-

REF£ ropy
FOR LIBRARY U E 0 ty
Firewood
Crops
, Shrub and Tree
Species for
Energy Production
Volume 2
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
REFERENCE COpy
FOR LIBRARY USE ON1.Y
Firewood
Crops
Shrub and Tree
Species for
Energy Production
Volume 2
Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the
Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation
Board on Science and Technology for International Development
Office of International Affairs
Funding for this study was provided by
the Agency for International Development
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1983
I ~ A S - N A t
JAN 91984
LIBRARY
,y, I:' c ( c'[ It, ~ 1< • I l, (r
F '::;>4- , '. i "c
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this repon was approved by the Governing Board of the Na-
tional Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sci-
ences, the National Academy of Enaineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the commit-
tee responsible for the repon were chosen for their special competences and with reprd for appropriate
balance.
This repon has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a
Repon Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National
Academy of Enaineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to ass0-
ciate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of funhering knowl-
edge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies
determined by the Academy under the authority of its conaressional charter of 1863, which establishes the
Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the
principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Enai-
neering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and enaineering
communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National
Academy of Enaineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively,
under the chaner of the National Academy of Sciences.
The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of Inter-
national Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in
developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic devel-
opment. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing
countries and conducts special studies. BOSTlD's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation p u ~
lishes topical reviews of technical processes and biological resources of potential imponance to develop-
ing countries.
This repon has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology
Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International
Affairs, National Research Council, for the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International
Development, Washington, D.C., under Grant No. DAN-SS38-G-OO-I023-OO.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 80-83796
PANEL ON FIREWOOD CROPS
EDWARD S. AYENSU, Director, Office of Biological Conservation, Smithsonian In-
stitution, Washington D.C., USA, Chairman
JOHN G. BENE, Senior Advisor to the President, International Development Re-
search Centre, Ottawa, Canada
JAMES S. BETHEL, Former Dean, School of Forest Resources, University of Wash-
ington, Seattle, Washington, USA
LoUTFY BoULOS, Professor, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
GERAROO BUOOWSKI, Head, Natural Renewable Resources Program, Centro Agro-
nomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica
JEFFERY BURLEY, University Lecturer, Forestry Department, Commonwealth For-
estry Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, England
ERICK ECKHOLM, International Institute for Environment and Development, Wash-
ington, D.C., USA
HANs M. GREGERSEN, Professor, College of Forestry, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
ANTHONY V. HALL, Senior Lecturer and Assistant Curator, Bolus Herbarium, Uni-
versity of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa
R. D. JOHNSTON, Principal Research Scientist, Division of Forest Research, Com-
monwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia
STANLEY L. KRUGMAN, Principal Research Forest Geneticist, Timber Management
Research, United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington,
D.C., USA
BoHUMIL F. KUKACHKA, Former Wood Technologist, Pioneer Research Unit, For-
est Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
HANS-JURGEN VON MAYDELL, Professor, Federal Research Centre for Forestry and
Forest Products, Hamburg-Reinbek, West Gennany
F R A N ~ l s MERGEN, Professor, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale
University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
JULIA MORTON, Director, Morton Collectanea, University of Miami, Coral Gables,
Florida, USA
H. Y. MOHAN RAM, Head, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
JOZEFSWIDERSKI, Chief, Mechanical Wood Products Branch, Forest Industries and
Trade Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome, Italy
FRANK H. WADSWORTH, Former Director, Institute of Tropical Forestry, United
States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico
K. FREERK WIERSUM, Staff Member, Department of Silviculture, Agricultural Uni-
versity, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
National Research Council Sttiff
MARy JANEENOQUlST, Staff Associate, Study Director
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, Professional Associate
F. R. RUSKIN, Editor
Preface
In 1980 the National Academy of Sciences published Firewood Crops: Shrub and
Tree Species/or Energy Production, a report prepared by an ad hoc panel of the Ad-
visory Committee on Technology Innovation (ACTI). It is one of a series of reports
that propose unconventional scientific approaches to problems of developing coun-
tries.
The original book describes 60 tree species or groups of species with promise for
cultivation around the home or village or in firewood plantations. It does not sug-
gest a comprehensive solution to the firewood crisis, but it does examine one part of
the solution: the selection of species suitable for cultivation in different climatic
zones.
During the final preparation of the first report, information was received on other
species that also seemed to have potential as firewood crops but could not be in-
cluded because of time constraints and lack of information. After publication of the
book, still more information on further species was received. It was decided that
these additional species should be evaluated and described in a second volume.
The purpose of this report, as of its predecessor, is not to delineate strategies for
growing and utilizing firewood in any given region of the world, but to provide some
general concepts and methods for planners and technicians to consider.
Primary emphasis is on species suitable for growing firewood for individual fam-
ily needs. However, species suited to plantation cultivation for fueling small indus-
trial factories, electric generators, and crop driers are also discussed. Most of the
plants are little known in traditional forest production. Some are woody shrubs
rather than forest trees, but these many-branched, crooked, sometimes short-lived
species may better meet requirements for small-scale village use.
We particularly looked for multipurpose plants that have uses in addition to pro-
viding fuel- plants that adapt well to different sites, establish easily, and require
little care; plants that thrive in problem environments such as steep hillslopes, low-
nutrient or toxic soils, arid zones, and tropical highlands; and plants that have char-
acteristics such as nitrogen-fixing ability, rapid growth, ability to coppice, and high
calorific value.
In addition to the first report, other ACTI publications in the series Innovations
in Tropical Re/orestation that contain information on some exceptionally promising
firewood species and related technologies are:·
• Sowing Forests/rom the Air (1981)
• Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias o/the Humid Tropics (1983)
• Calliandra: A Versatile Small Tree/or the Humid Tropics (1983)
• Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites (1984)
• Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics (Second edition in
preparation)
·For information on how to order these and other reports. see pqe 90.
v
Information on promising, fast-growing trees is also contained in Report No. 25,
Tropical Legumes: Resources/or the Future (1979).
These publication activities are supported largely by the U.S. Agency for Interna-
tional Development (AID). This study was sponsored by AID's Office of the Science
Advisor, which also made possible the free distribution of this report.
A related report was written by E. L. Little, Jr., under a contract funded by AID
and administered by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Common
Fuelwood Crops: A Handbook/or Their Identification. Communi-Tech Associates,
Morgantown, West Virginia. Available for purchase from Communi-Tech Associ-
ates, Post Office Box 3170, Morgantown, West Virginia 26503, USA. Single copy
price: $13.50 (softcover». The main objective ofthe handbook is to aid in the iden-
tification of the common trees and shrubs grown as fuelwood crops in plantations
and forests chiefly in tropical regions. It was prepared as a companion volume to
Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species/or Energy Production (Report No. 27).
WARNING
This book, if misunderstood, is potentially dangerous. Because of the
severity of the firewood crisis, the panel has selected trees and shrubs that
are aggressive and grow rapidly. These seem appropriate for cultivation in
areas of extreme fuel shortage, particularly where climates and soil condi-
tions are harsh. However, in more equable environments, and where no
fuelwood shortages exist, such potentially invasive plants should be intro-
duced only with great care and with serious consideration for the threat
posed by their weediness. In any trials of fuelwood plantations, local species
sbould always be given priority.
vi
Contents
INTRODUCTION 1
I FUELWOOD SPECIES FOR HUMID TROPICS 2
AlbiziJljalCtltariJl 4
Bursera simaruba 6
Coccoloba uvifera 8
EuCtllyptus brassiJl1lQ 10
EuCtllyptus deglupta 12
EuCtllyptus pellita 14
EuCtllyptus urophylla 16
Hibiscus tiliJlceus 18
Maesopsis eminii 20
Pinus Ctlribaeo 22
Psidium guajava 24
II FUELWOOD SPECIES FOR TROPICAL HIGHLANDS 26
ACtlciJl decurrens 28
EuCtllyptus robusta 30
EuCtllyptus tereticornis 32
GleditsiJl triJlCtlnthos 36
MelaleuCtl quinquenervia 38
MeliJl azedarach 40
RobiniapseudoaCtlciJl 42
Sapium sebiferum 46
III FUELWOOD SPECIES FOR ARID AND SEMIARID REGIONS 50
Ailanthus exce/sa 52
Balanites aegyptiJlCtl 54
Combretum micranthum 56
Conocarpus lancifolius 58
Dalbergia sissoo 60
Populus euphratiCtl 62
Sesbania sesban 64
Tarcho1lQnthus Ctlmphoratus 66
APPENDIXES
1 SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS 68
2 SELECTED READINGS 75
3 RESEARCH CONTACTS 81
4 INDEX OF PLANTS 86
Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation 88
Board on Sciences and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) 88
BOSTID Publications 90
vii
Introduction
The problems of firewood shortages and the promise of firewood plantations
were described extensively in the first volume.
No less than one-and-a-half billion people in developing countries derive at least
90 percent of their energy requirements from wood and charcoal. Another billion
people meet at least SO percent of their energy needs this way. Indeed, it has been
estimated that at least half the timber cut in the world still serves its original role for
mankind: as fuel for cooking and heating. •
This essential resource, however, is seriously threatened. The developing world is
facing a critical firewood shortage. The growth in human population is far outpac-
ing the growth of new trees - not surprising when the average user burns as much as
a ton of firewood a year. The results are soaring prices for wood, a growing drain on
incomes and physical energy expended to satisfy basic fuel needs, the wasteful burn-
ing of animal manures to cook food rather than help produce it, and an ecologically
disastrous and potentially irreversible spread of treeless landscapes.
There is no single magical solution to the firewood scarcity, but some blend of
fuel conservation, tree planting, and new technologies could certainly ease its sever-
ity in any country. The failure of many affected countries to meet the firewood chal-
lenge does not, in the final analysis, reflect an absence of suitable technologies, but
rather a failure of political systems, of social organization.
