on this shear flow

Local buckling of the web is not the design criterion

kN
Global buckling: Design diaphragm force V := Vred + Vg V = 6.239
m
VgR −1
Shear strength Vg.Rd := Vg.Rd = 16.5 kN ⋅ m
2
cpurlin
Check = "OK !"

The design value of shear force in the shear connector is taken from the table in chapter 8.

For φ 6.3 thread forming screw, t = 0.587 mm and tskpl3 = 2.0 mm Fb.Rd.screw = 2.61 kN

1 crafter⋅ QE
No of screws required n := ⋅ n= 7
1 lskpl3 Fb.Rd.screw
1− ⋅
3 1.6⋅ m
lskpl3
The screws are placed in a row at centres = 115 mm
n

8.5 Connection of sheets in corners and edge zones

In an uninsulated building, the sheeting diaphragm is also the external cladding. The attachments must be
checked for local wind suction in edge zones and corners.

Width of edge zone bedge = 1760 mm Wind coefficient in edge zone cp.edge = 1.8
Length of corner zone ledge = 4400 mm Wind coefficient in corner zone cp.corn = 2.6

NOTE: The corner zone is in a region where the shear flow is very small. See Fig. 6.2, 6.5 and 6.6. The
tensile force in the screws therefore governs on its own. Forces due to diaphragm action can be ignored.
This does not apply to the edge zone along the long side.
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 99

8.51 Corner zone

For a 6.3 mm screw in each trough, the
tensile force in a screw along the edge
( )
Ft.Ed := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ cp.corn ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav ⋅ 0.5⋅ cpurlin⋅ bd

beam is approximately Ft.Ed = 0.32 kN

Pull-out from parent material Fo.Rd := 2.75⋅ kN for sheet thickness t1 = 2 mm and fu = 420 MPa

Pull-through and pull-over failure Fp.Rd := 2.49⋅ kN for sheet thickness 0.65 mm and washer 14 mm

Tensile, shear and sheet tearing faílure Ft.Rd := 8.16⋅ kN Fv.Rd := 6.8⋅ kN Fb.Rd := 2.61⋅ kN
For explanation of the factor 0.714, see
Ft.Ed < 0.714⋅ Fp.Rd and Ft.Rd > Fb.Rd Check = "OK !"
comment at the end of 8.52 below

8.52 Edge zone

For one screw in each trough over the width bedge = 1760 mm, the tensile force in the screws along the purlins
is approximately
( )
Ft.Sd := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ cp.edge⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav ⋅ 0.5cpurlin⋅ bd Ft.Sd = 0.22 kN

−2
where cs := bd cs = 90 mm = the pitch cp.edge = 1.8 qp = 1.02 kN ⋅ m

−1
Shear force transferred to purlin Fa2 := cs⋅ Vmax Vmax = 4.581 kN ⋅ m Fa2 = 0.412 kN

−2
qgrav = 0.07 kN ⋅ m
Fc

Fa

Fb

Fb1 := 0⋅ kN

3 3

Pull-out force due to wind suction Fc1 := Ft.Sd Fc1 = 0.22 kN

Pull-out force due to sheet torsion Fc2 := Pc2V ⋅ Vmax where Pc2V = 21 mm Fc2 = 0.096 kN

( )
2 2
Resulting forces: Shear force Fv := Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 Fv = 0.816 kN

Pull-out force Ft := Fc1 + Fc2 Ft = 0.316 kN

Fv Ft
Check for failure of sheet + = 0.35 < 1 / 1.4 Check = "OK !"
1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd

Fv Ft
Check for failure of screw + = 0.235 < 1 / 1.4 Check = "OK !"
Fv.Rd Fo.Rd

Comment:
According to EN 1993-1-3 paragraph 10.3.4 (6) an additional safety of 40% shall be used for sheet-to-purlin fasteners
under combined shear and wind uplift. Therefore the fasteners shall be stressed not more than 1 / 1.4 = 0.714.
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 100

9. Effect of temperature

9.1 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connectors along the end

Temperature difference ∆T = 40 degrees C, StBK-N5  32:822, causes displacement
lskpl
vtemp := ⋅ 0.000012⋅ ∆T vtemp = 0.432 mm at the edge of the shear connector.
2

If it is assumed on the safe side that the sheeting is not deformed by the temperature action, the
shear force in the outermost fastener can be calculated according to StBK-N5  33:152 for

tskpl
d := 6.3⋅ mm t = 0.587 mm tskpl = 2 mm = 3.407 k2 := 1.5
t

t 1000⋅ N
Ftemp := vtemp⋅ k2⋅ d ⋅ ⋅ (expression (6.3) in chapter 6) Ftemp = 3.128 kN
mm 2
mm

