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Introduction to How GPS Receivers Work 2-D Trilateration 3-D Trilateration GPS Calculations Differential GPS Lots More Information See more »
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A GPS receiver uses satellites to pinpoint locations. See morepictures of essential gadgets. Our ancestors had to go to pretty extreme measures to keep from getting lost. They erected monumental landmarks, laboriously drafted detailed maps and learned to read the stars in the night sky. Things are much, much easier today. For less than $100, you can get a pocket-sized gadget that will tell you exactly where you are onEarth at any moment. As long as you have a GPS receiver and a clear view of the sky, you'll never be lost again.
In this article, we'll find out how these handy guides pull off this amazing trick. As we'll see, the Global Positioning System is vast, expensive and involves a lot of technical ingenuity, but the fundamental concepts at work are quite simple and intuitive. When people talk about "a GPS," they usually mean a GPS receiver. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is actually aconstellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites (24 in operation and three extras in case one fails). The U.S. military developed and implemented this satellite network as a military navigation system, but soon opened it up to everybody else.
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Each of these 3,000- to 4,000-pound solar-powered satellites circles the globe at about 12,000 miles (19,300 km), making two complete rotations every day. The orbits are arranged so that at any time, anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites "visible" in the sky. A GPS receiver's job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce its own location. This operation is based on a simple mathematical principle called trilateration. Trilateration in three-dimensional space can be a little tricky, so we'll start with an explanation of simple two-dimensional trilateration.
Because GPS receivers do not have atomic clocks, there is
a great deal of uncertainty when measuring the size of the spheres shown in the diagram on the previous page. In the figure at left, the dashed lines show the actual intersection point, and the gray bands indicate the area of uncertainty.
Although the distance to the satellites can only be roughly
estimated at first, a GPS receiver can precisely calculate these distances relative to each other. Because the relative size of the spheres is known, there is only one possible point where they can intersect.
In this diagram, the solid lines indicate
where the GPS receiver "thinks" the spheres are located. Because of errors in the receiver's internal clock, these spheres do not intersect at one point.
The GPS receiver must change the size of the spheres until
the intersection point is determined. The relative size of each sphere has already been calculated, so if the size of one sphere is changed, the other spheres must be adjusted by exactly thesame amount.
Three spheres are necessary to find position in two
dimensions, four are needed in three dimensions.
Fundamentally, three-dimensional trilateration isn't much different from two-dimensional trilateration, but it's a little trickier to visualize. Imagine the radii from the previous examples going off in all directions. So instead of a series of circles, you get a series of spheres.
imaginary sphere with a 10-mile radius. 300. If you also know you are 15 miles from satellite B. the GPS receiver has to know two things: • The location of at least three satellites above you • The distance between you and each of those satellites The GPS receiver figures both of these things out by analyzing high-frequency. For other uses. see GPS (disambiguation). The receiver can figure out how far the signal has traveled by timing how long it took the signal to arrive. you get a third sphere. The Earth itself can act as a fourth sphere -. Receivers generally look to four or more satellites. which intersects with this circle at two points. low-power radio signalsfrom the GPS satellites. we'll see how the receiver and satellite work together to make this measurement. you could be anywhere on the surface of a huge. which means they travel at the speed of light (about 186. In order to make this simple calculation. so you can eliminate the one in space. If you know the distance to a third satellite. however. then. larger sphere. Global Positioning System From Wikipedia.000 km per second in a vacuum). the free encyclopedia "GPS" redirects here.000 miles per second. In the next section.If you know you are 10 miles from satellite A in the sky.only one of the two possible points will actually be on the surface of the planet. The spheres intersect in a perfect circle. Artist's conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in orbit . you can overlap the first sphere with another. Better units have multiple receivers. to improve accuracy and provide precise altitude information. Radio waves are electromagnetic energy. so they can pick up signals from several satellites simultaneously.
It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.Civilian GPS receiver ("GPS navigation device") in a marine application. GPS receivers are now integrated in many mobile phones. Automotive navigation system in a taxicab. .
2 Military 5 Communication ○ ○ ○ • 5.1 Timeline and modernization 1.3 Demodulation and decoding 6 Navigation equations .1.2 Correcting a GPS receiver's clock 3 Structure ○ ○ ○ • 3.1 Civilian 4. There are also the planned Chinese Compass navigation system and Galileo positioning systemof the European Union (EU).2 Awards 2 Basic concept of GPS ○ ○ • 2.1 Position calculation introduction 2.1 Restrictions on civilian use ○ • 4.3 User segment 4 Applications ○ 4.2 Satellite frequencies 5. Department of Defense (USDOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. In addition to GPS other systems are in use or under development.S. The Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was for use by the Russian military only until 2007.1 Space segment 3. Contents [hide] • 1 History ○ ○ • 1.2 Control segment 3. It was established in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems.1 Message format 5.GPS was created and realized by the U.
Additional inspiration for GPS came when the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite.3 Precise monitoring 7.1 Methods of solution of navigation equations • 7 Accuracy enhancement and surveying ○ ○ ○ ○ 7.○ 6.4.4 Timekeeping 7. and used during World War II. In 1956 Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit in artificial satellites. such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator developed in the early 1940s. A .1 Timekeeping and leap seconds ○ • • • • • • 7.1 Error sources and analysis 7. Sputnik in 1957. To achieve accuracy requirements.2 Augmentation 7.3 Timekeeping format 7.4. GPS uses principles of general relativity to correct the satellites' atomic clocks.5 Carrier phase tracking (surveying) 8 Other systems 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links History The design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio navigation systems.4.2 Timekeeping accuracy 7.