Many of the species included in this book would not be appropriate under certain
conditions for fuelwood; for example, some of them have much higher value for
other uses. The advantage of Albizio and a number of pine species, for instance, is
that they have multiple uses. Should fuel needs diminish, the species can be turned to
these alternative uses. Albizio is used for pulp; it could at the same time serve as
firewood if that were needed.
In the Korean fuelwood plantation program, 30 percent of the species planted
were required to have commercial uses in addition to fuelwood. The idea was that if
fuelwood demands turned out to be less than initially anticipated, the trees would
still serve some useful purpose.
Setting up a dependable national supply of firewood seems an ideal project for
combined action by a country's government and its people.
-E. Eckholm 1975. The Other Energy Crisis: F;1'f!Wood. Worldwatch Paper I. Worldwatch Institute,
Washil13ton, D.C., USA.
1
I Fuelwood Species
for Humid Tropics
Of the one billion people in the humid tropics, perhaps a fifth live in or adjacent
to forests. To provide fuelwood and charcoal for their daily needs, these 200 million
people fell acres of trees each year. In addition, much fuelwood is cut for shipment
to urban markets. Together with commercial timber logging and expansion of agri-
culture, the result is depletion of tropical forests at a rate that exceeds any present at-
tempts to replenish them.
This study, the second of two volumes, is concerned with ways of establishing
self-replenishing sources of fuelwood. In some countries trees are already being
profitably cultivated in energy plantations, and the idea has become more attractive
as the price of other fuels rises.
Conditions in the humid tropics promote the growth of many kinds of trees and
shrubs, with the heat and dampness ensuring high rates of photosynthesis and short
harvest cycles. The question is, which trees are the best candidates for deliberate cul-
tivation?
The first volume of this report described the following species as worth testing for
fuelwood crops in the humid tropics:
Acacia auriculijormis
Calliandra calothyrsus
Casuarina equisetijolia
Derris indica
Gliricidia sepium
Gmelina arborea
Guazuma ulmijolia
Leucaena leucocephala
Mangroves
Mimosa scabrella
Muntingia calabura
Sesbania bispinosa
Sesbania grandiflora
Syzygium cumini
Terminalia catappa
Tremaspp
This section of the present volume describes further shrub and tree species that
hold promise for cultivation in humid tropical regions both for profit and for stav-
ing off the threat of fuelwood depletion in developing tropical countries.
Species included in other sections of this volume that are worth testing in the
humid tropics are Melaleuca quinquenervia and Robiniapseudoacacia.
2
Pinus Ctlriboaz (see PllIe 22) 8 months old, intercropped with corn I month old in Turrialba, Costa Rica. (R. Salazar)
, t
ClVe
3
gic
Albiziafalcataria
Botanic Name A/biziDfa/co/ariD(L.) Fosberg
Synonyms A/biuiDfa/co/a (L.) Backer, A. mo/-
/UCCOfIQ Miq.
Common Names Batai, Molucca albizzia, M<>-
luccan sau, djeungjing, sengon, falcata, vaivai,
puah, white albizzia, kayu macis, tamalini, mara,
placata, plakata
Family Leguminosae (Mimosoidae)
Main Attributes Because of its rapid growth,
vigorous coppicing, and usefulness when grown
in combination with agricultural crops, it should
be considered for firewood, notwithstanding its
low specific gravity and low caloric value. In
some regions like Western Samoa and Java the
species is already used as fuelwood.
Description One of the fastest growing of all
trees, A/biziDfa/co/ariD reaches (under favorable
conditions) IS m in height in 3 years, 30 m in 10
years, and 44 m in 17 years. When grown in the
open, its crown spreads to form a large umbrella-
shaped canopy, but in plantations it has a narrow
crown. Its flowers are creamy white and have a
slight fragrance.
Distribution A/biziD fa/co/ariD is native to
Papua New Guinea, West Irian, the Solomon
Islands, and the Moluccas. The species is grown
in plantations, notably in the Philippines and
elsewhere in Southeast Asia and in Fiji. It has
also been used in variety trials in India, Sri
Lanka, Taiwan, and Western Samoa. It is now
naturalized in many urban areas of Sabah. On
Java, especially west Java, it is planted in home
gardens and gardens mixed with herbaceous and
tree crops (for example fruit trees) as a source of
timber and firewood. The practice is quite wide-
spread in the area and can yield a substantial in-
come for villagers.
Use as Firewood The wood is light, soft, and
lacks strength (specific gravity 0.24-0.49). Tests
performed in Java show that it makes good char-
coal and that its caloric potential varies from
2,86S-3,3S7 kcal per kg.
Yield On better soils growth can be up to SO m]
per ha per year, while average sites yield up to 39
m] per ha per year on a la-year rotation. (Growth
tends to culminate at or before 10 years.)
4
OtberUses
• Wood. The wood is excellent for fiber board
and particle board. It is also used as veneer core
stock and for pallets and crating, furniture com-
ponents, matches, and boxes.
• Pulp. The species is most suitable for
ground wood pulp because of its low density, pale
color, and fiber length and qualities. In the Phil-
ippines it is successfully used for newsprint.
• Shade. A/biziDfa/co/ariD is widely used as a
shade tree for cattle and for cocoa, coffee.
banana, and tea plantations.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. A/biziD fa/cotaria requires a
temperature range of 22°-29°C.
• Altitude. Within its natural range, this spe-
cies occurs up to 1,000 m elevation. It is grown at
altitudes up to I,Soo m, but generally does best in
plantations below 800 m.
• Rainfall. This tropical species thrives in
humid tropical climates with no more than a
slight dry season (0-2 months). The best Philit>
pine growth has been achieved on sites with an
annual rainfall of 4,SOO mm and no dry period.
• Soil. A/bizia fa/cotariD does best on well-
drained, deep soils with reasonably high fertility.
Like some other legumes, it is likely to perform
better on slightly alkaline than on acid soils.
Establishment The tree regenerates easily by
natural seeding on any clearing. It produces seeds
prolifically and regularly from an early age, usu-
ally from 3 to 4 years on.
• Seed treatment. Best germination occurs
after mechanical scarification or treatment with
sulfuric acid for 12 minutes followed by water for
IS minutes. Seed may also be placed in boiling
water, removed from heat, and wrapped in wet
cloth for 24 hours.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Remarkably
fast initial growth is typical of A /biziD fa/cotarill;
therefore, weeding normally can be limited to one
complete weeding and three spot weedings during
the first year after planting. Occasional elimina-
tion of vines may be necessary after that.
Pests and Diseases Various white and brown
rots are the most serious diseases afflicting
A/bizill fa/cotaria plantations. These diseases
normally follow wind damage. Plantings in the
Philippines are subject to attack by the fungus
Coiticum sa/monic%r, causing "albizia canker,"
Albizillla/cQtarill growing on Mt. Vaea, near Apia, Western Samoa, where it is widely used for firewood. (B. Cahusac)
which can be devastating unless controlled with
Bordeaux mixture or other fungicides. Harmful
insects are EuTtmo blanda, Eurema hecobe,
~ m i o t h i s e spp., Xystocertl festiva (wood borer),
and Penthicodesjarinosa.
Umltatlons Albizia falcotaria is extremely sus-
ceptible to uprooting and breakage of branches
by high winds. Once exposed, the low-density
wood is easily attacked by fungi, which bring
about rotting of the trees. The tree has a massive
root system that is known to contribute to soil
erosion, and it should not be planted on steep
hillsides. Large tree roots, rather than holding the
soil, have an opposite effect. Grass and her-
baceous plants are soil retainers.
Bursera simaruba
Botanic Name Bursera simaruba Sarg.
Synonyms Bursera gummifera L., B. ovalifolia
Engler, Elophrium simaruba Rose
Common Names Gumbo limbo, gum-elemi,
aumtree, West Indian birch, red birch, almacigo,
indio desnudo, palo mulato, galo de incienso,
turpentine tree, and many others
Family Burseraceae
Main Attributes This handsome tree is esteemed
for fuel and for living fence posts throughout
Central America and the Caribbean. So far, how-
ever, it is virtually unknown elsewhere. It is easily
propagated- green branches thrust into the
ground take root quickly and grow vigorously.
The trees regenerate swiftly after cutting. In fact,
even trees blown down by winds send up shoots,
which soon become trunks as big as the original.
Description The gumbo limbo as it grows in
forests is an erect, straight, resinous tree reaching
20-30 m, with a stout trunk (to 75 cm) that is
often forked about 2 m from the ground, forming
thick vertical branches that fork again higher up.
The bark, which peels off in thin flakes, is typ-
ically copper colored (sometimes silvery) and
glossy. When growing in the open, the branches
spread and form a broad crown. The tree is bare
during the cool, dry season. The leaves are com-
pound and have a turpentine odor when crushed.
Distribution This handsome tree is native to
and esteemed in areas from central Florida
through the Bahamas and West Indies and from
southern Mexico to the northern parts of South
America.
Use as Firewood The wood has a high moisture
content, but when thoroughly dry it is commonly
burned as firewood and charcoal. Because of its
flammability, Indians of Yucatan use it for kin-
dling. The wood has a specific gravity, green and
oven dried, of 0.30-0.40.
Yield No studies have been made of the poten-
tial firewood yield. In Belize, surveys have shown
populations of up to 57 trees per ha in the wild.
Other Uses
• Wood. The wood seasons well, with slight
shrinkage; is easily worked; saws, planes, and
polishes satisfactorily; holds nails firmly; and is
used commercially for a veneer that resembles
6
paper birch and for plywood for interior use. It is
fairly strong, but is not durable for outside use,
being attacked by borers, beetles, and termites.
Locally, it is made into boxes and crates, soles for
sandals, light furniture, and matchsticks and
toothpicks.
• Beautification. The gumbo limbo is much
used as an ornamental. In southern Florida it is
planted as a landscape tree in new developments
and along streets, mainly because of its quick
growth, but also because of the newly awakened
appreciation of native species. It has long been
planted as a living fence throughout the Carib-
bean area.