If deformation of the sheeting and shear connector is considered and the effect of temperature is reduced
2
because the shear connector heats up, we have for Askpl := 140⋅ mm , see chapter 6 expression (6.8)
2
⋅v
3 temp
Ftemp := Ftemp = 0.863 kN
ng lskpl
⋅ +
1 1 1
⋅ +
2⋅ 3 2⋅ E  0.1⋅ lskpl⋅ t Askpl ng = 16
  k ⋅ d⋅ t ⋅ 1000⋅ N
2 mm 2
mm lskpl
= 109 mm
ng
According to the table in chapter 8, the design value of strength with respect to sheet tearing
failure of the double sheet is
Ftemp
Fb.Rd := 2⋅ Fb.Rd.screw Fb.Rd = 5.22 kN = 16.5 % Check = "OK !"
Fb.Rd

According to StBK-N5  32:823, a check shall be made for the combination of actions wind +
(1/3) temperature. The number of screws in the connection was previously estimated at ng = 16 .
The shear force in the outermost screw is

Rgg Ftemp
Fv := + where Rgg = 71.7 kN Fv = 4.638 kN < Fb.Rd = 5.22 kN Check = "OK !"
ng 3

9.2 Single plate panel

9.21 Temperature difference
Temperature difference give rise to the following shear flow in the sheets near the outermost fastener in the shear
connector

Ftemp⋅ ng kN
Vtemp := where Ftemp = 0.863 kN lskpl = 1.8 m ng = 16 Vtemp = 7.9
lskpl m

Shear flow in the fixed flange varies linearly from the maximum value to 0 over the distance 0.5⋅ lskpl = 0.9 m
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 101

The design value of shear flow in the web and flange immediately outside the shear connector is
slightly reduced owing to the dispersion effect. This reduction can be estimated by using a
dispersion angle of 1:3 and by taking a shear flow in the triangular distribution which
corresponds to this angle.

For the profile TRP22, width of web is sw, profile crest bo, profile trough bu and the horizontal
projection of the web bw

sw sw = 24.4 mm
bw = 10.5 mm
bo = 25 mm
bu bw bo
bu = 44 mm

  bu bw  
3⋅  +
Shear flow at centre of web is 
Vw := 1 −
 2 2 
⋅V Vw = 7.2
kN
 0.5⋅ lskpl  temp m
 
  bu bo  
3⋅  + bw + 
Shear flow at centre of crest is 
Vo := 1 −
 2 2 
⋅V Vo = 6.7
kN
 0.5⋅ lskpl  temp m
 
kN kN
Local buckling of web Vw.Rd = 166 >> Vw = 7.2 Check = "OK !"
m m
kN kN
Local buckling of flange Vf.Rd = 113 >> Vo = 6.7 Check = "OK !"
m m

9.22 Combination of actions wind + (1/3) temperature

Vw kN kN
Shear flow at centre of web is Vw := Vlb + Vw = 48.2 Vw.Rd = 166
3 m m
Vw < Vw.Rd Check = "OK !"

Vo kN kN
Shear flow at centre of crest Vo := Vlb + Vo = 48.1 Vf.Rd = 113
3 m m
kN Vo < Vf.Rd Check = "OK !"
Vlb = 45.8
m

9.23 Maximum shear stress

According to EN 1993-1-3 paragraph 10.3.4 (5) the shear stress due to diaphragm action shall not exceed
0.25 fyb /γM1

Vo fyb
τ := τ = 81.9 MPa about the same as 0.25⋅ = 87.5 MPa Check = "OK !"
t γ M1
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 102

δ
10. Support brackets for purlins
The support bracket is a flat of Steel S235, thickness tuppl length huppl

fy := 235⋅ MPa huppl := 200⋅ mm

tuppl := 5⋅ mm buppl := 120⋅ mm

broof
Distance of outermost purlin from centre of rotation is lr := 0.5⋅ lr = 9 m
2
This corresponds to a bracket end deflection of δ := lr⋅ 0.000012⋅ ∆T δ = 4.32 mm
where ∆T = 40

3
The deflection is caused by the following buppl⋅ tuppl 1
P := δ ⋅ 3E⋅ ⋅ P = 0.425 kN
force at the top of the bracket 12 3
huppl
P⋅ huppl⋅ 6
Flexural stress at root section of steel flat σ := σ = 170 MPa
2
buppl⋅ tuppl
fy
Design value of flexural stress = 235 MPa > σ Check = "OK !"
γ M1

11. Design of purlins

Not set out in this example.