It used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. because of the Doppler effect. Precise navigation would enable US submarines to get an accurate fix of their positions prior to launching their SLBMs. a technology required by GPS.team of U. The nuclear triad consisted of the US Navy's submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) along with the US Air Force's strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). To increase the survivability of ICBMs. They realized that because they knew their exact location on the globe. This deterrent effect is why GPS was funded." That same year the concept was pursued as Project 621B. and operation for a constellation of navigation satellites. based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations. was first successfully tested in 1960. which had "many of the attributes that you now see in GPS" and promised increased accuracy for Air Force bombers as well as ICBMs. In the 1970s. there was a proposal to use mobile launch platforms so the need to fix the launch position had similarity to the SLBM situation. They discovered that. deployment. Kershner were monitoring Sputnik's radio transmissions. and lower as it continued away from them. In 1967. While there were wide needs for accurate navigation in military and civilian sectors. accurate determination of the SLBM launch position was a force multiplier. Transit. Considered vital to the nuclear deterrence posture. In 1960.S. the nuclear threat to the existence of the United States was the one need that did justify this cost in the view of the US Congress. A follow-on study called Project 57 was worked in 1963 and it was "in this study that the GPS concept was born. the ground-based Omega Navigation System. development. Navy developed the Timation satellite that proved the ability to place accurate clocks in space. Richard B. scientists led by Dr. the frequency of the signal being transmitted by Sputnik was higher as the satellite approached. Limitations of these systems drove the need for a more universal navigation solution with greater accuracy. almost none of those were seen as justification for the billions of dollars it would cost in research. The first satellite navigation system.S. the Air Force proposed a radio-navigation system called MOSAIC (Mobile System for Accurate ICBM Control) that was essentially a 3-D LORAN. The Navy and Air Force were developing their own technologies in parallel to solve what was essentially the same problem. The US Air Force with two-thirds of the nuclear triad also had requirements for a more accurate and reliable navigation system. they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit by measuring the Doppler distortion (seeTransit (satellite)). the U. used by the United States Navy. During the Cold War arms race. became the first worldwide radio navigation system. Updates .
commerce." Later that year. in the vicinity of Sakhalin and Moneron Islands. Timation. With the individual satellites being associated with the name Navstar (as with the predecessors Transit and Timation). first launched in 1967. SA). the DNSS program was named Navstar. 2000. President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use. and NASA. Department of Defense (USDOD) is the steward of GPS.from the Navy Transit system were too slow for the high speeds of Air Force operation. a meeting of about 12 military officers at the Pentagon discussed the creation of a Defense Navigation Satellite System (DNSS). During Labor Day weekend in 1973. The executive committee is chaired jointly by the deputy secretaries of defense and transportation. and with the third one in 1974 carrying the first atomic clock into orbit. it was realized that a superior system could be developed by synthesizing the best technologies from 621B. which was later shortened simply to GPS. a more fully encompassing name was used to identify the constellation of Navstar satellites. GPS is owned and operated by the US Government as a national resource. carrying 269 people. and homeland security. as a common good. The first satellite was launched in 1989. The Navy Research Laboratory continued advancements with their Timation (Time Navigation) satellites. Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB) oversaw GPS policy matters from 1996 to 2004. improving the precision of civilian GPS from 100 meters (about 300 feet) to 20 meters (about 65 feet). Its membership includes equivalent-level officials from the departments of state. and the FCC chairman participates as a liaison. Navigation and Timing Executive Committee was established by presidential directive in 2004 to advise and coordinate federal departments and agencies on matters concerning the GPS and related systems. With these parallel developments in the 1960s. Initially. After Korean Air Lines Flight 007. Transit. The US military by then had the ability to deny GPS service to potential adversaries on a regional basis. and the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded ("Selective Availability". This changed with US President Bill Clinton ordering Selective Availability turned off at midnight May 1. After that the National Space-Based Positioning. . once it was sufficiently developed. the highest quality signal was reserved for military use. was shot down in 1983 after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace. Components of the executive office of the president participate as observers to the executive committee. and the 24th satellite was launched in 1994. Navstar-GPS. It was at this meeting that "the real synthesis that became GPS was created. and SECOR in a multi-service program. the joint chiefs of staff.
worldwide basis.USDOD is required by law to "maintain a Standard Positioning Service (as defined in the federal radio navigation plan and the standard positioning service signal specification) that will be available on a continuous." Timeline and modernization Summary of satellites In pre Plan parat ned ion 10 1 0 0 0 Success Failure I 1978– 1985 1989– 1990 1990– 1997 1997– 2004 2005– 2009 2010– 2011 II 9 0 0 0 0 IIA 19 0 0 0 10 IIR 12 1 0 0 12 IIR-M 8 0 0 0 7 IIF 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 11 0 0 0 11 0 12 8 16 36 1 0 0 0 30 IIIA 2014–? IIIB IIIC Total (Last update: 24 May 2010) 59 PRN 01 from Block IIR-M is unhealthy PRN 25 from Block IIA is unhealthy ." and "develop measures to prevent hostile use of GPS and its augmentations without unduly disrupting or degrading civilian uses.
In 1978. GPS technology was inducted into the Space Foundation Space Technology Hall of Fame. conducted developmental flight tests of two prototype GPS receivers over White Sands Missile Range. the first modern Block-II satellite was launched. In 1996. which originally managed the system. using ground-based pseudo-satellites. 1989. President Bill Clintonissued a policy directive declaring GPS to be a dual-use system and establishing an Interagency GPS Executive Board to manage it as a national asset. referring to it as GPS III. . In 1983. By 1985. In 1998. after Soviet interceptor aircraft shot down the civilian airliner KAL 007 that strayed into prohibited airspacebecause of navigational errors. In 1992. By December 1993. see list of GPS satellite launches In 1972. U.PRN 32 from Block IIA is unhealthy  For a more complete list. Full Operational Capability (FOC) was declared by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) in April 1995.S. the 2nd Space Wing. U. the first experimental Block-I GPS satellite was launched. the US Air Force Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (Holloman AFB). signifying full availability of the military's secure Precise Positioning Service (PPS). US Vice President Al Gore announced plans to upgrade GPS with two new civilian signals for enhanced user accuracy and reliability. The Gulf War from 1990 to 1992. In 1998. On February 14. recognizing the importance of GPS to civilian users as well as military users. ten more experimental Block-I satellites had been launched to validate the concept. GPS achieved initial operational capability (IOC). killing all 269 people on board. particularly with respect to aviation safety and in 2000 the US Congress authorized the effort. President Ronald Reagan announced that GPS would be made available for civilian uses once it was completed. was de-activated and replaced by the 50th Space Wing. indicating a full constellation (24 satellites) was available and providing the Standard Positioning Service (SPS). was the first conflict where GPS was widely used.S.
