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First aid
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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the provision of immediate care. For the 'Transformers' character, see First Aid (Transformers).

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First Aid symbol First aid is the provision of initial limited care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a lay person to a sick or injured patient until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care. It generally consists of a series of simple and potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. While first aid can also be performed on animals, the term generally refers to care of human patients.

Contents
[hide]
• • • •

1 History 2 Aims 3 Training 4 Key First Aid Skills o 4.1 Preserving Life

• •

• • • • •

o 4.2 Promoting Recovery 5 First Aid symbols 6 First Aid training around the world o 6.1 Australia o 6.2 Canada o 6.3 Ireland o 6.4 United Kingdom 7 Specific first aid disciplines 8 Conditions that often require first aid 9 See also 10 References

11 External links

[edit] History
The earliest instances of recorded first aid were provided by religious knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller, formed in the 11th century, providing care to pilgrims and knights, and training other knights in how to treat common battlefield injuries.[1] The practice of first aid fell largely in to disuse during the Dark Ages, and organised societies were not seen again until in 1859 Henry Dunant organized local villagers to help victims of the Battle of Solferino, including the provision of first aid. Four years later, four nations met in Geneva and formed the organization which has grown into the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field".[1] This was followed by the formation of St. John Ambulance in 1877, based on the principles of the Knights Hospitaller, to teach first aid, and numerous other organisation joined them, with the term first aid first coined in 1878 as civilian ambulance services spread as a combination of 'first treatment' and 'national aid'[1]) in large railway centres and mining districts as well as with police forces. First aid training began to spread through the empire through organisations such as St John, often starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways.[2] Many developments in first aid and many other medical techniques have been driven by wars, such as in the case of the American Civil War, which prompted Clara Barton to organize the American Red Cross.[3] Today, there are several groups that promote first aid, such as the military and the Scouting movement. New techniques and equipment have helped make today’s first aid simple and effective.

[edit] Aims
Two international organizations, the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance, as well as numerous smaller organizations, determine what constitutes "first aid". However, the concepts of preserving life, preventing further injury, and promoting recovery are generally accepted. First aid training often incorporates the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, as well.

[edit] Training

First aid scenario training in progress Much of first aid is common sense. Basic principles, such as knowing to use an adhesive bandage or applying direct pressure on a bleed, are often acquired passively through life experiences. However, to provide effective, life-saving first aid interventions requires instruction and practical training. This is especially true where it relates to potentially fatal illnesses and injuries, such as those that require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); these procedures may be invasive, and carry a risk of further injury to the patient and the provider. As with any training, it is more useful if it occurs before an actual emergency, and in many countries, emergency ambulance dispatchers may give basic first aid instructions over the phone while the ambulance is on the way. Training is generally provided by attending a course, typically leading to certification. Due to regular changes in procedures and protocols, based on updated clinical knowledge, and to maintain skill, attendance at regular refresher courses or recertification is often necessary. First aid training is often available through community organizations such as the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance, or through commercial providers, who will train people for a fee. This commercial training is most common for training of employees to perform first aid in their workplace. Many community organizations also provide a commercial service, which complements their community programmes.

[edit] Key First Aid Skills

the single most important training a first aider can receive is in the primary diagnosis and care of an unconscious or unresponsive patient. Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the ABCs depend on the skill level of the first aider. Bleeding. Breathing and Circulation. . Once the ABCs are secured. Some organizations teach the same order of priority using the "3 Bs": Breathing. the "ABC"s of first aid. without obstruction. while others consider this as part of the Circulation step. it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin. all persons require to have an open airway . typically by checking a carotid or radial pulse determines the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and completes the initial evaluation.In case of tongue fallen backwards. The most common mnemonic used to remember the procedure for this is ABC. but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than 8) may be unable to maintain a patent airway. Assessment of circulation. The same mnemonic is used by all emergency health professionals.a clear passage where air can move in through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down in to the lungs. Following evaluation of the airway. Particularly. and Circulation. Breathing. must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries. [edit] Preserving Life As the key skill to first aid is preserving life. first aiders can begin additional treatments. Obstruction (choking) is a life-threatening emergency. Attention must first by brought to the airway to ensure it is clear. so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway. a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary. While the ABCs and 3Bs are taught to be performed sequentially. certain conditions may require the consideration of two steps simultaneously. which stands for Airway. ABC stands for Airway. as required. as the part of the brain which autonomously controls in normal situations may not be functioning. Some organizations add a fourth step of "D" for Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically. and the consideration of cervical spine injuries when ensuring an open airway. This includes the provision of both artificial respiration and chest compressions to someone who is not breathing and has no pulse. Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. In order to preserve life. and Bones. which focus on critical life-saving intervention. blocking the airway.

The airway can also become blocked through a foreign object becoming lodged in the pharynx or larynx. and may lead to prosecution. It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients. the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure . Once the airway has been opened.[4] If the patient was breathing. If there is no breathing. the tongue may fall backward. or may be required to maintain the condition of something like a broken bone. Use by any other person or organization is illegal. They may be able to deal with the situation in its entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut). until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance) arrives. obstructing the oropharynx (sometimes incorrectly called “swallowing” the tongue). such as agonal breathing. the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. [edit] Promoting Recovery The first aider is also likely to be trained in dealing with injuries such as cuts.If an unconscious patient is lying on his or her back. or other symbols. commonly called choking. and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body. grazes or broken bones. The internationally accepted symbol for first aid is the white cross on a green background shown at the start of the page. or the patient is not breathing normally. According to the Geneva Conventions and other international law. This can be easily rectified by a first aider tipping the head backwards. which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. [edit] First Aid symbols For more details on this topic. or symbols such as the Maltese Cross such as the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps and St John Ambulance. Although commonly associated with first aid. with the patient leant over on their side. the use of this and similar symbols is reserved for official agencies of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent. and as a protective emblem for medical personnel and facilities in combat situations. a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position. although this is usually reserved for use by Ambulance services. which mechanically lifts the tongue clear. Some organizations may make use the Star of Life. see Emblems of the Red Cross#Use of the emblems. which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents. which involves breathing for the patient.Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR. the symbol of a red cross is an official protective symbol of the Red Cross. The first aider will be taught to deal with this through a combination of ‘back slaps’ and ‘abdominal thrusts’. .

and Ski Patrol. Nationally recognized First Aid certificates may only be issued by Registered training organisations who are accredited on the National Training Information System (NTIS). electric shock and poisons. Level 2 (“Senior First Aid”) is a 2 day course that covers all the aspects of training in Level 1. It is suitable for workplace First Aiders and those who manage First Aid facilities. Other courses outside these levels are commonly taught. community first responders or hazardous workplace first aiders. choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies. . including CPR-only courses.Symbol of the Red Cross ISO First Aid Symbol Maltese Cross Star of life [edit] First Aid training around the world [edit] Australia In Australia. the Heart and Stroke Foundation. Many workplaces opt to have their employees trained in Standard First Aid (see below). the Lifesaving Society. bleeding. or “Basic Life Support”): is a 1-day course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR. Remote Area or Wilderness First Aid. as well as specialized training for treatment of burns. Advanced Resuscitation. use of oxygen and Automated external defibrillators and documentation. regardless of the length of the overall certification. first aid certificates are awarded by one of several organizations including the Red Cross. Level 2 reaccreditation is a 1 day course which must be taken every 3 years. school teachers. stings. Workplace safety regulations vary depending on occupation. bites. but CPR reaccrediation may be required more frequently (typically yearly). Administering Medications (such as salbutamol or the Epi-Pen) and specialized courses for parents. John Ambulance. St. Level 3 (“Occupational First Aid”) is a 4-day course covering advanced first aid. [edit] Canada In Canada. Most First Aid certificates are issued at one of 3 levels: • • • Level 1 (or “Basic First Aid”. CPR Re-accredidation courses are sometimes required yearly.

Depending on the level. A “First Aid at Work” course is usually a four-day course (two days for a re-qualification) that covers the full spectrum of first aid. poisons. the lay person will learn CPR and choking procedures for adults. St.C. the use of bag valve masks. Organisations offering the certificate include. John Ambulance. the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps. and the Irish Red Cross. Irelands largest first aid organization. of the following: breaks. and infants. emergency child birth. An “Emergency Aid for Appointed Persons” course typically lasts one day. It requires Standard First Aid certification as a prerequisite. Many other (purely commercially run) organisations offer training. children.• • • Emergency First Aid: is an 8-hour course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR. but not all. The Irish Red Cross also provides a Practical First Aid Course aimed at the general public dealing primarily with family members getting injured. there are two main types of first aid courses offered. CPR certification in Canada is broken into several levels. This level of qualification is usually not offered to the general public.known by different names among different Canadian organizations): is a 40 hour course. Certificates for the “First Aid at Work” course are issued by the training organization and are valid for a period of three years from the date the delegate passes the course. examiners and organisations that can provide the course. and is usually not formally assessed. the St John Ambulance Brigade. head and neck injuries. Andrew’s Ambulance Association or the British Red Cross include Baby & Child Courses. The certificate is awarded after a three day course and is valid for three years from date of issue. The Health and Safety Authority issue the standards for first aid at work and hold a register of qualified instructors. chest injuries. and the use of additional emergency equipment. airway management. burns. Medical First Responder (BTLS . (Health Care Professional) also provides training on artificial respiration. CPR H. bleeding. bites and stings. the workplace qualification is the Occupational First Aid Certificate. and is formally assessed by recognized Health and Safety Executive assessors. and suction. [edit] Ireland In Ireland. manual . and covers the basics. wound care. Standard First Aid: is a 16-hour course that covers the same material as Emergency First Aid and will include training for some. Candidates are trained in the use of oxygen. Other courses offered by training organizations such as St. Automated external defibrillators. and multiple casualty management. [edit] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. focusing on critical interventions for conditions such as cardiac arrest and severe bleeding. eye injuries.P. choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies.

• • • • • Aquatic/Marine first aid . which can result in damage to tissues and loss of body fluids through the burn site. for example by the Heimlich Maneuver. blockage of the airway which can quickly result in death due to lack of oxygen if the patient’s trachea is not cleared. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken.Which may be practiced by SCUBA diving professionals. [edit] Conditions that often require first aid Also see medical emergency. a life-threatening condition in which the airway can become constricted and the patient may go into shock.This takes in to account the specific needs of treating wounded combatants and non-combatants during armed conflict. gunshot wounds. The reaction can be caused by a systemic allergic reaction to allergens such as insect bites or peanuts. Wilderness first aid is the provision of first aid under conditions where the arrival of emergency responders or the evacuation of an injured person may be delayed due to constraints of terrain. Hyperbaric first aid . Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection of epinephrine. such as defibrillation and administration of medical gases such as oxygen & entonox). Oxygen first aid . Battlefield first aid . a break in a bone initially treated by stabilizing the fracture with a splint. . Choking. and covers the specific problems which may be faced after water-based rescue. • • • • • • • Altitude sickness. and available persons or equipment. burns. Bone fracture. Battlefield First aid . and courses geared towards more advanced life support.000 feet. can cause potentially fatal swelling of the brain or lungs. as seen either in the ‘traditional’ battlefield setting or in an area subject to damage by large scale weaponry. bone fractures. which can begin in susceptible people at altitudes as low as 5. It may be necessary to care for an injured person for several hours or days.handling. people moving. Childbirth. who need to treat conditions such as the bends.This protocol refers to treating shrapnel. etc. Anaphylaxis. Burns.Usually practiced by professionals such as lifeguards or in diver rescue. such as a bomb blast or other terrorist activity. [edit] Specific first aid disciplines There are several types of first aid (and first aider) which require specific additional training. weather.Providing oxygen to casualties who suffer from conditions resulting in hypoxia.