12. Deformations
Sheets on purlins. Diaphragm considered as broof
b := a := crafter a = 7.2 m
two separate interacting diaphragms 2
Quantities in the formula for c1.1 b = 18 m
broof
No of purlins (edge + internal purlins) np := +1 np = 10
2⋅ cpurlin
Sheet lengths within diaphragm and α 4 nb := 2 α 4 := 1 + 0.3⋅ nb
α 4 = 1.6
No of purlins per sheet length and α 1 np
nl := +1 nl = 6 α 1 := α 1 α 1 = 0.6
nb nl
(The term α 1 refers to the α 1value
n l
for No of purlins nl. It is in a vector
which is not written down)

bo hw  bw  180
Constant K1 = 0.278 = 0.244 θ := atan ⋅ θ = 25.5 K1 = 0.13
(obtained from tables elsewhere)
bd bd
 hw  π
2.5
a⋅ bd ⋅ α 1⋅ α 4⋅ K1 − 3 mm
Deformation at ends of sheets c1.1 := c1.1 = 3.842 × 10
2.5 2 kN
E⋅ t ⋅b
SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 103

Quantities in the formula for c1.2 α 2 := α 2 α 2 = 0.36 ν := 0.3

n p
 hw 
2⋅ a⋅ α 2⋅ ( 1 + ν ) ⋅  1 + 2⋅
bd
Shear deformation in sheeting c1.2 :=
  c1.2 = 4.522 × 10
− 3 mm
E⋅ t ⋅ b kN

Displacement of sheet/purlin fasteners, −1

spacing of sheet/purlin fasteners, and α 3
sp := 0.35⋅ mm⋅ kN p := bd α 3 := α 3 α 3 = 0.49
np

Displacement in connection 2⋅ a⋅ sp⋅ p⋅ α 3 c2.1. := 6.86x104

between sheets and purlin c2.1 :=
2
b

Quantities in the formula for c2.2

−1 a
Displacement of fastener in overlap ss, ss := 0.25⋅ mm⋅ kN nsh := nsh = 8
10⋅ bd
No of sheet widths per part diaphragm nsh,
No of fasteners in side overlap ns, b
ns := ns = 117 c = 154 mm
c 3
No of sheet/purlin fasteners per 3
sheet width nf and the factor β 1 nf := 4 β 1 := β 1 β 1 = 1.25
n f
Displacement in connection
c2.2 :=
(
2⋅ ss⋅ sp⋅ nsh − 1 ) c2.2 = 0.0144
mm
in side overlap 2⋅ ns⋅ sp + β 1⋅ np⋅ ss kN

Quantitites in formula for c2.3

No of part diaphragms n within
n := 10
whole roof length, displacement ssc
−1
and No of sheet/shear connector ssc := 0.15⋅ mm⋅ kN nsc := 12
fasteners nsc

Displacement in connection between 4⋅ ( n + 1) ⋅ ssc − 3 mm

c2.3 := c2.3 = 5.5 × 10
sheet and shear connector 2 kN
n ⋅ nsc
Quantities in formula for c3
2
Factor α 3 and area of cross α 3 = 0.49 (see above) A := 1600⋅ mm
section A of edge beam
2 3
n ⋅a ⋅α3 mm
Axial strain in edge beams c3 := c3 = 0.035
2 kN
4.8⋅ E⋅ A⋅ b

mm
Total shear flexibility c := c1.1 + c1.2 + c2.1 + c2.2 + c2.3 + c3 c = 0.064
kN

crafter 2
mm mm
See the diagram in Fig. 3.26 cdiag := 0.08⋅ ⋅ cdiag = 0.055
0.5⋅ broof ⋅ t kN kN

2 Lroof
n
Deflection ∆ := ⋅ c⋅ QE⋅ crafter = 5653 ∆ = 12.74 mm
8 ∆
2
5⋅ QE⋅ Lroof
4  broof 
I := A⋅ 
Compare with only flexural deformation y :=  2  y = 7.11 mm
384⋅ E⋅ I
SkinCalc.mcd Example 3. Interaction diaphragm-frames 104

Example 3. Interaction between diaphragm and frames

The calculation follows "Simplified analysis" according to "Bygg" K24:4 Diaphragm action . Subscripts for
frames and diaphragm to be according to the figure.
k0=0 km=0
k

No of bays n := 6 c
Flexibility of diaphragms i := 1 .. n c := 0.1 1 2 3 4 5 6
i
Flexibility of frames k := 0.3
i
− 10 − 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Flexibility of ends (rigid) k := 10 k := 10
0 n
H H H H H

1
Distribution factors to right f := 0 h := 1 − f i := n − 1 .. 0 f :=
n n n i c k
i+ 1 i+ 1
h := 1 − f
i i
1+
k
+
k (
⋅ 1− f
i+ 1 )
i i
Distribution factors to left g := 0 q := 1 − g i := 1 .. n 1
0 0 0 g :=
i c k
i− 1
( )
i
q := 1 − g 1+ + ⋅ 1− g
i i i− 1
k k
i i
Numerical values i := 0 .. n
c = k = f = h = g = q =
i = i i i i i i
0 0 0 0 1 0 1
1 0.1 0.3 0.568 0.432 0.75 0.25
2 0.1 0.3 0.573 0.427 0.632 0.368
3 0.1 0.3 0.588 0.412 0.588 0.412
4 0.1 0.3 0.632 0.368 0.573 0.427
5 0.1 0.3 0.75 0.25 0.568 0.432
6 0.1 0 0 1 0 1

k ⋅q +c k h +c
j− 1 j− 1 j j+ 1 j+ 1 j+ 1
Transfer factors j := 1 .. n − 1 pv := ph :=
j, j k j, j k
j j
mr mr
1 j, j j, j
mr := mv := − mh :=
j, j 1 1 j, j pv j, j ph
1+ + j, j j, j
pv ph
j, j j, j
pv = ph = mr = mv = mh =
j = j, j j, j j, j j, j j, j
1 0.333 0.76 0.188 -0.564 0.247
2 0.583 0.746 0.247 -0.423 0.331
3 0.702 0.702 0.26 -0.37 0.37
4 0.746 0.583 0.247 -0.331 0.423
5 0.76 0.333 0.188 -0.247 0.564