 In 2005. established the basis for GPS. 1990. the Air Force Space Command allayed fears of GPS failure saying "There's only a small risk we will not continue to exceed our performance standard. 2000 "Selective Availability" was discontinued as a result of the 1996 executive order. In 2004. 2009. Bradford Parkinson. 2009. The most recent launch was on May 28. On May 2. November 2004. the US Government Accountability Office issued a report warning that some GPS satellites could fail as soon as 2010. professor of aeronautics and astronautics at Stanford University. 2010. emeritus president of The Aerospace Corporation and engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. an update of ground control systems caused a software incompatibility with 8000 to 10000 military receivers manufactured by a division of Trimble Navigation Limited of Sunnyvale. Awards Two GPS developers received the National Academy of Engineering Charles Stark Draper Prize for 2003: Ivan Getting." On January 11. On May 19. the aging mainframe-based Ground Segment Control System was transferred to the new Architecture Evolution Plan. and became operational on December 10. Navigation. US President George W. the US Government signed an agreement with the European Community establishing cooperation related to GPS and Europe's planned Galileo system. 2007. The oldest GPS satellite still in operation was launched on November 26. and Timing. QUALCOMM announced successful tests of assisted GPS for mobile phones. 1990. On May 21. On September 14. conceived the present satellite-based system in the early 1960s and developed it in . improving on the World War II land-based radio system called LORAN (Long-range Radio Aid to Navigation). allowing users to receive a non-degraded signal globally. In 2004. the first modernized GPS satellite was launched and began transmitting a second civilian signal (L2C) for enhanced user performance. Calif. Bush updated the national policy and replaced the executive board with the National Executive Committee for Space-Based Positioning. 2010.
the U. elevation information may be included. The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite. Air Force. The very accurately computed time is effectively hidden by most GPS applications. and retired with the rank of colonel. This team combines researchers from the Naval Research Laboratory. For ." Basic concept of GPS A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites. These distances along with the satellites' locations are used with the possible aid of trilateration.S. which use only the location. On February 10. the nation's most prestigious aviation award. the Aerospace Corporation. Parkinson served twenty-one years in the Air Force. Therefore receivers use four or more satellites to solve for the receiver's location and time. The citation honors them "for the most significant development for safe and efficient navigation and surveillance of air and spacecraft because the introduction of radionavigation 50 years ago. If one variable is already known. 1993. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include the time the message was transmitted precise orbital information (the ephemeris) the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac). depending on which algorithm is used. these include time transfer. perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude. However. Air Force. and synchronization of cell phone base stations. 2006. to compute the position of the receiver.S. traffic signal timing. even a very small clock error multiplied by the very large speed of light — the speed at which satellite signals propagate — results in a large positional error. This position is then displayed. Collier Trophy.conjunction with the U. Three satellites might seem enough to solve for position since space has three dimensions and a position near the Earth's surface can be assumed. fewer apply in special cases. Many GPS units show derived information such as direction and speed. calculated from position changes. from 1957 to 1978. Easton received the National Medal of Technology on February 13. Rockwell International Corporation. and IBM Federal Systems Company. A few specialized GPS applications do however use the time. the National Aeronautic Association selected the GPS Team as winners of the 1992 Robert J. GPS developer Roger L. Although four satellites are required for normal operation.
the GPS receiver can compute the Knowing the indicated time the message was received transit time of the message as . Two points where the surfaces of the spheres intersect are clearly shown in the figure. Thus with four satellites. a GPS receiver is able to determine the times sent and then the satellite positions corresponding to these times sent. . are designated as where the subscript i is the satellite number and has the value 1. The article trilateration shows this mathematically.inertial navigation. 2. Using messages received from a minimum of four visible satellites. A figure. Position calculation introduction To provide an introductory description of how a GPS receiver works. In the ideal case of no errors. A satellite's position and pseudorange define a sphere. a ship or aircraft may have known elevation. 3. the GPS receiver would be at a precise intersection of the four surfaces. c. y. The x. error effects are deferred to a later section. The position of the receiver is somewhere on the surface of this sphere. the indicated position of the GPS receiver is at or near the intersection of the surfaces of four spheres. is shown below. or 4. can be computed as . and z components of position. Two Sphere Surfaces Intersecting in a Circle. centered on the satellite with radius equal to the pseudorange. they intersect in a circle. the distance traveled or pseudorange. and the time sent. The distance between these two points is the diameter of the circle of intersection. Some GPS receivers may use additional clues or assumptions (such as reusing the last known altitude. . dead reckoning. If the surfaces of two spheres intersect at more than one point.example. Assuming the message traveled at the speed of light. or including information from the vehicle computer) to give a less accurate (degraded) position when fewer than four satellites are visible.
Two sphere surfaces intersecting in a circle The intersection of a third spherical surface with the first two will be its intersection with that circle. this means they intersect at two points. the correct position of the GPS receiver is the intersection closest to the Earth's surface. illustrates the intersection. the intersection farthest from Earth may be the correct one. Another figure. Surface of Sphere Intersecting a Circle (not a solid disk) at Two Points. Surface of sphere Intersecting a circle (not a solid disk) at two points For automobiles and other near-earth vehicles. For space vehicles. in most cases of practical interest. Again the article trilateration clearly shows this mathematically. . The two intersections are marked with dots.
the distance from the valid estimate of GPS receiver position to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite can be used to compute a clock correction. provides an estimate of (correct time) − (time indicated by the receiver's on-board clock). . thepseudoranges. This suggests that an extremely accurate and expensive clock is required for the GPS receiver to work. p4. is the distance from the computed GPS receiver position . Correcting a GPS receiver's clock One of the most significant error sources is the GPS receiver's clock. sphere. and thus the third sphere surface is likely to intersect this large circle. Because of the very large value of the speed of light. Because manufacturers prefer to build inexpensive GPS receivers for mass markets. Let denote the distance from the valid denote the pseudorange of estimate of GPS receiver position to the fourth satellite and let the fourth satellite. because any clock error could cause it to miss intersecting a point. for example an error of one microsecond (0. Diagram depicting satellite 4. and da It is likely that the surfaces of the three spheres intersect. Let . to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite. the estimated distances from the GPS receiver to the satellites. are very sensitive to errors in the GPS receiver clock. However. Thus the quotient. the solution for this dilemma is based on the way sphere surfaces intersect in the GPS problem. c.000 001 second) corresponds to an error of 300 metres (980 ft). because the circle of intersection of the first two spheres is normally quite large.The correct position for the GPS receiver is also the intersection closest to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite. r4. It is very unlikely that the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite will intersect either of the two points of intersection of the first three.