• Resin. The aromatic resin, which oozes from
an incision as a thick, amber gum, is concentrated
and dried and the chips offered as tithes or burned
as incense in South American churches.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Gumbo limbo requires a sub-
tropical or tropical climate. Fully grown trees
stand occasional brief winter frosts.
• Altitude. It is found from sea level to 1,800 m
elevation in Guatemala, but generally occurs
below 1,000 m.
• Rainfall. The tree abounds where annual
rainfall averages 500-1,400 mm.
• Soil. Gumbo limbo endures extreme soil
types ranging from fertile, moist forest habitats
to dry, barren limestone, but it grows best in rich
lowlands. Under the severely arid conditions of
some Caribbean islands it is rather stunted and
crooked, but survives. It has a high degree of salt
tolerance.
Establishment While the tree reseeds itself in its
natural areas, it is seldom deliberately propa-
gated by seed.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Being a for-
est tree, the gumbo limbo tolerates shade at all
stages of growth. It is not retarded by the shade
of competing vegetation even in the juvenile
period.
Pests and Diseases The resin is a natural insect
repellent, and no pests or diseases are reported in
available literature.
UmltatIons Apart from cold sensitivity, the
handicaps seem to be only the brittleness of
branches, which may be snapped off by strong
gusts of wind; the perishability of exposed wood;
and the discoloration of the timber by the
BUfWra simorubo. (From j()(J Plants ofSouth Florida by J. Morton)
S8IHtain fungi to which it is prone l:lecause of its
high moisture content. (Such staining can be
avoided by immediate kiln drying or by immedi-
ate sprayil1l of the cut logs with a fungicide.)
Digl 'ed by Goog e
Cocc%ba uvifera
Botanic Name Cocc%bo uVi/era (L.) L.
Synonyms Cocc%bis uVi/era Jacq., Po/y-
gonum uVi/era L.
Common Names Seagrape, seaside grape, bay
grape, baya de praga, mangle de falda, raisin la
mer, uva de mar, uva de playa, uva caleta, uvero,
horsewood, hopwood
FamUy Polygonaceae
Main Attributes Seagrape is one of the first
woody species to become established on sandy
shores, being more hardy in these exposed places
and more tolerant of salt than most trees.
Description Fully exposed on windswept sea-
coasts, the seagrape is dwarfed and bushy (to2.S m
high) and forms dense colonies. On leeward
shores and inland locations it becomes a round-
topped, spreading, low-branching tree up to IS m
high, with thick, smooth branches and a stout
trunk to I m in diameter. The stiff and leathery
leaves are large, thick, and almost circular. They
turn scarlet or yellow and drop off in the winter
dry season, but they are soon replaced by silky
new growth with a bronze hue. Small and fra-
grant white flowers are borne profusely in spring
and develop into red-purple grapelike clusters of
velvet-skinned edible fruits. Male and female
flowers are borne on separate trees.
Distribution The seagrape is native to southern
Florida, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and West In-
dies. It also grows from the northeast coast of
Mexico along the Atlantic coast of Central Amer-
ica, reaching down both coasts of South America
as far as Peru and Brazil. It is often planted as a
seashore windbreak in the Hawaiian Islands. It
was introduced into the Philippines and Zanzibar
about 40 years ago.
Use as Firewood Throughout its range, the
wood is commonly employed as firewood and for
making charcoal. In Mexico the charcoal has
been particularly prized by blacksmiths and sil-
versmiths. In an ignition trial, small dry branches
and twigs were lit with matches. The first flames
gave off a little smoke; within S minutes there
were red coals and only wisps of smoke; and in
another S minutes there were bright, smokeless,
even flames whose intense heat surpassed the
maximum 204°C on a thermometer held 40 cm
above the fire, proving the seagrape to be ideal
8
for cooking. Its specific gravity is reported to be
from 0.7 to 0.96.
Yield The seagrape is fast growing, multi-
stemmed if pruned, and profusely branched. Yield
should be exceptional, though no statistics are
available.
OtberUses
• Wood. The wood is fine grained, compact,
heavy, and hard. It takes a high polish and is
valued for furniture and cabinetwork, but is s u ~
ject to dry-wood termites.
• Ornamental. The seagrape is widely grown
as an ornamental tree and is a great favorite for
Florida landscaping in even the most sophisti-
cated sites, either free form or trimmed to a
globular head. It is also close planted and
trimmed as a hedge. It flourishes inland as well as
in coastal locations and is long lived.
• Fruit. The fruits are popular in -the C a r i ~
bean, where they are sold by street vendors and in
local markets. They make excellent jelly.
• Honey. The flowers yield abundant nectar,
and the honey, though high in moisture, is of
good quality, light amber in color, and spicy.
• Bark. The bark is rich in tannin. In the past.
the red-brown evaporated decoction of the wood
and bark, called kino, was regularly exported to
Europe for use in tanning and dyeing.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The seagrape requires a s u ~
tropical or tropical, climate. It does need full sun.
• Altitude. In the Philippines the tree grows
well from sea level to an elevation of SOO m. In
Florida it occurs up to the central part of the pen-
insula, and it has withstood brief freezes that
have killed mature mango trees.
• Rainfall. Throughout its range, the seagrape
is subject to great variations in annual precipita-
tion, from the 1,400-mm Florida average to the
SOO-mm average of the near-arid islands of the
Caribbean.
• Soil. The seagrape is remarkable in its abil-
ity to thrive in nearly pure sand and on rocky
coasts, as well as in marl, oolitic limestone, and
diabase, dry or wet, but with good drainage. It is
extremely tolerant of salt.
Establishment Seeds germinate readily, but a
seedling seagrape may not fruit for 6-8 years.
Vegetative propagation is preferred because it is
quicker and is the only way to assure reproduc-
tion of female trees or selected cultivars. Air
layering, ground layering, and grafting are prac-
ticed, but mature wood cuttings are most com-
monly employed for mass multiplication.
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The seagrape
cannot tolerate shade; therefore, seedlings should
be weeded until they outgrow competition. For
this reason, cuttings are more practical because
they become established quickly and outdistance
the weeds.
Cocc%bo uvifera tree and fruit.
(K. and J. Morton)
Pests and Diseases In Hawaii, seagrapes
planted inland are attacked by the rose beetle
Adoretus sinicus. Generally, the seagrape is virtu-
ally free of pests and diseases, but occasionally,
under adverse conditions, the leaves are affected
by rust or fungal or algal leaf spots, and there
have been reports of mushroom root rot.
Limitations The seagrape is not adapted to ex-
tremely hot and humid environments. It needs
full sun, low altitudes, and mild winter weather
where only brief frosts may occur. Leaf fall may
be a nuisance in cold dry seasons.
Digl 'ed by Goo Ie
Eucalyptus brassiana
Botanic Name Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake
Common Names Cape York red gum, gum-
topped peppermint (Queensland); karo (Papua
New Guinea)
Family Myrtaceae
Main Attributes Eucalyptus brassianais a hardy,
fast-growing tree adapted to a variety of site con-
ditions in the lowland tropics. It tolerates peri-
odic flooding and readily coppices.
Descrlplion The tree often grows from 7 to 15
m high on infertile sites but reaches more than 30
m on better sites. The trunk may be moderately
straight for half the tree's height, but is often bad-
ly shaped. Typically, it divides into several large
ascending branches.
Distribution A tropical eucalypt, Eucalyptus
brassiana occurs in southwestern Papua New
Guinea and on Cape York Peninsula in Queens-
land, northern Australia, between latitudes 8°
and 16° S. The best development is on lowland
sites in Papua. It has recently been introduced to
several subhumid to humid tropical areas.
Use as Firewood Eucalyptus brassiana is a fast-
growing species with the capacity to produce cop-
pice shoots. The wood is moderately dense, prob-
ably similar to that of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.
Yield Trees in experimental plots in Malaysia
have reached as high as 7.6 m, with a diameter of
6.3 em at 2.5 years of age. In Bangladesh the
tree's growth rate is similar to that of Eucalyptus
camaldulensis, while it has shown average-to-
good growth rates in trial plots in Vietnam, parts
of East and West Africa, and Brazil.
Other Uses
• Wood. The brown or pale reddish brown
heartwood is hard, heavy, strong, and durable.
Because the natural stands occur in areas of low
population density, the timber has been used very
little. On Daru Island, Papua New Guinea, it is
regarded as an excellent building timber for gen-
eral construction and posts.
10
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. In Queensland and Papua
New Guinea, the natural habitat of the species,
the climate is tropical and humid to subhumid.
The trees withstand high temperatures, since the
mean maximum temperature of the hottest month
is around 32°C. Frosts have not been recorded,
and the seedlings are likely to be frost-sensitive.
• Altitude. The natural stands occur at low
altitudes from sea level to 650 m.
• Rainfall. In its native habitat the tree toler-
ates a dry season lasting from 3 to 5 months; the
minimum annual rainfall is 1,000 mm.
• Soil. The species grows from well-drained
rocky slopes to undulating plains and on season-
ally inundated flats and depressions. The soils are
typically infertile. It has grown well on the mar-
gins of rice fields in Bangladesh.
Establishment Eucalyptus brassiana regularly
produces good seed crops. Seed germination is
high, and the seeds are long lived when kept
sealed and dry in cold storage. The plantable
stock raised in the nursery is likely to be about 25
percent of the viable seeds sown. The seedlings
can be raised in trays and transplanted into con-
tainers or sown directly in containers. Under fa-
vorable conditions, plantable seedlings can be
produced within 6-10 weeks after sowing.
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Poor. Rapid
initial growth is dependent on complete weeding
during the first year.
Umitatlons There is little experience with plant-
ing this species in large areas, and its silvicultural
requirements are not well known, but it must be
kept free of weeds during the establishment
phase. Provenance trials are required to deter-
mine the optimum seed sources.