Heat stroke. a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain. kidney. First aid for a mildly hypothermic patient includes rewarming. which can occur by injection. incision and abrasion. or inadequate blood flow to the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. Emergency treatment involves rapid cooling of the patient. or diabetic coma. including laceration. Poisoning. or with inadequate water.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cramps in muscles due to lactic acid build up caused either by inadequate oxygenation of muscle or lack of water or salt. Unconsciousness for more than two hours usually leads to permanent disability. Hypoglycemia. a temporary dislocation of a joint that immediately reduces automatically but may result in ligament damage.6°F). Insect and animal bites and stings. Near drowning or asphyxiation. Wounds and bleeding. or ingestion. liver. often causes major damage to body systems such as brain. rapid blinking. and avulsion. or a malfunction in the electrical activity in the brain. though it may occur spontaneously in some chronically ill persons. a life threatening hole in the chest which can cause the chest cavity to fill with air and prevent the lung from filling. change in skin complexion. such as dysmenorrhea and testicular torsion. inhalation. also known as sunstroke or hyperthermia. Gender-specific conditions. which can result in severe pain and loss of the tooth but is rarely life threatening. but rewarming a severely hypothermic person could result in a fatal arrhythmia. which tends to occur during heavy exercise in high humidity. another stage in the same process as heat stroke. and/or fidgeting as well as altered consciousness and temporary respiratory abnormalities). or insulin shock. Hypothermia. Joint dislocation. treated by covering with an occlusive dressing to let air out but not in. Three types of seizures include a grand mal (which usually features convulsions as well as temporary respiratory abnormalities. Heart attack. Sunstroke. Diving disorders resulting from too much pressure. Sucking chest wound. an irregular heart rhythm. Toothache. gastric tract. treated by applying pressure (manually and later with a pressure bandage) to the wound site and elevating the limb if possible. occurs when a person’s core body temperature falls below 33. Heavy bleeding. Muscle strain. etc) and petit mal (which usually features twitching. absorption. Sprain. especially when the victim has been unconscious. Seizures.7°C (92. or Exposure. occurs under similar conditions as heat stroke and is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities. Hyperglycemia. Heat syncope. [edit] See also . Gastrointestinal bleeding. Stroke.

^ St.• • • • • • • • • • Abdominal thrusts Ambulance Artificial respiration Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Mental health first aid Occlusive dressing Oxygen first aid Triage Tourniquet Recovery position [edit] References 1. ISBN 1-89407056-9 [edit] External links • • • First Aid Guide at the Mayo Clinic First Aid References at the U. ^ American Red Cross -. retrieved December 10. Student Reference Guide Activity book. John Ambulance. retrieved December 10. 2. 3. ^ Industrial Revolution: St. St. page 23-7. retrieved December 10. First Aid Training:First on the Scene. ^ a b c First Aid: From Witchdoctors & Religious Knights to Modern Doctors. 2006. 2006. John Ambulance (2006). 4.S. Center for Disease Control First Aid at BBC Health [hide] v•d•e First aid Techniques Equipment Mnemonics Certifications Airway management · Cardiopulmonary resuscitation · Emergency bleeding control Automated external defibrillator · Bag valve mask · Bandage · Dressing · Nasopharyngeal airway · Oropharyngeal airway ABC · OPQRST · RICE · SAMPLE · SOAP Certified first responder · Emergency medical technician · Wilderness Emergency Medical Technician Topics Bleeding · Golden hour · Good Samaritan law · Wilderness medicine [show] v•d•e .A.Museum. 2006. John Ambulance.

wikipedia.org/wiki/First_aid" Categories: First aid | Scoutcraft | Self-care Views • • • • Article Discussion Edit this page History Personal tools • Log in / create account Navigation • • • • • Main Page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Interaction • • • • • • Search About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help .Health Science > Medicine > Emergency medicine [show] v•d•e Lifesaving and Lifeguarding Retrieved from "http://en.

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see First aid kit (disambiguation). First aid kit From Wikipedia. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (February 2008) Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. search For other uses. This article does not cite any references or sources. A first-aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first aid.1 Typical contents . and sometimes instructions on how to perform first aid. a breathing barrier for performing EAR (expired air resuscitation) and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Firstaid kits contain a variety of equipment that may include bandages for controlling bleeding.Help us improve Wikipedia by supporting it financially. Contents [hide] • 1 Contents o 1. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. First-aid kit of the French Army. personal protective equipment such as gloves.

elastic roller bandages . Specialized first aid kits are available for various regions. [edit] Typical contents Adhesive bandages are one of the most commonly used items in a first aid kit.very effective pressure bandages or durable. vehicles or activities. breathable. and often elastic o Elastic bandages . sticking plasters) o Straight adhesive bandages o Butterfly (knuckle) bandages . regular strength pain medication. waterproof bandaging o Triangular bandages . tourniquets. first aid kits sold through marine supply stores for use in watercraft may contain seasickness remedies.• • • • 2 Trauma Bag/First Responder Bag 3 Markings 4 See also 5 External links [edit] Contents Commercially available first aid kits available via normal retail routes have traditionally been intended for treatment of minor injuries only. to tie splints. For example.absorbent. gauze and low grade disinfectant. applied directly to wound) o Pads  Sterile eye pads  Sterile gauze pads  Sterile non-adherent pads  Burn dressing (sterile pad soaked in a cooling gel) Bandages o Gauze roller bandages . • • • Dressings (sterile. and pressure bandages o Adhesive.used as slings.used for sprains. and many other uses Adhesive bandages (band-aids. Typical contents include adhesive bandages.

for sterilizing tweezers or pliers etc Irrigation syringe. Instruments • • • Adhesive tape.Disposable gloves are often found in modern first-aid kits. hypoallergenic Trauma shears. for cleaning wounds Rubber suction bulb. for clearing the airway of an unconscious patient Equipment • • • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) o Gloves. for cutting clothing and general use Tweezers Plastic Twezers • • • Lighter. disposable non-latex o CPR mask or other breathing barrier such as a face shield Eye cup or small plastic cup Torch (also known as a flashlight) .

Improvised uses: Many first-aid items can have improvised uses in a survival situation. sunburns. Poison treatments o Activated charcoal o Syrup of ipecac QuikClot is a hemostatic agent sometimes included in first aid kits. often more effective than acetaminophen. itching. an antiseptic such as tea tree oil Epinephrine auto-injector (brand name Epipen) . For example. or triple antibiotic ointment in petroleum jelly base *Antiseptic/anesthetic ointment or spray Anti-itch ointment o Hydrocortisone cream o Antihistamine cream. double.single. especially military kits. . or to disinfect equipment such as thermometers. sometimes. such as benadryl o Calamine lotion Painkillers / fever reducers o Acetaminophen o Ibuprofen . o Antibiotic ointment . including burns. and dry skin Burn gel .• • • • • • • Instant-acting chemical cold packs Sterile eye wash (commonly saline) o Sterile saline (used for cleaning wounds where clean tap water is not available) Swabs. o Aspirin Antihistamine o diphenhydramine (brand name Benadryl) Aloe vera gel . alcohol pads and petroleum jelly-based ointments can be used as a firestarting aid in an emergency. and the latter can even be used as an improvised lubricant for certain mechanical devices.a water-based gel that acts as a cooling agent and often includes a mild anesthetic such as lidocaine and.often included in kits for wilderness use and in places such as summer camps. also known as "emergency blanket") Alcohol rub (hand sanitizer) or antiseptic hand wipes Thermometer Penlight Medication • • • • • • • • • Antiseptics/antimicrobial o Povidone iodine wipes o Benzalkonium Chloride o Alcohol pads .anti-inflammatory. to control severe bleeding. and adhesive tapes and bandages can be used for repairs. sterile non-woven Space blanket (lightweight plastic foil blanket.used for a wide variety of skin problems.used to prep unbroken skin for injections etc. to treat anaphylactic shock.

John Ambulance The use of the Red Cross on First Aid kits by anyone but the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) or associated agency may be illegal under the terms of international agreements designating the red cross as a protected symbol. [edit] Markings First Aid symbol. The red cross is also a registered trade mark of the ICRC. than commercially available first aid kits. of higher quality. Johnson & Johnson has permission to use the red cross as a trademark on its products and registered the symbol for use in 1887.These alternate uses can be an important consideration when picking items for a kit that may be used in wilderness or survival situations. [edit] See also • • First aid Bug-out bag [edit] External links • Yahoo's First Aid Directory . Commercially available first aid kits sold in North America and Europe are generally identified by one of the following symbols: • • • • Red Cross Green Cross Red Star[citation needed] St. [edit] Trauma Bag/First Responder Bag Emergency responders use a more advanced medical kit called a trauma bag or a first responder bag containing greater quantities of material.

com Guide to "Buying a First Aid Kit". The Do's & Don'ts of First Aid Compliance Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/First_aid_kit" Categories: First aid | Camping equipment | Backpacking Hidden categories: Articles lacking sources from February 2008 | All articles lacking sources | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since April 2008 Views • • • • Article Discussion Edit this page History Personal tools • Log in / create account Navigation • • • • • Main Page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Interaction • • • • • • Search þÿ Go Search About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help Toolbox .• • • DMOZ.wikipedia.org First Aid Guide Work.

Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers . All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. a U..) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. (See Copyrights for details. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.• • • • • • • What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Cite this page Languages • • • • • • • • Česky Deutsch Français Italiano Nederlands 日本語 Polski Русский • • • • • This page was last modified on 6 June 2008. Inc. at 00:17.S.

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mayoclinic. information can help you deal with these situations. But when they do.                          Anaphylaxis Animal bites Black eye Blisters Bruise Burns Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Chemical burns Chemical splash in the eye Chest pain Choking Corneal abrasion (scratch) Cuts and scrapes Dislocation Electrical burns Electrical shock Fainting Fever First-aid kits Food-borne illness Foreign object in the ear Foreign object in the eye Foreign object in the nose Foreign object in the skin Foreign object inhaled  Foreign object swallowed  Fractures (broken bones) .com/health/FirstAidIndex/FirstAidIndex Medical Services | Health Information | Appointments | Education and Research | Jobs | About First-Aid Guide Medical emergencies don't occur every day.http://www.

© 1998-2008 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. emergency treatment or formal first-aid training. 2008 LEGAL CONDITIONS AND TERMS OF USE APPLICABLE TO ALL USERS OF THIS SITE. ANY USE OF THIS SITE CONSTITUTES YOUR AGREEMENT TO THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF USE.        About this site Contact us Site help e-Newsletter Site map Reprints and permissions Advertise with us Privacy policy updated Jun 20. Frostbite  Gastroenteritis  Head pain                     Head trauma Heart attack Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heatstroke Human bites Hypothermia Insect bites and stings Motion sickness Nosebleeds Poisoning Puncture wounds Severe bleeding Shock Snakebites Spider bites Spinal injury Sprain Stroke Sunburn  Tick bites  Tooth loss  Toothache Disclaimer: This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice. All rights reserved. 2008 Terms and conditions of use updated Jun 20. If you're in a life-threatening or emergency medical situation. seek medical assistance immediately. . Don't use this information to diagnose or develop a treatment plan for a health problem or disease without consulting a qualified health care provider.

latex. anaphylaxis can occur within minutes. If you're extremely sensitive. because the effects of epinephrine are only temporary. Your blood pressure drops. and your internal organs can be affected. even to the point of causing difficulty breathing and shock. The inside of your throat might swell as well. such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl. Some people have anaphylactic reactions from unknown causes. such as the EpiPen. You can self-administer epinephrine with an auto-injector.MayoClinic. Epinephrine is the most commonly used drug for severe allergic reactions. you might break out in hives and your eyes or lips might swell severely. and have your household members read them as well. If you observe someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis: 1. In sensitive people. Dizziness. A wide range of substances — including insect venom. and certain foods and drugs — can cause anaphylaxis. Call 911 or your local medical emergency number. abdominal cramping. others). pollen. You should also carry an antihistamine pill. vomiting or diarrhea also may accompany anaphylaxis. mental confusion. carry medications with you as an antidote. but may also occur up to several hours after exposure to a specific allergy-causing substance. It comes only as an injection that must be prescribed by your doctor. How you can be ready: If you've had an anaphylactic reaction in the past. Be sure to read the injection instructions as soon as you receive an auto-injector. . nausea. Seek emergency medical attention immediately after taking these medications.com Bookstore Diseases & Conditions Drugs & Supplements Treatment Decisions Healthy Living Ask a Specialist Health Tools Slide Shows Video Blogs & Podcasts Home RSS þÿ DISEASES AND CONDITIONS þÿ More Information Anaphylaxis: First aid A severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can produce shock and life-threatening respiratory distress and circulatory collapse.