and the GPS receiver clock can be advanced if is positive or delayed if is negative. However, it should be kept in mind that a less simple function of equations section. Structure The current GPS consists of three major segments. These are the space segment (SS), a control segment (CS), and a user segment (US). The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space, and each GPS receiver uses these signals to calculate its threedimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and the current time. The space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the payload adapters to the boosters required to launch them into orbit. The control segment is composed of a master control station, an alternate master control station, and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations. The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial, and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service (see GPS navigation devices). Space may be needed to estimate the time error in an iterative algorithm as discussed in the Navigation
See also: GPS satellite and List of GPS satellite launches
Unlaunched GPS satellite on display at the San Diego Air & Space Museum
A visual example of the GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface, in this example at 45°N, changes with time.
The space segment (SS) is composed of the orbiting GPS satellites, or Space Vehicles (SV) in GPS parlance. The GPS design originally called for 24 SVs, eight each in three circular orbital planes, but this was modified to six planes with four satellites each. The orbital planes are centered on the Earth, not rotating with respect to the distant stars.
The six planes have approximately 55° inclination (tilt relative to Earth's equator) and
are separated by 60° right ascension of the ascending node (angle along the equator from a reference point to the orbit's intersection). The orbits are arranged so that at least six satellites are always within line of sight from almost everywhere on Earth's surface. The result of this objective is that the four satellites are not evenly spaced (90 degrees) apart within each orbit. In general terms, the angular difference between satellites in each orbit is 30, 105, 120, and 105 degrees apart which, of course, sum to 360 degrees. Orbiting at an altitude of approximately 20,200 kilometers (about 12,550 miles or 10,900 nautical miles; orbital radius of approximately 26,600 km (about 16,500 mi or 14,400 NM)), each SV makes two complete orbits each sidereal day, repeating the same ground track each day. This was very helpful during development because even with only four satellites, correct alignment means all four are visible from one spot for a few hours each day. For military operations, the ground track repeat can be used to ensure good coverage in combat zones. As of March 2008, there are 31 actively broadcasting satellites in the GPS constellation, and two older, retired from active service satellites kept in the constellation as orbital spares. The additional satellites improve the precision of GPS receiver calculations by providing redundant measurements. With the increased number of satellites, the constellation was changed to a nonuniform arrangement. Such an arrangement was shown to improve reliability and availability of the system, relative to a uniform system, when
multiple satellites fail. About eight satellites are visible from any point on the ground at any one time (see animation at right). Control
Ground monitor station used from 1984 to 2007, on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum
The control segment is composed of 1. a master control station (MCS), 2. an alternate master control station, 3. four dedicated ground antennas and 4. six dedicated monitor stations The MCS can also access U.S. Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) ground antennas (for additional command and control capability) and NGA (National GeospatialIntelligence Agency) monitor stations. The flight paths of the satellites are tracked by dedicated U.S. Air Force monitoring stations in Hawaii, Kwajalein, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, Colorado Springs, Colorado and Cape Canaveral, along with shared NGA monitor stations operated in England, Argentina, Ecuador, Bahrain, Australia and Washington DC.
The tracking information is sent to the Air Force Space Command's MCS at Schriever
Air Force Base 25 km (16 miles) ESE of Colorado Springs, which is operated by the 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2 SOPS) of the United States Air Force (USAF). Then 2 SOPS contacts each GPS satellite regularly with a navigational update using dedicated or shared (AFSCN) ground antennas (GPS dedicated ground antennas are located at Kwajalein, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, and Cape Canaveral). These updates synchronize the atomic clocks on board the satellites to within a few nanoseconds of each other, and adjust the ephemeris of each satellite's internal orbital model. The updates are created by a Kalman filter that uses inputs from the ground monitoring stations, space weather information, and various other inputs.
this has progressively increased over the years so that. Data is actually . Then the new ephemeris is uploaded and the satellite marked healthy again. commercial and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service. receiverprocessors. A receiver is often described by its number of channels: this signifies how many satellites it can monitor simultaneously. Originally limited to four or five. phones. as of 2007. using the RTCM SC-104 format. and watches. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service. from devices integrated into cars. They may also include a display for providing location and speed information to the user. Garmin and Leica(left to right). The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U. and a highly stable clock (often a crystal oscillator). to dedicated devices such as those shown here from manufacturers Trimble. GPS receivers are composed of an antenna. receivers typically have between 12 and 20 channels. and the resulting orbit tracked from the ground. User segment GPS receivers come in a variety of formats. tuned to the frequencies transmitted by the satellites.Satellite maneuvers are not precise by GPS standards.S. Then the maneuver can be carried out. and tens of millions of civil. so receivers will not use it in their calculation. the satellite must be marked unhealthy.800 bit/s speed. So to change the orbit of a satellite. GPS receivers may include an input for differential corrections. This is typically in the form of an RS-232 port at 4. A typical OEM GPS receiver module measuring 15×17 mm. In general.
GPS is considered a dual-use technology. GPS has become a widely deployed and useful tool for commerce. safely. As of 2006. mobile phone operations. USB. references to this protocol have been compiled from public records. or Bluetooth. GPS's accurate time facilitates everyday activities such as banking. allowing open source tools like gpsd to read the protocol without violating intellectual property laws. and accurately. even low-cost units commonly include Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) receivers. and countless others perform their work more efficiently. economically. and surveillance.sent at a much lower rate. which limits the accuracy of the signal sent using RTCM. Receivers with internal DGPS receivers can outperform those using external RTCM data. Civilian See also: GNSS applications and GPS navigation device . Although this protocol is officially defined by the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA). and even the control of power grids by allowing well synchronized hand-off switching. surveyors. meaning it has significant military and civilian applications. scientific uses. Receivers can interface with other devices using methods including a serial connection. A typical GPS receiver with integrated antenna. such as the SiRF and MTK protocols. geologists. Farmers. Many GPS receivers can relay position data to a PC or other device using the NMEA 0183 protocol. Further information: GPS navigation device Applications While originally a military project. tracking. Other proprietary protocols exist as well.
