148 views

Uploaded by Diquan

- Cay 2013
- Excel Tips
- DraftCivilEngg-2011-12
- Etabs Tutorial Wall
- CSI ANALYSIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR SAP2000, ETABS AND SAFE
- Rga
- Kruithof Double Factor More
- 486972
- ETABS Shell Forces and Stresses
- Lab ManualGot
- Array Indexing - MATLAB & Simulink.pdf
- sdarticle[1]
- etabs modeling
- pilot-hole-sizes.pdf
- y-bus1.docx
- 3
- Appendix E Key Concepts of the IBIS Model_Appendix E2 3Com Internal IBIS Spec
- BITSAT Model Paper (code: A5TY) Syllabus
- Tutorial- 6 and Solution Feb 16 2017 Final
- Jee Syllabus

You are on page 1of 41

Example calculations

The examples are based on Eurocode 0, Eurocode 1 and Eurocode 3, Part 1-3 [16]. Some additional detail

checks are made according to Swedish code for light-gauge metal structures, StBK-N5 [5]

The calculations in the following examples are set out in detail. In most cases, the designer can make

simplifications when he/she has learned by experience which checks are not usually critical.

The examples are worked out in the mathematics program Mathcad, version 2000i. Some of the operators and

notations used in the examples are explained below.

y ≡ 2.5⋅ mm Global definition

x + y = 53.1 mm Calculation result

a=b Boolean equality

0.5 Decimal point must be used

c := ( 1 3 2 ) Row vector

→

( c⋅ d ) Vectorise operator, i.e. perform arithmetical operation on each element of a

vector or matrix

→

Example: d := ( 2 4 3 ) a := ( c⋅ d ) gives a = ( 2 12 6 )

1 8 2

g := 3 4 7 Matrix

5 6 9

T Transpose, i.e. rows and columns are interchanged

c

1 1 3 5

c = 3 g = 8 4 6

Example: T T

2 2 7 9

submatrix( a , 0 , 1 , 1 , 2) Part of matrix ( a=matrix, 0 och 1 define rows, 1 and 2 define columns)

Normally, in a matrix, the first row is numbered 0 and the first column is numbered 0

Example: 1 8 2

8 2

g = 3 4 7 submatrix( g , 0 , 1 , 1 , 2) =

4 7

5 6 9

Example: 1 1 8 2

augment( c , g ) = 3 3 4 7

T

〈1〉 Column in matrix

2 5 6 9

f 8

〈1〉

Example: g = 4

6

Aef Notation ( ef is not a subscript but part of variable notation)

A Subscript i

i

Example: g =7

1, 2

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 76

Contents 7.3 End support

7.31 Web crippling

0. Conditions

7.32 Distorsion of profile at end

1. Dimensions and classes

7.4 Intermediate support

2. Loads and actions

7.41 Local buckling of web and web crippling

3. Sheets and fasteners

7.42 Local buckling of web due to shear force

4. SI units

and moment

7.5 Normal force due to wind on end

5. Design of sheets for transverse action

due to snow, wind suction and self weight.

8. Attachments

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over two

8.1 Design of rivets in side overlaps

bays

8.2 Connection to edge beam

6. Actions on diaphragm due to wind

8.3 Connection of end fitting to sheet

6.1 Wind on long side

8.4 Splicing of edge beam and fixing of edge

6.2 Wind on end

beam to the building structure

8.5 Connection of roof sheeting to end rafter

7. Design of sheeting

8.6 Connection of sheeting to rafters

7.1 Section forces

7.2 Single plate panel

9. Deformations

10. Holes

0. Conditions

An insulated industrial building with normal leakage paths shall be designed for diaphragm action due to wind

action. Diaphragm forces are transferred to the foundation via wind trusses. All columns are pinjointed at the

foundation. Distances between rafters vary and the sheets are spliced as shown in the figure below. See also

Drawing No K3 in Chapter 9. In this example, only the first two bays are treated in detail.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A

hb

broof

1:16

hp

ht

B

crafter crafter2 cgp

lroof broof

Roof width broof := 25⋅ m Partial factor for resistance γ M1 := 1.0

Roof length Lroof := 56⋅ m

Column height, long side hp := 7.5⋅ m Beam depth hb := 0.5⋅ m Construction Class I (EN 1993-1-3)

1

Roof slope slope := Reliability class RC3

16 (EN 1990, consequence class CC3, high

Ridge height ht := hp + hb + 0.5⋅ broof ⋅ slope consequence for loss of human life)

Beam spacing crafter := 7⋅ m and ht = 8.781 m γ d := 1.00 (See 2.11)

Beam spacing crafter2 := 5⋅ m

Comment: As γ d := 1.00 then it is not included

End columns cgp := 5⋅ m

in the expressions for the actions

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 77

−2

Snow load, on the ground sk := 1.0⋅ kN ⋅ m Wind load

kN

−2 Peak velocity pressure qp := 0.9⋅

Snow load on roof µ 1 := 0.8 s := µ 1⋅ sk s = 0.8 kN ⋅ m 2

m

−2 Shape factors, wind

Combination value ψ 0 := 0.6 scomb := µ 1⋅ ψ 0⋅ sk scomb = 0.48 kN ⋅ m

Roof, suction cpe.roof := 0.7

Partial factor, snow load and wind action γ Q := 1.5 Wall, pressure cpe.p := 0.7

leading (main) variable)

Wall, suction cpe.s := 0.3

Partial factor, self weight unfavourable ξγ G := 0.89⋅ 1.35 Internal suction cpi := 0.3

favourable ξγ G.inf := 0.89⋅ 1.0

where the reduction factor for permanent

action is ξ := 0.89 see 2.12

hw := 112⋅ mm

bd := 237⋅ mm bo := 68⋅ mm bu := 64⋅ mm

(

bw := 0.5⋅ bd − bo − bu )

sw

hw

bw

2 2

bu bd bo sw := bw + hw tcor := 0.636⋅ mm t := tcor

−2

gperm := 0.30⋅ kN ⋅ m

Self weight, roof

Resistances of sheeting for transverse action

Width of support ls := 100⋅ mm

and diaphragm action are given by the

producer of the profiled sheeting.

Transverse action

Blind rivets in side overlap

Moment capacity, support Ms.Rd := 10.56⋅ kN

Aluminium drivet := 4.8⋅ mm

−1

Capacity of support Rw.Rd := 27.3⋅ kN ⋅ m

Nominal plate thickness tnom := 0.7⋅ mm

table 8.9

−1

Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.riv := 1.35⋅ kN Shear buckling of web Vw.Rd := 27.6⋅ kN ⋅ m

table 8.10

−1

Shear buckling of flange Vf.Rd := 86.4⋅ kN ⋅ m

Screws dscrew := 6.3⋅ mm

Global buckling VgR := 684⋅ kN ⋅ m

Carbon steel t1 ≥ 2.5⋅ t

−1

Shear resistance Fv.Rd.screw := 7.84⋅ kN Distorsion of corrugation Vr.Rd := 4.90⋅ kN ⋅ m

table 8.3 of profile end

Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.screw := 2.83⋅ kN Support reaction factor for RvV := 1.22

table 8.5 end support

Tensile resistance Ft.Rd.screw := 9.41⋅ kN Tensile force factor for Pc2V := 134⋅ mm

table 8.2 fastener at end support

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 78

4. SI units kN ≡ 1000⋅ N

6

MPa ≡ 10 ⋅ Pa

and self weight

Nominal sheet thickness t = 0,70 Steel core thickness tcor = 0.636 mm

−2

Self weight, roof gperm = 0.3 kN ⋅ m

−2

Design value for snow qs1 := γ Q⋅ s + ξγ G⋅ gperm qs1 = 1.56 kN ⋅ m

and self weight

−2

Snow at serviceability limit state qs2 := scomb + gperm qs2 = 0.78 kN ⋅ m

and self weight

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over two bays "Bygg" tables Table A24:36a

L1 := crafter L2 := crafter2 Width of support ls = 100 mm

3 3

qs1 ⋅ L1 + qs1 ⋅ L2

Snow, support Ms.Ed := Ms.Ed = 7.607 kN

8⋅ L1 + L2 ( )

qs1 ⋅ L1 Ms.Ed −1 RA

Outermost support A RA := − RA = 4.375 kN ⋅ m = 0.321

2 L1 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd

qs1 ⋅ L2 Ms.Ed −1 RC

Support C RC := − RC = 2.38 kN ⋅ m = 0.174

2 L2 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd

−1 RB

Support B (

RB := qs1 ⋅ L1 + L2 − RA − RC ) RB = 11.971 kN ⋅ m

Rw.Rd

= 0.438

2

RA Mf.Ed

Snow, span, max Mf.Ed := Mf.Ed = 6.133 kN = 0.611

2⋅ qs1 Mf.Rd

ls Ms.Edr RB

Interaction Ms.Edr := Ms.Ed − RB⋅ + = 1.131 < 1,25

4 Ms.Rd Rw.Rd

ls Ms.Edm

Support moment Ms.Edm := Ms.Ed − RB⋅ Ms.Edm = 7.458 kN = 0.706

8 Ms.Rd

(10 % increase in

capacity at support)

Ms.Ed

RB ls

Ms.Edm

4

3 3

Serviceability limit Ief.fielf := 1840⋅ mm Ief.support := 1840⋅ mm Ms.Edr

state, deflection in

outer bay 2⋅ Ief.fielf + Ief.support RB

3

Ific := Ific = 1840 mm ls

3

4 2

5⋅ qs2 ⋅ L1 qs2 Ms.Ed ⋅ L1 L1

y := − ⋅ y = 33 mm = 212 Ok !

384⋅ E⋅ Ific qs1 16⋅ E⋅ Ific y

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 79

Whole roof functions as one diaphragm. bdiaph := broof column height hp = 7.5 m

Max action on diaphragm for case hp kN

with hinged columns incl inclination (

Qs := 0.85⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpe.s ⋅ qp⋅ )

2

+ hb + α ⋅ qs2 ⋅ broof

Qs = 4.97

m

(Factor 0.85 when wind on both walls)

Roof diaphragm between lines A and B is treated as a simply supported deep beam on supports

(wind trusses) in lines 1 and 10. Shear forces V assumed to be taken by sheets and moment M

by edge beams (capping beams) in lines A and B.

Lroof

Support force at end Rg := Qs⋅ Rg = 139.3 kN

2

2

Qs⋅ Lroof

Normal force in edge beam Nk := Nk = 78 kN

8⋅ bdiaph

(

Qs⋅ Lroof − crafter ) kN

Vmax := Vmax = 4.87

2⋅ bdiaph m

Wind is assumed to be resisted by a part diaphragm of width = 2/3 of building width.