however. Apply an antibiotic cream to prevent infection and cover the bite with a clean bandage. Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. If you suspect the bite was caused by an animal that might carry rabies — including any wild or domestic animal of unknown immunization status — see your doctor immediately. Massage the injection site for 10 seconds to enhance absorption. If there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth. Bites from nonimmunized domestic animals and wild animals carry the risk of rabies. treat it as a minor wound. Have the person lie still on his or her back with feet higher than the head. have the person take an antihistamine pill if he or she is able to do so without choking. are more likely to cause infection. skunks. 6. . 5. Look for a medical emergency ID bracelet or necklace. Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. coughing or movement). Dogs are more likely to bite than cats are. squirrels and other rodents rarely carry rabies. After administering epinephrine. Don't give anything else to drink. Animal bites: First aid If an animal bites you or your child. Domestic pets cause most animal bites. If the bite barely breaks the skin and there is no danger of rabies. such as an auto-injector of epinephrine (for example. see your doctor immediately. increased pain or oozing.  For infection. dry cloth to stop the bleeding and see your doctor. begin CPR.  For deep wounds.  For suspected rabies. Administer the drug as directed — usually by pressing the auto-injector against the person's thigh and holding it in place for several seconds. 3. your doctor may recommend a booster. Rabbits. If there are no signs of circulation (breathing. follow these guidelines:  For minor wounds.2. Doctors recommend getting a tetanus shot every 10 years. such as swelling. apply pressure with a clean. You should have the booster within 48 hours of the injury. Cat bites. Check for special medications that the person might be carrying to treat an allergic attack. 4. Rabies is more common in raccoons. If the animal bite creates a deep puncture of the skin or the skin is badly torn and bleeding. EpiPen). redness. bats and foxes than in cats and dogs. If you notice signs of infection. If your last one was more than five years ago and your wound is deep or dirty. turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking.

severe pain. Unbroken skin over a blister provides a natural barrier to bacteria and decreases the risk of infection. plasticcoated gauze pad that absorbs moisture and allows the wound to breathe. If you have diabetes or poor circulation. protective "window" at the front of the eye. In some cases.Black eye: First aid The so-called black eye is caused by bleeding beneath the skin around the eye. call your doctor before considering the self-care measures below. do everything possible to keep it intact. Cover a small blister with an adhesive bandage. Take care not to press on the eye itself. and cover a large one with a porous. even a skull fracture.  Be sure there's no blood within the white and colored parts of the eye. is serious and can reduce vision and damage the cornea — the clear. Here's how:  Wash your hands and the blister with soap and warm water. abnormally high pressure inside the eyeball (glaucoma) also can result. Apply more ointment and a bandage. Aim for several spots near the blister's edge. called a hyphema.  Use the needle to puncture the blister. To take care of a black eye:  Using gentle pressure. redness. If the blister isn't too painful. and continue using ice or cold packs for 24 to 48 hours.  Cut away all the dead skin after several days. particularly if the area around both eyes is bruised (raccoon eyes) or if there has been a head injury. using tweezers and scissors sterilized with rubbing alcohol. Let the fluid drain.  Swab the blister with iodine or rubbing alcohol. increasing pain or warm skin. Call your doctor if you see signs of infection around a blister — pus. To relieve blister-related pain.  Sterilize a clean. drain the fluid while leaving the overlying skin intact. Don't puncture a blister unless it's painful or prevents you from walking or using one of your hands. . but leave the overlying skin in place. apply a cold pack or a cloth filled with ice to the area around the eye. bleeding within the eye. Apply cold as soon as possible after the injury to reduce swelling. Sometimes a black eye indicates a more extensive injury. blurring). Although most black eye injuries aren't serious. Seek medical care immediately if you experience vision problems (double vision. sharp needle by wiping it with rubbing alcohol.  Apply an antibiotic ointment to the blister and cover with a bandage or gauze pad. or bleeding in the eye or from the nose Blisters: First aid Common causes of blisters include friction and burns.

but suddenly experience bruises. Special athletic socks are available that have extra padding in critical areas. you don't need a bandage.  Measure both feet and try on both shoes.  Wear the same socks you'll wear when walking. But they can be both. or bring them with you to the store. such as from your nose or gums. socks. Apply ice or a cold pack several times a day for a day or two after the injury. Bruise: First aid A bruise forms when a blow breaks small blood vessels near your skin's surface. your stool or your urine. if possible.  Avoid shoes with seams in the toe box.  Leave toe room.  You bruise easily and you're experiencing abnormal bleeding elsewhere. If your feet differ in size. such as a blood-clotting problem or blood-related disease. so a midday fitting will probably give you the best fit. Be sure that you can comfortably wiggle your toes. Your feet swell throughout the day. Nosebleeds: First aid Nosebleeds are common. Shoe-shopping tips Remember the following when you shop for shoes:  Shop during the middle of the day. The trapped blood appears as a black-and-blue mark. Bruises accompanied by persistent pain or headache also may indicate a more serious underlying illness and require medical attention. Shoe sizes change throughout adulthood. there also are tiny red dots or red splotches. . use gloves. Consider acetaminophen (Tylenol. others) for pain relief. Rest the bruised area.  Go for flexible. You might also try attaching moleskin to the inside of your shoe where it might rub.  Measure your feet. enhance bruise healing with these simple techniques:     Elevate the injured area. Sometimes. such as at the heel. You can.To prevent a blister. but supportive. however. shoes with cushioned insoles. a bandage or similar protective covering over the area being rubbed. or you notice blood in your eyes. which may irritate bunions or hammertoes. See your doctor if:  You have unusually large or painful bruises — particularly if your bruises seem to develop for no known reasons. buy the larger size. allowing a small amount of blood to leak out into the tissues under your skin.  You have no history of bruising. These signs and symptoms may indicate a more serious problem. Most often they are a nuisance and not a true medical problem. If your skin isn't broken.

They require a specialist's help. Pinch your nose in the technique described above and call your doctor. make an appointment with your doctor. Your doctor may advise adjusting your medication intake. In middle-aged and older adults. Keep your head higher than the level of your heart. Use your thumb and index finger and breathe through your mouth. breathe through your mouth until the object is removed. don't pick or blow your nose and don't bend down until several hours after the bleeding episode. Apply a water-based lubricant to your nostrils and increase the humidity in your home to help relieve nasal bleeding. To take care of a nosebleed:  Sit upright and lean forward. others). These nosebleeds begin spontaneously and are often difficult to stop. You may need to have the blood vessel that's causing your problem cauterized. Foreign object in the nose: First aid If a foreign object becomes lodged in your nose:  Don't probe at the object with a cotton swab or other tool.  Don't try to inhale the object by forcefully breathing in. such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin). Continue to pinch for five to 10 minutes. Using supplemental oxygen administered with a nasal tube (cannula) may increase your risk of nosebleeds. The septum separates your nasal chambers.  To prevent re-bleeding after bleeding has stopped. Also call your doctor if you are experiencing nasal bleeding and are taking blood thinners. By remaining upright. Neo-Synephrine. Sometimes your doctor may pack your nose with special gauze or an inflatable latex balloon to put pressure on the blood vessel and stop the bleeding. Cautery is a technique in which the blood vessel is burned with electric current. a fall or an injury to your head. It may be caused by hardened arteries or high blood pressure. which can irritate your stomach. silver nitrate or a laser. including a punch in the face that may have broken your nose For frequent nosebleeds If you experience frequent nosebleeds.  If re-bleeding occurs.  Pinch your nose. nosebleeds usually originate from the septum. blow out forcefully to clear your nose of blood clots and spray both sides of your nose with a decongestant nasal spray containing oxymetazoline (Afrin. but they may also begin deeper in the nose's interior. you reduce blood pressure in the veins of your nose. Instead. This discourages further bleeding. This maneuver sends pressure to the bleeding point on the nasal septum and often stops the flow of blood. Seek medical care immediately if:  The bleeding lasts for more than 20 minutes  The nosebleed follows an accident.Among children and young adults. Sitting forward will help you avoid swallowing blood. . This latter origin of nosebleed is much less common. just inside the nose. nosebleeds can begin from the septum.

Young children often swallow small objects. If the person doesn't give the signal. If another person is available. deliver five back blows between the victim's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. perform back blows and abdominal thrusts before calling 911 or your local emergency number for help. If only one nostril is affected.  Call for emergency medical assistance or go to your local emergency room if these methods fail. Because choking cuts off oxygen to the brain. If the blockage still isn't dislodged. Blow your nose gently to try to free the object.  Grasp your fist with the other hand and bend over a hard surface — a countertop or chair will do. Foreign object inhaled: First aid If you or your child inhales a foreign object. Position it slightly above the person's navel.  Alternate between five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until the blockage is dislodged. If you're the only rescuer. blocking the flow of air. If the inhaled object causes choking. upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up. The universal sign for choking is hands clutched to the throat. Tip the person forward slightly.  Grasp the fist with the other hand. Don't try to remove an object that isn't visible or easily grasped.  Perform a total of five abdominal thrusts. if needed. the American Red Cross recommends the "five-and-five" approach to delivering first aid:  First.  Shove your fist inward and upward. see your doctor. repeat the five-and-five cycle. look for these indications: . a piece of food often is the culprit. To perform the Heimlich maneuver on someone else:  Stand behind the person. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick. Wrap your arms around the waist.  Make a fist with one hand. perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver). In adults.  Next. Choking: First aid Choking occurs when a foreign object becomes lodged in the throat or windpipe. have that person call for help while you perform first aid. but don't blow hard or repeatedly. administer first aid as quickly as possible.  Gently remove the object if it's visible and you can easily grasp it with tweezers. close the opposite nostril by applying gentle pressure and then blow out gently through the affected nostril. To perform the Heimlich maneuver on yourself:  Place a fist slightly above your navel.

perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver).  Shove your fist inward and upward.  Make a fist with one hand. Position it slightly above the person's navel. with a quick thrust.  Grasp your fist with the other hand and bend over a hard surface — a countertop or chair will do. you can still perform abdominal thrusts to dislodge the item. you'll be unable to effectively deliver back blows to yourself.  Proceed as with the Heimlich maneuver. deliver five back blows between the person's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. if needed.  Next. just above the joining of the lowest ribs. If another person is available. Tip the person forward slightly. at the base of the breastbone. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick.  Repeat until the food or other blockage is dislodged or the person becomes unconscious. have that person call for help while you perform first aid.  Alternate between five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until the blockage is dislodged. Clearing the airway of an unconscious person:  Lower the person on his or her back onto the floor. lips and nails turning blue or dusky Loss of consciousness If choking is occurring. perform back blows and abdominal thrusts before calling 911 (or your local emergency number) for help. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) on someone else:  Stand behind the person.  Grasp the fist with the other hand. pressing hard into the chest. If you're alone and choking. . the Red Cross recommends a "five-and-five" approach to delivering first aid:  First.  Perform a total of five abdominal thrusts. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) on yourself:  Place a fist slightly above your navel. If you're the only rescuer. Wrap your arms around the waist. repeat the "five-and-five" cycle. If the blockage still isn't dislodged.     Inability to talk Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing Inability to cough forcefully Skin. Clearing the airway of a pregnant woman or obese person:  Position your hands a little bit higher than with a normal Heimlich maneuver. upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up. However.

Using two fingers placed at the center of the infant's breastbone. give five quick chest compressions. The chest compressions used in CPR may dislodge the object. learn the Heimlich maneuver and CPR in a certified first-aid training course. reach a finger into the mouth and sweep out the cause of the blockage. Remember to recheck the mouth periodically. deliver five back blows between the victim's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. If an object is stuck in your esophagus. Call 911 or your local emergency number for help. If there's a visible blockage at the back of the throat or high in the throat. Clearing the airway of a choking infant younger than age 1:  Assume a seated position and hold the infant facedown on your forearm.  Alternate between five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until the blockage is dislodged. you may need to remove it. To prepare yourself for these situations.  Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if the object remains lodged and the person doesn't respond after you take the above measures. Be careful not to push the food or object deeper into the airway.  Begin infant CPR if one of these techniques opens the airway but the infant doesn't resume breathing. perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver). especially if it is:  A pointed object. give abdominal thrusts only. The combination of gravity and the back blows should release the blocking object.  Hold the infant faceup on your forearm with the head lower than the trunk if the above doesn't work. Clear the airway.  Thump the infant gently but firmly five times on the middle of the back using the heel of your hand. Call for emergency medical help. which can rapidly cause local tissue injury and should be removed from the esophagus without delay If a swallowed object blocks the airway. If the child is older than age 1. which should be removed as quickly as possible to avoid further injury to the esophageal lining  A tiny watch. To perform abdominal thrusts (the Heimlich maneuver) on someone else: . which is resting on your thigh. which can happen easily in young children. the American Red Cross recommends the "five-and-five" approach to first aid:  First. But some objects can lodge in your esophagus. Foreign object swallowed: First aid If you swallow a foreign object. the tube that connects your throat and stomach. it will usually pass through your digestive system uneventfully.  Next.  Repeat the back blows and chest thrusts if breathing doesn't resume.or calculator-type button battery.

and confident in your ability. You don't need to try rescue breathing. The bottom line is that it's far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you're fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren't 100 percent complete. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies.) However. Time is critical when you're helping an unconscious person who isn't breathing.  Shove your fist inward and upward. If you're not trained in CPR. If the blockage still isn't dislodged. (A complete description of how to do both follows farther down in this article. upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up. repeat the five-and-five cycle. including heart attack or near drowning. then provide hands-only CPR. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick. Position it slightly above the person's navel. Just do chest compressions.  Make a fist with one hand. If you've previously received CPR training. Alternate between 30 seconds of chest compressions and two rescue breaths. You can't perform back blows on yourself. then you can opt for one of two approaches: 1. Death will occur within eight to 10 minutes. not to children. If you're well trained. in which someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. Remember. CPR involves two elements: chest compressions combined with mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing. if needed. But you can perform abdominal thrusts. . Tip the person forward slightly. what you as a bystander actually should do in an emergency situation really depends on your knowledge and comfort level.)  Trained. (Details described below. and ready to go. or 2. That means uninterrupted chest presses of about two per second until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm. but rusty. the absence of oxygenated blood can cause irreparable brain damage in only a few minutes.  Trained. the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone's life. Ideally. Here's the latest advice from the American Heart Association:  Untrained. Wrap your arms around the waist.  Grasp the fist with the other hand. When the heart stops. then it's fine to do just chest compressions. Stand behind the person. but you're not confident in your abilities. To perform abdominal thrusts (the Heimlich maneuver) on yourself:  Place a fist slightly above your navel.  Perform a total of five abdominal thrusts.  Grasp your fist with the other hand and bend over a hard surface — a countertop or chair will do. The above advice applies only to adults needing CPR.