The application provides 24/7 tracking and mobile or Internet updates should the trackee leave a designated area. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated the feature in either the handset or in the towers (for use in triangulation) in 2002 so emergency services could locate 911 callers. person.This antenna is mounted on the roof of a hut containing a scientific experiment needing precise timing. These devices attach to the vehicle. and Verizon soon thereafter.S. Third-party software developers later gained access to GPS APIs from Nextel upon launch. The U. person. or the pet collar. followed by Sprint in 2006. Cellular telephony: Clock synchronization enables time transfer. . Many civilian applications use one or more of GPS's three basic components: absolute location. person tracking systems. and time transfer. Disaster relief/emergency services: Depend upon GPS for location and timing capabilities. or pet. Geofencing: Vehicle tracking systems. The first handsets with integrated GPS launched in the late 1990s. which is critical for synchronizing its spreading codes with other base stations to facilitate inter-cell handoff and support hybrid GPS/cellular position detection for mobile emergency calls and other applications. relative movement. and pet tracking systems use GPS to locate a vehicle.
They would not prevent use in a cruise missile because their altitudes and speeds are similar to those of ordinary aircraft. This rule applies even to otherwise purely civilian units that only receive the L1 frequency and the C/A (Clear/Acquisition) code and cannot correct for Selective Availability (SA). State Department export licenses are required. military applications of GPS include: . information about an approaching point of interest. Vendor interpretations differ. Recreation: For example. Surveying: Surveyors use absolute locations to make maps and determine property boundaries. Navigation: Navigators value digitally precise velocity and orientation measurements. Phasor measurement units: GPS enables highly accurate timestamping of power system measurements. These limits attempt to prevent use of a receiver in a ballistic missile. Map-making: Both civilian and military cartographers use GPS extensively. Restrictions on civilian use The U. Government controls the export of some civilian receivers.S. etc. GPS Aircraft Tracking GPS tours: Location determines what content to display. Disabling operation above these limits exempts the receiver from classification as a munition.S. geodashing. GPS drawing and waymarking. The rule targets operation given the combination of altitude and speed. This has caused problems with some amateur radio balloon launches that regularly reach 30 kilometers (19 mi). geocaching. Military As of 2009.001 kn) are classified as munitions (weapons) for which U. Geotagging: Applying location coordinates to digital objects such as photographs and other documents for purposes such as creating map overlays. Tectonics: GPS enables direct fault motion measurement in earthquakes. for instance. All GPS receivers capable of functioning above 18 kilometers (11 mi) altitude and 515 metres per second (1. making it possible to computephasors. while some receivers stop operating even when stationary.
 Search and Rescue: Downed pilots can be located faster if their position is known. and the health of the network. . Artillery projectiles. Two different encodings are used. the state of the internal clocks. Message format Description GPS message format Subframes 1 Satellite clock. Communication Main article: GPS signals The navigational signals transmitted by GPS satellites encode a variety of information including satellite positions. even in the dark or in unfamiliar territory.000 g or about 118 km/s2 have been developed for use in 155 millimeters (6. and an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor (W-sensor). and to coordinate troop and supply movement. an X-ray sensor.1 in) howitzers.gun camera video from AH-1 Cobras in Iraq show GPS co-ordinates that can be viewed with special software. and an encrypted encoding used by the U. Target tracking: Various military weapons systems use GPS to track potential ground and air targets before flagging them as hostile. Reconnaissance: Patrol movement can be managed more closely. military. commanders use the Commanders Digital Assistant and lower ranks use the Soldier Digital Assistant. These weapon systems pass target coordinates to precision-guided munitions to allow them to engage targets accurately. cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. use GPS to find targets (for example.S. In the US armed forces. These signals are transmitted on two separate carrier frequencies that are common to all satellites in the network. Navigation: GPS allows soldiers to find objectives. Military aircraft. particularly in air-to-ground roles. a dosimeter. that form a major portion of the United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System. a public encoding that enables lower resolution navigation. GPS satellites carry a set of nuclear detonation detectors consisting of an optical sensor (Y-sensor). Missile and projectile guidance: GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including ICBMs. Embedded GPS receivers able to withstand accelerations of 12.
Each 30 second frame begins precisely on the minute or half minute as indicated by the atomic clock on each satellite. All satellites broadcast at the same frequencies. provides the precise orbit for the satellite.S. The ephemeris is updated every 2 hours and is generally valid for 4 hours. Signals are encoded using code division multiple access (CDMA) allowing messages from individual satellites to be distinguished from each other based on unique encodings for each satellite (that the receiver must be aware of). Each frame is further subdivided into 5 subframes of length 6 seconds and with 300 bits each. The last part of the message.500 bits of information. the almanac. error correction) 4–5 Each GPS satellite continuously broadcasts a navigation message at a rate of 50 bits per second (see bitrate). distinct groupings of 1. which is accessible by the general public. Each subframe contains 10 words of 30 bits with length 0. Additionally data for a few weeks following is uploaded in case of transmission updates that delay data upload. that is encrypted so that only the U.42 MHz Coarse-acquisition (C/A) and encrypted precision P(Y) codes. contains coarse orbit and status information for all satellites in the network as well as data related to error correction. plus the L1 civilian (L1C) and military (M) codes . The second part of the message. Two distinct types of CDMA encodings are used: the coarse/acquisition (C/A) code. The almanac is updated typically every 24 hours. The first part of the message encodes the week number and the time within the week. Satellite frequencies GPS frequency overview Description Band L1 Frequency 1575.  as well as the data about the health of the satellite. with provisions for updates every 6 hours or longer in non-nominal conditions.6 seconds each. the ephemeris. Each complete message is composed of 30-second frames. and the precise (P) code.GPS time relationship 2–3 Ephemeris (precise satellite orbit) Almanac component (satellite network synopsis. military can access it.