Rk

V

Qsg

Nk

2

broof

2broof /3

lroof

1 hp ht kN

Design diaphragm action ( )

Qsg := γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpi ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅

2 2

+ hb +

2

Qsg = 5.832

m

(No factor 0.85 when wind on end only)

Rk := 0.85⋅ ⋅ Qsg ⋅ Rk = 62 kN

action on windward and leeward sides cpe.p + cpi 2

cpe.p

Normal force in end rafter (eq. 6.11) Ngg := 0.19⋅ ⋅Q ⋅b Ngg = 19.4 kN

(internal suction taken by the sheet) cpe.p + cpi sg roof

3 1 cpe.p kN kN

Shear flow at long sides Vg := ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Qsg Vmax = 4.875 Vg = 3.06

2 2 cpe.p + cpi m m

Vg < Vmax

Tilting forces due to action on end columns ignored. Tilting

forces along building due to action on columns in long

sides taken by edge beam and wind trusses in long sides.

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 80

7. Design of sheeting

7.1 Section forces

In combination with the design wind action, necessary section forces due to combination value

of transverse action of snow and self weight are calculated. Design values in proportion.

qs2 kN ⋅ m

Moment at support Ms := ⋅ Ms.Edm Ms = 3.728

qs1 m

qs2 kN ⋅ m

Moment in span Mf := ⋅M Mf = 3.065

qs1 f.Ed m

qs2 kN

Reaction at support Rs := ⋅R Rs = 5.984

qs1 B m

qs2 kN

Reaction at end support Rä := ⋅R Rä = 2.187

qs1 A m

−1

Shear flow is highest at end. Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m

−1 −1

Local buckling of web Vw.Rd = 27.6 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m

Mf Vmax

Mf.Rd = 10.04 kN + = 0.482 < 1.3 Check = "OK!"

Mf.Rd Vw.Rd

−1 −1

Local buckling of flange Vf.Rd = 86.4 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m

Mf Vmax

Mf.Rd = 10.04 kN 0.8⋅ + = 0.301 < 1.1 Check = "OK!"

Mf.Rd Vf.Rd

Vg.Rd := Vg.Rd = 14 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m

2 Check = "OK!"

crafter

Vmax fyb

τ := τ = 7.7 MPa < 0.25⋅ = 88 MPa Check = "OK!"

t γ M1

7.31 Web crippling

Adjustment of support resistance with respect

lsn := 220⋅ mm

to width of support.

lsn ls = 100 mm

Vmax 0.5 + 0.02⋅

t −1

Rä.Rd := 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd ⋅ Rä.Rd = 18.8 kN ⋅ m

Rv Rv ls

0.5 + 0.02⋅

Rä Rä t RvV = 1.22

−1 −1

Rä = 2.187 kN ⋅ m Rv := RvV ⋅ Vmax Rv = 5.95 kN ⋅ m

Check = "OK!"

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 81

Rä Rv

+ = 0.433 < 1.05

Rä.Rd Rä.Rd Check = "OK!"

−1 −1

7.32 Distorsion of profile at end Vr.Rd = 4.90 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.87 kN ⋅ m

Check = "OK!"

0.8⋅ + = 0.352 < 1.1 Check = "OK!"

and web cripplng Rw.Rd Vw.Rd

−1

Rw.Rd = 27.3 kN ⋅ m

7.42 Local buckling of web due to Ms Vmax

< 1.3

+ = 0.53

shear force and moment Ms.Rd Vw.Rd Check = "OK!"

Wind action on the end is transferred to the roof diaphragm via the tops of columns and produces a normal force in

the sheeting. The magnitude of this normal force is governed by the lateral rigidity of the end rafter.

Iy := 19.55⋅ 10 ⋅ mm

moment of area Iy in direction of minor axis

nsk := 2 cs := cs = 118.5 mm

in each trough, i.e. mean spacing of nsk

screws is

F11 2

See 3.42 mm

v := ⋅ v = 0.133 mm

t 1000⋅ N

k2⋅ d ⋅

mm

F11 N

Modulus of foundation k and factor β are k := k = 63.6

v⋅ cs 2

mm

0.25

β :=

k −1

β = 1.403 m

4⋅ E⋅ Iy

Force at top of column, for column spacing cgp = 5 m Qy := Qsg ⋅ cgp Qy = 29.2 kN

Qy⋅ β

Maximum deflection wmax := wmax = 0.322 mm

2⋅ k

−1

and maximum normal force in sheet Nt.max := k⋅ wmax Nt.max = 20.455 kN ⋅ m

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 82

0.25⋅ crafter from end rafter. Force assumed −1

Nt := Nt = 8.332 kN ⋅ m

0.5⋅ crafter

dispersed 1:1 to this section.

distributed action on end rafter

Qsg = 5.832 kN ⋅ m (

Nt := if Nt < Qsg , Qsg , Nt )

−1

Nt = 8.332 kN ⋅ m

Normal force capacity for the span crafter = 7 m

2

mm

Effective area of cross section Aeff := 0.60⋅

mm

Ific crafter fyb

Radius of gyration and slenderness ieff := λ c := ⋅ ieff = 55.38 mm

parameter Aeff ieff ⋅ π E

λ c = 1.643

φ := 0.5⋅ 1 + 0.34⋅ λ c − 0.2 + λ c

( ) 2

Reduction factor for instability

φ = 2.094

1

Buckling curve b χ :=

2 2 χ = 0.295

φ+ φ − λc

1 −1

Nc.Rd := χ ⋅ fyb⋅ Aeff ⋅ Nc.Rd = 61.88 kN ⋅ m

γ M1

Nt Nt Mf

Check for normal force and moment ⋅ 1 + 0.5⋅ 1 − + = 0.498 < 1,0

Nc.Rd Nc.Rd Mf.Rd

StBK-N5

Mf Nt Vmax

Normal force, moment and diaphragm + + = 0.617 < 1,3

action StBK-N5 Mf.Rd Nc.Rd Vw.Rd

Mf Nt Vmax

0.8⋅ + + = 0.408 < 1,1

Mf.Rd Nc.Rd Vf.Rd

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 83

8. Attachments

Sheets are fixed to building structure and edge beams with φ 6.3 thread forming screws and in side overlaps φ 4.8

aluminium blind rivets. Design values for fasteners are taken e.g. from appendix with tables

Side overlaps are fastened with φ 4.8 mm aluminium blind rivets.

to sheet tearing failure for t = 0.636mm Fb.Rd.riv = 1.35 kN

Shear failure of rivet thus gives lower resistance. To meet EN 1993-1-3, 10.3.4 (6) the resistance of the

fastener is reduced with 25%

Fv.Rd.riv Fv.Rd.riv

FRd.riv := if > Fb.Rd.riv , Fb.Rd.riv , FRd.riv = 0.704 kN

1.25 1.25

where V is shear force in sheet. Maximum spacing 500 mm. For sake of simplicity, it is assumed that

distances between rafters are equal in every bay.

Half the number of panels nf := 4

(nf + 1 − i) FRd.riv

i := 1 .. nf V := Vmax⋅ c :=

i nf i V

due to wind on long side i

FRd.riv FRd.riv

In panels 2 & 3, wind on end k := 1 .. 2 c := if Vg > V ,

k k Vg

,

V i (i

c := if c > 500⋅ mm , 500⋅ mm , c )

i

−1 k

Vg = 3.062 kN ⋅ m V m c

i i

= =

i = kN mm

0

140 1 4.87 144

2 3.66 193

Rivet spacing is rounded (manually) to cn := 180 ⋅ mm 3 2.44 289

280 4 1.22 500

500

Sheet thickness of edge beam is 2.0 mm and its ultimate stress 420 MPa. Design value for shear force is

t1

For t1 := 2⋅ mm = 3.145 > 2,5 Fh.Rd := Fb.Rd.screw Fh.Rd = 2.83 kN

t

Fh.Rd

Required spacing is ck := ck = 581 mm

Vmax

Choose ck := 500⋅ mm

End fitting of sheet thickness 1.0 mm fixed with φ 4.8 rivets to crests of roof sheets.

t1

för t1 := 2⋅ mm = 3.145 > 2,5

t

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 84

Fv.Rd

Required spacing is cä := cä = 289 mm

0.5⋅ Vmax

Number of screws in splices designed Nk = 78 kN

for normal force

Fb.Rd := 7.12⋅ kN

Required number of screws increased by 25 %

to allow for eccentricities in the connection Nk

nk := 1.25⋅ nk = 14

due to the sheets being fixed to the bottom Fb.Rd

flange of the edge beam.

Number of screws in connection of edge beam into wind truss in wall is increased by 25% since shear strength of

screw governs.

Rk

Required number of screws is nv := nv = 6

1.25⋅ Fv.Rd

Connection to end rafter is designed for wind on both the end and the long side, since wind on the end produces

large local shear forces at the tops of columns. The most highly stressed screw is that in the side overlap in the

vicinity of the top of the column.

Flange thickness of end rafter HEA220 is tfl := 11⋅ mm and its ultimate stress is 420 MPa.

For sheet of t = 0.636 mm with four φ 6.3 screws in each trough, design values for screws are as follows

Pull-over failure, table 8.4 last column Fp.Rd := 2.10⋅ kN Fp.Rd = 2.1 kN

and tensile strengt

Number of screws in trough nsk = 2

Shear force transmitted to rafter −1

Fa2 := cs⋅ V V = 4.875 kN ⋅ m Fa2 = 0.578 kN

1 1

Shear force due to force from top

of column determined as follows

For wind on long side, there is suction

cpe.e := 0.8

on end with a factor

= 1.143 cpe.p = 0.7

therefore corrected by factor cpe.p

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 85

cpe.e

Force at top of column P := ⋅ Qy P = 33.33 kN

cpe.p

Fc

Fa

Fb

cpe.e

Maximum force in screw due to P Fb1 := ⋅ Fx Fb1 = 2.77 kN

cpe.p

Vmax

Shear force in side overlap Fb3 := cn ⋅ cn = 140 mm Fb3 = 0.341 kN

1 nsk 1

Fc1 := cs⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.roof ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ gperm ) Fc1 = 0.281 kN

−2

where cpe.roof = 0.7 ξγ G.inf = 0.89 qp = 0.9 kN ⋅ m cs = 118.5 mm

2

Pull-out force due to sheet torsion: Fc2 := Pc2V ⋅ Vmax⋅ where Pc2V = 134 mm Fc2 = 0.653 kN

See figure on in 7.31 above. nsk

2

(

Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 )2 Fv = 3.165 kN

Fv Ft

Check, failure of sheet + = 1.244 > 1,0 Check = "Not Ok !"

1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd

Fv Ft

Check, failure of screw + = 0.503 < 1,0 Check = "OK !"