BREATHING: Breathe for the person Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can't be opened. Open the person's airway using the head-tilt. repeat the head-tilt. 3. making a seal. CIRCULATION: Restore blood circulation with chest compressions 1. Check for normal breathing. Breathing and Circulation — to remember the steps explained below. Begin chest compressions to restore circulation. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. Before you begin Assess the situation before starting CPR:  Is the person conscious or unconscious?  If the person appears unconscious. including CPR and how to use an automatic external defibrillator (AED). tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly. gently lift the chin forward to open the airway. Place your other hand on top of the first hand.  If an AED is immediately available. deliver one shock if advised by the device. If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone. between the nipples. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. In this special case. begin CPR for one minute and then call 911. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven't been trained in emergency procedures. one should call 911 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. call 911 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). 3. take an accredited first-aid training course. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person's chest. Put your palm on the person's forehead and gently tilt the head back. If the person isn't breathing normally and you are trained in CPR. Then with the other hand. chin-lift maneuver. Move quickly through Airway and Breathing to begin chest compressions to restore circulation. 1. give the second breath. If it does rise. taking no more than five or 10 seconds: Look for chest motion. chin-lift maneuver) pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-tomouth breathing and cover the person's mouth with yours. chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. 2. 2. 4. Remember the ABCs Think ABC — Airway. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands. "Are you OK?"  If the person doesn't respond and two people are available. Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. then begin CPR. AIRWAY: Clear the airway 1. Kneel next to the person's neck and shoulders. begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and proceed directly to chest compressions to restore circulation. listen for breath sounds.To learn CPR properly. and feel for the person's breath on your cheek and ear. . With the airway open (using the head-tilt. If the chest doesn't rise.

After 30 compressions. 5 below.  If another person is available. Trained staff at many public places are also able to provide and use an AED. go to No. If someone else is available. If the chest rises.  Use the same compression-breath rate as is used for adults: 30 compressions followed by two breaths.2. perform first aid for choking. Do not use an AED for infants younger than age 1. perform five cycles of compressions and breaths on the child — this should take about two minutes — before calling 911 or your local emergency number or using an AED. The American Heart Association recommends administering one shock. do CPR for two minutes — about five cycles — before calling 911 or your local emergency number. 5. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. give a second rescue breath. apply it and follow the prompts. Push hard and push fast — give two compressions per second. To begin.  Use only one hand to perform heart compressions. ask that person to give two breaths after you do 30 compressions. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over. for children ages 1 to 8. if available. If you're not trained to use an AED. apply it and follow the prompts. That's one cycle. assess the situation. The differences are as follows:  If you're alone. 3. Stroke the baby and watch for a response. if there is no response and an AED is available. have that person call for help immediately while you attend to the baby. use adult pads. Following the two breaths. If you don't know why the infant isn't breathing. To perform CPR on a baby Most cardiac arrests in infants occur from lack of oxygen. Continue until the child moves or help arrives. If pediatric pads aren't available. This is one cycle. follow the ABC procedures below and time the call for help as follows:  If you're the only rescuer and CPR is needed. If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automatic external defibrillator (AED) is available. perform CPR. Use pediatric pads. such as from drowning or choking. If the chest doesn't rise. immediately begin the next cycle of compressions and breaths. or about 120 compressions per minute. If an AED isn't available. AIRWAY: Clear the airway . repeat the head-tilt. then resuming CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. tilt the head back and lift the chin up to open the airway. but don't shake the child. 4. Use pediatric pads if available. To perform CPR on a child The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through 8 is essentially the same as that for an adult. Pinch the nose shut and breathe into the mouth for one second. If you know the infant has an airway obstruction.  Breathe more gently. a 911 operator may be able to guide you in its use.  After five cycles (about two minutes) of CPR. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). chin-lift maneuver and then give the second rescue breath. If there's no response. such as movement.

repeat the head-tilt. 2. 3. with swelling and pain sometimes present. Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the baby's nipples. 6. flat surface. or a major joint. examine the mouth to make sure no foreign material is inside. Begin chest compressions to restore circulation. The outer layer of skin hasn't been burned through. CIRCULATION: Restore blood circulation 1. 5. Treat a firstdegree burn as a minor burn unless it involves substantial portions of the hands. Perform CPR for about two minutes before calling for help unless someone else can make the call while you attend to the baby. BREATHING: Breathe for the infant 1. Gently compress the chest to about one-third to one-half the depth of the chest. put your ear near the baby's mouth and check for breathing: Look for chest motion. begin mouth-to-mouth breathing immediately. Second-degree burn When the first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of skin (dermis) also is burned. sweep it out with your finger. in the center of the chest. 4. Use the strength of your cheeks to deliver gentle puffs of air (instead of deep breaths from your lungs) to slowly breathe into the baby's mouth one time. The floor or ground also will do. face. The skin is usually red. If the object is seen. If the chest still doesn't rise. and feel for breath on your cheek and ear. If the chest does not rise. In no more than 10 seconds. Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until a professional Burns: First aid To distinguish a minor burn from a serious burn. 2. listen for breath sounds. You should pump at a rate of about 100 to 120 pumps a minute. such as a table. 3. 3. Gently tip the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.1. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. If the airway seems blocked. 4. chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. give a second rescue breath. the first step is to determine the degree and the extent of damage to body tissues. Count aloud as you pump in a fairly rapid rhythm. If it does. Give two breaths after every 30 chest compressions. perform first aid for a choking infant. The three classifications of first-degree burn. . Watch to see if the baby's chest rises. taking one second for the breath. 2. second-degree burn and third-degree burn will help you determine emergency care: First-degree burn The least serious burns are those in which only the outer layer of skin is burned. feet. If the infant isn't breathing. Place the baby on his or her back on a firm. Cover the baby's mouth and nose with your mouth. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line. groin or buttocks.

take the following action:  Cool the burn. Cooling the burn reduces swelling by conducting heat away from the skin. or moist towels. Doing so could cause shock. carbon monoxide poisoning. If infection develops. Second-degree burns produce severe pain and swelling. treat it as a minor burn. involve all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage. For minor burns. feet. Don't remove burnt clothing. follow these steps: 1. Don't use fluffy cotton. moist. clean. sterile bandage. further damaging your skin. face.5 centimeters) in diameter. immerse the burn in cold water or cool it with cold compresses. Difficulty inhaling and exhaling. such as increased pain. ibuprofen (Advil. naproxen (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol. Don't put ice on the burn. Fat. If this is impractical. including first-degree burns and second-degree burns limited to an area no larger than 3 inches (7. or until the pain subsides.the injury is called a second-degree burn. reduces pain and protects blistered skin. begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 5. muscle and even bone may be affected. Hold the burned area under cold running water for at least five minutes. groin or buttocks. do make sure the victim is no longer in contact with smoldering materials or exposed to smoke or heat. Blisters develop and the skin takes on an intensely reddened.5 centimeters) in diameter.  Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. 2.  Cover the burn with a sterile gauze bandage. or other toxic effects may occur if smoke inhalation accompanies the burn. If the second-degree burn is no larger than 3 inches (7. Use sunscreen on the area for at least a year. Minor burns usually heal without further treatment. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause frostbite. Until an emergency unit arrives. others). Broken blisters are vulnerable to infection. dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. when possible.  Don't break blisters. others). Areas may be charred black or appear dry and white. If there is no breathing or other sign of circulation. splotchy appearance. 4. or over a major joint. swelling or oozing. Wrap the gauze loosely to avoid putting pressure on burned skin. Avoid re-injuring or tanning if the burns are less than a year old — doing so may cause more extensive pigmentation changes. Bandaging keeps air off the burned skin. Watch for signs of infection. Caution  Don't use ice. However. Third-degree burn The most serious burns are painless. This could prevent proper healing.  Don't apply butter or ointments to the burn. If the burned area is larger or if the burn is on the hands. Don't immerse large severe burns in cold water. moist cloth. treat it as a major burn and get medical help immediately. Check for signs of circulation (breathing. fever. They may heal with pigment changes. seek medical help. Motrin. redness. Never give aspirin to children or teenagers. Elevate the burned body part or parts. meaning the healed area may be a different color from the surrounding skin. which may irritate the skin. These include aspirin. For major burns. Raise above heart level. coughing or movement). . Cover the area of the burn. Use a cool. 3.

If a strong electrical current passes through your body. bring the chemical container or a complete description of the substance with you for identification. such as fainting. While helping someone with an electrical burn and waiting for medical help. 4.Chemical burns: First aid If a chemical burns the skin. Apply a cool.5 centimeters) in diameter. Wrap the burned area loosely with a dry. Look first. . heartbeat or consciousness. Touching the person may pass the current through you. call the poison control center at 800-222-1222. If you seek emergency assistance. sterile dressing or a clean cloth. Minor chemical burns usually heal without further treatment. and the resulting second-degree burn covers an area more than 3 inches (7. but the damage can extend deep into the tissues beneath your skin. feet. can occur. Turn off the source of electricity if possible. wet cloth or towel to relieve pain. others) or ibuprofen (Advil. such as a heart rhythm disturbance or cardiac arrest. internal damage.  The chemical burn penetrated through the first layer of skin. Remove clothing or jewelry that has been contaminated by the chemical. hands.  The victim has pain that cannot be controlled with over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol. resulting in fractures or other associated injuries. or over a major joint. Seek emergency medical assistance if:  The victim has signs of shock. brush it off the skin before flushing. Sometimes the jolt associated with the electrical burn can cause you to be thrown or to fall. move the source away from both you and the injured person using a dry nonconducting object made of cardboard.  The chemical burn occurred on the eye. Rewash the burned area for several more minutes if the person experiences increased burning after the initial washing. follow these steps: 1. pale complexion or breathing in a notably shallow manner. others). 2. running water for 20 minutes or more. Motrin. 5. is confused. 2. Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if the person who has been burned is in pain. or is experiencing changes in his or breathing. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source. Electrical burns: First aid An electrical burn may appear minor or not show on the skin at all. such as lime. plastic or wood. face. Remove the cause of the burn by flushing the chemicals off the skin surface with cool. follow these steps: 1. If not. Don't touch. If the burning chemical is a powder-like substance. groin or buttocks. 3. If you're unsure whether a substance is toxic.