Related Species The tree is related to the well-
known fuelwood species Eucalyptus tereticornis
and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and to Eucalyptus
exserta, which is widely planted in the People's
Republic of China.
Eucalyptus brassiana, Australia. (J. Doran)
Eucalyptus deglupta
Botanic Name Eucalyptus deglupta Blume
Synonym E. f1QudiniafIQ F. Muell.
Common Names Kamarere (Papua New Guin-
ea); bagras (Philippines); leda (Indonesia)
Family Myrtaceae
Main Attributes Kamarere is one of the world's
fastest growing trees. It is capable of colonizing
land eroded by landslides and areas of recent vol-
canic activity.
Description This is a large tree, generally reach-
ing from 35 to 60 m high but occasionally reach-
ing up to 75 m, with diameters of 0.5-2 m or
greater. On unstable soils and river alluvia the
tree often develops buttresses 3-4 m high. The
trunk is one-half to two-thirds of the tree height
and is typically straight.
Distribution A wholly tropical eucalypt,
kamarere has a markedly discontinuous distribu-
tion that includes Mindanao in the Philippines;
Sulawesi, Ceram, and Irian Jaya in Indonesia;
and parts of the mainland and New Britain in
Papua New Guinea. The best development occurs
on riverine banks at altitudes mainly below 150 m
in New Britain. The species has been introduced
to many humid tropical areas.
Use as Firewood The main use of Eucalyptus
deglupta is as a pulpwood. It is normally consid-
ered too valuable for use as firewood. However,
it grows so quickly that in suitable fuel-short
areas it could be considered for both uses. Its
wood has a specific gravity of 0.40-0.80. Trees
greater than IS years of age yield good charcoal.
Yield Test plots in Papua New Guinea suggest
that in 15 years' time it may reach 44 m in height,
with a diameter at breast height of 54 em. Yields
of 20-40 m
3
per ha per year are common to that
age in several countries.
Other Uses
• Wood. The wood from natural stands has
been used for heavy construction, furniture, and
flooring. Shrinkage and fibre collapse have been
slight.
• Pulp. Pulps of good yield have been ob-
tained using the sulfate process.
12
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Kamarere's native climate is
subequatorial in coastal areas and tropical else-
where. Near sea level the mean maximum tem-
perature of all months may be 30°-32°C, but at
higher altitudes the mean maximum of the coolest
month may be only 24°C.
• Altitude. It is found from sea level to about
1,800 m.
• Rainfall. The mean annual rainfall is mainly
2,500-3,500 mm in its native habitat, but there is
no upper limit for planted stands on well-drained
sites.
• Soil. The tree grows best on deep, moderate-
ly fertile sandy loams, but also occurs on soils
derived from volcanic ash and pumice. Although
most stands occur on alluvium along rivers, land-
slides and volcanic disturbances provide sites for
small stands inland.
Establishment Under plantation conditions,
kamarere flowers at an early age, usually by 3-4
years. Normally, the seedlings are field planted as
tubed stock.
• Seed treatment. None required. The seed
germinates quickly and subsequent seedling
growth is usually fast.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The planting
fields for kamarere must be weeded for the first 6
months and some weeding is necessary until the
end of the second year.
Pests and Diseases In both natural stands and
plantations, termites are the most serious pests of
Eucalyptus deglupta. Young trees in Malaysia
have been damaged severely by the cossid moth
Zeuzera cojjeae and a ring bark borer (family
Hepialidae). Tip dieback of young trees in the
Solomon Islands is caused by the coreid bug. Ant
control must be continuous in Brazil. Trees of
some provenances have been attacked by a stem
and bark borer (Agrilis spp) in Papua New
Guinea and the Philippines.
UmUations The bark is very thin and the tree is
sensitive to fire, susceptible to frost damage, and
intolerant of drought. Young trees in particular
are brittle and easily damaged by strong winds,
thereby decreasing the viability of seed. Kama-
rere usually does not coppice.
Euetllyptus deglupta. Four-year-old tree planted in Costa Rica by a small farmer on land used for aaroforestry.
(H. J. von Maydell)
13
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Eucalyptus pellita
Botanic Name Eucalyptus pel/ita F. Muell.
Synonym E. spectabi/isF. Muell.
Common Name Red mahogany, red stringy-
bark, large-fruited red mahogany, Daintree
stringybark
Family Myrtaceae
Main Attributes Red mahogany grows quickly
in humid and subhumid tropical lowland regions.
Good provenances from the Cape York Penin-
sula could provide the basis for important new
eucalypt trials in tropical countries.
DescrIption Red mahogany is a medium to
large tree, usually 20-25 m in height but ex-
ceeding 35 m under favorable conditions. At its
best its trunk grows straight up to half the tree
height, with a large, heavily branched crown. On
bare rock above beaches it may be reduced to a
bushy shrub.
Distribution This eucalypt occurs on lower
coastal slopes of Australia. Northern populations
occur from near the top of Cape York Peninsula
to between Cairns and Townsville (latitude 12°_
18°S) and southern ones from near Brisbane to
the Batemans Bay area in southern, coastal New
South Wales (27°-36°S).
Use as Firewood The tree has a high density
(990 kg per m
3
) suitable for charcoal and fuel-
wood.
Yield In Espirito Santo, Brazil, a northern
provenance reached a mean height of 13.7 m and
a diameter of 12.6 cm in 3.5 years. In Minas
Gerais State, the same provenance was 14.9 m tall
with a diameter of 13.3 cm at the same age.
Other Uses
• Wood. The heartwood is moderately heavy,
strong, and durable in and out of the ground. Al-
though the grain is somewhat interlocked, the
wood is not difficult to work. It has a wide range
of uses for building and heavy ornamental work.
14
• Honey. The flowers are a minor source of
thin, strong-flavored honey from January to Feb-
ruary in Queensland. They provide large quanti-
ties of pollen for the bee colonies.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Red mahogany is found main-
ly in the humid climatic zone. The mean max-
imum temperature of the hottest month varies
from 24° to 33°C and the mean minimum of the
coolest from 6° to 16°C; frosts are absent or oc-
cur less frequently than five times a year.
• Altitude. From sea level to about 750 m.
• Rainfall. The mean annual rainfall in the
tree's natural Australian habitat is 900-2,300
mm.
• Soil. The tree grows mainly on gentle-to-
moderate topography, though it is found to a lim-
ited extent on steep, well-drained slopes. It pre-
fers moist sites-the lower slopes of large ridges
and even alongside small streams in the drier and
hotter parts of its occurrence. Soil types range
from shallow sandy podsols derived from sand-
stone to deep forest loams. However, red mahog-
any is recommended for planting only in well-
drained, sandy soil.
Establishment
• Seed treatment. No pretreatment is re-
quired. The seeds remain viable for many years
under controlled storage conditions.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Once estab-
lished, the tree forms a dense crown that shades
out weeds at an early stage.
Pests and Diseases Eucalyptus pellita is mod-
erately resistant to the stem canker CryphonectrifJ
cubensis (Bruner) Hodges.
Limitations In areas other than Australia where
it has been grown, Eucalyptus pellita's growth
rate has not been good enough to demonstrate an
advantage over the better-known Eucalyptus
resinijera. However, these results appear to be
based largely on the southern provenances. North-
ern provenances have grown well in moist trop-
ical areas, especially in Brazil.
Eucalyptus pe/lita, Australia. (R. D. Johnston)
IS
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Eucalyptus urophylla
Botanic Name Eucalyptus urophyllll S. T.
Blake
Synonyms E. decaisneano, also erroneously re-
ferred to as E. alba
Common Names Ampupu, Timor mountain
gum
Family Myrtaceae
Main Attributes Eucalyptus urophylla shows
promise in tropical or subtropical countries
where the rainfall exceeds 1,000 mm annually. It
is highly resistant to the stem canker Cryophonec-
tria cubensis (Bruner) Hodges, which has caused
serious losses to eucalypts in Latin America.
Description On favorable sites this species can
exceed SO m in height, with diameters of up to 2
m and straight clear boles for half or two-thirds
of the tree height. There is considerable variation
within the species in the degree of retention of
rough bark, ranging from only a short stocking
to boles fully clothed in rough fibrous bark.
Distribution Eucalyptus urophylla occurs in
Timor and other Indonesian islands. It was intro-
duced into Brazil in 1919 under the name Eucalyp-
tus alba, and the progeny from this introduction
were used to establish large areas of plantations.
The progeny were mainly hybrid stock, and these
trees have become known as "Brazil alba." The
pure species has grown extremely well in Brazil,
Cameroon, Ivory Coast, and the People's Repub-
lic of Congo and is showing considerable promise
in areas in Southeast Asia and the Pacific where
there is a distinct but not too severe dry period in
the cool season.
Use as Firewood Although one of the less dense
eucalypts, young trees make a satisfactory fuel-
wood. It coppices well.
Yield Yields of 20-30 m
l
per ha per year have
been reported under favorable growing condi-
tions. Low-altitude provenances have usually
given the highest yields.
16
OtllerUses
• Wood. The wood of older trees is used in
heavy construction, building poles, and fena:
posts and gives a high pulp yield.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Mean monthly temperatures
range from 18° to 28°C in Eucalyptus urophylltts
natural habitat.
• Altitude. This is primarily a mountainous
species, growing at altitudes from 300 m to al-
most 3,000 m.
• Rainfall. The rainfall can be as low as
1,300-1,400 mm, but the tree does best with rain-
fall of 2,000-2,SOO mm.
• Soil. This eucalypt grows best on deep,
moist, free-draining, medium-to-heavy soils de-
rived from noncalcareou's rock.
Establishment The species seems to grow best
under nursery conditions. In one trial in Costa
Rica, seedlings were transplanted SS days after
sowing to polyethylene bags containing loam-
sand mixture. In northeast Brazil the seedlings
are grown in polyethylene bags in the nursery.
They reach an optimum size of about 25 em in 7S
days. A technique to raise Eucalyptus urophylill
and a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyp-
tus grandis vegetatively by cuttings has been
developed in Brazil and the Congo.