L2 L3 L4 L5 1227. Demodulation and decoding .17645 GHZ was added in the process of GPS modernization.379913 GHz is being studied for additional ionospheric correction.60 MHz P(Y) code. The L4 band at 1. The C/A code. military use. whereas the P code. The receiver must be aware of the PRN codes for each satellite to reconstruct the actual message data. The L5 frequency band at 1.913 MHz Being studied for additional ionospheric correction. transmits data at 1. This frequency falls into an internationally protected range for aeronautical navigation.S. plus the L2C and military codes on the Block IIR-M and newer satellites. The satellite network uses a CDMA spreadspectrum technique where the low-bitrate message data is encoded with a highrate pseudo-random (PRN) sequence that is different for each satellite. The P code can be encrypted as a so-called P(Y) code that is only available to military equipment with a proper decryption key. locate. 1379.38105 GHz is used by the United States Nuclear Detonation (NUDET) Detection System (USNDS) to detect. 1176. while the L2 carrier is only modulated by the P code. promising little or no interference under all circumstances.23 million chips per second.05 MHz Used for nuclear detonation (NUDET) detection.45 MHz Proposed for use as a civilian safety-of-life (SoL) signal. transmits at 10. 1. for civilian use. and report nuclear detonations (NUDETs) in the earth's atmosphere and near space.2276 GHz (L2 signal). 1381.  One usage is the enforcement of nuclear test ban treaties. Each carrier component is bi-phase shift key (BPSK) modulated by a separate bit train. The L5 consists of two carrier components that are in phase quadrature with each other.57542 GHz (L1 signal) and 1.023 million chips per second. for U.on future Block III satellites. All satellites broadcast at the same two frequencies. Both the C/A and P(Y) codes impart the precise time-of-day to the user. The first Block IIF satellite that would provide this signal is set to be launched in 2009. The L1 carrier is modulated by both the C/A and P codes. The L3 signal at a frequency of 1.
The signals are decoded after demodulation using addition of the Gold codes corresponding to the satellites monitored by the receiver. or 4. and z components of position and the time sent are designated as where the subscript i denotes the satellite and has the value 1. the receiver enters a search mode until a lock is obtained on one of the satellites. The x. y. As it detects each satellite's signal. unique numbers in the range 1 through 32. 3. If the almanac information is not in memory. Because all of the satellite signals are modulated onto the same L1 carrier frequency. Processing of the navigation message enables the determination of the time of transmission and the satellite position at this time.Demodulating and Decoding GPS Satellite Signals using the Coarse/Acquisition Gold code. This is done by assigning each satellite a unique binary sequence known as a Gold code. If the almanac information has previously been acquired. Advanced. the signals must be separated after demodulation. it is necessary that there be an unobstructed line of sight from the receiver to the satellite. To obtain a lock. For more information see Demodulation and Decoding. The receiver can then acquire the almanac and determine the satellites it should listen for. Knowing when the message was . Navigation equations The receiver uses messages received from four satellites to determine the satellite positions and time sent. There can be a delay of up to 30 seconds before the first estimate of position because of the need to read the ephemeris data. 2. it identifies it by its distinct C/A code pattern. the receiver picks the satellites to listen for by their PRNs.
A view from any horizontal direction would look exactly the same.received . Two of the points where the surfaces of the spheres intersect are clearly marked on the figure. Therefore the diameter as seen from all directions is the same and thus the surfaces actually do intersect in a circle. The distance between these two points is the diameter of the circle of intersection. This view would match the figure because of the symmetry of the spheres. the surfaces of two intersecting spheres is either a point (if they merely touch) or a circle as depicted in the illustration below. Excluding the unrealistic case (for GPS purposes) of two coincident spheres. In the ideal case of no errors. The . is . the receiver computes the message's transit time as . Thus the receiver is at or near the intersection of the surfaces of four spheres. Knowing the distance from receiver to satellite and the satellite's position implies that the receiver is on the surface of a sphere centered at the satellite's position. the receiver is at the intersection of the surfaces of four spheres. Two sphere surfaces intersecting in a circle This can be seen more clearly by considering a side view of the intersecting spheres. Assuming the message traveled at the speed of light (c) the distance traveled.
A circle and sphere surface intersect at zero.e. the three components of GPS receiver position and the clock bias by: . For the GPS problem we are concerned with the case of two points of intersection. the edge of a disk) at two points Having provided a discussion of how sphere surfaces intersect.. Then the equations becomes: . Surface of a sphere intersecting a circle (i. Having found that two sphere surfaces intersect in a circle. The equation of the sphere surfaces are given Another useful form of these equations is in terms of pseudoranges. Another figure. The receiver has four unknowns. we now consider how the intersection of the first two sphere surfaces. we now formulate the equations for the case when errors are present. intersect with the third sphere. which are the approximate ranges based on the receiver clock's uncorrected time so that . the circle. is shown below to aid in visualizing this intersection. The ambiguity of two points of intersection of three sphere surfaces can be resolved by noting the point that is closest to the fourth sphere surface. Trilateration algebraically confirms this geometric observation.articletrilateration algebraically confirms this geometric argument that the two sphere surfaces intersect in a circle. one or two points. the amount that the receiver's clock is off. Let denote the clock error or bias. Surface of Sphere Intersecting a Circle (not a solid disk) at Two Points.
000 feet (18. The notation. da is a function of the correction because the correction changes the satellite transmission times and thus the pseudoranges. The Earth's surface can also sometimes be used instead. Let da denote the signed magnitude of the vector from the receiver position to the fourth satellite (i. the point nearest the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite is chosen. The receiver can use trilateration  and one dimensional numerical root finding. This is the familiar problem of finding the zeroes of a one dimensional non-linear function of a scalar variable. such as those found in the chapter on root finding in Numerical Recipes can solve this type of problem. The method requires at least four satellites but more can be used.Methods of solution of navigation equations Bancroft's method is perhaps the most important method of solving the navigation equations because it involves an algebraic as opposed to numerical method.  One advantage of this method is that it involves one dimensional as opposed to multidimensional numerical root finding.p4) as defined in the section "Clock correction". . because it is illegal in the United States to track vehicles more than 60.000 m) in altitude. Trilateration is used to determine the intersection of the surfaces of three spheres. In the usual case of two intersections.e. Two numerical methods of computing GPS receiver position and clock bias are (1) by using trilateration and one dimensional numerical root finding and (2) multidimensional Newton-Raphson calculations. da = r4 . especially by civilian GPS receivers. The problem is to determine the correction such that . da(correction) denotes this function. Iterative numerical methods.