If absent. Also call for emergency help if:  The person is unresponsive. such as bleeding or broken bones Fractures (broken bones): First aid A fracture is a broken bone.  The pulse is weak and rapid. If conscious. 4. call 911 or your local emergency number. give nothing by mouth. Loose fibers can stick to the burns. Sometimes the pupils are dilated. coughing or movement). Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if there's no respiration or heartbeat. Prevent shock.3. Cover the affected areas. Even if the person complains of thirst. Keep the person still. 5. or a clean cloth. heatstroke.  The extremity of the injured arm or leg. Shock sometimes causes a person to become overly excited and anxious. It requires medical attention. Breathing may be slow and shallow. If you suspect shock.  There is heavy bleeding. Check for signs of circulation (breathing. if available.  Seek treatment for injuries. Lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and the legs elevated. Blood pressure is below normal. Don't use a blanket or towel.  Keep the person warm and comfortable. such as a toe or finger. If raising the legs will cause pain or further injury. or hyperventilation (rapid or deep breathing) may occur.  Check for signs of circulation (breathing. . Loosen belt(s) and tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. allergic reactions. coughing or movement). Various signs and symptoms appear in a person experiencing shock:  The skin is cool and clammy.  The person may be conscious or unconscious. If absent. isn't breathing or isn't moving. is numb or bluish at the tip. If the broken bone is the result of major trauma or injury. severe infection. poisoning or other causes. keep him or her flat. the person may feel faint or be very weak or confused.  The limb or joint appears deformed. even if the person seems normal after an injury:  Dial 911 or call your local emergency number. Shock: First aid Shock may result from trauma.  Have the person lie down on his or her back with feet higher than the head.  Even gentle pressure or movement causes pain.  Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking if the person vomits or bleeds from the mouth.  The bone has pierced the skin. If the person is breathing. begin CPR. begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. It may appear pale or gray.  The eyes lack luster and may seem to stare. cover any burned areas with a sterile gauze bandage.

2. Immobilize the injured body part once the bleeding has stopped. Maintain pressure until the bleeding stops. Don't probe the wound or attempt to clean it at this point. Your principal concern is to stop the bleeding. head or back. If the wound is abdominal and organs have been displaced. don't try to push them back into place. If possible. follow these steps: 1. Squeeze a main artery if necessary. With your other hand. Don't try to realign the bone. Use a sterile bandage.  Treat for shock. You can maintain pressure by binding the wound tightly with a bandage (or even a piece of clean clothing) and adhesive tape. If the bleeding doesn't stop with direct pressure. clean cloth or even a piece of clothing. piece of cloth or some other material. don't remove it. use your hand. 3. Don't reposition displaced organs. If nothing else is available. Keep your fingers flat.  Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until emergency personnel arrive. Have the injured person lie down. continue to exert pressure on the wound itself. elevate the legs. position the person's head slightly lower than the trunk or elevate the legs. add more absorbent material on top of it. Don't apply ice directly to the skin — wrap the ice in a towel. Leave the bandages in place and get the injured person to the emergency room as soon as possible. 4. Hold continuous pressure for at least 20 minutes without looking to see if the bleeding has stopped. apply a splint to the area. rapid breaths. Severe bleeding: First aid If possible.  Immobilize the injured area. If you suspect internal bleeding. 7. if possible. If the person feels faint or is breathing in short.  You suspect a bone is broken in the hip. Don't remove any large or more deeply embedded objects. Pressure points of the arm are on the inside of the arm just above the elbow and just below the armpit. Pressure points of the leg are just behind the knee and in the groin. a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing. 6. Instead. If the bleeding continues and seeps through the gauze or other material you are holding on the wound. call 911 or your local emergency number. remove any obvious dirt or debris from the wound. Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:  Stop any bleeding. Signs of internal bleeding may include: . but if you've been trained in how to splint and professional help isn't readily available. 5. apply pressure to the artery delivering blood to the area of the wound. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage. wash your hands to avoid infection and put on synthetic gloves. This position reduces the risk of fainting by increasing blood flow to the brain. If possible. Don't remove the gauze or bandage. pelvis or upper leg (for example. lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and. While wearing gloves. For other cases of severe bleeding. the leg and foot turn outward abnormally). elevate the site of bleeding. Cover the wound with a dressing. You suspect a bone is broken in the neck. before you try to stop severe bleeding. Apply pressure directly on the wound. Squeeze the main artery in these areas against the bone.

.   Wash your hands with soap and water. Then hold your affected eye open under a gently running faucet.  Or. take these steps immediately: 1. thirst or skin that's cool to the touch Chemical splash in the eye: First aid If a chemical splashes into your eye.  Don't put anything except water or contact lens saline rinse in the eye. call 911 or your local emergency number. possibly accompanied by rigidity or spasm of abdominal muscles Fractures Shock. indicated by weakness. Everyday activities can lead to corneal abrasions.       Bleeding from body cavities (such as the ears. If readily available.  Young children may do best if they lie down in the bathtub or lean back over a sink while you pour a gentle stream of water on the forehead over the affected eye or on the bridge of the nose for both eyes. if necessary. aim the stream on the bridge of the nose if both eyes are affected. Flush your eye with water. Usually the scratch is superficial. dirt. abdomen or side (between ribs and hip) Wounds that have penetrated the skull. which is a serious problem. anxiety. wear sunglasses because your eyes will be sensitive to light.   Caution:  Don't rub the eye — this may cause further damage. Seek emergency medical assistance After following the above steps. Your first goal is to get the chemical off the surface of your eye. Other common injuries to the cornea include splash accidents — contact with chemicals ranging from antifreeze to household cleaners. chest or abdomen Abdominal tenderness. protective "window" at the front of your eye. lukewarm tap water for at least 20 minutes. Take the chemical container or the name of the chemical with you to the emergency department. but then you need to make sure to remove the chemical from your hands. nose. then take them out. Remember to flush for at least 20 minutes no matter which method you choose. seek emergency care or. doing home repairs or being scratched by children who accidentally brush your cornea with a fingernail. Contact with dust. Some corneal abrasions become infected and result in a corneal ulcer. chest. Use clean. put your head down and turn it to the side. rectum or vagina) Vomiting or coughing up blood Bruising on neck. Remove contact lenses. sand. If they didn't come out during the flush. metal particles or even an edge of a piece of paper can scratch or cut the cornea. Examples are playing sports. and this is called a corneal abrasion. Or. and don't use eyedrops unless emergency personnel tell you to do so. Thoroughly rinse your hands to be sure no chemical or soap is left on them. Corneal abrasion (scratch): First aid The most common types of eye injury involve the cornea — the clear. wood shavings. and use whichever of these approaches is quickest:  Get into the shower and aim a gentle stream of lukewarm water on the forehead over the affected eye.

5. Don't keep checking to see if the bleeding has stopped because this may damage or dislodge the fresh clot that's forming and cause bleeding to resume. Soap can irritate the wound. There's no need to use hydrogen peroxide. This movement may remove small particles of dust or sand. The products don't make the wound heal faster.  Don't touch your eyeball with tweezers. Rinse out the wound with clear water. or clean water to rinse the eye. if available. abrasions can be painful. Hold the pressure continuously for 20 to 30 minutes. Cuts and scrapes: First aid Minor cuts and scrapes usually don't require a trip to the emergency room. cotton swabs or other instruments. blurred vision. Change the dressing. To clean the area around the wound. exposure to the air will speed wound healing. Change the dressing at least daily or whenever it becomes wet or dirty. apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment such as Neosporin or Polysporin to help keep the surface moist. This can aggravate a corneal abrasion. see your doctor. clean glass positioned with its rim resting on the bone at the base of your eye socket. Use an eyecup or small. iodine or an iodine-containing cleanser. After you clean the wound. If your cornea is scratched. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. use soap and a washcloth. so try to keep it out of the actual wound. Certain ingredients in some ointments can cause a mild rash in some people. If debris remains embedded in the wound after cleaning. use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove the particles. If they don't. Cover the wound. seek medical assistance. If a rash appears. Other immediate steps you can take for a corneal abrasion are to:  Use saline solution. use it. Take caution to avoid certain actions that may aggravate the injury:  Don't try to remove an object that's embedded in your eyeball. you might feel like you have sand in your eye.  Don't rub your eye after an injury. Clean the wound. seek prompt medical attention. 4. switch to adhesive-free dressings or sterile 2. You may get a headache. but they can discourage infection and allow your body's healing process to close the wound more efficiently.  Blink several times. Stop the bleeding. 3. The lashes of your lower eyelid can brush a foreign body from the undersurface of your upper eyelid. After the wound has healed enough to make infection unlikely. If you're allergic to the adhesive used in most bandages. Yet proper care is essential to avoid infection or other complications. Touching or pressing on your eye can worsen a corneal abrasion.Because the cornea is extremely sensitive. Rinsing the eye may wash out an offending foreign body. These guidelines can help you care for simple wounds: 1. Tears. If the blood spurts or continues to flow after continuous pressure. If your work site has an eye-rinse station. apply gentle pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. Apply an antibiotic. stop using the ointment. . Thorough wound cleaning reduces the risk of infection and tetanus. If dirt or debris remains in the wound after washing. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out. increased sensitivity or redness around the eye can suggest a corneal abrasion. In case of injury. Also avoid trying to remove a large object that makes closing the eye difficult.  Pull the upper eyelid over the lower eyelid.

Drive yourself only as a last resort. But a heart attack can also be silent and produce no signs or symptoms. Doctors recommend you get a tetanus shot every 10 years. neck or arms  Lightheadedness. Get a tetanus shot. Many people who suffer a heart attack have warning symptoms hours. to serious medical emergencies. 7.gauze held in place with paper tape. . Aspirin can inhibit blood clotting. sweating. nausea or shortness of breath If you or someone else may be having a heart attack:  Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. As with other sudden. Chest pain: First aid Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems. Proper closure within a few hours reduces the risk of infection. These supplies generally are available at pharmacies. your doctor may recommend a tetanus shot booster. have bleeding problems or your doctor previously told you not to do so. A wound that is more than 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) deep or is gaping or jagged edged and has fat or muscle protruding usually requires stitches. if there are absolutely no other options. drainage. days or weeks in advance. A strip or two of surgical tape may hold a minor cut together. 8. unexplained pains. you shouldn't take aspirin if you're allergic to aspirin. Heart attack A heart attack occurs when an artery that supplies oxygen to your heart muscle becomes blocked. Use the following information to help you determine whether your chest pain is a medical emergency. Watch for signs of infection. The earliest predictor of an attack may be recurrent chest pain that's triggered by exertion and relieved by rest. 6. but if you can't easily close the mouth of the wound.  Chew a regular-strength aspirin. such as a heart attack or pulmonary embolism. However. Driving yourself puts you and others at risk if your condition suddenly worsens. Someone having a heart attack may experience any or all of the following:  Uncomfortable pressure. fainting. Get the booster within 48 hours of the injury. Get stitches for deep wounds. see your doctor as soon as possible. The specific cause of chest pain is often difficult to interpret. If your wound is deep or dirty and your last shot was more than five years ago. fullness or squeezing pain in the center of the chest lasting more than a few minutes  Pain spreading to the shoulders. Don't "tough out" the symptoms of a heart attack for more than five minutes. have someone such as a neighbor or friend drive you to the nearest hospital. increasing pain. chest pain may be a signal for you to get medical help. such as indigestion or stress. warmth or swelling. A heart attack generally causes chest pain that lasts longer than 15 minutes. See your doctor if the wound isn't healing or you notice any redness. If you don't have access to emergency medical services. gauze roll or a loosely applied elastic bandage.

take it as directed. It consists of pain and tenderness in and around the cartilage that connects your ribs to your breastbone (sternum). See your doctor if a cough and a fever or chills accompany your chest pain. One sign of pleurisy is that the pain is usually relieved temporarily by holding your breath or putting pressure on the painful area of your chest. Do not take anyone else's nitroglycerin. Signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism include:  Sudden.  Begin CPR. Pneumonia with pleurisy Frequent signs and symptoms of pneumonia are chest pain accompanied by chills. such as a heart attack. peptic ulcer pain. Chest wall pain One of the most common varieties of harmless chest pain is chest wall pain. isn't a medical emergency. Even if you're not trained. often accompanied by shortness of breath  Sudden. Pulmonary embolism describes the condition that occurs when a clot — usually from the veins of your leg or pelvis — lodges in an artery of your lung. such as esophageal reflux. If you think you're having a heart attack and your doctor has previously prescribed nitroglycerin for you. When pneumonia occurs with an inflammation of the membranes that surround the lung (pleura). Tissue death occurs when the tissue supplied by the blocked artery is damaged by the sudden loss of blood. Take nitroglycerin. Often. Pulmonary embolism An embolus is an accumulation of foreign material — usually a blood clot — that blocks an artery. or gallbladder pain. if prescribed. This is not true of a heart attack. a 911 dispatcher or another emergency medical specialist may advise you to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). sharp chest pain that begins or worsens with a deep breath or a cough. placing pressure over a few points along the margin of the sternum results in considerable tenderness limited to those small areas. you probably can conclude that a serious cause of chest pain. isn't responsible. If the person suspected of having a heart attack is unconscious. unexplained shortness of breath. you may have considerable chest discomfort when inhaling or coughing. even without pain  Cough that may produce blood-streaked sputum  Rapid heartbeat  Anxiety and excessive perspiration As with a suspected heart attack. If the pressure of a finger duplicates your chest pain. dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance immediately. a dispatcher can instruct you in CPR until help arrives. One kind of chest wall pain is costochondritis. fever and a cough that may produce bloody or foul-smelling sputum. This condition is called pleurisy. Other causes of chest pain include: Strained chest muscles from overuse or excessive coughing Chest muscle bruising from minor trauma Acute anxiety with rapid breathing Pain from the gastrointestinal tract.     . Pleurisy alone. however.