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The tree is
highly sensitive to competition in the early stages,
and the plantation must be kept weed free for 6-
12 months after planting. After that time, the
dense crown inhibits competing weeds.
Pests and DIseases Eucalyptus urophyllll is sus-
ceptible to termite attack. In Australia defoli-
ation by a range of insects has reduced the growth
considerably. The trees are resistant to the canker
disease in Brazil. Leaf-cutting ants, Alia spp. and
Acromyrmex spp., can be a problem in parts of
South America; control measures are essential
where the ants are present.
Umitatlons Seeds are not yet readily available
from plantations or natural forests; however, a
seed orchard has been planted in the Congo.
Eucalyptus urophylla, Brazil production stand. (CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus
Botanic Name Hibiscus ti/ioceus L.
Synonyms Pariti ti/ioceum Britton, Paritium
ti/ioceum St. Hil.
Common Names Mahoe, majagua, majagua de
playa, sea hibiscus, seaside mahoe, emajagua,
hau, among others
Family Malvaceae
Main Attributes The wood of this fast-growing
tree is used chiefly for fuel, although the fibrous
bark is much used for cordage. The trees sprout
from stumps and, when cut back, produce long,
vigorous shoots from which quantities of rope
can be made.
Description The mahoe is an evergreen that
may grow 12 m tall. Normally, it has a shon
trunk and a broad, rounded crown. In wetlands it
is branched close to the ground, forming a low
and sprawling massive mound. The lowest
branches bend down, take root, and put forth
new growth, thus forming extensive tangled
thickets. The handsome leaves are somewhat
heart shaped.
Distribution The mahoe is pantropic, growing
just inshore of the mangroves on the coastal
fringe and extending up estuaries and rivers.
Use as Firewood In Puerto Rico, India, and
Malaya, the wood is used principally for fuel; it is
also employed as firewood in Ghana. In Malaya,
the tree is recommended for planting on poor
sojls as a firewood resource. In American Samoa
and other Pacific islands, it is prized for making
fire by friction because it ignites readily when a
hardwood stick is twirled rapidly against it. In the
past, in Hawaii, oiled sticks of mahoe wood were
set afire and thrown from cliffs in quick succes-
sion as "fireworks." The wood has a specific
gravity of 0.6.
Coppicing is remarkably swift and profuse, with
multiple long stems arising from cut stumps.
Yield No systematic study has been made of the
productivity of mahoe for firewood. Its rapid
growth and spreading habit, however, augur well
for high volume per hectare.
OtllerUses
• Wood. The tree has been of such inestimable
value to Pacific seafarers that it was formerly ne-
cessary to obtain permission before cutting a
18
single branch. The heartwood is yellowish or pur-
plish, light but firm, flexible, porous, close
grained, easy to work, and takes a high polish.
Durable in salt water, it is popular for fishing-net
floats, floats for outriggers and for light boats,
planking, and pilings for dwellings in wetlands. It
is also used for laths for huts and for tool handles
and cabinetwork. It has been pulped for paper-
making, but the product is of low quality because
of the wood's short fibers and is fit only for wrap-
ping purposes.
• Bark. The bark has always been used for
making rope and twine; for long, strong cables
for hauling logs and ships; for harpoon lines and
fish traps; and for mats, household strainers,
tapa cloth, and hula skirts. Easily stripped from
the branches in long ribbons, its rough outer sur-
face is peeled off, leaving a smooth surface.
When reduced to fiber, it is similar to jute. It is
stronger wet than dry.
• Erosion control and dune fixation. The
mahoe is ofen planted to stablize sand dunes and,
on muddy shores, to trap soil to reinforce the
coastline. In India it is planted to prevent erosion
on the banks of rivers and reservoirs.
• Beautification. The mahoe is widely valued
as an ornamental because of its lush foliage and
attractive flowers. On high, well-drained land it
becomes an elegant landscape plant with a sym-
metrical, rounded head and clear trunk, provid-
ing it is "raised up" by pruning the base when the
tree is young. Enough space must be available for
development of its form; this is not a tree for
small gardens. It is sometimes close planted as a
living fence.
Enylronmental Requirements
• Temperature. The species is adapted to
warm, humid areas, from near-tropical (for ex-
ample southern Florida) to ultratropical.
• Altitude. The mahoe grows from sea level 10
SOO m elevation.
• Rainfall. It thrives where there is annual
precipitation of 1,400 mm. Some scattered speci-
mens are found on the coasts of extremely dry
regions.
• Soil. The tree has no particular soil require--
ments; it seems to grow equally well in mud,
marl, sand, and limestone, assuming greater stat-
ure on high, dry sites inland than in its native
habitat-shallow brackish swamps. It is highly
salt tolerant.
Hibiscus tiliaeeu.s. (From 500 Plants 0/South Florida by J. Morton)
Establisbment The seed capsules may float for
months until they reach favorable shores, where
the seeds readily germinate and colonize the area.
In cultivation the tree is easily raised from seed or
cuttings, or by air layering. Growth is rapid; in
2-3 years the tree is large enough to provide
shade.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Seedlings
should be weeded in the early stages if planted in-
land. If planted in swampy, saline sites, there will
be little vegetative competition and they will be
self-sustaining.
Pests and Diseases The mahoe is an extraordi-
narily healthy tree with few problems. Spring and
summer wilting was observed at Lahore, India,
and attributed to Alternaria dianthi, which is
locally prevalent on other plants. The tree recov-
ers by the following season without treatment. In
Florida it is sometimes affected by leaf spot
caused by G/oeosporium spp or Phyllosticta
hibiscina.
UmltatioDS The mahoe is limited to warm,
humid, low elevations. It is intolerant of cold,
though mature trees have not been seriously in-
jured by brief frosts in southern Florida.
19
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Maesopsis eminii
Botanic Name Maesopsis eminii Engl.
Common Names Musizi, ndunga, muhumula,
esenge
FamUy Rhamnaceae
Main Attributes Maesopsis eminii is a quick-
growing, short-lived species suggested for enrich-
ment planting in the humid tropics where it grows
well if the canopy opening is sufficient and there
is no dense shade. It is also recommended for
well-drained grassy areas of watercourses.
DescrIption This fast-growing deciduous tree is
cylindrical, straight, free of branches for 9-20 m,
and has a wide-spreading crown. The size of the
tree decreases across the African continent from
east to west. In Nigeria it is seldom over IS m
high, while in Uganda it grows to 36 m.
Distribution The species is native to tropical
Central Africa from Liberia to Tanzania, cover-
ing a range of latitudes from 8°N to 2°S. Planta-
tions have been established or natural forests
managed in Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kenya,
Tanzania, Uganda, and zaire. Trials have been
established in other African countries and in
Costa Rica, Hawaii, Western Samoa, and the
Solomon Islands.
Use as Firewood Plantation wood of Maesopsis
eminii is light and therefore is not an ideal fuel-
wood. Its specific gravity is 0.38-0.48.
Yield On good soils in Africa the tree may grow
2-3 m in height per year while it is young. In
Uganda, musizi forest plantations are managed
on a 3O-year rotation, producing a final volume
of 20-30 m
3
per ha per year. In many areas,
yields of 8-20 m
3
per ha are common; on fertile
volcanic soils of Malaysia and Indonesia annual
yields even reached 20-30 m
3
per ha with a max-
imum of 33 m
3
and 40 m
3
per ha, respectively.
OtberUses
• Fruit. The fruits, which are often eaten by
animals, contain an edible oil.
• Wood. The wood of Maesopsis eminii is
open grained and light brown and, although light
weight, is tough and easy to work. It tends to
warp, split, or collapse during seasoning, but is
used for general indoor construction, joinery,
and veneers for matchboxes. It is also suitable for
plywood and pulpwood. On Java, Indonesia, the
20
species has been proposed as a substitute for AI-
bizill jalcatarill because of its similar wood qual-
ity and its resistance to the Xystrocera wood-
borer, which damages theAlbizill.
• Miscellaneous. In Zaire the trees are planted
to shade coffee and cocoa plantations.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Maesopsis eminii grows in an
area of mean annual temperatures ranging from
22° to 27°C, While the mean minimal tempera-
tures of the coldest months are 16°-24°C.
• Altitude. The tree is normally found be-
tween 100 m and 700 m elevation, but in several
countries, including Uganda, it grows well up to
1,200 m.
• Rainfall. The species requires 1,200-3,000
mm of uniform summer rains.
• Soil. Maesopsis eminii is considered best
suited to moderately fertile, well-drained, light-to
medium-textured soils, with a neutral to acid pH.
Establishment Natural regeneration is good;
large quantities of seed are eaten and distributed
by birds. The seeds number about 700 per kg.
Artificial regeneration can be effected by direct
seeding, but it is safer to raise seedlings in
nurseries. Nursery stock should be planted out as
pot plants at an early age, since the plants rapidly
form long taproots. Stumps cannot be used.
• Seed treatment. Seeds must soak in cold
water for 2-3 days.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The tree can-
not tolerate Imperata grass competition during its
early growth, but if it has been well tended during
its early years, the rather dense umbrella crown
rapidly suppresses competition. It is a light-
demanding species that can be planted in pure
plantations, but it can also be used for under-
planting or enrichment planting in open wood-
lands.
Pests and Diseases Young trees are susceptible
to cankers caused by Fusarium solani and other
fungi. Bacterial wilt has been reported from a site
in Malaysia with impeded drainage. In zaire,
damage by the Monochamus scabiosus borer has
been reported.
Limitations The species cannot stand heavy
weed competition or waterlogged soils. It is too
wide crowned for use where maximum productiv-
ity per unit of land is the aim. It does not like
Maesopsis eminii. Sudan. Left: 2-year-old seedlings. Below: 2S-year-
old tree. (R. L. Plumptre)
grass competition. In the tropics. well-dried seeds
can be stored, but not more than 3 months. Trees
in poorly drained, infertile soil and on hillsides or
in valleys are highly canker prone.