Fv.Rd Ft.Rd

Use 4 screws in the three troughs

nearest the column tops, 2 in the rest

8.52 Wind on end

Vg −1

Shear force transmitted to Fa2 := cs⋅ Vg = 3.062 kN ⋅ m Fa2 = 0.181 kN

end fitting at end of building 2

column top

2⋅ cgp 1

Shear force in side overlap at Fb3 := cn ⋅ Vg ⋅ 1 − ⋅ cn = 140 mm Fb3 = 0.129 kN

1 broof nsk 1

wind column nearest corner

Pull-out force due to wind suction (

Fc1 := cs⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.roof ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ gperm ) Fc1 = 0.281 kN

−2

where cpe.roof = 0.7 ξγ G.inf = 0.89 qp = 0.9 kN ⋅ m

2

Pull-out force due to sheet torsion Fc2 := Pc2V ⋅ Vg ⋅ Fc2 := 0⋅ kN Fc2 = 0 kN

nsk

2

(

Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 )2 Fv = 2.559 kN

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 86

Fv Ft

Check, failure of sheet + = 0.263 > 1,0 Check = "OK !"

1.4⋅ Fv.Rd Ft.Rd

Use 4 screws in the three troughs

nearest the column tops, as above!

Forces shall be transferred to end

Fa2 := cs⋅ Vg Fa2 = 0.363 kN

rafter via the end fitting

Let us suppose

( )

2 2

Fv := Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 Ft := Fc1 + Fc2 Fv = 2.578 kN

Fh.Rd := 2.74⋅ kN

Ft = 0.281 kN

Fg.Rd := 3.45⋅ kN

Fv Ft

Check, failure of sheet + = 0.785 < 1,0 Check = "OK !"

1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd

Fv Ft

Check, failure of screw + = 0.359 < 1,0 Check = "OK !"

Fv.Rd Ft.Rd

Connection to rafters is designed for wind on the long side, since shear forces are highest in this case. The most

highly stressed screw is that in the side overlap on the rafter with end overlap.

ness and yield stress of rafter

Two screws in each trough d := 6.3⋅ mm

Shear force between sheets and

shear force transferred to rafter 1 (

Fa2.1 := cs2 ⋅ V − V

2 ) Fa2 := cs2 ⋅ V

2

Fa2.1 = 0.289 kN

between sheets is considered in the check

2 2 2

crafter.m := crafter + crafter2 ⋅ 0.5 )

(

Fc1 := cs2 ⋅ crafter.m⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.roof ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ gperm ) Fc1 = 0.964 kN

2 2

Resulting forces Shear force Fv := Fa2 + Fb3 Fv = 1.088 kN

Fv Ft

Check, failure of sheet + = 0.734 < 1,0

1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd Check = "OK !"

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 87

Deformations

Sheets directly on rafters 2

α 1 := 1 α 4 := 1 b

Quantities in the formula for c1.1

a := broof b := crafter pr :=

a

a = 25 m pr = 0.078 bo hw bw 180

= 0.287 = 0.473 θ := atan ⋅ θ = 25.115 K1 = 0.209

b = 7m bd bd

π

hw

2.5

a⋅ bd ⋅ α 1⋅ α 4⋅ K1 mm

Deformation at ends of sheets c1.1 := ⋅ pr c1.1 = 0.107

2.5 2 kN

E⋅ t ⋅b

hw

2⋅ a⋅ α 2⋅ ( 1 + ν ) ⋅ 1 + 2⋅

bd

Shear deformation in sheets c1.2 :=

⋅ pr c1.2 = 0.011

mm

E⋅ t ⋅ b kN

sp := 0.35⋅ mm⋅ kN α 3 := 1 p := bd

c2.1 := ⋅ pr c2.1 = 6.636 × 10

sheets and edge beams 2 kN

b

−1 −1 a

Quantities in the formula for c2.2 ss := 0.25⋅ mm⋅ kN sp := 0.35⋅ mm⋅ kN nsh := nsh = 35

3⋅ bd

b

cn = 280 mm ns := ns = 25 β 1 := 1 np := 2

3 cn

3

2⋅ ss⋅ sp⋅ nsh − 1 ) mm

c2.2 := ⋅ pr c2.2 = 0.026

in side overlap 2⋅ ns⋅ sp + β 1⋅ np⋅ ss kN

n := 9 ssc := 0⋅ mm⋅ kN nsc := 100

c2.3 := ⋅ pr c2.3 = 0

sheet and shear connector 2 kN

n ⋅ nsc

α 3 := 1 A := 3000⋅ mm

2 3

n ⋅ crafter ⋅ α 3 mm

Axial strain in edge beams c3 := c3 = 0.0103

2 kN

4.8⋅ E⋅ A⋅ broof

c = 0.160

kN

crafter mm2 mm

Compare with diagram in Fig. 3.26 cdiag := 0.45⋅ ⋅ cdiag = 0.176

broof ⋅ t kN kN

2 Lroof

n

Deflection ∆ := ⋅ c⋅ Qs⋅ crafter ∆ = 50.29 mm = 1114

8 ∆

2

5⋅ Qs⋅ Lroof

4 broof

Compare with flexural deformation alone I := 2⋅ A⋅

y := 2 y = 3.24 mm

384⋅ E⋅ I

SkinIns.mcd Example 1. Insulated building 88

10 Holes

In the roof diaphragm there are two holes in all bays except one, even in the panels next to the ends. They increase

shear flow and reduce the capacity to resist transverse action.

−1

Hole length lh := 2000⋅ mm Vmax = 4.875 kN ⋅ m

Vmax⋅ broof −1 −1

Shear flow in section through hole V0 := V0 = 5.393 kN ⋅ m > Vr.Rd = 4.9 kN ⋅ m

broof − 2⋅ bh

Check = "End reinforcement needed !"

Provide reinforcement of extra sheet on both sides of hole and trimmer joists at right angles to these. The width of

the extra sheet is slightly greater than half the width of the hole, and since the self weight of the window is no greater

than the self weight of the roof itself, the extra sheet can take over the load which the strips of sheet through the hole

cannot resist. Load is transferred laterally through trimmer joists on each side of the hole.

Fb := V0⋅ 0.5⋅ broof − 2⋅ bh ⋅ 0.33 ) Fb = 20.109 kN

2 Fb

Angle 80x80x8 AL := 1230⋅ mm σ c := σ c = 16 MPa Negligible

AL

3 3

WL := 12.6⋅ 10 ⋅ mm

Flexure M :=

( ) (

qs1 ⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter ⋅ bh⋅ 2⋅ bh ) σ b :=

M

σ b = 139 MPa

2⋅ 4 WL

hh

>hh / 2

Double sheet

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 89

Contents

0. Conditions 7.5 Maximum shear stress

1. Dimensions and classes 8. Attachments

2. Loads and actions 8.1 Design of rivets in side overlaps

3. Sheets and fasteners 8.2 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connectors

4. SI units along end of building

5. Design of sheets for transverse action due 8.3 Connection of roof sheeting to resist tensile

to snow, wind suction and self weight forces due to action on end

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over five 8.4 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connectors

bays along other rafters

6. Actions on diaphragm due to wind 8.5 Connection of sheet at corners and in edge zones

6.1 Wind on long sides 8.51 Corner zone

6.2 Wind on end 8.52 Edge zone

7. Design of sheeting 9. Effect of temperature difference

7.1 Section forces 9.1 Connection of roof sheeting to shear connecors

7.2 Single plate panel along the end of the building

7.3 End support 9.2 Single plate panel

7.31 Web crippling 9.21 Temperature difference

7.32 Distorsion of profile at end 9.22 Combination of actions wind + (1/3) temperature

7.4 Intermediate support 9.23 Maximum shear stress

7.41 Local buckling of web and web crippling 10. Support brackets for purlins

7.42 Local buckling of web due to shear force and 11. Design of purlins

moment 12. Deformations

0. Conditions

An uninsulated industrial building with normal leakage paths shall be designed for diaphragm action due to wind

action and the effect of temperature difference between the building structure and the sheets. Diaphragm forces

are transferred to the foundation via wind trusses. All columns are pinjointed at the foundation.

1 11

A

cpurlin

broof

B

1:10

hp

C

crafter

lroof broof

Roof width broof := 36⋅ m Partial factor for resistance γ M1 := 1.0

Roof length Lroof := 72⋅ m

Construction Class I (EN 1993-1-3)

Column height,long side hp := 7.0⋅ m (depth of roof truss at

column top negligible) Reliability class RC2

1

Roof slope slope := (EN 1990, consequence class CC2,

10 medium consequence for loss of human

Ridge height ht := hp + 0.5⋅ broof ⋅ slope ht = 8.8 m life)

Beam spacing crafter := 7.2⋅ m

γ d := 0.91 (See 2.11)

Purlin spacing cpurlin := 2⋅ m

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 90

kN

Wind Peak velocity pressure qp := 1.02⋅ −2

2 Snow load, on the ground sk := 1.5⋅ kN ⋅ m

m

Shape factors, wind

Snow load on roof µ 1 := 0.8 s := µ 1⋅ sk

Roof, suction cpe.roof := 0.7

Combination value ψ 0 := 0.6 scomb := µ 1⋅ ψ 0⋅ sk

Wall, pressure cpe.p := 0.7

−2

Wall, suction cpe.s := 0.3 scomb = 0.72 kN ⋅ m

Internal suction cpi := 0.3

Edge zone cp.edge := 1.8 Temperature difference ∆T := 40o C

(

bedge := if 0.1⋅ broof < 0.2⋅ ht , 0.1⋅ broof , 0.2⋅ ht ) bedge = 1.76 m

Inclination of columns α := 0.005

from vertical

Corner cp.corn := 2.6

(

ledge := if 0.25⋅ Lroof < 0.5⋅ ht , 0.25⋅ Lroof , 0.5⋅ ht ) ledge = 4.4 m Partial factor, snow load and γ Q := 1.5

wind action (main variable)

Characteristic value of wind suction

Partial factor,

−2

qroof := cpe.roof ⋅ qp qroof = 0.714 kN ⋅ m self weight unfavourable ξγ G := 0.98⋅ 1.35

favourable ξγ G.inf := 0.98⋅ 1.0

−3 where ξ := 0.85 is a reduction factor for

qedge := cp.edge⋅ qp qedge = 1.836 × 10 MPa

permanent action, see 2.12

bd := 90⋅ mm bo := 25⋅ mm

sw

bw := 10.5⋅ mm bu := 44⋅ mm

2 2 t := 0.587⋅ mm

sw := bw + hw sw = 24.4 mm

bu bw bo

fyb := 350⋅ MPa

−2

Resistances of sheeting for transverse action Self weight qgrav := 0.07⋅ kN ⋅ m

and diaphragm action are given by the

Width of support ls := 50⋅ mm

producer of the profiled sheeting.