With each combination of four or more satellites. Errors can be estimated through the residuals. which must be solved by least-squares or a similar technique. After the final location and time are calculated." When more than four satellites are available. using the WGS 84 geodetic datum or a country-specific system. processing capability. say from iteration k. (By design. A disadvantage of this multidimensional root finding method as compared to single dimensional root findiing is that. As more satellites are picked up. based on the relative sky directions of the satellites used. then solve four linear equations derived from the quadratic equations above to obtain . The receiver then takes the weighted average of these positions and clock offsets. considering number of channels. the calculation can use the four best or more than four. multidimensional root finding method such as Newton-Raphson method can be used. pseudoranges from various 4-way combinations can be processed to add more estimates to the location and clock offset. results from other positioning systems such as GLONASS or the upcoming Galileo can be incorporated or used to check the result. the results are as good as or better than using the four best. these systems use the . and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP). If all visible satellites are used. a GDOP factor can be calculated. Using more than four is an over-determined system of equations with no unique solution. the location is expressed in a specific coordinate system such as latitude and longitude. The Newton- Raphson method is more rapidly convergent than other methods of numerical root finding. Alternatively. The approach is to linearize around an approximate solution. "There are no good general methods for solving systems of more than one nonlinear equations. Finally.
Examples of augmentation systems include the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Sources of error include atmospheric distortion (predominantly in the ionosphere). others characterize prior errors. European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) . so much of the receiver circuitry can be shared. The positioning data provided directly by the satellites is extremely precise but there are many factors that can make the errors in the data nontrivial. Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Assisted GPS. though the decoding is different. In situations where high accuracy is necessary. Precise monitoring Accuracy can be improved through precise monitoring and measurement of existing GPS signals in additional or alternate ways. and the travel delays of the satellite signals. ephemera. Such augmentation systems are generally named or described based on how the information arrives. . satellite clock inaccuracies. Differential GPS. or ionospheric delay). understanding and compensating for these sources of error is important. Some systems transmit additional error information (such as clock drift.same frequency bands.) Accuracy enhancement and surveying Main article: GPS augmentation Error sources and analysis The analysis of errors in the information reported by the Global Positioning System is important to estimating the accuracy of position estimates and correcting for the errors. while a third group provides additional navigational or vehicle information. Augmentation Integrating external information into the calculation process can materially improve accuracy.
this technique is slow. Then all users will be able to perform dualfrequency measurements and directly compute ionospheric delay errors. However.8 ft) of ambiguity. L1 and L2. which is about one-thousandth of the C/A Gold code bit period of . additional civilian codes are expected to be transmitted on the L2 and L5 frequencies (see GPS modernization). and thus the correlation (satellite-receiver sequence matching) operation is imperfect.6–9.The largest remaining error is usually the unpredictable delay through the ionosphere. it is still possible to use a codeless technique to compare the P(Y) codes on L1 and L2 to gain much of the same error information. Ionospheric delay is a well-defined function of frequency and the total electron content (TEC) along the path. A second form of precise monitoring is called Carrier-Phase Enhancement (CPGPS). to act as an additional clock signal and resolve the uncertainty. but errors remain. The phase difference error in the normal GPS amounts to 2–3 metres (6. In the future. Without decryption keys. The spacecraft broadcast ionospheric model parameters. This corrects the error that arises because the pulse transition of the PRN is not instantaneous. CPGPS uses the L1 carrier wave. CPGPS working to within 1% of . Military receivers can decode the P(Y)-code transmitted on both L1 and L2. which has a period of . This is one reason GPS spacecraft transmit on at least two frequencies. so measuring the arrival time difference between the frequencies determines TEC and thus the precise ionospheric delay at each frequency. so it is currently available only on specialized surveying equipment.
perfect transition reduces this error to 3 centimeters (1. RTK). Relative Kinematic Positioning (RKP) is a third alternative for a precise GPS-based positioning system. The GPS navigation message includes the difference between GPS time and UTC. 2008.9 in). transmitting GPS signal phase information and ambiguity resolution techniques via statistical tests—possibly with processing in real-time (real-time kinematic positioning. the atomic clocks on the satellites are set to GPS time (GPST. so it does not contain leap seconds or other corrections that are periodically added to UTC. By eliminating this error source. This is done by resolving the number of cycles that the signal is transmitted and received by the receiver by using a combination of differential GPS (DGPS) correction data. GPS time was set to match Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in 1980. The GPS-UTC offset field can accommodate 255 leap seconds (eight bits) that. In this approach. The difference is that GPS time is not corrected to match the rotation of the Earth.9–12 in) of absolute accuracy. Periodic corrections are performed on the on-board clocks to correct relativistic effects and keep them synchronized with ground clocks. see the page of United States Naval Observatory). The lack of corrections means that GPS time remains at a constant offset withInternational Atomic Time (TAI) (TAI .GPS = 19 seconds). Timekeeping Timekeeping and leap seconds While most clocks are synchronized to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).2 in) of ambiguity. Receivers subtract this offset from GPS time to calculate UTC and specific timezone values. . which as of 2009 is 15 seconds because of the leap second added to UTC December 31. but has since diverged. CPGPS coupled with DGPS normally realizes between 20–30 centimetres (7. New GPS units may not show the correct UTC time until after receiving the UTC offset message. determination of range signal can be resolved to a precision of less than 10 centimeters (3.