Actions H := 100 H := 0
j n
SkinCalc.mcd Example 3. Interaction diaphragm-frames 105

Calculation of actions on frames and shear forces on part diaphragms.

(For action on frame 1 there is no diaphragm to the left, and this case is therefore calculated separately)

Result1 := for j ∈ 1 Result := for j ∈ 2 .. n − 1

V ← mh ⋅ H V ← mh ⋅ H
j, j j, j j j, j j, j j
V ← mv ⋅ H V ← mv ⋅ H
j− 1 , j j, j j j− 1 , j j, j j
Q ← mr ⋅ H Q ← mr ⋅ H
j, j j, j j j, j j, j j
for i ∈ 1 .. n − j for i ∈ 1 .. n − j
V ← f ⋅V V ← f ⋅V
j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j
Q ←h ⋅V Q ←h ⋅V
j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j
for i ∈ 1 .. j for i ∈ 2 .. j if i ≥ 1
Q ← −q ⋅V V ←g ⋅V
j− i , j j− i j− i , j j− i , j j− i+ 1 j− i+ 1 , j
augment( Q , V ) for i ∈ 1 .. j
Q ← −q ⋅V
j− i , j j− i j− i , j
augment( Q , V )
Q := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 1 , 1) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , 2 , n − 1) )
V := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 3 , 3) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , n + 2 , 2⋅ n − 1) )

Forces Q on frames and shear force V in part diaphragms for each action H

 56.445 31.705 17.532 9.205 3.945   −56.445 −31.705 −17.532 −9.205 −3.945 
 
 18.815 10.568 5.844  3.068 1.315  24.74 −42.273 −23.377 −12.273  −5.26
 10.568 24.659 13.636 7.159  3.068  14.172 33.068 −37.013 −19.432 −8.328 
Q =  5.844 13.636 25.974 13.636 5.844  V =  8.328 19.432 37.013 −33.068 −14.172 
   
 3.068 7.159 13.636 24.659 10.568   5.26 12.273 23.377 42.273 −24.74 
 1.315 3.068 5.844 10.568 18.815   3.945 9.205 17.532 31.705 56.445 
 3.945  0
 9.205 17.532 31.705 56.445   0 0 0 0 

Summate for all actions and calculate forces F which act on the diaphragm

 118.831   −118.831   −118.831 

Force on frames   
j := 0 .. n  39.61  Diaphragm  −58.442  Force on  60.39 
〈〉  59.091  forces
〈i〉  −17.532  diaphragm  40.909 
R :=
i ∑ ( Q )
T i
R =  64.935 
 
S :=
i
(V ) S =  17.532  F j := (H j − R j)
T
∑ F =  35.065 
 
 59.091   58.442   40.909 
 39.61   118.831   60.39 
 118.831  0  −118.831
     
SkinCalc.mcd Example 3. Interaction diaphragm-frames 106

i := 1 .. n − 1

150

Equal actions on frames 1 - 5

100
100
Rj

Fi
50

0
0
0 2 4 6
j, i
action on frames and ends
Concentrated action on frame 2 action on diaphragms

 31.705 
 k0=0 km=0
 10.568  k
 24.659 
〈1〉
R =  13.636 
c
R := Q
  1 2 3 4 5 6
 7.159 
i := 0 .. 6  3.068 
 9.205 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
 
H
H := 0 n := 3 .. 5 H := 0 F := H − R
1 n j j j
100
100
 −31.705 

 −10.568 
 75.341 
50
F =  −13.636  Rj
 
 −7.159  Fi
 −3.068  0
0
 −9.205
 

50
0 2 4 6
j, i
action on frames and ends
action on diaphragm
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 107

Contents 6. Diaphragm forces due to wind action

6.1 Wind on long side
0. Conditions Subdivision into partial actions
1. Dimensions and classes Action on diaphragm of width equal to whole width
2. Loads and actions of roof
3. Sheets and fasteners Flexibility of roof trusses
4. SI units Shear flexibility
Distribution between diaphragm and roof trusses
5. Design of sheets for transverse action due 6.2 Wind on the end of the building
to snow, wind suction and self weight
5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over 7. Vertical load
three bays
Checking of sheet, design of fasteners and calculation
of shear flexibility are not included in this example

0. Conditions
An insulated sports hall with normal leakage paths shall be designed for diaphragm action due to wind action
and checked for diaphragm forces due to vertical loads. The horizontal diaphragm forces are transferred to the
foundation via wind trusses. All columns are hinged at top and bottom. The roof trusses consist of laminated
wood rafters, with a hinge at the ridge and tie beams of reinforcing bars.