Prevent shock. resulting in fractures or other associated injuries. such as a heart rhythm disturbance or cardiac arrest. begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. move the source away from both you and the injured person using a dry nonconducting object made of cardboard. or is experiencing changes in his or breathing. 5. Dislocations may occur in major joints. If absent. A dislocation requires prompt medical attention to return your bones to their proper positions. While helping someone with an electrical burn and waiting for medical help. Don't try to move a dislocated joint or force it back into place. nerves or blood vessels. 4. The injury will temporarily deform and immobilize your joint and may result in sudden and severe pain and swelling. If the person is breathing. elbow or ankle or in smaller joints. internal damage. Dislocations are common injuries in contact sports. Loose fibers can stick to the burns. Until you receive help. 3. This can help reduce swelling by controlling internal bleeding and the buildup of fluids in and around the injured joint. such as rheumatoid arthritis. or a clean cloth. Put ice on the injured joint. hip. and in sports that may involve falls. Turn off the source of electricity if possible. but dislocation can be caused by an underlying disease. such as a blow or fall. Get medical help immediately. Touching the person may pass the current through you. such as your finger. If you believe you have dislocated a joint: 1. can occur. Cover the affected areas. If a strong electrical current passes through your body. The cause is usually trauma. is confused. Don't delay medical care. such as your shoulder. Lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and the legs elevated. 2. follow these steps: 1. This can damage the joint and its surrounding muscles. Don't touch. splint the affected joint into its fixed position. Check for signs of circulation (breathing. 3. Sometimes the jolt associated with the electrical burn can cause you to be thrown or to fall. such as football and hockey. plastic or wood. Don't move the joint. Electrical shock: First aid . knee. but the damage can extend deep into the tissues beneath your skin. cover any burned areas with a sterile gauze bandage. Electrical burns: First aid An electrical burn may appear minor or not show on the skin at all.Dislocation: First aid A dislocation is an injury in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source. If not. coughing or movement). heartbeat or consciousness. Don't use a blanket or towel. 2. Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if the person who has been burned is in pain. Look first. thumb or toe. such as downhill skiing and volleyball. ligaments. if available.

position the head slightly lower than the trunk.  Don't touch the person with your bare hands if he or she is still in contact with the electrical current. the person's overall health and how quickly the person is treated. the person's overall health and how quickly the person is treated. Check for signs of circulation (breathing. Prevent shock.The danger from an electrical shock depends on how high the voltage is. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately if any of these signs or symptoms occur:        Cardiac arrest Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Respiratory failure Muscle pain and contractions Seizures Numbness and tingling Unconsciousness While waiting for medical help.  Don't get near high-voltage wires until the power is turned off. Lay the person down and. Stay at least 20 feet away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. If absent. Turn off the source of electricity if possible. Electrical shock: First aid The danger from an electrical shock depends on how high the voltage is. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately if any of these signs or symptoms occur:        Cardiac arrest Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Respiratory failure Muscle pain and contractions Seizures Numbness and tingling Unconsciousness While waiting for medical help. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source. move the source away from you and the affected person. 3.  Don't move a person with an electrical injury unless the person is in immediate danger. how the current traveled through the body. if possible. follow these steps: 1. 2. Don't touch. 4. begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. using a nonconducting object made of cardboard. Caution Look first. If not. coughing or movement). plastic or wood. Touching the person may pass the current through you. with the legs elevated. follow these steps: . how the current traveled through the body.

Call 911 or your local emergency number. coughing or movement). if possible. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source. collars or other constrictive clothing. Continue CPR until help arrives or the person responds and begins to breathe. Elevate the legs above heart level — about 12 inches (30 centimeters). If absent. Touching the person may pass the current through you. treat loss of consciousness as a medical emergency until the signs and symptoms are relieved and the cause is known. Check the person's airway to be sure it's clear. Caution Look first. If you feel faint:  Lie down or sit down. position the head slightly lower than the trunk. Stay at least 20 feet away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Loosen belts. Help restore blood flow. coughing or movement). begin CPR.  Don't touch the person with your bare hands if he or she is still in contact with the electrical current.1. Fainting can have no medical significance. restore blood flow to the brain by raising the person's legs above the level of the head. Therefore.  If you sit down. Lay the person down and. If the person doesn't regain consciousness within one minute. 2. dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. 3. if possible.  Don't get near high-voltage wires until the power is turned off. The person should revive quickly. Watch for vomiting. Position the person on his or her back. This loss of consciousness is usually brief. Check for signs of circulation (breathing. 3. 2. Check for signs of circulation (breathing. plastic or wood. . If someone else faints: 1. 4. or the cause can be a serious disorder. If absent. If not. If the person is breathing. Discuss recurrent fainting spells with your doctor. Don't touch. with the legs elevated. 4. begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. using a nonconducting object made of cardboard. move the source away from you and the affected person. Turn off the source of electricity if possible. causing you to lose consciousness.  Don't move a person with an electrical injury unless the person is in immediate danger. Fainting: First aid Fainting occurs when the blood supply to your brain is momentarily inadequate. Prevent shock. place your head between your knees.

For very young children and infants. orally or under the arm. Don't treat fevers below 102 F (38.5 degree C) higher than a simultaneously taken oral reading. Today most have digital readouts. don't let go of the thermometer while it's inside your child. your doctor may suggest taking an over-the-counter medication. but potentially fatal. Lay your child on his or her stomach.6 F (37 C). How to take a temperature You can choose from several types of thermometers. others) or ibuprofen (Advil. Fever: First aid Fever is one of your body's reactions to infection. bruises or cuts appropriately.m. temperatures tend to be highest around 4 p. What's normal for you may be a little higher or lower than the average temperature of 98. glass mercury thermometers have been phased out and are no longer recommended. If you have a fever of 102 F (38. A rectal temperature reading is generally 1 degree F (about 0. don't give ibuprofen to infants younger than 6 months of age. Carefully insert the bulb one-half inch to one inch into the rectum.4 F (38 C) is always considered a fever. Some take the temperature quickly from the ear canal and can be especially useful for young children and older adults. Also. such as acetaminophen (Tylenol. Motrin. If you use a digital thermometer. and lowest around 4 a. Control bleeding with direct pressure. To avoid injury. But don't give aspirin to children. Rectally (for infants) To take your child's temperature rectally: Place a dab of petroleum jelly or other lubricant on the bulb. be sure to read the instructions so you know what the beeps mean and when to read the thermometer. Hold the bulb and child still for three minutes. In newborns. treat any bumps.  Remove and read the temperature as recommended by the manufacturer. Adults may also use aspirin. It may trigger a rare.  A rectal temperature reading is generally 1 degree F (about 0. a subnormal temperature — rather than a fever — also may be a sign of serious illness.     . others). disorder known as Reye's syndrome. Under normal circumstances.9 C) or higher.If the person was injured in a fall associated with a faint.9 C) with any medications unless advised to do so by your doctor.5 degree C) higher than an oral reading. Because of the potential for mercury exposure or ingestion. Other thermometers can be used rectally.m. But a rectal temperature higher than 100. even slightly elevated temperatures may indicate a serious infection.

Taking a rectal temperature is also an option for older adults when taking an oral temperature is not possible. Orally To take your temperature orally:

 Place the bulb under your tongue.  Close your mouth for the recommended amount of time, usually three minutes.
Under the arm (axillary) Although it's not the most accurate way to take a temperature, you can also use an oral thermometer for an armpit reading:

 Place the thermometer under your arm with your arm down.  Hold your arms across your chest.  Wait five minutes or as recommended by your thermometer's manufacturer. Then remove the
thermometer and read the temperature.  An axillary reading is generally 1 degree F (about 0.5 degree C) less than an oral reading. To take your child's axillary temperature, sit your child in your lap with your child facing to the side. Place the thermometer under your child's near arm, which should be against your chest. Get medical help for a fever in these cases:

 If a baby is younger than 3 months of age and has a rectal temperature of 100.4 F (38 C) or
higher. Even if your baby doesn't have other signs or symptoms, call your doctor just to be safe.

 If a baby is older than 3 months of age and has a temperature of 102 F (38.9 C) or higher.  If a newborn has a lower than normal temperature — less than 97 F (36.1 C) rectally.  If a child younger than age 2 has a fever for more than one day, or a child age 2 or older has a
fever for more than three days. If your child has a fever after being left in a very hot car, seek medical care immediately.

 If an adult has a temperature of more than 103 F (39.4 C) or has had a fever for more than three
days. Call your doctor immediately if any of these signs or symptoms accompanies a fever:

          

A severe headache Severe swelling of the throat Unusual skin rash Unusual eye sensitivity to bright light A stiff neck and pain when the head is bent forward Mental confusion Persistent vomiting Difficulty breathing or chest pain Extreme listlessness or irritability Abdominal pain or pain when urinating Any other unexplained symptoms

When reporting a fever to your doctor, don't attempt to convert from a rectal reading to an oral reading. It's simpler to just report what the reading was and how you took it.

Food-borne illness: First aid
All foods naturally contain small amounts of bacteria. But poor handling of food, improper cooking or inadequate storage can result in bacteria multiplying in large enough numbers to cause illness. Parasites, viruses, toxins and chemicals also can contaminate food. Food-borne illness from these sources, however, is less common than food-borne illness caused by bacteria. Signs and symptoms of food poisoning vary with the source of contamination. Generally diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain and, sometimes, vomiting occur within hours after eating contaminated food. Whether you become ill after eating contaminated food depends on the organism, the amount of exposure, your age and your health. High-risk groups include:

 Older adults. As you get older, your immune system may not respond as quickly and as
effectively to infectious organisms as when you were younger.

 Infants and young children. Their immune systems haven't fully developed.  People with chronic diseases. Having a chronic condition, such as diabetes or AIDS, or
receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. If you develop food poisoning:

 Rest and drink plenty of liquids  Don't use anti-diarrheal medications because they may slow elimination of bacteria from your
system Food-borne illness often improves on its own within 48 hours. Call your doctor if you feel ill for longer than two or three days or if blood appears in your stools. Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if:

 You have severe symptoms, such as watery diarrhea that turns very bloody within 24 hours.  You belong to a high-risk group.  You suspect botulism poisoning. Botulism is a potentially fatal food poisoning that results from the
ingestion of a toxin formed by certain spores in food. Botulism toxin is most often found in homecanned foods, especially green beans and tomatoes. Signs and symptoms usually begin 12 to 36 hours after eating the contaminated food and may include headache, blurred vision, muscle weakness and eventual paralysis. Some people also have nausea and vomiting, constipation, urinary retention, difficulty breathing and dry mouth. These signs and symptoms require immediate medical attention.

Foreign object in the eye: First aid
If you get a foreign object in the eye, try to flush it out with clean water or saline solution. Use an eyecup or a small, clean glass positioned with its rim resting on the bone at the base of your eye socket. To help someone else: 1. Wash your hands.

2. 3. 4.

Seat the person in a well-lighted area. Gently examine the eye to find the object. Pull the lower lid down and ask the person to look up. Then hold the upper lid while the person looks down. If the object is floating in the tear film on the surface of the eye, try flushing it out. If you're able to remove the object, flush the eye with a saline solution or clean, lukewarm water.

Caution

 Don't try to remove an object that's imbedded in the eyeball.  Don't rub the eye.  Don't try to remove a large object that makes closing the eye difficult.
When to call for help Seek emergency medical assistance when:

 You can't remove the object.  The object is imbedded in the eyeball.  The person with the object in the eye is experiencing abnormal vision.  Pain, redness or the sensation of a foreign body in the eye persists after the object is removed.

Foreign object in the skin: First aid
If a foreign object is projecting from your skin:

 Wash your hands and clean the area well with soap and water.  Use tweezers to remove splinters of wood or fiberglass, small pieces of glass or other foreign
objects. If the object is completely embedded in your skin:

 Wash your hands and clean the area well with soap and water.  Sterilize a clean, sharp needle by wiping it with rubbing alcohol. If rubbing alcohol isn't available,
clean the needle with soap and water.