Rivets in side driv := 4.8⋅ mm

overlaps Fv.Rd.riv := 0.88⋅ kN Moment capacity, support Ms.Rd := 1.61⋅ kN

aluminium

Fb.Rd.riv := 1.19⋅ kN −1

tnom := 0.65⋅ mm Capacity of support Rw.Rd := 49.9⋅ kN ⋅ m

stainless steel

Fv.Rd.screw := 6.8⋅ kN −1

Shear buckling of web Vw.Rd := 166⋅ kN ⋅ m

t1 ≥ 2.5⋅ t

Fb.Rd.screw := 2.61⋅ kN −1

Shear buckling of flange Vf.Rd := 113⋅ kN ⋅ m

tnom = 0.65 mm

Ft.Rd.screw := 8.16⋅ kN

Global buckling VgR := 66⋅ kN ⋅ m

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 91

−1

Distorsion of profile at corner Vr.Rd := 31⋅ kN ⋅ m

hZ := 202⋅ mm fy.skpl := 350⋅ MPa

Support reaction factor for RvV := 0.51

rafters, 2 lskpl2 := 0.85⋅ m tskpl2 := 2⋅ mm end support

hZ2 := hZ fy.skpl2 := fy.skpl Tensile force factor for Pc2V := 21⋅ mm

fastener at end support

rafters, 3 lskpl3 := 0.85⋅ m tskpl3 := 2⋅ mm

hZ3 := hZ fy.skpl3 := fy.skpl

4. SI units kN ≡ 1000⋅ N

6

MPa ≡ 10 ⋅ Pa

wind suction and self weight

Try single sheet t = 0.65, with possible exception of outermost portion of outer bay where double sheet

t = 0.65 is used

−2

Self weight, sheet qgrav = 0.07 kN ⋅ m

qE1 := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ sk + ξγ G⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav qE1 = 2.132 kN ⋅ m

self weight

Snow and self weight in qE2 := scomb + qgrav −2

qE2 = 0.79 kN ⋅ m

serviceability limit state

Design value of upward wind and qE3 := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ qedge − ξγ G.inf ⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav −2

qE3 = 2.44 kN ⋅ m

self weight in edge zone

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions Support moment reduced with

over five bays respect to width of support

Sheeting = "TRP22"

Span lp := cpurlin cpurlin = 2 m Width of support ls := 50⋅ mm

2 Mf.Sd

Snow, span Mf.Sd := 0.0779⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin Mf.Sd = 0.664 kN = 0.418

Mf.Rd

−1

R1

Snow, support next to R1 := 1.132⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin R1 = 4.826 kN ⋅ m = 0.097

outermost one Rw.Rd

2

ls Ms.Sd R1

Interaction Ms.Sd := 0.1053⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin − R1⋅ + = 0.617 <1.25

4 Ms.Rd Rw.Rd

2

ls Ms.Sd

Over centre of support Ms.Sd := 0.1053⋅ qE1⋅ cpurlin − R1⋅ Ms.Sd = 0.868 kN = 0.539

8 Ms.Rd

3 3

2⋅ Ief.fält + Ief.stöd 3

Ief.fält := 60⋅ mm Ief.stöd := 51⋅ mm Ifik := Ifik = 57 mm

Serviceability limit 3

state, deflection in 4

outer bay qE2⋅ cpurlin cpurlin

y := 0.644⋅ y = 6.8 mm = 294

100⋅ E⋅ Ifik y

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 92

qE3 Ms.Sd

Wind suction in edge zone, in proportion ⋅ = 0.618

qE1 Ms.Rd

6.1 Wind on long sides

Qs

A

Rg Nk

broof /2

V

cpurlin

B

crafter

lroof

1 11

Roof diaphragm is divided into two at the ridge, line B. Each part functions separately and shares the

action due to wind on the long side

bdiaph := 0.5⋅ broof bdiaph = 18 m

Maximum action on a part diaphragm, for case with hinged columns: column height hp = 7 m

hp kN

( )

QE := 0.5⋅ 0.85⋅ cpe.p + cpe.s ⋅ γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ qp⋅

2

+ α ⋅ qE2⋅ broof QE = 2.213

m

(Factor 0.85 when wind

on two walls simultanously)

Roof diaphragm between lines A and B regarded as simply supported deep beam on supports

(wind trusses) in lines 1 and 11. Shear forces V assumed to be resisted by sheets and moment

M by the two outermost purlins in lines A and B.

Lroof

Support force at end of building Rg := QE⋅ Rg = 79.7 kN

2

2

QE⋅ Lroof

Normal force in purlin Nk := 0.58⋅ Nk = 46.2 kN

8⋅ bdiaph

QE Lroof crafter kN

Maximum shear flow Vmax := 1.15⋅ ⋅ − Vmax = 4.58

bdiaph 2 2 m

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 93

Wind is assumed to be resisted by two partial diaphragms in each end. The width of the partial

diaphragms is 2/3 of the width of the building. (Index g for gable, end)

Rk

V

Qsg

Nk

2

broof

V hb := 0⋅ m

2broof /3

lroof

1 hp ht kN

Design diaphragm action ( )

QEg := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ cpe.p + cpi ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅

2 2

+ hb +

2

QEg = 5.5

m

(No factor 0.85 for wind on one end only)

Support force in long sides due to action Rk := 0.85⋅ ⋅ QEg ⋅ Rk = 84.1 kN

on only windward and leeward sides cpe.p + cpi 2

cpe.p

Normal force in end rafter (eq. 6.11) Ngg := 0.19⋅ ⋅ QEg ⋅ broof Ngg = 26.3 kN

(internal suction taken by sheeting) cpe.p + cpi

3 1 cpe.p kN kN

Shear flow along long sides Vg := ⋅ ⋅ ⋅Q Vmax = 4.581 Vg = 2.89

2 2 cpe.p + cpi Eg m m

Vg < Vmax

Tilting forces due to action on end columns are ignored.

Tilting forces along building due to action on columns in

long sides resisted by edge beams and wind trusses in

long sides.

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 94

7. Design of sheeting

7.1 Section forces

In combination with design wind action, necessary section forces due to usual transverse action of snow and self

weight are calculated. Formulae for beam continuous over 5 bays, are used. Support moment is reduced with

respect to width of support

kN

Reaction at support Rs := 1.132⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin Rs = 1.789

m

2 Rs⋅ ls kN ⋅ m

Moment at support Ms := 0.1053⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin − Ms = 0.322

8 m

2 kN ⋅ m

Moment in span Mf := 0.0779⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin Mf = 0.246

m

kN

Reaction at end support Rä := 0.3947⋅ qE2⋅ cpurlin Rä = 0.624

m

Shear flow is concentrated at the end at the points in the centre of the diaphragm whose movement is restrained.

lskpl = 1.8 m i.e. 0.5⋅ lskpl = 0.9 m

each side of the beam centre

A

the shear flow is 0.5⋅ broof

Vlb := ⋅ Vmax Vlb = 45.81

kN 1:3

lskpl

lskpl m

outside the attachment at the end. It is assumed that diaphragm force is

distributed over the width of the sheeting in the proportion 3:1. See the figure.

Check according to StBK-N5 [5]

B

0.5⋅ broof

Design diaphragm force Vgl := ⋅ Vmax

(

lskpl + 2⋅ 3⋅ 0.5⋅ cpurlin ) Vgl = 10.57 kN ⋅ m

−1

−1 −1

Local buckling of web Vw.Rd = 166 kN ⋅ m > Vlb = 45.814 kN ⋅ m

Mf = 0.246 kN Mf Vlb

+ = 0.431 < 1.3

Mf.Rd Vw.Rd Check = "OK!"

Mf.Rd = 1.59 kN

−1 −1

Local buckling of flange Vf.Rd = 113 kN ⋅ m > Vlb = 45.814 kN ⋅ m

Mf = 0.246 kN Mf Vlb

0.8⋅ + = 0.529 < 1.1

Mf.Rd Vf.Rd Check = "OK!"

Mf.Rd = 1.59 kN

VgR −1 −1

Global buckling: Vg.Rd := Vg.Rd = 16.5 kN ⋅ m > Vgl = 10.6 kN ⋅ m

2 Check = "OK!"

cpurlin

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 95

−1

Rv := RvV ⋅ Vmax Rv = 2.34 kN ⋅ m

Vmax

−1

Rä.Rd := 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd Rä.Rd = 25 kN ⋅ m

Rv Rv Check = "OK!"

Rä Rä Rä Rv

+ = 0.119 < 1.05 Check = "OK!"

Rä.Rd Rä.Rd

−1 kN

7.32 Distorsion of profile Vr.Rd = 31 kN ⋅ m > Vmax = 4.581 Check = "OK!"

at end m

−1

7.41 Local buckling of web and Rw.Rd = 49.9 kN ⋅ m

web crippling

Rs Vlb

0.8⋅ + = 0.305 < 1.1 Check = "OK!"

Rw.Rd Vw.Rd

Ms Vlb

+ = 0.476 < 1.3 Check = "OK!"

Ms.Rd Vw.Rd

According to EN 1993-1-3 paragraph 10.3.4 (5) the shear stress due to diaphragm action shall not exceed

0.25 fyb /γM1

Vlb fyb

τ := τ = 78 MPa < 0.25⋅ = 87.5 MPa Check = "OK!"

t γ M1

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 96

8. Attachments

Side overlaps are fixed with φ 4.8 mm aluminium blind rivets.

t = 0.587 mm

Resistance to shear force with

Fb.Rd.riv = 1.19 kN

respect to sheet tearing failure

With respect to shear failure of rivet, Fv.Rd.riv = 0.88 kN

resistance. To meet EN 1993-1-3, Fv.Rd.riv Fv.Rd.riv

FRd.riv := if > Fb.Rd.riv , Fb.Rd.riv , FRd.riv = 0.704 kN

10.3.4 (6) the resistance of the 1.25 1.25

fastener is reduced with 25%

Maximum spacing is 500 mm. The critical actions is wind load on the long side, except in the panel next to the

outermost one (i = 3 och 4) where wind load on the end may govern.

( 7.5 − k) FRd.riv

V := Vgl V := Vgl V := Vmax k := 4 .. 7 V := Vmax⋅

1 2 3 k 4.5 i := 1 .. 7 c :=

i V

i

FRd.riv FRd.riv

Wind on end: k := 3 .. 4 c := if Vg > V ,

k k Vg

,

V i (i

c := if c > 500⋅ mm , 500⋅ mm , c )

i

k

V m c

i i

i = Panel = =

kN mm

1 1st side overlap 10.57 67

2 2nd side overlap

(Division into 1st and 2nd side overlap 10.57 67

3 others

to enable insertion of double sheet at 4.58 154

the outside. See below) 4 2

3.56 198

5 3 2.55 277

6 4

1.53 461

7 5 0.51 500

and depth hZ := 202⋅ mm

screws for double sheet of t = 0.65 mm, have

Strength with respect to sheet tearing failure Fb.Rd := 2⋅ Fb.Rd.screw Fb.Rd = 5.22 kN

Rgg

No of screws required Rgg := Rg − QE⋅ 0.5⋅ crafter ng := 1.2⋅ ng = 16

Fb.Rd

Rgg = 71.7 kN

In the above formula, the factor 1.2 has been inserted to allow for the fact that the shear

connector must also resist the combination wind + (1/3) temperature.

The effect of temperature will be checked later.

lskpl

Screws are placed in a row at centres = 109 mm

ng

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 97

It has been assumed above that pull-out forces due to wind suction on the roof do not act on the

screws in the shear connector. Forces due to wind suction are assumed to be transferred to the

end rafter via the purlins.