1 13
A
broof

B
θ
ht
hp

C
crafter cgp
Lroof broof

1. Dimensions and classes

Width of roof broof := 22⋅ m Partial factor for resistance
Length of roof Lroof := 48⋅ m
Column height,long side hp := 5⋅ m Construction Class I (EN 1993-1-3)
π
Roof slope θ := 15⋅ slope := tan( θ ) Reliability class RC3
180 (EN 1990, consequence class CC3, high
Ridge height ht := hp + 0.5⋅ broof ⋅ slope ht = 7.947 m consequence for loss of human life)
Rafter spacing crafter := 4⋅ m γ d := 1.00 (See 2.11)
Columns at ends cgp := 5.5⋅ m
Comment: As γ d := 1.00 then it is not
included in the expressions for the actions
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 108

Snow load, on the ground sk := 3.0⋅ kN ⋅ m
kN
Peak velocity pressure qp := 0.5⋅
−2 2
Snow load on roof µ 1 := 0.8 s := µ 1⋅ sk s = 2.4 kN ⋅ m m
Shape factors, wind
−2
Combination value ψ 0 := 0.6 scomb := µ 1⋅ ψ 0⋅ sk scomb = 1.44 kN ⋅ m
Roof, mean suction cpe.roof := 0.4
Wall, pressure cpe.p := 0.7
Partial factor, snow load and wind action γ Q := 1.5
(leading variable) Wall, suction cpe.s := 0.3
Internal suction cpi := 0.3
Partial factor, self weight unfavourable ξγ G := 0.89⋅ 1.35
favourable ξγ G.inf := 0.89⋅ 1.0 Characteristic value of wind suction
where the reduction factor for permanent −2
qroof := cpe.roof ⋅ qp qroof = 0.2 kN ⋅ m
action is ξ := 0.89 see 2.12

3. Sheets and fasteners Sheet := "TRP110"

hw := 112⋅ mm
bd := 237⋅ mm bo := 68⋅ mm bu := 64⋅ mm

(
bw := 0.5⋅ bd − bo − bu )
w

fyb := 350⋅ MPa

s

hw

bw 2 2
bu bd bo sw := bw + hw t := 0.636⋅ mm
−2
qgrav := 0.40⋅ kN ⋅ m
Self weight, roof
Width of support ls := 200⋅ mm

Transverse action

Moment capacity, span Mf.Rd := 10.04⋅ kN

Side overlaps dsid := 4.8⋅ mm
self drilling screws Moment capacity, support Ms.Rd := 10.56⋅ kN
carbon steel tnom := 0.7⋅ mm
−1
Capacity of support for ls = 100 Rw.Rd := 27.3⋅ kN ⋅ m
Shear resistance Fv.Rd.sid := 0.88⋅ kN
Diaphragm action
table 8.9
−1
Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.sid := 1.35⋅ kN Shear buckling of web Vw.Rd := 27.6⋅ kN ⋅ m
table 8.10
−1
Shear buckling of flange Vf.Rd := 86.4⋅ kN ⋅ m
Screws to rafters dscrew := 6.5⋅ mm
Global buckling VgR := 684⋅ kN ⋅ m
Carbon steel in wood
−1
Shear resistance Fv.Rd.screw := 7.84⋅ kN Distorsion of corrugation Vr.Rd := 4.90⋅ kN ⋅ m
table 8.3 of profile end
Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.screw := 2.83⋅ kN Support reaction factor for RvV := 1.22
table 8.5 end support
Tensile resistance Ft.Rd.screw := 9.41⋅ kN Tensile force factor for Pc2V := 134⋅ mm
table 8.2 fastener at end support
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 109

4. SI units kN ≡ 1000⋅ N MPa ≡ 10 ⋅ Pa

6

5. Design of sheets for transverse action due to snow, wind suction and
self weight
Nominal sheet thickness t = 0.70 t = 0.636 mm
−2
Self weight, roof qgrav = 0.4 kN ⋅ m

qs1 := γ Q⋅ sk⋅ cos( θ ) + ξγ G⋅ qgrav⋅ cos( θ )

2 −2
Design value of snow and self qs1 = 4.663 kN ⋅ m
weight on inclined area

qs2 := scomb⋅ cos( θ ) + ξγ G⋅ qgrav⋅ cos( θ )

2 −2
Usual snow and self weight qs2 = 1.808 kN ⋅ m

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over three bays

Spans crafter = 4.00 m L1 := crafter
Sheet = "TRP110"