21
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Pinus caribaea
Botanic Name Pinus cariboeo Morelet*
Synonyms Pinus bohamensis Griseb., Pinus
hondurensis Loock
Common Names Caribbean pine, pitch pine,
pino de la costa, pino colorado, ocote blanco,
pino caribaea de Honduras, pino macho
Family Pinaceae
Main Attributes Caribbean pine, which has fast
initial growth, has become one of the more im-
portant pines for commercial timber plantations
in tropical areas below 1,000 m. Because of the
knowledge about the tree and its adaptability to
equatorial lowlands or degraded lowland sites, it
also deserves consideration as a fuelwood species.
Description Pinus cariboeo is a large tree that
under the best conditions may grow to 45 m in
height and 135 em in diameter. Generally the
stem is straight and the branching is regular.
However, there is great variation in tree form,
particularly in the branching habits of natural
stands.
Distribution Three geographic varieties of Pinus
cariboeo are distinguished. Pinus cariboeo var
cariboeo (typical), or Caribbean pine, is found in
western Cuba and the Isle of Pines. Pinus cari-
boeo var bohamensis, Bahamas pine, is native to
the Bahamas and Caicos Islands. Pinus cariboeo
var hondurensis, Honduran pine or pino hon-
durei'io, grows in the Atlantic lowland of Central
America from northern Belize to northern Nica-
ragua.
Use as Firewood Young trees often grow rapid-
ly, and both thinnings and branches from sawlog
or pulp plantations could yield valuable fuel. The
wood is soft, moderately lightweight (specific
gravity, 0.4-0.66), and resinous.
Yield A mean annual increment of 21-40 m)
per ha can be achieved on suitable sites up to the
thirteenth year of growth.
OtberUses
* Pulp and papermaking. Pinus cariboea from
natural forests is used in Nicaragua and Hon-
duras for general-purpose pulpwood.
• Wood. The wood is excellent for particle
board and noncompressed fiber board. It also is
·This species was often confused with Pinus elliallii
Engelm. Before 1950 it included Pinus elliallii.
22
used for boat building, heavy construction, in-
terior joinery and furniture components, and
(form permitting) for veneer.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The tree requires a warm,
equable climate with no frost. In its native
habitat, mean temperatures range from 22° to
28°C, with a maximum of 37°C and minimum of
5°C sometimes experienced.
• Altitude. In the equatorial zone, the species
grows best at altitudes below 1,000 m, although it
is planted up to 1,500 m.
• Rainfall. Throughout its natural habitat,
Pinus cariboeo grows in a climate with summer
rainfall and a winter dry season. On the islands
and on most inland areas, rainfall varies between
1,000 mm and 1,800 mm. In coastal areas rainfall
may reach 3,900 mm, with poorly drained sites
sometimes becoming waterlogged at the height of
the rains. Some stands, however, grow on sites
where annual rainfall may be as low as 660 mm.
• Soil. Soils are usually loams or sandy loams,
sometimes with high amounts of gravel and gen-
erally well drained. The pH is usually between 5.0
and 5.5, although the very thin layer of soil on
top of the coral platforms of the Bahamas has a
pH of 8.4. In Cuba the soil is a deep, fine-grained
clay that allows easy movement of air and water.
In mainland coastal plains, Pinus cariboeo occu-
pies the well-aerated sands and silts and the levee
banks where pH is between 4 and 5. Inland it can
be found on a wide range of parent materials.
Establishment Easy germination and rapid ear-
ly growth reduce costs of seedling production. It
is essential to ensure that the correct mycorrhizae
are available in the nursery soil to ensure root in-
fection.
• Seed treatment. The seeds sometimes re-
spond to moderate stratification, that is, a 24-
hour water soak followed by 2-3 days of cold
storage at 4°_5°C. They can be stored up to 10
years at 00_5°C with moisture content below 10
percent.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Pinus
caribaeo can bear severe competition from
shallow-rooted grasses, except when rainfall is
below 1,000 mm. It is light demanding and can-
not tolerate much overhead shade from tall
grasses. Fast initial growth is typical of the
species, and therefore weeding is often required
for only one year after planting; weeding must
Pinus caribaea, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Two-year-old plantation growing in ultisol soil
(R. L. Voss)
Pinus caribaea var hondurensis in Guatemala.
(R. H. Kemp)
continue longer when the trees compete with
climbing vines because of little shade production.
Pests and DIseases This species is susceptible to
soil-borne pathogens that cause "damping ofr'
and to various fungi that cause foliage blights,
needle cast, dieback, stem and root damage,
heart rot, and sap stain, depending on the loca-
tion of the plantation. Serious insect pests are
Dendroclonus (in Central American natural pop-
ulations); Ips beetles; the pine aphid; leaf-cutting
ants; termites; the Australian case moth, Hya-
tarela; and the Nantucket tip moth, Rhyacionia.
Damage to young plantations has been caused by
squirrels, porcupines, and tree shrews feeding on
the bark of stems and branches.
LimitatIons The great genetic variation existing
within this species suggests abundant possibilities
for genetic improvement in yield, stem form,'
growth, branching habit, and pest resistance. In-
digenous seed of Pinus caribaea is available
through commercial sources. However, in the
short term, difficulties may be encountered in
procuring seed for large plantations because the
tree is so successful that seed is in high demand.
In addition, outside its native habitat Pinus
caribaea produces cones at low altitudes in the
tropics, which reduces seed supplies.
23
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Psidium guajava
Botank Name Psidium guajava L.
Common Names Guava, guayaba
FamUy Myrtaceae
Main Attributes In high-population areas
guava should be a good tree for use as firewood.
It coppices readily and its growth rate is rapid at
first and slower as the tree ages. Its ability to
withstand repeated cutting should make it an ex-
ceptionally fine firewood, although the plant can
be a problem weed and its wider planting should
be encouraged only where enough utilization to
keep it in check can be assured.
Description Guava is generally a shrub or low,
wide-spreading evergreen tree 3-10 m high. It
branches close to the ground and often produces
suckers from roots near the base of the trunk.
The small, fragrant white flowers are solitary or
grow in small clusters on new axiliary shoots.
Distribution Guava is indigenous to the Amer-
ican tropics, where it occurs wild and cultivated.
At an early date the Spanish took it to the Philip-
pines and the Portuguese to India. It then spread
throughout the tropics. It has been naturalized in
many countries, being spread by birds; in some
places it has become a troublesome weed in pas-
tures and has been declared a noxious weed in
Fiji.
Use as Firewood The hard, strong, heavy wood
has a specific gravity of 0.8 and makes excellent
firewood and charcoal. The gross calorific value
per gram of dry matter (ash free) is 4,792 kcal
with 0.85 percent ash.
Yield Firewood cutting causes the guava to
spread by suckering, and it may become a pest in
high-rainfall areas.
OtberUses
• Fruits. Guava fruits are made into pre-
serves, jam, jelly, paste, juice, and nectar. They
contain two to five times the vitamin C content of
fresh orange juice, and red guavas are also a good
source of vitamin A.
• Leaves. In some countries the tannin-rich
leaves and green fruits are used for dyeing and
tanning.
• Wood. Because of its strength the wood has
been used for tool handles and implements.
24
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The trees are susceptible to
frost, but if the freeze is not too severe they grow
back quickly by suckering from below the soil.
They require light.
• Altitude. Guava grows in the tropics from
sea level to I,SOO m. However, it normally grows
slowly at altitudes above 800 m.
• Rainfall. Psidium guajava does weU in areas
of 1,000 mm or more of well-distributed rainfall,
and it can endure 4-5 months of drought.
• Soil. Guava does well on slightly to strongly
acid soils. It flourishes in Florida on limestone
and marl with a pH of 7.5-8.0. It grows relatively
poorly in heavy clay soils; however, it is reported
to tolerate flooding and to grow in areas where
drainage is poor.
Establishment The tree can be propagated from
seeds, cuttings, and suckers, or by inarching. In
the past, most guavas have been grown from
seed, but because of the great variability of guava
fruits, vegetative propagation (for example, air
layering) of superior clones is more common.
• Seed treatment. None required. The seeds
remain viable for several months and will ger-
minate in 3-5 weeks in the warm season.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Excellent.
Guava is an aggressive plant that can withstand
partial shading and can take over a site when it
receives full sunlight.
Pests and Diseases Fruit flies, mealy bugs, scale
insects, and thrips are reported to cause damage
to the guava, mostly to the fruit. Wilt, the most
serious enemy of the tree in India, reportedly oc-
curs on soil above pH 7.5 and is usually fatal.
Bark canker and dieback are diseases that kill
branches. A bark-eating caterpillar and mealy
scale may cause severe damage.
Limitations The trees can become serious pests,
particularly with the root suckering induced by
firewood cutting.
Related Species
• Psidium littorale is a native of Brazil that
grows to a height of 8 m and can grow in dense
shade as well as in the open. It is a good under-
story firewood in eucalyptus plantations in wet
areas (5,000-6,000 mm rainfall). It also tolerates
considerably lower temperatures and higher ele-
vations than Psidium guajava.
Psidium guajava tree. (H. Y. Nakasone)
Eucalyptus robusta (see PIlle 30) with a PsidiJIm cattleklnum undentory on the island of Hawaii. (R. Q. Skolmen)
25
Digl 'ed by Coogle
II Fuelwood Species
for Tropical Highlands
In the highlands (those areas above 1,000 m elevation) the problem of deforesta-
tion has become critical in many tropical developing countries. In part, the forests
have been cut to make way for cultivation, but much of the denuded land results
from the local population cutting trees and shrubs for fuelwood. The forests are
receding rapidly up the hillsides as villages are forced to go higher in their constant
search for fuel.
Only 10 percent of the population of tropical countries lives in the highlands, but
the 40 percent living in the adjacent lowlands is also affected by the deforestation of
hillsides that can no longer retain rainwater. The result is flash flooding, siltation,
and drying up of streams needed for livestock and irrigation, all of which cut farm-
land productivity.