Rgg

Shear stress in the web of the Z section is = 19.9 MPa

lskpl⋅ tskpl

According to EN 1993-1-3, the design value of shear stress with respect to buckling is

hZ fy.skpl

λ w := 0.346⋅ ⋅ λ w = 1.427

tskpl E

VRd := 0.67⋅ VRd = 415 kN > Rg = 79.7 kN

2 Check = "OK !"

λw

8.3 Connection of roof sheeting to resist tensile forces due to action on the end

It is assumed that the force Ngg = 26.3 kN is resisted by the two rafters situated approximately

2⋅ broof

= 24 m from the end.

3

and depth hZ2 = 202 mm

According to the table in chapter 8, φ 6.3 thread forming screws for t = 0.65 mm and

tskpl2 = 2.0mm have the following strength with respect to sheet tearing for a single sheet

Fb.Rd.screw = 2.61 kN

1 0.5⋅ Ngg

Number of screws required n := ⋅ n= 5

1 Fb.Rd.screw

1− ⋅ 0.157

3

1

In the above formula, the factor has been inserted to allow for the fact that the shear

1

1− ⋅ 0.157

3

connector must also resist the combination of actions wind + (1/3) temperature. It has been

taken into consideration that temperature alone stresses the screw to 15.7 %. See 9.1

lskpl2

The screws are placed in a row at centres = 160 mm

n

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 98

The length of the shear connector is determined by local and global buckling of the sheets next

to the connector. As before, global buckling is checked at a point situated half the purlin

spacing outside the connection. The diaphragm force transferred from the shear connector is

assumed to be dispersed over the width of the sheeting in the proportion 3:1.

An lskpl3 = 0.85 m long Z section of thickness tskpl3 = 2 mm

and depth hZ3 = 202 mm is used as shear connector.

The shear connector shall transfer the diaphragm force crafter⋅ QE = 15.94 kN

sheets next to the shear connector, of (

Vlo := 1.15⋅ crafter

lskpl3

) Vlo = 21.56

m

Vred := Vred = 2.675

shear connector, shear flow is reduced to lskpl3 + 2⋅ 3⋅ 0.5⋅ cpurlin m

kN

in the bay next to the outermost one Vg := V Vg = 3.563

4 m

is superimposed on this shear flow

kN

Global buckling: Design diaphragm force V := Vred + Vg V = 6.239

m

VgR −1

Shear strength Vg.Rd := Vg.Rd = 16.5 kN ⋅ m

2

cpurlin

Check = "OK !"

The design value of shear force in the shear connector is taken from the table in chapter 8.

For φ 6.3 thread forming screw, t = 0.587 mm and tskpl3 = 2.0 mm Fb.Rd.screw = 2.61 kN

1 crafter⋅ QE

No of screws required n := ⋅ n= 7

1 lskpl3 Fb.Rd.screw

1− ⋅

3 1.6⋅ m

lskpl3

The screws are placed in a row at centres = 115 mm

n

In an uninsulated building, the sheeting diaphragm is also the external cladding. The attachments must be

checked for local wind suction in edge zones and corners.

Width of edge zone bedge = 1760 mm Wind coefficient in edge zone cp.edge = 1.8

Length of corner zone ledge = 4400 mm Wind coefficient in corner zone cp.corn = 2.6

NOTE: The corner zone is in a region where the shear flow is very small. See Fig. 6.2, 6.5 and 6.6. The

tensile force in the screws therefore governs on its own. Forces due to diaphragm action can be ignored.

This does not apply to the edge zone along the long side.

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 99

For a 6.3 mm screw in each trough, the

tensile force in a screw along the edge

( )

Ft.Ed := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ cp.corn ⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav ⋅ 0.5⋅ cpurlin⋅ bd

Pull-out from parent material Fo.Rd := 2.75⋅ kN for sheet thickness t1 = 2 mm and fu = 420 MPa

Pull-through and pull-over failure Fp.Rd := 2.49⋅ kN for sheet thickness 0.65 mm and washer 14 mm

Tensile, shear and sheet tearing faílure Ft.Rd := 8.16⋅ kN Fv.Rd := 6.8⋅ kN Fb.Rd := 2.61⋅ kN

For explanation of the factor 0.714, see

Ft.Ed < 0.714⋅ Fp.Rd and Ft.Rd > Fb.Rd Check = "OK !"

comment at the end of 8.52 below

For one screw in each trough over the width bedge = 1760 mm, the tensile force in the screws along the purlins

is approximately

( )

Ft.Sd := γ Q⋅ γ d ⋅ cp.edge⋅ qp − ξγ G.inf ⋅ γ d ⋅ qgrav ⋅ 0.5cpurlin⋅ bd Ft.Sd = 0.22 kN

−2

where cs := bd cs = 90 mm = the pitch cp.edge = 1.8 qp = 1.02 kN ⋅ m

−1

Shear force transferred to purlin Fa2 := cs⋅ Vmax Vmax = 4.581 kN ⋅ m Fa2 = 0.412 kN

−2

qgrav = 0.07 kN ⋅ m

Fc

Fa

Fb

Fb1 := 0⋅ kN

3 3

Pull-out force due to sheet torsion Fc2 := Pc2V ⋅ Vmax where Pc2V = 21 mm Fc2 = 0.096 kN

( )

2 2

Resulting forces: Shear force Fv := Fa2 + Fb1 + Fb3 Fv = 0.816 kN

Fv Ft

Check for failure of sheet + = 0.35 < 1 / 1.4 Check = "OK !"

1.4⋅ Fb.Rd Fp.Rd

Fv Ft

Check for failure of screw + = 0.235 < 1 / 1.4 Check = "OK !"

Fv.Rd Fo.Rd

Comment:

According to EN 1993-1-3 paragraph 10.3.4 (6) an additional safety of 40% shall be used for sheet-to-purlin fasteners

under combined shear and wind uplift. Therefore the fasteners shall be stressed not more than 1 / 1.4 = 0.714.

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 100

9. Effect of temperature

Temperature difference ∆T = 40 degrees C, StBK-N5 [5] 32:822, causes displacement

lskpl

vtemp := ⋅ 0.000012⋅ ∆T vtemp = 0.432 mm at the edge of the shear connector.

2

If it is assumed on the safe side that the sheeting is not deformed by the temperature action, the

shear force in the outermost fastener can be calculated according to StBK-N5 [5] 33:152 for

tskpl

d := 6.3⋅ mm t = 0.587 mm tskpl = 2 mm = 3.407 k2 := 1.5

t

t 1000⋅ N

Ftemp := vtemp⋅ k2⋅ d ⋅ ⋅ (expression (6.3) in chapter 6) Ftemp = 3.128 kN

mm 2

mm

If deformation of the sheeting and shear connector is considered and the effect of temperature is reduced

2

because the shear connector heats up, we have for Askpl := 140⋅ mm , see chapter 6 expression (6.8)

2

⋅v

3 temp

Ftemp := Ftemp = 0.863 kN

ng lskpl

⋅ +

1 1 1

⋅ +

2⋅ 3 2⋅ E 0.1⋅ lskpl⋅ t Askpl ng = 16

k ⋅ d⋅ t ⋅ 1000⋅ N

2 mm 2

mm lskpl

= 109 mm

ng

According to the table in chapter 8, the design value of strength with respect to sheet tearing

failure of the double sheet is

Ftemp

Fb.Rd := 2⋅ Fb.Rd.screw Fb.Rd = 5.22 kN = 16.5 % Check = "OK !"

Fb.Rd

According to StBK-N5 [5] 32:823, a check shall be made for the combination of actions wind +

(1/3) temperature. The number of screws in the connection was previously estimated at ng = 16 .

The shear force in the outermost screw is

Rgg Ftemp

Fv := + where Rgg = 71.7 kN Fv = 4.638 kN < Fb.Rd = 5.22 kN Check = "OK !"

ng 3

9.21 Temperature difference

Temperature difference give rise to the following shear flow in the sheets near the outermost fastener in the shear

connector

Ftemp⋅ ng kN

Vtemp := where Ftemp = 0.863 kN lskpl = 1.8 m ng = 16 Vtemp = 7.9

lskpl m

Shear flow in the fixed flange varies linearly from the maximum value to 0 over the distance 0.5⋅ lskpl = 0.9 m

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 101

The design value of shear flow in the web and flange immediately outside the shear connector is

slightly reduced owing to the dispersion effect. This reduction can be estimated by using a

dispersion angle of 1:3 and by taking a shear flow in the triangular distribution which

corresponds to this angle.

For the profile TRP22, width of web is sw, profile crest bo, profile trough bu and the horizontal

projection of the web bw

sw sw = 24.4 mm

bw = 10.5 mm

bo = 25 mm

bu bw bo

bu = 44 mm

bu bw

3⋅ +

Shear flow at centre of web is

Vw := 1 −

2 2

⋅V Vw = 7.2

kN

0.5⋅ lskpl temp m

bu bo

3⋅ + bw +

Shear flow at centre of crest is

Vo := 1 −

2 2

⋅V Vo = 6.7

kN

0.5⋅ lskpl temp m

kN kN

Local buckling of web Vw.Rd = 166 >> Vw = 7.2 Check = "OK !"

m m

kN kN

Local buckling of flange Vf.Rd = 113 >> Vo = 6.7 Check = "OK !"

m m

Vw kN kN

Shear flow at centre of web is Vw := Vlb + Vw = 48.2 Vw.Rd = 166

3 m m

Vw < Vw.Rd Check = "OK !"

Vo kN kN

Shear flow at centre of crest Vo := Vlb + Vo = 48.1 Vf.Rd = 113

3 m m

kN Vo < Vf.Rd Check = "OK !"

Vlb = 45.8

m

According to EN 1993-1-3 paragraph 10.3.4 (5) the shear stress due to diaphragm action shall not exceed

0.25 fyb /γM1

Vo fyb

τ := τ = 81.9 MPa about the same as 0.25⋅ = 87.5 MPa Check = "OK !"

t γ M1

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 102

δ

10. Support brackets for purlins

The support bracket is a flat of Steel S235, thickness tuppl length huppl

tuppl := 5⋅ mm buppl := 120⋅ mm

broof

Distance of outermost purlin from centre of rotation is lr := 0.5⋅ lr = 9 m

2

This corresponds to a bracket end deflection of δ := lr⋅ 0.000012⋅ ∆T δ = 4.32 mm

where ∆T = 40

3

The deflection is caused by the following buppl⋅ tuppl 1

P := δ ⋅ 3E⋅ ⋅ P = 0.425 kN

force at the top of the bracket 12 3

huppl

P⋅ huppl⋅ 6

Flexural stress at root section of steel flat σ := σ = 170 MPa

2

buppl⋅ tuppl

fy

Design value of flexural stress = 235 MPa > σ Check = "OK !"

γ M1

Not set out in this example.