2
Snow, support B Ms.Sd := 0.100⋅ qs1 ⋅ L1 Ms.Sd = 7.46 kN

0.02⋅ ls
0.5 +
t −1
Strength of support ls = 200 mm Rw.Rd := Rw.Rd ⋅ Rw.Rd = 36.12 kN ⋅ m
for 0.02⋅ 100⋅ mm
0.5 +
t
qs1 ⋅ L1 Ms.Sd −1 RA
Outermost RA := − RA = 7.46 kN ⋅ m = 0.413
support A 2 L1 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd

−1 RB
Support B RB := 1.1⋅ qs1 ⋅ L1 RB = 20.516 kN ⋅ m = 0.568
Rw.Rd
2
RA Mf.Sd
Snow, span, max Mf.Sd := Mf.Sd = 5.968 kN = 0.594
2⋅ qs1 Mf.Rd
ls Ms.Sdm
Support B, moment Ms.Sdm := Ms.Sd − RB⋅ Ms.Sdm = 6.948 kN = 0.598
8 Ms.Rd ⋅ 1.1
ls  Ms.Sdr RB 
Interaction Ms.Sdr := Ms.Sd − RB⋅  + = 1.177 < 1,25
4
 Ms.Rd Rw.Rd 
Ms.Sd
3 3
Serviceability limit Ief.field := 1840⋅ mm Ief.supp := 1840⋅ mm
RB ls

Ms.Sdm
4

state
Ms.Sdr
2⋅ Ief.field + Ief.supp 3
Ific := Ific = 1840 mm
3 RB
4 2 ls
5⋅ qs2 ⋅ L1 qs2 Ms.Sd ⋅ L1
y := − ⋅ y = 8.1 mm
384⋅ E⋅ Ific qs1 16⋅ E⋅ Ific

Wind suction Self weight is greater than action due to wind suction
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 110

6.1 Wind on long side

Partial combinations of actions The effects of actions are divided into four as shown in the figure.

a) Restrained ridge. Produces only compressive and tensile forces in roof truss components.
b) H produces diaphragm forces in the roof regarded as a diaphragm of width equal to the width of the whole roof.
Equal action H in each line
c) αV is that proportion of the vertical clamping force Ht − Hs ⋅ sin( θ ) which is resisted by the roof trusses
( )
d) The proportion of the vertical clamping force which is resisted by diaphragm action in the two halves of the roof.
The action is different in each line, greatest at the ends.

V=(Ht-Hs)sinθ
H=Ht+Hs H=Ht+Hs αV
(1 - α)V
Hs θ Ht 2 sinθ

a) Action on frames b) Action on diaphragm c) Action on frames d) Action on diaphragms with

with restrained ridge with width of whole roof (α different for each frame) width of half roof

Action on diaphragm of width equal to width of whole roof

Total action from column tops hp
for hinged colums. See (2:31f) ( 2
)
H := 0.85⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpe.s ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅ crafter + α ⋅ qs2 ⋅ broof ⋅ crafter H = 7.17 kN
in 
H kN
Corresponds to a uniformly Qs := Qs = 1.793

Width of diaphragm bdiaph := broof

Roof diaphragm between lines A and C functions as a simply supported flat beam on supports
(wind trusses) in lines 1 and 13. Shear forces V are assumed to be resisted by the sheeting and
the moment M by the edge beams in lines A and C. There is no force on ridge beam in line B.

Lroof
Support force at end Ra.g := Qs⋅ Ra.g = 43 kN
2
2
Qs⋅ Lroof
Normal force in edge beams Na.k := Na.k = 23.5 kN
8⋅ bdiaph

Maximum shear flow Va.max :=

(
Qs⋅ Lroof − crafter ) Va.max = 1.79
kN
2⋅ bdiaph m

Flexibility of roof truss

Distribution of vertical forces V = Ht − Hs ⋅ sin( θ ) between roof trusses and the two part diaphragms is governed by
( )
the flexibility k of roof trusses for a vertical load at the ridge and by the shear flexibility c of the diaphragms.

The roof truss consists of two hinged laminated wood rafters and a tie beam.
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 111

Deformation of rafters ignored. The V=1

2 π
tie beam consists of two bars of d := 20⋅ mm Adb := d ⋅ ⋅ 2
diameter 4
θ
V 1 2
Force in tie beam for V := 1⋅ kN Fdb := ⋅ Adb = 628 mm
2 tan ( θ )
Fdb⋅ 0.5⋅ broof btak
Extension of half tie beam ∆ := Fdb = 1.866 kN

Lowering of the ridge and ∆ y kN

y := k0 := ⋅ k0 = 0.581
flexibility k (dimensionless tan( θ ) V mm
for following calculation)
In the plane of the diaphragm, kp := k0⋅ sin( θ ) kp = 0.15
flexibility decreases

Shear flexibility
Shear flexibility c is calculated in the same way as in Exemple 2. Since there are no end fittings, flexibility is
greater in the panels nearest to the ends.