Carrier phase tracking (surveying) Another method that is used in surveying applications is carrier phase tracking. which is about 0. 1980.6 years). GPS week zero started at 00:00:00 UTC (00:00:19 TAI) on January 6. the GPS date is expressed as a week number and a seconds-into-week number. and so it becomes zero again every 1. However.024 weeks (19. and day format of the Gregorian calendar. Accuracy within 1% of wavelength in detecting the leading edge. The week number is transmitted as a ten-bit field in the C/A and P(Y) navigation messages. This compares to 3 meters for the C/A code and 0. and the week number became zero again for the first time at 23:59:47 UTC on August 21. Timekeeping accuracy GPS time is accurate to about 14ns. 1999 (00:00:19 TAI on August 22. . To determine the current Gregorian date.192 weeks (157 years). This method has many surveying applications. a GPS receiver must be provided with the approximate date (to within 3. reduces this component of pseudorange error to as little as 2 millimeters. The period of the carrier frequency times the speed of light gives the wavelength.3 meters for the P code.given the current rate of change of the Earth's rotation (with one leap second introduced approximately every 18 months). 2 millimeter accuracy requires measuring the total phase—the number of waves times the wavelength plus the fractional wavelength. thus lasting until the year 2137 (157 years after GPS week zero). To address this concern the modernized GPS navigation message uses a 13-bit field that only repeats every 8. month. which requires specially equipped receivers. should be sufficient to last until approximately the year 2300.19 meters for the L1 carrier. Timekeeping format As opposed to the year. 1999).584 days) to correctly translate the GPS date signal.
and finally between epochs. respectively.Triple differencing followed by numerical root finding. Let denote the phase of . compute the difference between satellites. and . j. be a concise abbreviation. First. j. and k then it is a valid argument for the functions. Detailed discussion of the errors is omitted. . satellites. satellite (s). Also if are valid arguments for . If is a function of the three integer arguments. and time (t) come in alphabetical order as arguments of let define three functions. which return differences between receivers. then between receivers. These three functions are defined below. Each function has variables with three subscripts as its arguments. : and to balance readability and conciseness. and time points. The receiver (r). : . and a mathematical technique called least squares can estimate the position of one receiver given the position of another. Other orders of taking differences are equally valid. The satellite carrier total phase can be measured with ambiguity as to the number of cycles. This the carrier of satellite j measured by receiver i at time notation shows the meaning of the subscripts i. i. with the values defined as the three functions and a and b are constants then with values defined as is a valid argument . Also we . and k.
This double difference is: Triple differencing subtracts the receiver difference from time 1 from that of time 2. and . This difference is designated as Double differencing computes the difference of receiver 1's satellite difference from that of receiver 2. Receiver clock errors can be approximately eliminated by differencing the phases measured from satellite 1 with that from satellite 2 at the same epoch.. This eliminates the ambiguity associated with the integral number of wave lengths in carrier phase provided this ambiguity does not change with time. This approximately eliminates satellite clock errors. . Thus the triple difference result eliminates practically all clock bias errors and the integer ambiguity. Atmospheric delay and satellite ephemeris errors have been significantly .
Such a reasonable estimate can be key to successful multidimensional root . Triple difference results for three independent time pairs quite possibly will be sufficient to solve for receiver 2's three position components. For example if the position of receiver 1 is known but the position of receiver 2 unknown. This initial value can probably be provided from the navigation message and the intersection of sphere surfaces. This triple difference is: Triple difference results can be used to estimate unknown variables. it may be possible to estimate the position of receiver 2 using numerical root finding and least squares. This may require the use of a numerical procedure.reduced.  An approximation of receiver 2's position is required to use such a numerical method.
Other systems Main article: Global Navigation Satellite System Other satellite navigation systems in use or various states of development include: Galileo – a global system being developed by the European Union and other . Processing additional time pairs can improve accuracy. Least squares can estimate an overdetermined system. Iterating from three time pairs and a fairly good initial value produces one observed triple difference result for receiver 2's position. Least squares determines the position of receiver 2 which best fits the observed triple difference results for receiver 2 positions under the criterion of minimizing the sum of the squares. overdetermining the answer with multiple solutions.finding.
covering India and Northern Indian Ocean QZSS – Japanese regional system covering Asia and Oceania See also Nautical portal Differential GPS . planned to be operational by 2014 Beidou – People's Republic of China's regional system.partner countries. planned to be operational by 2020  GLONASS – Russi a's global navigation system IRNSS – India's regional navigation system. covering Asia and the West Pacific COMPASS – People's Republic of China's global system. planned to be operational by 2012.
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remote sensing. Further reading Parkinson. mapping and surveying technologies for Asia". Juan Melendez (2009). GPS and Galileo. Roc Berenguer. ISBN 9780071598699. Asmmag. spatial information. Nathaniel Bowditch (2002). ^ "ASM.com. ISBN 978 1563471063. Jaizki Mendizabal. News on GIS. The American . GNSS. Spilker (1996). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Retrieved 2009-1013.[dead link] References "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (PDF).78. McGraw Hill. The global positioning system. ^ New York Times 79. US Coast Guard. September 1996.
Government National Space-Based PNT Executive Committee— Established in 2004 to oversee management of GPS and GPS augmentations at a national level.gov—General public education website created by the U. USCG Navigation Center—Status of the GPS constellation. United States government. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Global Positioning System Global Positioning System at the Open Directory Project GPS. Air Force Space Command GPS .S.Practical Navigator Chapter 11 Satellite Navigation. and links to other references. government policy. Also includes satellite almanac data.
Army Corps of Engineers manual: NAVSTAR HTML and PDF (22. U.Operations Center homepage The GPS Program Office (GPS Wing)— Responsible for designing and acquiring the system on behalf of the US Government.6 MB. GPS SPS Performance Standard —The official Standard Positioning Service specification (2001 version). .S. 328 pages) FAA GPS FAQ National Geodetic Survey Orbits for the Global Positioning System satellites in the Global Navigation Satellite System GPS SPS Performance Standard —The official Standard Positioning Service specification (2008 version).
touching on the upcoming Galileo Average Latitude & Longitude of Countries "Sources of Errors in GPS" GPS and GLONASS Simulation(Java applet) Simulation and graphical depiction of space vehicle motion including computation of dilution of precision (DOP) University of New South Wales: Carrier Phase Measurement University of New South Wales: Carrier Beat Phase . Satellite Navigation: GPS & Galileo (PDF) —16-page paper about the history and working of GPS. GPS PPS Performance Standard —The official Precise Positioning Service specification.