12. Deformations

Sheets on purlins. Diaphragm considered as broof

b := a := crafter a = 7.2 m

two separate interacting diaphragms 2

Quantities in the formula for c1.1 b = 18 m

broof

No of purlins (edge + internal purlins) np := +1 np = 10

2⋅ cpurlin

Sheet lengths within diaphragm and α 4 nb := 2 α 4 := 1 + 0.3⋅ nb

α 4 = 1.6

No of purlins per sheet length and α 1 np

nl := +1 nl = 6 α 1 := α 1 α 1 = 0.6

nb nl

(The term α 1 refers to the α 1value

n l

for No of purlins nl. It is in a vector

which is not written down)

bo hw bw 180

Constant K1 = 0.278 = 0.244 θ := atan ⋅ θ = 25.5 K1 = 0.13

(obtained from tables elsewhere)

bd bd

hw π

2.5

a⋅ bd ⋅ α 1⋅ α 4⋅ K1 − 3 mm

Deformation at ends of sheets c1.1 := c1.1 = 3.842 × 10

2.5 2 kN

E⋅ t ⋅b

SkinNonIns.mcd Example 2. Uninsulated building 103

n p

hw

2⋅ a⋅ α 2⋅ ( 1 + ν ) ⋅ 1 + 2⋅

bd

Shear deformation in sheeting c1.2 :=

c1.2 = 4.522 × 10

− 3 mm

E⋅ t ⋅ b kN

spacing of sheet/purlin fasteners, and α 3

sp := 0.35⋅ mm⋅ kN p := bd α 3 := α 3 α 3 = 0.49

np

between sheets and purlin c2.1 :=

2

b

−1 a

Displacement of fastener in overlap ss, ss := 0.25⋅ mm⋅ kN nsh := nsh = 8

10⋅ bd

No of sheet widths per part diaphragm nsh,

No of fasteners in side overlap ns, b

ns := ns = 117 c = 154 mm

c 3

No of sheet/purlin fasteners per 3

sheet width nf and the factor β 1 nf := 4 β 1 := β 1 β 1 = 1.25

n f

Displacement in connection

c2.2 :=

(

2⋅ ss⋅ sp⋅ nsh − 1 ) c2.2 = 0.0144

mm

in side overlap 2⋅ ns⋅ sp + β 1⋅ np⋅ ss kN

No of part diaphragms n within

n := 10

whole roof length, displacement ssc

−1

and No of sheet/shear connector ssc := 0.15⋅ mm⋅ kN nsc := 12

fasteners nsc

c2.3 := c2.3 = 5.5 × 10

sheet and shear connector 2 kN

n ⋅ nsc

Quantities in formula for c3

2

Factor α 3 and area of cross α 3 = 0.49 (see above) A := 1600⋅ mm

section A of edge beam

2 3

n ⋅a ⋅α3 mm

Axial strain in edge beams c3 := c3 = 0.035

2 kN

4.8⋅ E⋅ A⋅ b

mm

Total shear flexibility c := c1.1 + c1.2 + c2.1 + c2.2 + c2.3 + c3 c = 0.064

kN

crafter 2

mm mm

See the diagram in Fig. 3.26 cdiag := 0.08⋅ ⋅ cdiag = 0.055

0.5⋅ broof ⋅ t kN kN

2 Lroof

n

Deflection ∆ := ⋅ c⋅ QE⋅ crafter = 5653 ∆ = 12.74 mm

8 ∆

2

5⋅ QE⋅ Lroof

4 broof

I := A⋅

Compare with only flexural deformation y := 2 y = 7.11 mm

384⋅ E⋅ I

SkinCalc.mcd Example 3. Interaction diaphragm-frames 104

The calculation follows "Simplified analysis" according to "Bygg" K24:4 Diaphragm action [9]. Subscripts for

frames and diaphragm to be according to the figure.

k0=0 km=0

k

No of bays n := 6 c

Flexibility of diaphragms i := 1 .. n c := 0.1 1 2 3 4 5 6

i

Flexibility of frames k := 0.3

i

− 10 − 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Flexibility of ends (rigid) k := 10 k := 10

0 n

H H H H H

1

Distribution factors to right f := 0 h := 1 − f i := n − 1 .. 0 f :=

n n n i c k

i+ 1 i+ 1

h := 1 − f

i i

1+

k

+

k (

⋅ 1− f

i+ 1 )

i i

Distribution factors to left g := 0 q := 1 − g i := 1 .. n 1

0 0 0 g :=

i c k

i− 1

( )

i

q := 1 − g 1+ + ⋅ 1− g

i i i− 1

k k

i i

Numerical values i := 0 .. n

c = k = f = h = g = q =

i = i i i i i i

0 0 0 0 1 0 1

1 0.1 0.3 0.568 0.432 0.75 0.25

2 0.1 0.3 0.573 0.427 0.632 0.368

3 0.1 0.3 0.588 0.412 0.588 0.412

4 0.1 0.3 0.632 0.368 0.573 0.427

5 0.1 0.3 0.75 0.25 0.568 0.432

6 0.1 0 0 1 0 1

k ⋅q +c k h +c

j− 1 j− 1 j j+ 1 j+ 1 j+ 1

Transfer factors j := 1 .. n − 1 pv := ph :=

j, j k j, j k

j j

mr mr

1 j, j j, j

mr := mv := − mh :=

j, j 1 1 j, j pv j, j ph

1+ + j, j j, j

pv ph

j, j j, j

pv = ph = mr = mv = mh =

j = j, j j, j j, j j, j j, j

1 0.333 0.76 0.188 -0.564 0.247

2 0.583 0.746 0.247 -0.423 0.331

3 0.702 0.702 0.26 -0.37 0.37

4 0.746 0.583 0.247 -0.331 0.423

5 0.76 0.333 0.188 -0.247 0.564

Actions H := 100 H := 0

j n

SkinCalc.mcd Example 3. Interaction diaphragm-frames 105

(For action on frame 1 there is no diaphragm to the left, and this case is therefore calculated separately)

V ← mh ⋅ H V ← mh ⋅ H

j, j j, j j j, j j, j j

V ← mv ⋅ H V ← mv ⋅ H

j− 1 , j j, j j j− 1 , j j, j j

Q ← mr ⋅ H Q ← mr ⋅ H

j, j j, j j j, j j, j j

for i ∈ 1 .. n − j for i ∈ 1 .. n − j

V ← f ⋅V V ← f ⋅V

j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j

Q ←h ⋅V Q ←h ⋅V

j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j

for i ∈ 1 .. j for i ∈ 2 .. j if i ≥ 1

Q ← −q ⋅V V ←g ⋅V

j− i , j j− i j− i , j j− i , j j− i+ 1 j− i+ 1 , j

augment( Q , V ) for i ∈ 1 .. j

Q ← −q ⋅V

j− i , j j− i j− i , j

augment( Q , V )

Q := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 1 , 1) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , 2 , n − 1) )

V := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 3 , 3) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , n + 2 , 2⋅ n − 1) )

Forces Q on frames and shear force V in part diaphragms for each action H

56.445 31.705 17.532 9.205 3.945 −56.445 −31.705 −17.532 −9.205 −3.945

18.815 10.568 5.844 3.068 1.315 24.74 −42.273 −23.377 −12.273 −5.26

10.568 24.659 13.636 7.159 3.068 14.172 33.068 −37.013 −19.432 −8.328

Q = 5.844 13.636 25.974 13.636 5.844 V = 8.328 19.432 37.013 −33.068 −14.172

3.068 7.159 13.636 24.659 10.568 5.26 12.273 23.377 42.273 −24.74

1.315 3.068 5.844 10.568 18.815 3.945 9.205 17.532 31.705 56.445

3.945 0

9.205 17.532 31.705 56.445 0 0 0 0

Summate for all actions and calculate forces F which act on the diaphragm

Force on frames

j := 0 .. n 39.61 Diaphragm −58.442 Force on 60.39

〈〉 59.091 forces

〈i〉 −17.532 diaphragm 40.909

R :=

i ∑ ( Q )

T i

R = 64.935

S :=

i

(V ) S = 17.532 F j := (H j − R j)

T

∑ F = 35.065

59.091 58.442 40.909

39.61 118.831 60.39

118.831 0 −118.831

SkinCalc.mcd Example 3. Interaction diaphragm-frames 106

i := 1 .. n − 1

150

100

100

Rj

Fi

50

0

0

0 2 4 6

j, i

action on frames and ends

Concentrated action on frame 2 action on diaphragms

31.705

k0=0 km=0

10.568 k

24.659

〈1〉

R = 13.636

c

R := Q

1 2 3 4 5 6

7.159

i := 0 .. 6 3.068

9.205 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

H

H := 0 n := 3 .. 5 H := 0 F := H − R

1 n j j j

100

100

−31.705

−10.568

75.341

50

F = −13.636 Rj

−7.159 Fi

−3.068 0

0

−9.205

50

0 2 4 6

j, i

action on frames and ends

action on diaphragm

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 107

6.1 Wind on long side

0. Conditions Subdivision into partial actions

1. Dimensions and classes Action on diaphragm of width equal to whole width

2. Loads and actions of roof

3. Sheets and fasteners Flexibility of roof trusses

4. SI units Shear flexibility

Distribution between diaphragm and roof trusses

5. Design of sheets for transverse action due 6.2 Wind on the end of the building

to snow, wind suction and self weight

5.1 Check of profile for support conditions over 7. Vertical load

three bays

Checking of sheet, design of fasteners and calculation

of shear flexibility are not included in this example

0. Conditions

An insulated sports hall with normal leakage paths shall be designed for diaphragm action due to wind action

and checked for diaphragm forces due to vertical loads. The horizontal diaphragm forces are transferred to the

foundation via wind trusses. All columns are hinged at top and bottom. The roof trusses consist of laminated

wood rafters, with a hinge at the ridge and tie beams of reinforcing bars.