Number of panels n := 12
Flexibility of diaphragms i := 1 .. n c := 0.105
i
Flexibility of panels nearest to the ends c := 0.337 c := c
1 n 1
Flexibility of roof trusses k := kp
i
− 10 − 10
Flexibility of ends (assumed rigid) k := 10 k := 10
0 n

Distribution between diaphragm and roof trusses

The calculation follows "Simplified analysis" according to "Bygg" K24:4 Diaphragm action . Subscripts for
roof trusses and diaphragm selected according to the figure.
k0=0 km=0
k

c
1 2 3 4 n

0 1 2 3 4 n-1 n
H H H H H

1
Distribution factor to right f := 0 h := 1 − f i := n − 1 .. 0 f :=
n n n i c k
i+ 1 i+ 1
h := 1 − f
i i
1+
k
+
k (
⋅ 1− f
i+ 1 )
i i
Distribution factor to left g := 0 q := 1 − g i := 1 .. n 1
0 0 0 g :=
i c k
i− 1
( )
i
q := 1 − g 1+ + ⋅ 1− g
i i i− 1
k k
i i

k ⋅q +c k h +c
j− 1 j− 1 j j+ 1 j+ 1 j+ 1
Transfer factor j := 1 .. n − 1 pv := ph :=
j, j k j, j k
j j
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 112

mr mr
1 j, j j, j
mr := mv := − mh :=
j, j 1 1 j, j pv j, j ph
1+ + j, j j, j
pv ph
j, j j, j

Unit loads H0 := 1 H0 := 0
j n

Calculation of action on frames and shear force on part diaphragms. When frame 1 is acted upon, there is no
diaphragm to the left, and this case is therefore calculated separately.

Result1 := for j ∈ 1 Result := for j ∈ 2 .. n − 1

V ← mh ⋅ H0 V ← mh ⋅ H0
j, j j, j j j, j j, j j
V ← mv ⋅ H0 V ← mv ⋅ H0
j− 1 , j j, j j j− 1 , j j, j j
Q ← mr ⋅ H0 Q ← mr ⋅ H0
j, j j, j j j, j j, j j
for i ∈ 1 .. n − j for i ∈ 1 .. n − j
V ← f ⋅V V ← f ⋅V
j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j
Q ←h ⋅V Q ←h ⋅V
j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j
for i ∈ 1 .. j for i ∈ 2 .. j if i ≥ 1
Q ← −q ⋅V V ←g ⋅V
j− i , j j− i j− i , j j− i , j j− i+ 1 j− i+ 1 , j
augment( Q , V ) for i ∈ 1 .. j
Q ← −q ⋅V
j− i , j j− i j− i , j
augment( Q , V )
Q := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 1 , 1) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , 2 , n − 1) )
V := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 3 , 3) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , n + 2 , 2⋅ n − 1) )

Forces Q on roof trusses and shear force V in part diaphragms for each i := 0 .. n
action H
Summate for all actions and calculate forces F which act on the diaphragm
Force on roof trusses Diaphragm forces Force on diaphragm
〈〉 〈〉
∑( ) ∑( )
T i T i
R := Q S := V j := 0 .. n
i R = i S = F :=  H0 − R  F =
j j j j j
 j
0.357 -0.357 -0.357
0.801 -0.158 0.199
0.912 -0.070 0.088
0.961 -0.031 0.039
0.982 -0.013 0.018
0.991 -0.003 0.009
0.993 0.003 0.007
0.991 0.013 0.009
0.982 0.031 0.018
0.961 0.070 0.039
i := 1 .. n − 1 0.912 0.158 0.088
0.801 0.357 0.199
0.357 0.000 -0.357
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 113

Rj
0.5
Fi

0
0
0 5 10
j, i
action on roof trusses and ends
action on diaphragm

It is seen from the diagram that the roof trusses take most of the vertical load, but that the diaphragm takes over the
load on the roof trusses nearest to the ends. If the diaphragms nearest the ends had the same shear flexibility as
the others, e.g. if the sheets had end fittings, the frames nearest the ends would have been further relieved of load to
ca 0.543 instead of R1 = 0.795.

 hp 
For the prevailing actions H = 7.17 kN V := 0.85⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.p − cpe.s ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅ crafter ⋅ sin( θ )
( ) V = 0.66 kN
 2 
the force in the plane of the right (left) H V H V
Ph := + ⋅F Pv := − ⋅F
roof diaphragm, for wind from the right, is i 2⋅ cos( θ ) 2⋅ sin( θ ) i i 2⋅ cos( θ ) 2⋅ sin( θ ) i

The support reaction is Rh := 0.5⋅

∑ Ph Vh := Rh
0
Rv := 0.5⋅
∑ Pv Vv := Rv
0
Shear force in the diaphragm Vh := Vh − Ph Vv := Vv − Pv
i i− 1 i i i− 1 i