Reforestation of the highlands is official policy in many developing countries
where subsistence farming is traditional, and efforts are under way to identify tree
species best suited for these areas.
The first volume of this report described a number of species worth testing for
highland fuelwood crops:
Acada mearnsii
Ai/anthus altissima
Alnus acuminata
Alnus nepalensis
Alnusrubra
Eucalyptus globulus
Eucalyptus grandis
Grevillea robusta
Inga vera
This section describes further species of trees and shrubs that merit testing in trop-
ical highland areas.
Another species described in section III of this book that should be tested in the
tropical highlands is Dalbergia sissoo.
26
Eucalyptus in Peru. (M. L. Barker)
27
cd ty LJoogle
Acacia decurrens
Botanic Name Acacia decurrens (Wendt.)
Willd.
Synonym Acacia decurrens var normalis Benth.
The species is closely related to Acacia mearnsii
(black wattle) and Acacia dealbata (see Firewood
Crops Vol. I), and in the literature these species
have often been confused.
Common Names Green wattle, Sydney black
wattle, king or queen wattle
Family Leguminosae (Mimosoideae)
Main Attributes Acacia decurrens yields excel-
lent fuelwood and charcoal and has proved suit-
able for growing in many countries. The wood is
little used for fuel except in Australia, but the
bark is esteemed second only to that of Acacia
mearnsii for tanning purposes. Like other
acacias, green wattle fixes atmospheric nitrogen.
Description This is a beautiful tree with strong,
upright growth, usually reaching 6-12 m in
height. In the Nilgiris (India) it attains a height of
30 m and a diameter of 37 em. It has a fern- or
feather-like green foliage and in spring has a
crowded head of fluffy, golden flowers. The slen-
der seedpods, to 10 em long, snap open when
mature and throw the seeds a good distance.
Distribution This species is native to the coastal
strip within 200 km of Sydney, Australia, and to
adjacent lower montane valleys. It has been
planted fairly widely on moist sites in southeast-
ern Australia. It has also been introduced to Sri
Lanka, Fiji, India, Kenya, South Africa, Hawaii,
the Philippines, and parts of Central and South
America.
Use as Firewood The wood is not suitable for
sawtimber because of its small dimensions. It
does make a good firewood, with a specific grav-
ity of 0.50-0.70. According to one report, it has a
caloric potential of 3,530-3,940 kcal per kg.
Yield A yield of 6-16 m) per ha per year has
been reported, and in Sri Lanka the yield of fire-
wood on a 15-year rotation averaged 25 m) per
ha.
OtberUses
• Tanning. The bark of Acacia ·decurrens
yields 35-40 percent good-quality tannin. How-
ever, it contains undesirable coloring matter,
which reduces the value of the leather; planting
28
was therefore stopped in favor of other acacias.
Recent research, however, has shown that this
problem can be eliminated by changing the tan-
ning process or by adding other suitable tanning
materials.
• Wood. The wood is used for building poles!
mine props, fence posts, and, in recent years, for
hardboard.
• Shelterbelt. The tree is used for shade and
windbreaks. It has also been used as hedges on
tea estates in Sri Lanka.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Acacia decurrens thrives in a
climate of 12°-25°C mean annual temperature. It
is frost resistant and shade tolerant.
• Altitude. In its Australian home the tree
grows in low valleys and on hillslopes (25-1,000
m), but mainly below 700 m. Elsewhere the tree
may range up to 2,500 m.
• Rainfall. The mean annual rainfall for this
species is 900-2,600 mm.
• Soil. Acacia decurrens prefers deep soils that
are light to medium and free draining. It occurs
naturally on soils of only moderate fertility: acid
and neutral yellow earths, acid-bleached red
duplex soils, podsols, and some brown friable
earths derived principally from shales. The spe-
cies also occurs on basalt-derived soils.
Establishment The species spreads rapidly by
seed and root suckers and regenerates by coppic-
ing. Seeds can be germinated after many years of
storage in a cool, dry place. Seeds germinate in
7-14 days, and seedlings can be transplanted in
5-7 months.
• Seed treatment. The seeds are soaked 2
hours in acid or dipped in boiling water and left
to cool and soak.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The tree
spreads rapidly, forming solid stands too dense to
permit grass or other vegetation to intrude.
Pests and Diseases Acacia decurrens is suscepti-
ble to the defoliator Acanthopsyche junode, but
less so than Acacia mearnsii. Severe attacks by
the rust fungus Uromycladium in the i920s
caused most plantations in New Zealand to be
felled.
Limitations Acacia decurrens, introduced to
Hawaii about 1890, has been declared noxious
for state land leases because it spreads rapidly by
seed and root suckers, crowding out other plants.
AeQeUz decurrens shelterbclt, South Africa. (A. P. G. SChonau)
Related species
• Acacia dealbata and Acacia mearns/i occur
much more widely than Acacia decurrens. There
are several species of relatively restricted
distribution- for example, Acacia parramatten-
sis, Acacia sylvestris, and Acacia lUNa-with
similar site requirements, but these have not yet
been tested in cultivation.
29
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Eucalyptus robusta
Botanic Name Eucalyptus robusta Sm.
Synonym Eumlyptus multiflora Pair.
Common Names Swamp mahogany, white ma-
hogany, Australian brown mahogany, swamp
messmate (Australia); robusta, beakpod eucalYI>
tus (USA); brown gum, red gum (Sri Lanka and
India)
Family Myrtaceae
Main Attributes Swamp mahogany is one of the
most widely planted eucalypts. It grows well in
plantations on good sites, but because of its abil-
ity to grow on both poorly drained and droughty
locations, it is usually planted on adverse sites.
Description Swamp mahogany is a tree normal-
ly attaining heights of 25-30 m and diameters of
1-1.2 m (however, in Hawaii some giant speci-
mens have reached 55 m with a 25-m trunk). The
trunk is typically straight and branch free for
about half the height of the tree. In open-grown
trees the crown has long, spreading, irregular,
and brittle branches, forming a dense canopy. In
closely spaced plantations the branches are
almost erect, so that little crown spread occurs. In
plantations in humid climates a portion of the
trees form aerial roots on the main trunk as far as
6 m above ground.
Distribution The species occurs naturally in a
narrow coastal belt from Queensland to south of
Dega, New South Wales, Australia. It grows
from sea level to about 100 m. It has been planted
in many other countries and adapts to varied con-
ditions from equatorial regions to about latitude
35°, provided frosts are not severe. In Madagas-
car 150,000 ha have been planted.
Use as Firewood Eucalyptus robusta has been
used as firewood in Madagascar, Uganda, Cam-
eroon, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Ma-
laysia. It is also used for charcoal. The wood has
a specific gravity of 0.70-0.80. The species cal>
pices well up to age 25.
Yield Good yields have been reported from
Brazil, Chile, Madagascar (10-35 m
3
per ha per
year), Mauritius (10 m
3
per ha per year), Malawi,
India, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea (21 m
3
per
ha per year), zaire (2Q..30 m
3
per ha per year),
and Florida (16.8 m
3
per ha per year from IQ..
year-old trees). In Hawaii, 23- to 38-year-old
30
plantations have a mean annual increment of 26
m
3
per ha.
OtberUses
• Wood. The timber is used in the round and
sawn for lumber, but there are limited supplies.
In Hawaii, three companies were reported in 1961
to be making veneer and plywood of the timber.
The wood can also be used for poles, fencing,
wharf and bridge work, and general construction.
• Shelterbelt. This species is suitable for plant-
ing in coastal areas as shelterbelts, and it makes a
good roadside shade tree. It is intolerant of salt
spray but is quite wind firm and is used as a wind-
break.
• Pulp. The timber is used for pulpwood, but
the pulp is dark reddish brown and is not as good
for this purpose as some other species of euca-
lypts. The bark must be removed from the stem
before pulping.
• Tannin. The gum contains about 30 percent
tannin.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Mean minimum temperature
in the coldest winter month is 3°_5°C. Winter
frosts are rare, but 5 or 10 frosts may occur as
long as they are not severe. Summer temperatures
are warm, with a mean maximum of 30°-32°C.
Humidity is high in all seasons of the year.
• Altitude. The tree grows on coastal sites
from sea level to 1,600 m, depending on latitude.
• Rainfall. Eucalyptus robusta does best in
areas with evenly distributed rainfall of more
than 2,000 mm a year. It will grow reasonably
well when there is rainfall of 1,000-1,500 mm
with a 4-month dry season.
• Soil. In its naturai habitat in Australia the
tree occurs mainly on bottom slopes, in swamps,
and on the edges of saltwater estuaries and la-
goons. When artificially assisted, it grows much
more vigorously in better soils if there is no com-
petition from other eucalypts. It does relatively
well in stiff clays and leached sandy loams, but
has done poorly on droughty sands in northern
Brazil.
Establishment Eucalyptus robusta is most com-
monly grown from seeds in containers in nurs-
eries. Vegetative propagation by grafting and
rooting of stem cuttings has been done with
young trees, but it is not a common method of re-
production. Seedlings are best planted early in the
EucaJyptllS robusta near Coff. Harbour, NewSouth Wales, Australia. (Division of Forest
Research, CSIRO, Australia)
rainy season. Natural regeneration on bare
ground adjacent to plantations is common in
many countries where the tree has been intro-
ducecl.
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Removal of
vegetative cover before planting is essential.
Planted seedlings are susceptible to competition
and shading and generally require two weedings
in the first 6 months.
Pests ud DIseun In SAo Paulo, Brazil, Euca-
lyptus robusta has been attacked by the bac-
terium Phytomonas tumifaciens. This same
organism has been detected in plants originating
in the United States and Chile. The most common
injuries in swamp plantations in Uganda are
windthrow and root rot. The tree is also suscepti-
ble to attack by the Gonipterus beetle and to ter-
mites when it is young.