1 13

A

broof

B

θ

ht

hp

C

crafter cgp

Lroof broof

Width of roof broof := 22⋅ m Partial factor for resistance

Length of roof Lroof := 48⋅ m

Column height,long side hp := 5⋅ m Construction Class I (EN 1993-1-3)

π

Roof slope θ := 15⋅ slope := tan( θ ) Reliability class RC3

180 (EN 1990, consequence class CC3, high

Ridge height ht := hp + 0.5⋅ broof ⋅ slope ht = 7.947 m consequence for loss of human life)

Rafter spacing crafter := 4⋅ m γ d := 1.00 (See 2.11)

Columns at ends cgp := 5.5⋅ m

Comment: As γ d := 1.00 then it is not

included in the expressions for the actions

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 108

−2 Wind load

Snow load, on the ground sk := 3.0⋅ kN ⋅ m

kN

Peak velocity pressure qp := 0.5⋅

−2 2

Snow load on roof µ 1 := 0.8 s := µ 1⋅ sk s = 2.4 kN ⋅ m m

Shape factors, wind

−2

Combination value ψ 0 := 0.6 scomb := µ 1⋅ ψ 0⋅ sk scomb = 1.44 kN ⋅ m

Roof, mean suction cpe.roof := 0.4

Wall, pressure cpe.p := 0.7

Partial factor, snow load and wind action γ Q := 1.5

(leading variable) Wall, suction cpe.s := 0.3

Internal suction cpi := 0.3

Partial factor, self weight unfavourable ξγ G := 0.89⋅ 1.35

favourable ξγ G.inf := 0.89⋅ 1.0 Characteristic value of wind suction

where the reduction factor for permanent −2

qroof := cpe.roof ⋅ qp qroof = 0.2 kN ⋅ m

action is ξ := 0.89 see 2.12

hw := 112⋅ mm

bd := 237⋅ mm bo := 68⋅ mm bu := 64⋅ mm

(

bw := 0.5⋅ bd − bo − bu )

w

s

hw

bw 2 2

bu bd bo sw := bw + hw t := 0.636⋅ mm

−2

qgrav := 0.40⋅ kN ⋅ m

Self weight, roof

Width of support ls := 200⋅ mm

Transverse action

Side overlaps dsid := 4.8⋅ mm

self drilling screws Moment capacity, support Ms.Rd := 10.56⋅ kN

carbon steel tnom := 0.7⋅ mm

−1

Capacity of support for ls = 100 Rw.Rd := 27.3⋅ kN ⋅ m

Shear resistance Fv.Rd.sid := 0.88⋅ kN

Diaphragm action

table 8.9

−1

Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.sid := 1.35⋅ kN Shear buckling of web Vw.Rd := 27.6⋅ kN ⋅ m

table 8.10

−1

Shear buckling of flange Vf.Rd := 86.4⋅ kN ⋅ m

Screws to rafters dscrew := 6.5⋅ mm

Global buckling VgR := 684⋅ kN ⋅ m

Carbon steel in wood

−1

Shear resistance Fv.Rd.screw := 7.84⋅ kN Distorsion of corrugation Vr.Rd := 4.90⋅ kN ⋅ m

table 8.3 of profile end

Bearing resistance Fb.Rd.screw := 2.83⋅ kN Support reaction factor for RvV := 1.22

table 8.5 end support

Tensile resistance Ft.Rd.screw := 9.41⋅ kN Tensile force factor for Pc2V := 134⋅ mm

table 8.2 fastener at end support

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 109

6

5. Design of sheets for transverse action due to snow, wind suction and

self weight

Nominal sheet thickness t = 0.70 t = 0.636 mm

−2

Self weight, roof qgrav = 0.4 kN ⋅ m

2 −2

Design value of snow and self qs1 = 4.663 kN ⋅ m

weight on inclined area

2 −2

Usual snow and self weight qs2 = 1.808 kN ⋅ m

Spans crafter = 4.00 m L1 := crafter

Sheet = "TRP110"

2

Snow, support B Ms.Sd := 0.100⋅ qs1 ⋅ L1 Ms.Sd = 7.46 kN

0.02⋅ ls

0.5 +

t −1

Strength of support ls = 200 mm Rw.Rd := Rw.Rd ⋅ Rw.Rd = 36.12 kN ⋅ m

for 0.02⋅ 100⋅ mm

0.5 +

t

qs1 ⋅ L1 Ms.Sd −1 RA

Outermost RA := − RA = 7.46 kN ⋅ m = 0.413

support A 2 L1 0.5⋅ Rw.Rd

−1 RB

Support B RB := 1.1⋅ qs1 ⋅ L1 RB = 20.516 kN ⋅ m = 0.568

Rw.Rd

2

RA Mf.Sd

Snow, span, max Mf.Sd := Mf.Sd = 5.968 kN = 0.594

2⋅ qs1 Mf.Rd

ls Ms.Sdm

Support B, moment Ms.Sdm := Ms.Sd − RB⋅ Ms.Sdm = 6.948 kN = 0.598

8 Ms.Rd ⋅ 1.1

ls Ms.Sdr RB

Interaction Ms.Sdr := Ms.Sd − RB⋅ + = 1.177 < 1,25

4

Ms.Rd Rw.Rd

Ms.Sd

3 3

Serviceability limit Ief.field := 1840⋅ mm Ief.supp := 1840⋅ mm

RB ls

Ms.Sdm

4

state

Ms.Sdr

2⋅ Ief.field + Ief.supp 3

Ific := Ific = 1840 mm

3 RB

4 2 ls

5⋅ qs2 ⋅ L1 qs2 Ms.Sd ⋅ L1

y := − ⋅ y = 8.1 mm

384⋅ E⋅ Ific qs1 16⋅ E⋅ Ific

Wind suction Self weight is greater than action due to wind suction

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 110

Partial combinations of actions The effects of actions are divided into four as shown in the figure.

a) Restrained ridge. Produces only compressive and tensile forces in roof truss components.

b) H produces diaphragm forces in the roof regarded as a diaphragm of width equal to the width of the whole roof.

Equal action H in each line

c) αV is that proportion of the vertical clamping force Ht − Hs ⋅ sin( θ ) which is resisted by the roof trusses

( )

d) The proportion of the vertical clamping force which is resisted by diaphragm action in the two halves of the roof.

The action is different in each line, greatest at the ends.

V=(Ht-Hs)sinθ

H=Ht+Hs H=Ht+Hs αV

(1 - α)V

Hs θ Ht 2 sinθ

with restrained ridge with width of whole roof (α different for each frame) width of half roof

Total action from column tops hp

for hinged colums. See (2:31f) ( 2

)

H := 0.85⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpe.s ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅ crafter + α ⋅ qs2 ⋅ broof ⋅ crafter H = 7.17 kN

in [14]

H kN

Corresponds to a uniformly Qs := Qs = 1.793

distributed load crafter m

Roof diaphragm between lines A and C functions as a simply supported flat beam on supports

(wind trusses) in lines 1 and 13. Shear forces V are assumed to be resisted by the sheeting and

the moment M by the edge beams in lines A and C. There is no force on ridge beam in line B.

Lroof

Support force at end Ra.g := Qs⋅ Ra.g = 43 kN

2

2

Qs⋅ Lroof

Normal force in edge beams Na.k := Na.k = 23.5 kN

8⋅ bdiaph

(

Qs⋅ Lroof − crafter ) Va.max = 1.79

kN

2⋅ bdiaph m

Distribution of vertical forces V = Ht − Hs ⋅ sin( θ ) between roof trusses and the two part diaphragms is governed by

( )

the flexibility k of roof trusses for a vertical load at the ridge and by the shear flexibility c of the diaphragms.

The roof truss consists of two hinged laminated wood rafters and a tie beam.

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 111

2 π

tie beam consists of two bars of d := 20⋅ mm Adb := d ⋅ ⋅ 2

diameter 4

θ

V 1 2

Force in tie beam for V := 1⋅ kN Fdb := ⋅ Adb = 628 mm

2 tan ( θ )

Fdb⋅ 0.5⋅ broof btak

Extension of half tie beam ∆ := Fdb = 1.866 kN

E⋅ Adb

y := k0 := ⋅ k0 = 0.581

flexibility k (dimensionless tan( θ ) V mm

for following calculation)

In the plane of the diaphragm, kp := k0⋅ sin( θ ) kp = 0.15

flexibility decreases

Shear flexibility

Shear flexibility c is calculated in the same way as in Exemple 2. Since there are no end fittings, flexibility is

greater in the panels nearest to the ends.

Number of panels n := 12

Flexibility of diaphragms i := 1 .. n c := 0.105

i

Flexibility of panels nearest to the ends c := 0.337 c := c

1 n 1

Flexibility of roof trusses k := kp

i

− 10 − 10

Flexibility of ends (assumed rigid) k := 10 k := 10

0 n

The calculation follows "Simplified analysis" according to "Bygg" K24:4 Diaphragm action [9]. Subscripts for

roof trusses and diaphragm selected according to the figure.

k0=0 km=0

k

c

1 2 3 4 n

0 1 2 3 4 n-1 n

H H H H H

1

Distribution factor to right f := 0 h := 1 − f i := n − 1 .. 0 f :=

n n n i c k

i+ 1 i+ 1

h := 1 − f

i i

1+

k

+

k (

⋅ 1− f

i+ 1 )

i i

Distribution factor to left g := 0 q := 1 − g i := 1 .. n 1

0 0 0 g :=

i c k

i− 1

( )

i

q := 1 − g 1+ + ⋅ 1− g

i i i− 1

k k

i i

k ⋅q +c k h +c

j− 1 j− 1 j j+ 1 j+ 1 j+ 1

Transfer factor j := 1 .. n − 1 pv := ph :=

j, j k j, j k

j j

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 112

mr mr

1 j, j j, j

mr := mv := − mh :=

j, j 1 1 j, j pv j, j ph

1+ + j, j j, j

pv ph

j, j j, j

Unit loads H0 := 1 H0 := 0

j n

Calculation of action on frames and shear force on part diaphragms. When frame 1 is acted upon, there is no

diaphragm to the left, and this case is therefore calculated separately.

V ← mh ⋅ H0 V ← mh ⋅ H0

j, j j, j j j, j j, j j

V ← mv ⋅ H0 V ← mv ⋅ H0

j− 1 , j j, j j j− 1 , j j, j j

Q ← mr ⋅ H0 Q ← mr ⋅ H0

j, j j, j j j, j j, j j

for i ∈ 1 .. n − j for i ∈ 1 .. n − j

V ← f ⋅V V ← f ⋅V

j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j

Q ←h ⋅V Q ←h ⋅V

j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j j+ i , j j+ i j+ i− 1 , j

for i ∈ 1 .. j for i ∈ 2 .. j if i ≥ 1

Q ← −q ⋅V V ←g ⋅V

j− i , j j− i j− i , j j− i , j j− i+ 1 j− i+ 1 , j

augment( Q , V ) for i ∈ 1 .. j

Q ← −q ⋅V

j− i , j j− i j− i , j

augment( Q , V )

Q := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 1 , 1) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , 2 , n − 1) )

V := augment( submatrix( Result1 , 0 , n , 3 , 3) , submatrix( Result , 0 , n , n + 2 , 2⋅ n − 1) )

Forces Q on roof trusses and shear force V in part diaphragms for each i := 0 .. n

action H

Summate for all actions and calculate forces F which act on the diaphragm

Force on roof trusses Diaphragm forces Force on diaphragm

〈〉 〈〉

∑( ) ∑( )

T i T i

R := Q S := V j := 0 .. n

i R = i S = F := H0 − R F =

j j j j j

j

0.357 -0.357 -0.357

0.801 -0.158 0.199

0.912 -0.070 0.088

0.961 -0.031 0.039

0.982 -0.013 0.018

0.991 -0.003 0.009

0.993 0.003 0.007

0.991 0.013 0.009

0.982 0.031 0.018

0.961 0.070 0.039

i := 1 .. n − 1 0.912 0.158 0.088

0.801 0.357 0.199

0.357 0.000 -0.357

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 113

Rj

0.5

Fi

0

0

0 5 10

j, i

action on roof trusses and ends

action on diaphragm

It is seen from the diagram that the roof trusses take most of the vertical load, but that the diaphragm takes over the

load on the roof trusses nearest to the ends. If the diaphragms nearest the ends had the same shear flexibility as

the others, e.g. if the sheets had end fittings, the frames nearest the ends would have been further relieved of load to

ca 0.543 instead of R1 = 0.795.