 Use the needle to break the skin over the object and gently lift the tip of the object out.  Use tweezers to remove the object. A magnifying glass may help you see the object better.  Wash and pat-dry the area. Follow by applying antibiotic ointment.  Seek medical help if the particle doesn't come out easily or is close to your eye.

Foreign object swallowed: First aid
If you swallow a foreign object, it will usually pass through your digestive system uneventfully. But some objects can lodge in your esophagus, the tube that connects your throat and stomach. If an object is stuck in your esophagus, you may need to remove it, especially if it is:

Frostbite: First aid When exposed to very cold temperatures.  Grasp your fist with the other hand and bend over a hard surface — a countertop or chair will do. A pointed object. which should be removed as quickly as possible to avoid further injury to the esophageal lining  A tiny watch. But you can perform abdominal thrusts. the American Red Cross recommends the "five-and-five" approach to first aid:  First. You can identify frostbite by the hard. If your fingers. if needed. skin and underlying tissues may freeze. warm the area by covering it with dry. . nose and ears. As the area thaws. To perform abdominal thrusts (the Heimlich maneuver) on someone else:  Stand behind the person. Position it slightly above the person's navel.  Don't rub the affected area. resulting in frostbite. Never rub snow on frostbitten skin. ears or other areas suffer frostbite:  Get out of the cold. which can rapidly cause local tissue injury and should be removed from the esophagus without delay If a swallowed object blocks the airway.  Alternate between five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until the blockage is dislodged.  Make a fist with one hand.or calculator-type button battery. The areas most likely to be affected by frostbite are your hands. Call 911 or your local emergency number for help. gloved hands. repeat the five-and-five cycle. deliver five back blows between the victim's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. If your nose.  Grasp the fist with the other hand.  Perform a total of five abdominal thrusts.  Next. perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver). Tip the person forward slightly. upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick. ears or face is frostbitten. pale and cold quality of skin that has been exposed to the cold. If the blockage still isn't dislodged. You can't perform back blows on yourself.  Shove your fist inward and upward.  Warm your hands by tucking them under your arms. To perform abdominal thrusts (the Heimlich maneuver) on yourself:  Place a fist slightly above your navel. the flesh becomes red and painful. Wrap your arms around the waist. feet.

falling into cold water. Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. causing the core body temperature to drop. by covering them with your warm hands or by applying warm cloths. 5. Signs and symptoms include:        Shivering Slurred speech Abnormally slow breathing Cold. lungs and brain. apply warm compresses to the neck. Don't attempt to warm the arms and legs. To care for someone with hypothermia: 1. protect the person from the wind. so they may be unaware that they need emergency medical treatment. and insulate his or her body from the cold ground. Other people at higher risk of hypothermia include those whose judgment may be impaired by mental illness or Alzheimer's disease and people who are intoxicated. monitor the person's breathing. your body's control mechanisms may fail to keep your body temperature normal. lethargy or apathy Confusion or memory loss Signs and symptoms usually develop slowly. warm severely frostbitten hands or feet in warm — not hot — water. infants. 2. when exposed to cold temperatures or to a cool. damp environment for prolonged periods. homeless or caught in cold weather because their vehicles have broken down. Older adults. and even having an uncovered head during cold weather can all increase your chances of hypothermia. young children and people who are very lean are at particular risk. Don't give the person alcohol. wrap them up so they don't refreeze. Offer warm nonalcoholic drinks. If breathing stops or seems dangerously slow or shallow. Hypothermia: First aid Under most conditions your body maintains a healthy temperature. pale skin Loss of coordination Fatigue. Move the person out of the cold. such as your nose. . While waiting for help to arrive. a heating pad or a heating lamp to warm the victim. dry covering. don't thaw out the affected areas. If you can't get help immediately. cardiovascular disease and an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). unless the person is vomiting. Don't use hot water. Wet or inadequate clothing. However. 4. Heat applied to the arms and legs forces cold blood back toward the heart.  Get emergency medical help if numbness remains during warming. If there's any chance of refreezing. Other conditions that may predispose people to hypothermia are malnutrition. begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. If going indoors isn't possible. This can be fatal. cover his or her head. 3. You can warm other frostbitten areas. People with hypothermia typically experience gradual loss of mental acuity and physical ability. cheeks or ears. Replace wet things with a warm. If they're already thawed out. Hypothermia is defined as an internal body temperature less than 95 F (35 C). Remove wet clothing. Don't apply direct heat. When more heat is lost than your body can generate. hypothermia can result. Instead. chest wall and groin.

6. because they're at risk of cardiac arrest. such as sweating and temperature control.  Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. The main sign of heatstroke is a markedly elevated body temperature — generally greater than 104 F (40 C) — with changes in mental status ranging from personality changes to confusion and coma. although heat cramps may involve any muscle group involved in exercise. Other risk factors include dehydration. The spasms may be more intense and more prolonged than typical nighttime leg cramps. people who are obese and people born with an impaired ability to sweat are at high risk of heatstroke. confusion or unconsciousness Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Headache Nausea Fainting. older adults. which may be the first sign in older adults If you suspect heatstroke:  Move the person out of the sun and into a shady or air-conditioned space. Don't massage or rub the person. the skin may be moist. are lost. If you suspect heat cramps:     Rest briefly and cool down Drink clear juice or an electrolyte-containing sports drink Practice gentle. abdominal wall and back. Young children. What makes heatstroke severe and potentially life-threatening is that the body's normal mechanisms for dealing with heat stress. . Direct air onto the person with a fan or newspaper. often resulting from exercise or heavy work in hot environments combined with inadequate fluid intake. arms.  Cool the person by covering him or her with damp sheets or by spraying with cool water. alcohol use. involuntary muscle spasms that usually occur during heavy exercise in hot environments. cardiovascular disease and certain medications. Handle people with hypothermia gently. range-of-motion stretching and gentle massage of the affected muscle group Call your doctor if your cramps don't go away in one hour Heatstroke: First aid Heatstroke is the most severe of the heat-related problems. Muscles most often affected include those of your calves. Heat cramps: First aid Heat cramps are painful. Other signs and symptoms may include:          Rapid heartbeat Rapid and shallow breathing Elevated or lowered blood pressure Cessation of sweating Irritability. Inadequate fluid intake often contributes to heat cramps. Skin may be hot and dry — although if heatstroke is caused by exertion.

Have the person drink cool water. or the cause can be a serious disorder. Cool the person by spraying or sponging him or her with cool water and fanning. dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. If fever greater than 102 F (38. pale skin Low-grade fever Heat cramps Headache Fatigue Dark-colored urine If you suspect heat exhaustion:       Get the person out of the sun and into a shady or air-conditioned location. fainting. Therefore. This loss of consciousness is usually brief. Have the person drink cool water. Signs and symptoms resemble those of shock and may include:            Feeling faint or dizzy Nausea Heavy sweating Rapid. Heat exhaustion can quickly become heatstroke. treat loss of consciousness as a medical emergency until the signs and symptoms are relieved and the cause is known. If you feel faint:  Lie down or sit down. Lay the person down and elevate the legs and feet slightly. weak heartbeat Low blood pressure Cool. causing you to lose consciousness. Monitor the person carefully.  If you sit down. confusion or seizures occur. . Fainting can have no medical significance. heavy perspiration and inadequate fluid intake. Loosen or remove the person's clothing. Heat exhaustion: First aid Heat exhaustion is one of the heat-related syndromes. place your head between your knees.9 C). if he or she is able. which range in severity from mild heat cramps to heat exhaustion to potentially life-threatening heatstroke. Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion often begin suddenly. sometimes after excessive exercise. Fainting: First aid Fainting occurs when the blood supply to your brain is momentarily inadequate. moist.

Continue CPR until help arrives or the person responds and begins to breathe. ticks. Check for signs of circulation (breathing. treat any bumps. Don't try to pull out the stinger. Control bleeding with direct pressure. wasps. If absent. but these are generally milder. If the person is breathing. hives. If the person doesn't regain consciousness within one minute. Call 911 or your local emergency number.  Apply hydrocortisone cream (0. causing little more than an annoying itching or stinging sensation and mild swelling that disappear within a day or so.5 percent or 1 percent). Wash the affected area with soap and water. The person should revive quickly. Help restore blood flow. The severity of your reaction depends on your sensitivity to the insect venom or substance. yellow jackets and fire ants are typically the most troublesome. Doing so may release more venom. painful joints and swollen glands. Bites from mosquitoes. You might experience both the immediate and the delayed reactions from the same insect bite or sting. hornets. dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. bruises or cuts appropriately. .  Scrape or brush off the stinger with a straight-edged object. A delayed reaction may cause fever. Elevate the legs above heart level — about 12 inches (30 centimeters). begin CPR. For mild reactions  Move to a safe area to avoid more stings. Insect bites and stings: First aid Signs and symptoms of an insect bite result from the injection of venom or other substances into your skin. biting flies and some spiders also can cause reactions.Discuss recurrent fainting spells with your doctor. such as a credit card or the back of a knife. The venom triggers an allergic reaction. 4. Position the person on his or her back. coughing or movement). 3. restore blood flow to the brain by raising the person's legs above the level of the head. Signs and symptoms of a severe reaction include:     Facial swelling Difficulty breathing Abdominal pain Shock Bites from bees. 2. If someone else faints: 1. if possible. Check the person's airway to be sure it's clear. Only a small percentage of people develop severe reactions (anaphylaxis) to insect venom.  Apply a cold pack or cloth filled with ice to reduce pain and swelling. collars or other constrictive clothing. If the person was injured in a fall associated with a faint. calamine lotion or a baking soda paste — with a ratio of 3 teaspoons baking soda to 1 teaspoon water — to the bite or sting several times a day until your symptoms subside. Loosen belts. Most reactions to insect bites are mild. Watch for vomiting.

read the instructions before a problem develops and also have your household members read them. Actifed). EpiPen). such as an auto-injector of epinephrine (for example. If your doctor has prescribed an auto-injector of epinephrine. Don't give anything to drink. 3. Most reactions to insect bites are mild. For severe reactions Severe reactions may progress rapidly. causing little more than an annoying itching or stinging sensation and mild swelling that disappear within a day or so. The venom triggers an allergic reaction. after administering epinephrine. hives. diarrhea or swelling larger than 2 inches in diameter at the site. 2. See your doctor promptly if you experience any of these signs and symptoms. Only a small percentage of people develop severe reactions (anaphylaxis) to insect venom. coughing or movement). if there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth. Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking. Insect bites and stings: First aid Signs and symptoms of an insect bite result from the injection of venom or other substances into your skin. Begin CPR. 6. Administer the drug as directed — usually by pressing the auto-injector against the person's thigh and holding it in place for several seconds. Have the person take an antihistamine pill if he or she is able to do so without choking. Check for special medications that the person might be carrying to treat an allergic attack. Allergic reactions may include mild nausea and intestinal cramps. 5. Massage the injection site for 10 seconds to enhance absorption. Tylenol Severe Allergy) or chlorpheniramine maleate (Chlor-Trimeton. A delayed reaction may cause fever. Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if the following signs or symptoms occur:         Difficulty breathing Swelling of the lips or throat Faintness Dizziness Confusion Rapid heartbeat Hives Nausea. 4. if there are no signs of circulation (breathing. You might experience both the immediate and the delayed reactions from the same insect bite or sting. Have the person lie still on his or her back with feet higher than the head. Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. The severity of your reaction depends on your sensitivity to the insect venom or substance. Take an antihistamine containing diphenhydramine (Benadryl. painful joints and swollen glands. cramps and vomiting Take these actions immediately while waiting with an affected person for medical help: 1. Signs and symptoms of a severe reaction include: .

