I.

In the first part of Beethoven's Pastoral Sonata there is a mood or succession of moods portrayed, clearly concordant with the feelings of gratefulness for Nature and the unspeakable confidence, peace and joy with which this soul-motion floods the consciousness, when experienced in associations with the fresh beauty of springtime or the full maturity of the yearly fruits, the harvest and the autumn. Whenever I think of this first movement I always remember the Rosenthal in Leipzig one balmy spring night as the full moon was rising while slight mists were clearing away after a warm rain. I was walking alone, after the tireless exertions of a long day spent at my pianoforte. It was years ago, I was only a boy, but the mood I have described, coupled with the opening allegro of this Sonata, lifted me to a plane of inner vision and experience never to be forgotten. What a free, exalted, spirit breathes throughout the first ten-bar theme! How it clings to the higher light, the soul is rapt and carried, and begs to be left not again a prey to the commonplace moods of earthly life. When the melody in chords enters, the attraction of the individual soul to the Divine Forces, to the Universal Soul of Nature, is marvelous and strong. The consciousness seems almost lost in silence and the insensible life of the spirit. Then how the soul which has been drawn and has so gladly followed thus far, now left, as it seems, to renew the sense-throbbing of this earth-life, flutters, trembles, falters, loth to take up again with the outer sense-life, with the excitement and friction and stress of human. enthusiasm, as if it had but just now seen in a lofty vision some other, different, higher mode of life. But this indecision soon passes; the soul forgets it, and sways itself in a sense of calm, pure joy and broad enthusiasm, which expands rapidly and all too soon grows into a full out- burst of enthusiastic, one might say ecstatic, thanksgiving for life even upon its present sense-plane. In the close all is pulsating and vibrant with complete contentment as the soul covers itself in the arms of Mother Nature and there rests rejoicing. The Fantasie-part develops the first theme, not combining it with the other thoughts already given. It reaches a climax of soul-motion wherein— on the long organ-point — the mind seems to find the "Beatific vision, whole Which lights and unifies the soul." And in which mere thought blends with rapture. II. The second part, or Andante, seems to me more personal in character than either of the other sonata parts. The sadness portrayed is almost too deep to allow its cause to be general and harmonious as that underlying the gladness of the other three parts of the Sonata. It may mean the Sabbath of the Soul, when the stress of action is replaced by the outward rest, and the soul wells up within, communing with itself. It is true that in the modern world where Individuality in its evolution is in such a troubled seeking state of transition, where personal rights are sieging and besieged, and personal wrongs are nursed and magnified, and when so largely a person's own greatness and comfort is his dominant aim, there can be little of delight, simple joy or ecstasy in the soul's Sabbath. It must be shadowy and dark. If peace and rest is there at all it must be far below the surface, and but feebly and with ill-success struggle to come up and out. If anon a sunbeam glint through the clouds (bars 5 and 6) it is perforce of fitful, theoretic optimism. What a deep well of discontent pours out its grievances in the second theme (bars 8-i6), especially in the last two bars thereof. It would not be a work of Beethoven if this depth of woe in the individual life did not somewhere creep out. for in this he must unbosom himself! But is it himself only ? Is it not true also of the individual of his time and more so of our time? Only in the acceptance of this can I see a connection among all of the Sonata parts. For if this be done, in the major strain now introduced a connecting link is formed. This bright glint of sunlight seems to suggest the Sabbath of soul in the most remote, prehistoric times. In times when the Greek legends and the Mosaic sight tells us man lived in direct intimacy with Nature, when there were no cities and no sin (because no consciousness of wrong to sin), personality and individualism such as we are now weighted under was undesired and unknown. There is a gentle movement of soul ; it is a peaceful exhilaration or gladness. But the soul is not here alone sorrowing and desolate ; it is attended by its mate. With an instructive feeling of reverence and awe it strikes the cymbals with quiet simplicity, while in alternate moments its mate as devoutly shakes or tinkles a string of bells, and then they combine with cymbals and bells in the expression of their peaceful, satisfied. Sabbath re-creation, or moments when the soul is allowed to sway the being and, renovating it, pour into it new life, and re-create the life-giving poise among its forces.

which may have allowed itself to go into the field of a Sunday afternoon. but if it is not reproaching itself for this. altogether unnatural. to dwell upon the delightful scene. the simplicity and atone-ness which the former mood represents as from the natural phases of life. or the difficulties of a complete freedom. The long-drawn face of Individual rights and wrongs is again shown. which seems to consist in individual right worsted. The glad country air. has little influence upon this latter view of life. . until sobbing and as if with broken heart the close in D minor is reached. bliss of complete Union with Soul-mate or friend. half puritanical. the features are painted out in pathetic detail. and yet. we are not allowed. at least not now. it is brooding over its favourite sorrow.But it is only for a moment that this beautiful picture is shown us. It is the Sabbath of a city soul.

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