hp

For the prevailing actions H = 7.17 kN V := 0.85⋅ γ Q⋅ cpe.p − cpe.s ⋅ qp⋅ ⋅ crafter ⋅ sin( θ )

( ) V = 0.66 kN

2

the force in the plane of the right (left) H V H V

Ph := + ⋅F Pv := − ⋅F

roof diaphragm, for wind from the right, is i 2⋅ cos( θ ) 2⋅ sin( θ ) i i 2⋅ cos( θ ) 2⋅ sin( θ ) i

∑ Ph Vh := Rh

0

Rv := 0.5⋅

∑ Pv Vv := Rv

0

Shear force in the diaphragm Vh := Vh − Ph Vv := Vv − Pv

i i− 1 i i i− 1 i

Vh ⋅ m Vv ⋅ m

4 Ph Pv

2 .10 i i

i

=

i

=

= = bs⋅ kN bs⋅ kN

kN kN

4

1 .10 0 0 1.83 1.75

3.965 3.458 1.48 1.45

Vh 0 3.824 3.599 1.15 1.13

i 0

3.762 3.661 0.82 0.81

Vv 3.735 3.689 0.49 0.49

4

i 1 .10

3.723 3.7 0.16 0.16

4

3.72 3.703 -0.16 -0.16

2 .10

3.723 3.7 -0.49 -0.49

3.735 3.689 -0.82 -0.81

4

3 .10 3.762 3.661 -1.15 -1.13

0 5 10

i 3.824 3.599 -1.48 -1.45

action on roof and ends 3.965 3.458 -1.83 -1.75

action on diaphragm

It is seen from the table and diagram that there is very little difference

between the shear forces in the two halves of the roof, i.e. the roof largely

functions as one wide diaphragm.

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 114

that the self weight is so large that the ridge does not broof

lift and that the tie beam remains in tension. In this case (

Vegt := ξγ G.inf ⋅ qgrav − γ Q⋅ qroof ⋅ ) 2

⋅ crafter

the vertical load on the ridge, due to self weight less

wind suction, is greater than the wind action on the Vegt = 2.5 kN >> V = 0.66 kN

walls.

It is assumed that wind is resisted by a part diaphragm of width

equal to 2/3 of the width of the building.

Fridge Fridge

Rk

Qsg V

Nk

2

broof

7b roof

V 0,66

2broof /3 rafter and reaction forces on the

lroof diaphragm over the width 0,667broof

ht + hp kN

Design diaphragm action (

Qsg := γ Q⋅ cpe.p + cpi ⋅ qp⋅ ) 2⋅ 2

Qsg = 2.428

m

broof

Support force in long sides Rk := Qsg ⋅ Rk = 26.7 kN

2

Normal force in end rafter Ngg := 0.19⋅ Qsg ⋅ broof Ngg = 10.1 kN

3 1 −1

Maximum shear flow Vg := ⋅ ⋅Q Vg = 1.82 kN ⋅ m

2 2 sg

This shear flow is slightly greater 2⋅ Vh ⋅ cos( θ )

than shear flow due to wind on the 0 −1 −1

= 1.833 kN ⋅ m Compare Va.max = 1.79 kN ⋅ m

long side broof

Roof trusses at distance 2btak/3

broof ht − hp

from the end are acted upon by a verti- Qsg ⋅ ⋅

cal load at the ridge. This is shared by 2 2

Fridge := Fridge = 1.341 kN

two roof trusses and the force is added (

2⋅ 0.667⋅ broof )

to the action of usual snow load. In this

case, however, the force is much

smaller than Vsnö as shown below

7. Vertical load i := 1 .. n − 1

qs := γ Q⋅ sk + qs = 4.998 kN ⋅ m

on a horizontal plane cos( θ )

Vsnow := qs⋅ ⋅ crafter Vsnow = 219.9 kN

tops of columns. At the ridge, 2

SkinIncl.mcd Example 4. Sloping roof 115

Vsnow

Force on a roof diaphragm in its plane Fs := ⋅F

i 2⋅ sin( θ ) i

∑ Fs Vs := Rs

0

Rs = 151.7 kN

i i− 1 i

Vs ⋅ 2⋅ cos( θ ) i := 0 .. n − 1

i

Shear flow Sf :=

i broof

i i ( )

Vs Fs Sf ⋅ m Vridge

i i i i

= = = =

i = kN kN kN kN

In the inner lines the roof load is carried

by the roof trusses. Next to the ends the 0 151.7 0 13.32 298.4

roof diaphragms carry a certain amount, 1 67.2 84.5 5.9 176.2

so much that the diaphragm forces in 2 29.7 37.5 2.61 200.5

the panels next to the ends are greater

3 13.0 16.7 1.14 211.2

than the diaphragm force due to wind

action on the walls. 4 5.4 7.6 0.47 215.9

5 1.4 3.9 0.13 217.9

Due to wind on the long sides: 6 -1.4 2.9 -0.13 218.4

7 -5.4 3.9 -0.47 217.9

broof

Va.max⋅ = 19.7 kN 8 -13.0 7.6 -1.14 215.9

2 9 -29.7 16.7 -2.61 211.2

Compare that due to snow: 10 -67.2 37.5 -5.9 200.5

11 -151.7 84.5 -13.32 176.2

Vs = 151.7 kN j := 1 .. n − 1

0

5

3 .10

5

2 .10

Vridge 1 .105

j

Vs 0

i 0

5

1 .10

5

2 .10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

j, i

action on roof trusses

shear force in a diaphragm

Design performed in the same way as for roof of shallow slope. See Examples 1 and 2

- Cay 2013Uploaded byJelena Kilić-Grgić
- Excel TipsUploaded byAmandeep Singh Bassi
- DraftCivilEngg-2011-12Uploaded byAzmatullah Khan Sherani
- Etabs Tutorial WallUploaded byNono_geotec
- CSI ANALYSIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR SAP2000, ETABS AND SAFEUploaded byOladunni Afolabi
- RgaUploaded byGesang Rakhmad Utomo
- Kruithof Double Factor MoreUploaded byAtique Ur Rehman Khattak
- 486972Uploaded byPredatator90
- ETABS Shell Forces and StressesUploaded bySeba Pñaloza Dz
- Lab ManualGotUploaded bysaniljayamohan
- Array Indexing - MATLAB & Simulink.pdfUploaded byMakhdoom Ibad Hashmi
- sdarticle[1]Uploaded bycarrot123456
- etabs modelingUploaded byHemal Mistry
- pilot-hole-sizes.pdfUploaded byEGM
- y-bus1.docxUploaded byAkshay Gattu
- 3Uploaded byTrungNguyễnChí
- Appendix E Key Concepts of the IBIS Model_Appendix E2 3Com Internal IBIS SpecUploaded byfa_a2z
- BITSAT Model Paper (code: A5TY) SyllabusUploaded byEdara Rajesh Kumar
- Tutorial- 6 and Solution Feb 16 2017 FinalUploaded byRounak Majumdar
- Jee SyllabusUploaded bySarvesh Mehta
- TI-89 Calculator HandbookUploaded byAzianPowah
- A Tutorial Introduction to VHDL ProgrammingUploaded byMarco Antonio Bastida Flores
- Gauss NotesUploaded bymorticia_pain
- shiCvpr94fUploaded bytatarasanurazvan
- Problems With Matrix OrganizationsUploaded byDeepak Kumar Behera
- lecture_plan_Format.xlsUploaded bySahil Khan
- Fibonacci Sequence Through Linear AlgebraUploaded byMarkSchultz
- SDT ConceptsUploaded byManasvi Saxena
- lecture_plan_Format.xlsUploaded bySahil Khan
- C Sample ProgramUploaded bynofeelingrahul

- MemoriaCalculo v1 Tanque - CopyUploaded byDiquan
- 3.9. EJEMPLO VIGA CALIFORNIA INTERNAUploaded byDiquan
- Slender Wall bySlender Wall DesignUploaded byDiquan
- Regla Men to CfiUploaded byDiquan
- Informando Setiembre 2017-2Uploaded byDiquan
- Análisis Sísmico de Un Edificio de Acuerdo Al Código Sísmico Costa Rica 2002Uploaded byDiquan
- LOSA POSTENSIONADA ACI 05Uploaded byMaria Cecilia Suarez Rubi
- ETABS User's ManualUploaded byDiquan
- Progetto Strutturale del Grattacielo Adellis TowersUploaded byDiquan
- Soil Sub-Grade ModulusUploaded byxbitman

- cn3Uploaded byAnonymous ExYuQwV6i
- Domestic Refrigerator Parts and Their WorkingUploaded byPrabhat Sharma
- D381Uploaded byMuhannad Nasif
- 28. 286-Results of the Analysis on Stylus Calibration of a Coordinate Measuring Machine (Cmm)Uploaded byMuhammad Sohail Tariq
- Oil Pollution ManualUploaded byChis Timur
- BIO 531-Computational Biology-Aziz MithaniUploaded byAnonymous sF8ZuiG
- M12-002 RevA UnifiedPON-OLT Brochure 8 5x11Uploaded byalucardcha
- GroupsUploaded byShweta Sridhar
- Voltage/var Optimization in Active Distribution NetworksUploaded byNokhum Markushevich
- Unit3-KCVUploaded bysanoopmk
- Introduction to Sprayed ConcreteUploaded byhz135874
- CHAPTER 4 - Levelling DetailUploaded byNurisz Iskandar
- Bt149 Series 3Uploaded bygilsoncemil
- Inconel Alloy HXUploaded bytuky10
- 205814081 Blast Resistant Building PptUploaded bygaurav jagtap
- 198484125-ASTM-A403Uploaded byChiheb Kaaniche
- Mud Master and Auto FillUploaded bysulkec
- NPAGUploaded bytmo71
- DeleteUploaded byqwerty
- Pointers for Ewk4 Questions12!18!17Uploaded byKimberly Ramos
- Gene.pdfUploaded byZaidi
- Atomic Structure 1 DecryptedUploaded byAtul Verma
- ERT2D_UserGuideUploaded bySergio Jr S Fachin
- Secrets.to.Drawing.3D-P2P.epubUploaded byCarmen Resmerita
- 97mark8Uploaded byrukford1
- The Ultrasound MachineUploaded byAhmed Sabry
- How to Investigate and Optimize LTE Throughput in 5 StepsUploaded byAbdul Rahim Shaikh
- SQLUploaded bysinduinfa
- Chapter1(OFC)Uploaded byCharith Lakshitha
- US Army: crd c655Uploaded byArmy