Have the person lie still on his or her back with feet higher than the head. such as a credit card or the back of a knife. Actifed). yellow jackets and fire ants are typically the most troublesome. Tylenol Severe Allergy) or chlorpheniramine maleate (Chlor-Trimeton. hornets.  Apply a cold pack or cloth filled with ice to reduce pain and swelling.    Facial swelling Difficulty breathing Abdominal pain Shock Bites from bees. 4.  Apply hydrocortisone cream (0. Wash the affected area with soap and water. Don't try to pull out the stinger. . Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. 2. For mild reactions  Move to a safe area to avoid more stings. Have the person take an antihistamine pill if he or she is able to do so without choking. 3.  Scrape or brush off the stinger with a straight-edged object. such as an auto-injector of epinephrine (for example. diarrhea or swelling larger than 2 inches in diameter at the site. Check for special medications that the person might be carrying to treat an allergic attack. Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if the following signs or symptoms occur:         Difficulty breathing Swelling of the lips or throat Faintness Dizziness Confusion Rapid heartbeat Hives Nausea. Doing so may release more venom. For severe reactions Severe reactions may progress rapidly. wasps.  Take an antihistamine containing diphenhydramine (Benadryl. Bites from mosquitoes.5 percent or 1 percent). Allergic reactions may include mild nausea and intestinal cramps. ticks. Administer the drug as directed — usually by pressing the auto-injector against the person's thigh and holding it in place for several seconds. cramps and vomiting Take these actions immediately while waiting with an affected person for medical help: 1. biting flies and some spiders also can cause reactions. calamine lotion or a baking soda paste — with a ratio of 3 teaspoons baking soda to 1 teaspoon water — to the bite or sting several times a day until your symptoms subside. Don't give anything to drink. but these are generally milder. Massage the injection site for 10 seconds to enhance absorption. See your doctor promptly if you experience any of these signs and symptoms. after administering epinephrine. EpiPen).

To take care of a nosebleed:  Sit upright and lean forward. Sometimes your doctor may pack your nose with special gauze or an inflatable latex balloon to put pressure on the blood vessel and stop the bleeding. By remaining upright. Neo-Synephrine. Continue to pinch for five to 10 minutes. silver nitrate or a laser. nosebleeds can begin from the septum. You may need to have the blood vessel that's causing your problem cauterized. including a punch in the face that may have broken your nose For frequent nosebleeds If you experience frequent nosebleeds. Among children and young adults. Nosebleeds: First aid Nosebleeds are common. Most often they are a nuisance and not a true medical problem. This maneuver sends pressure to the bleeding point on the nasal septum and often stops the flow of blood. These nosebleeds begin spontaneously and are often difficult to stop. coughing or movement).5.  Pinch your nose.  To prevent re-bleeding after bleeding has stopped. The septum separates your nasal chambers. If your doctor has prescribed an auto-injector of epinephrine. Begin CPR. if there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth. Also call your doctor if you are experiencing nasal bleeding and are taking blood thinners. In middle-aged and older adults. you reduce blood pressure in the veins of your nose. such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin). Keep your head higher than the level of your heart. Seek medical care immediately if:  The bleeding lasts for more than 20 minutes  The nosebleed follows an accident. This latter origin of nosebleed is much less common. Pinch your nose in the technique described above and call your doctor. They require a specialist's help. just inside the nose. Your doctor may advise adjusting your medication intake.  If re-bleeding occurs. make an appointment with your doctor. . Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking. if there are no signs of circulation (breathing. blow out forcefully to clear your nose of blood clots and spray both sides of your nose with a decongestant nasal spray containing oxymetazoline (Afrin. read the instructions before a problem develops and also have your household members read them. but they may also begin deeper in the nose's interior. This discourages further bleeding. Use your thumb and index finger and breathe through your mouth. which can irritate your stomach. Cautery is a technique in which the blood vessel is burned with electric current. But they can be both. don't pick or blow your nose and don't bend down until several hours after the bleeding episode. It may be caused by hardened arteries or high blood pressure. nosebleeds usually originate from the septum. Sitting forward will help you avoid swallowing blood. others). a fall or an injury to your head. 6.

though. Aspirin or acetaminophen (Tylenol. On rare occasions death results. If possible. Use a cold cloth at the spider bite location. Both prefer warm climates and dark. others) may be used to relieve minor signs and symptoms in adults. A fluid-filled blister forms at the site and then sloughs off to leave a deep. undisturbed areas. intense pain and stiffness begin. 2. but its bite is rarely lethal. Treatment in a medical facility may be necessary for children under 6 years old and for adults with severe signs and symptoms. tie a snug bandage above the bite to help slow or halt the venom's spread. If the spider bite is on an arm or a leg. Apply a water-based lubricant to your nostrils and increase the humidity in your home to help relieve nasal bleeding. Ensure that the bandage is not so tight as to cut off circulation in the arm or the leg. Black widow spider The female black widow gives the more serious bite. Treatment for the bite of a black widow may require an antivenom medication. You can identify this spider by the red hourglass marking on its belly. Give children acetaminophen instead. woodpiles and under sinks. Within a few hours. 3. At first you may notice only slight swelling and faint red marks. followed by local redness and intense pain within eight hours. enlarging ulcer. You may not even know you've been bitten. Apply a cloth dampened with cold water or filled with ice. Reactions from a brown recluse spider bite vary from a mild fever and rash to nausea and listlessness.Using supplemental oxygen administered with a nasal tube (cannula) may increase your risk of nosebleeds. . dry places where flies are plentiful. If bitten by a spider Clean the site of the spider bite well with soap and water. Doctors may treat a brown recluse spider bite with corticosteroids. Apply a cool compress over the spider bite location. If bitten by a brown recluse or black widow spider 1. Spider bites: First aid CLICK TO ENLARGE Black widow spider Brown recluse spider Only a few spiders are dangerous to humans. such as closets. more often in children. Seek immediate medical attention. Other signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite include:     Chills Fever Nausea Severe abdominal pain Brown recluse spider You can identify this spider by the violin-shaped marking on its top. Two that are present in the contiguous United States and more common in the Southern states are the black widow spider and the brown recluse spider. The bite produces a mild stinging. They often live in dry. littered. Don't give aspirin to children. The bite feels like a pinprick. make a positive identification.

choking on blood or in danger of further injury. Follow the instructions for P. The person won't move his or her neck.      If you suspect someone has a spinal injury:  Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. Sprain: First aid Your ligaments are tough. The person complains of weakness. For example.  If you absolutely must roll the person because he or she is vomiting. 2.E. Ice the area. you can probably treat the injury yourself. the more severe the injury. Generally the greater the pain. be careful not to use it for too long. do not move the affected person. Protect the injured limb from further injury by not using the joint. Place heavy towels on both sides of the neck or hold the head and neck to prevent movement. a slush bath or a compression sleeve filled with cold water to help limit swelling after an injury. you can use an exercise bicycle. use at least two people. or it can be completely torn apart. But don't avoid all activity.  The neck or back is twisted or positioned oddly. you can usually still exercise other muscles to prevent deconditioning. If you use ice. Even with an ankle sprain. An injury has exerted substantial force on the back or head. numbness or paralysis or lacks control of his or her limbs. For most minor sprains.Spinal injury: First aid If you suspect a back or neck (spinal) injury. working both your arms and the uninjured leg while resting the injured ankle on another part of the bike. Permanent paralysis and other serious complications can result. Sprained ligaments swell rapidly and are painful.  Keep the person still. If the person shows no signs of circulation (breathing. Try to apply ice as soon as possible after the injury. neck and back aligned while rolling the person onto one side. bladder or bowel.R. as this could cause tissue damage.  Provide as much first aid as possible without moving the person's head or neck. Of all sprains. coughing or movement). . ankle and knee sprains occur most often. The person complains of severe pain in his or her neck or back. Use your fingers to gently grasp the jaw and lift it forward. You can do this using anything from splints to crutches. begin CPR. 1. elastic-like bands that attach to your bones and hold your joints in place. 3. but do not tilt the head back to open the airway. That way you still get three-limb exercise to keep up your cardiovascular conditioning. A sprain is an injury to a ligament caused by excessive stretching. Assume a person has a spinal injury if: There's evidence of a head injury with an ongoing change in the person's level of consciousness.I. Work together to keep the person's head.C. The goal of first aid for a spinal injury is to keep the person in much the same position as he or she was found. Use a cold pack. Rest the injured limb. The ligament can have tears in it.

blurring or loss of vision. the more likely it is that damage can be minimized. swelling and occasional blistering.4. Every moment counts. sunburn can cause headache. Compressive wraps or sleeves made from elastic or neoprene are best. fever and fatigue. Compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. others) and acetaminophen (Tylenol. smoking. Seek immediate medical assistance. .  You have a fever higher than 100 F (37. Within minutes of being deprived of essential nutrients. Stroke: First aid A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain. or you feel unstable when you try to bear weight on the joint. Sunburn: First aid Signs and symptoms of sunburn usually appear within a few hours of exposure. This may mean the ligament was completely torn.  You have a severe sprain. Inadequate or delayed treatment may cause long-term joint instability or chronic pain. Elevate the injured limb whenever possible to help prevent or limit swelling. especially if accompanied by any of the other symptoms Risk factors for stroke include having high blood pressure. redness. 5. having had a previous stroke. such as ibuprofen (Advil. Get emergency medical assistance if:  You heard a popping sound when your joint was injured. severe headache — a bolt out of the blue — with no apparent cause  Unexplained dizziness. Over-the-counter pain relievers. You may have an infection. progressive improvement. brain cells start dying — a process that may continue over the next several hours. or normal blood flow to your brain is blocked. and the area is red and hot. You should feel a gradual.8 C). Because exposure often affects a large area of your skin. The sooner treatment is given. After the first two days. On the way to the doctor. gently begin using the injured area. particularly in one eye  Loss of speech or trouble talking or understanding speech  Sudden. call 911 or your local emergency number immediately:  Sudden weakness or numbness in your face. A stroke is a true emergency.  You aren't improving after the first two or three days. Motrin. you can't use the joint. If you notice a sudden onset of one or more of the following signs or symptoms. arm or leg on one side of your body  Sudden dimness. having diabetes and having heart disease. unsteadiness or a sudden fall. others) may be helpful to manage pain during the healing process. bringing pain. Your risk of stroke increases as you age. apply a cold pack.

apply an antibacterial ointment on the open areas. It's sometimes possible to successfully reimplant permanent teeth that have been knocked out. This damages the root surface.If you have a sunburn:  Take a cool bath or shower. These bacteria form a sticky plaque that clings to the surface of your teeth. Don't hold it under running water. others). Tooth loss: First aid If your tooth is knocked out. immediately place it in whole milk. Do not use petroleum jelly. Adding 1/2 cup (about 120 milliliters) of cornstarch. oatmeal or baking soda to your bath water may provide some relief.  Get medical attention from a dentist or emergency room immediately. get emergency dental care. But this is an option only if you follow the steps below immediately — before you see a dentist. butter or other home remedies on your sunburn. making the tooth less likely to survive.  Gently rinse your tooth in a bowl of tap water. They can prevent or delay healing. If it doesn't go all the way into place.  Try to replace your tooth in the socket. If your tooth is knocked out:  Handle your tooth by the top only. naproxen (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol. Don't give children or teenagers aspirin. If they burst on their own.  If needed. a rare but potentially fatal disease. bite down gently on gauze or a moistened tea bag to help keep it in place. Toothache: First aid Tooth decay is the primary cause of toothaches for most children and adults. your own saliva or a warm. not the roots. If you participate in contact sports. It may cause Reye's syndrome. you can often prevent tooth loss by wearing a mouth guard. Motrin. others).2 milliliters salt to about 1 liter water). take an over-the-counter pain reliever such as aspirin. If your sunburn begins to blister or if you experience immediate complications. mild saltwater solution — 1/4 teaspoon salt to 1 quart water (1. see your doctor. Hold the tooth in place until you see your dentist. . Bacteria that live in your mouth thrive on the sugars and starches in the food you eat.  If you can't replace your tooth in the socket.  Apply an aloe vera lotion several times a day. fitted by your dentist. itching or fever. ibuprofen (Advil.  Don't rub it or scrape it to remove debris.  Leave blisters intact to speed healing and avoid infection. such as rash.

Self-care tips Until you can see your dentist. The first sign of decay may be a sensation of pain when you eat something sweet. creating a cavity. as it may burn your gum tissue.     Swelling. Apply an OTC antiseptic containing benzocaine directly to the irritated tooth and gum to temporarily relieve pain. Direct application of oil of cloves (eugenol) also may help. Don't place aspirin or another painkiller directly against your gums. Take an over-the-counter (OTC) pain reliever to dull the ache. try these self-care tips for a toothache: Rinse your mouth with warm water. A toothache often indicates that your dentist will need to work on your teeth. See your dentist as soon as possible. pain when you bite. Call your dentist if:  The pain persists for more than a day or two  You have fever with the toothache  You have trouble breathing or swallowing .Acids produced by the bacteria in plaque can eat through the hard. white coating on the outside of your teeth (enamel). very cold or very hot. a foul-tasting discharge and gum redness indicate infection. Use dental floss to remove any food particles wedged between your teeth.

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