Vh ⋅ m Vv ⋅ m
4 Ph Pv
2 .10 i i
i
=
i
=
= = bs⋅ kN bs⋅ kN
kN kN
4
1 .10 0 0 1.83 1.75
3.965 3.458 1.48 1.45
Vh 0 3.824 3.599 1.15 1.13
i 0
3.762 3.661 0.82 0.81
Vv 3.735 3.689 0.49 0.49
4
i 1 .10
3.723 3.7 0.16 0.16

4
3.72 3.703 -0.16 -0.16
2 .10
3.723 3.7 -0.49 -0.49
3.735 3.689 -0.82 -0.81
4
3 .10 3.762 3.661 -1.15 -1.13
0 5 10
i 3.824 3.599 -1.48 -1.45
action on roof and ends 3.965 3.458 -1.83 -1.75
action on diaphragm

It is seen from the table and diagram that there is very little difference
between the shear forces in the two halves of the roof, i.e. the roof largely
functions as one wide diaphragm.
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 114

It should be pointed out that the calculation assumes

that the self weight is so large that the ridge does not broof
lift and that the tie beam remains in tension. In this case (
Vegt := ξγ G.inf ⋅ qgrav − γ Q⋅ qroof ⋅ ) 2
⋅ crafter
the vertical load on the ridge, due to self weight less
wind suction, is greater than the wind action on the Vegt = 2.5 kN >> V = 0.66 kN
walls.

6.2 Wind on the end of the building

It is assumed that wind is resisted by a part diaphragm of width
equal to 2/3 of the width of the building.

Fridge Fridge
Rk

Qsg V
Nk
2
broof

7b roof
V 0,66

The figure shows action on the end

2broof /3 rafter and reaction forces on the
lroof diaphragm over the width 0,667broof

ht + hp kN
Design diaphragm action (
Qsg := γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpi ⋅ qp⋅ ) 2⋅ 2
Qsg = 2.428
m
broof
Support force in long sides Rk := Qsg ⋅ Rk = 26.7 kN
2
Normal force in end rafter Ngg := 0.19⋅ Qsg ⋅ broof Ngg = 10.1 kN

3 1 −1
Maximum shear flow Vg := ⋅ ⋅Q Vg = 1.82 kN ⋅ m
2 2 sg
This shear flow is slightly greater 2⋅ Vh ⋅ cos( θ )
than shear flow due to wind on the 0 −1 −1
= 1.833 kN ⋅ m Compare Va.max = 1.79 kN ⋅ m
long side broof
Roof trusses at distance 2btak/3
broof ht − hp
from the end are acted upon by a verti- Qsg ⋅ ⋅
cal load at the ridge. This is shared by 2 2
Fridge := Fridge = 1.341 kN
two roof trusses and the force is added (
2⋅ 0.667⋅ broof )
to the action of usual snow load. In this
case, however, the force is much
smaller than Vsnö as shown below

7. Vertical load i := 1 .. n − 1

Design value of snow and self weight ξγ G⋅ qgrav −2

qs := γ Q⋅ sk + qs = 4.998 kN ⋅ m
on a horizontal plane cos( θ )

The rafters transfer load to ridge and broof

Vsnow := qs⋅ ⋅ crafter Vsnow = 219.9 kN
tops of columns. At the ridge, 2
SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 115

Vsnow
Force on a roof diaphragm in its plane Fs := ⋅F
i 2⋅ sin( θ ) i

∑ Fs Vs := Rs
0
Rs = 151.7 kN

Shear force in diaphragm Vs := Vs − Fs

i i− 1 i
Vs ⋅ 2⋅ cos( θ ) i := 0 .. n − 1
i
Shear flow Sf :=
i broof

Force on the frames at the ridge is Vridge := Vsnow⋅ 1 − F

i i ( )
Vs Fs Sf ⋅ m Vridge
i i i i
= = = =
i = kN kN kN kN
In the inner lines the roof load is carried
by the roof trusses. Next to the ends the 0 151.7 0 13.32 298.4
roof diaphragms carry a certain amount, 1 67.2 84.5 5.9 176.2
so much that the diaphragm forces in 2 29.7 37.5 2.61 200.5
the panels next to the ends are greater
3 13.0 16.7 1.14 211.2
than the diaphragm force due to wind
action on the walls. 4 5.4 7.6 0.47 215.9
5 1.4 3.9 0.13 217.9
Due to wind on the long sides: 6 -1.4 2.9 -0.13 218.4
7 -5.4 3.9 -0.47 217.9
broof
Va.max⋅ = 19.7 kN 8 -13.0 7.6 -1.14 215.9
2 9 -29.7 16.7 -2.61 211.2
Compare that due to snow: 10 -67.2 37.5 -5.9 200.5
11 -151.7 84.5 -13.32 176.2
Vs = 151.7 kN j := 1 .. n − 1
0

5
3 .10

5
2 .10

Vridge 1 .105
j

Vs 0
i 0

5
1 .10

5
2 .10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
j, i
action on roof trusses
shear force in a diaphragm

Design of sheets and attachments

Design performed in the same way as for roof of shallow slope. See Examples 1 and 2