Llmltallolll Eucalyptus robusta hybridizes with
many other eucalypt species, which can make the
collection of seed of true origin difficult. In Cali-
fornia, USA, this tree has been abandoned for
street planting because the tops break readily in
strong winds.
31
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Eucalyptus tereticornis
Botanic Name Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm.
Synonym Eucalyptus umbel/ata (Gaertn.)
Domin.
Common Names Forest red gum, blue gum,
mountain gum, red iron gum, Queensland blue
gum, red gum (Australia); Mysore gum (India)
Family Myrtaceae
Main Attributes Eucalyptus tereticornis grows
rapidly and withstands periodic flooding for
short periods. It coppices vigorously and is one of
the principal eucalypts grown as fuelwood.
Description A moderately large tree, Eucalyp-
tus tereticornis attains a height of 30-45 m and a
diameter of 1-2 m. The trunk is usually straight
and at least half the total height. The crown is
large and somewhat open. Small clusters of white
flowers appear every year, but heavy blooming
occurs only every 3 or 4 years in spring and sum-
mer.
Distribution This species occurs naturally in the
widest latitudinal range of any eucalypt (6°_38°S)
along the eastern Australian coast from southern
Victoria to Queensland. It grows also in the
savanna woodlands of Papua New Guinea's south
coast. It is found in open forest or as scattered
trees on alluvial flats and along stream banks, in-
cluding brackish water. It has been introduced to
many tropical and subtropical countries in
Africa, Asia, and South America. More than
400,000 ha have been planted in India.
Use as Firewood The wood is hard, heavy, and
strong (specific gravity 0.75 or higher). Density is
lower in plantations in the tropics. The tree pro-
duces first-class fuelwood, which also makes
good charcoal. Coppice regeneration has been
widely used and it can be done three to four times
on a Io-year rotation.
Yield The yield is very dependent on moisture.
Higher yields are reported along canal banks and
under irrigated conditions. In unirrigated planta-
tions under good conditions in Africa the tree will
yield 20-25 m) per ha per year for the first 15
years; thereafter, the yield drops to 10-15 m) per
ha, unless the trees are coppiced.
Other Uses
• Wood. The wood is immune to termites and
dry rot and is therefore one of the most durable
32
of timbers, valued for construction, especially
underground. It has a variety of other uses in-
cluding poles, posts, fiberboard, and particle
board.
• Pulp. This is considered one of the best trees
for fiber for paper pulp and rayon-grade pulp in
India, Africa, the Pacific basin, and Latin Amer-
ica.
• Intercropping. Eucalyptus tereticornis has
been used as an intercrop; for example, in Paki-
stan it is used with maize, especially during the
first 6-12 months after planting, and in India
with tapioca (cassava) during the first 2 years.
• Sand dune reclamation. In Uruguay and
Costa Rica Eucalyptus tereticornis has been used
for sand dune reclamation.
• Afforestation and reforestation. The species
is extensively used in afforestation works in In-
dia, from the coastal plains to the mountains in
the Himalayas, and in West Africa, notably
Zaire.
• Oil. The leaves are among the commercial
sources of eucalyptus oil.
• Honey and pollen. This species is an impor-
tant provider of nectar and pollen for honeybee
colonies.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Eucalyptus tereticornis occurs
within a wide climatic range with mean annual
temperatures from 17°C to 38°C. This tree may
withstand up to 15 frosts a year in the southern
end of its natural range. In South China and Pa-
kistan it is reported to survive temperatures down
to -7°C.
• Altitude. In its natural habitat this species
ranges from 600 m in Papua New Guinea to 1,000
m in Australia. As an exotic, it is planted from
sea level (Zaire) to more than 1,000 m.
• Rainfall. The tree is widely planted in areas
of summer rainfall with moderate to severe dry
seasons. The optimum precipitation appears to be
between 800 mm and 1,500 mm, but trees have
been planted in areas with lower rainfall (.wo mm
in India, 550 mm in Israel, and 580 mm in Zim-
babwe) and with considerably higher rainfall
(2,180 mm in Colombia and 3,500 mm in Papua
New Guinea).
• Soil. This species does best on deep, well-
drained, light-textured soils that are neutral or
slightly acid. It will tolerate some flooding, but
not seasonal inundation. Outside its range it has
Eucalyptus tereticornis, northern Queensland, Australia. (Division of Forest Research, CSIRO, Australia)
33
Digl 'ed by Goog e
Afforestation with Eucalyptus tereticornis in Karnataka, India. (K. A. Kushalappa)
been planted on a wide variety of sites that in-
clude alluvial soils, silts, and sandy clays.
Establishment For Eucalyptus tereticornis the
site of the seed collection is important, and advice
should be sought in selecting the most appropri-
ate provenance in a new locality.
In most countries, seedlings 15-25 em high are
used as planting stock, and they can be produced
in the nursery in 3-4 months.
• Seed treatment. None required; however,
seeds from native stands in both Australia and
Papua New Guinea may need cold, moist strati-
fication.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Eucalypts
are very sensitive to grass competition, and weeds
should be removed until the canopy closes.
34
Periodic soil working between rows by tractors
has given good yield.
Pesls and DIseases Most plantations have been
free of pests and diseases. Termites will attack the
young plants unless they are protected, and some
countries have reported problems with varied
fungi like Cylindrocladium, the climber Mer-
remia, the snout beetle Gonipterus, and the mole
cricket.
Umltatlons Because it is closely related to river
red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and interme-
diate forms occur, care needs to be taken in as-
sessing reports of growth.
Related Species
• Eucalyptus rostricta Schlecht. has similar
wood that is used for the same purpose.
Digl 'ed by Coogle
A 12-year-old seed stand of Eucalyptus ttrretlcornis in Bangalore, India (K. A. Kushalappa)
• Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. is closely
related, and intermediate forms occur commonly
in Queensland.
• Eucalyptus glaucina (Blakely) L. Johnson,
now regarded as a species, was formerly Eucalyp-
tus tereticornis Sm. var glaucina (Blakely)
Cameron. It occurs in northern coastal New
South Wales.
• Eucalyptus ampl(folia Naudin is a some-
what smaller tree that grows on clay soils (some-
times waterlogged) often at slightly higher alti-
tudes than Eucalyptus tereticornis in eastern New
South Wales.
• A number of land races, some of which were
thought to be hybrids, occur. Some of these are:
- "Mysore hybrid," Mysore gum, India
- Eucalyptus "C," Zanzibar
- Eucalyptus "12ABL," Madagascar, Zaire.
Gleditsia triacanthos
Botanic Name G/editsia triaconthos L.
Synonym The genus name has also been spelled
G/editschia
Common Names Honeylocust, soetpeul, sweet
locust, thorntree, three-thorned acacia
Family Leguminosae (Caesalpinioideae)
Main Attributes Honeylocust is widely planted
as an ornamental and for windbreaks, fodder,
and hedges. It is a moderately fast-growing tree
with hard, strong wood that is quite resistant to
decay. It is tolerant of low temperature, drought,
and salt. The tree's pods are rich in sugar and are
enjoyed by people, livestock, and wildlife.
Description A broad-crowned, flat-topped tree,
the honeylocust typically attains a height of 24 m,
with trunk diameters of 60-90 em. Although
some bisexual types are known, most specimens
are either male (pollen producing) or female
(fruit producing). Trunks and limbs of wild trees
usually bear branching thorns, but a thornless
form (f. inermis Schneid.) has been developed for
cultivation; it has small, greenish, fragrant
flowers in spring and flat, crooked pods in fall.
Distribution This valuable tree legume, well
suited to cooler zones, can be found in North
America from Ontario to Texas. It has also been
naturalized in Europe and introduced into parts
of Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South
America.
Use as Firewood Honeylocust has strong and
durable wood of specific gravity 0.70-0.80. The
trees coppice freely.
Yield Growth is fairly rapid on good sites under
average conditions. Trees 18-35 years old in plan-
tations in the Central Plains of the United States
had an average increase in diameter of 4.6 em
each 10 years. Height growth in shelterbelts
throughout the Central States has averaged 0.5 m
per year for 7 years.
Other Uses
• Timber. The timber is hard, heavy, and
strong, and the heartwood is durable in contact
with the ground. The wood is used principally for
posts, but on a smaller scale for furniture, struc-
tural work, and general utility purposes.
• Pods. The long pods, borne in profusion,
have sweet-tasting pulp that is relished by people
36
and animals alike, and so the tree is often planted
for pasture shade. The pods make high-quality
livestock feed, especially when crushed to make
the high-protein seeds more digestible.
• Erosion control. A strong taproot, many-
branched lateral roots, tolerance of alkaline and
saline sites, and ease of reproduction make
honeylocust a valuable erosion control species for
temperate and subtropical areas. It provides light
shade that encourages a grass cover.
• Ornamental and shade tree. In temperate
areas of many countries such as South Africa, the
United States, and Australia, the species is often
planted for shade and beautification along roads
and in towns. It is also used for hedges (the
thorny kind makes impenetrable hedges) and
windbreaks.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Honeylocust is tolerant of low
temperatures, and northern races are hardy to
- 34°C. Southern races are subject to frost dam-
age when planted in cooler areas. The tree needs
light.
• Altitude. This species can be grown up to
altitudes of 1,500 m or more. A plantation in
Colorado had good survival at 2,100 m, although
the trees averaged only 2.4 m tall. The tree seems
particularly worth testing as a new crop for trop-
ical highlands such as those found in Nepal,
northern Thailand, Central Africa, and Latin
America.
• Rainfall. Honeylocust has deep roots and
can make use of the moisture reserves of the sub-
soil, even if the surface is dry. In this way it is
able to survive on all but the driest sites. Normal
annual precipitation for good growth varies from
500 mm to more than 1,500 mm.
• Soil. The tree grows in most soil types, but
occurs most commonly on rich alluvial flood-
plains of major rivers and on soils of limestone
origin. The species tolerates both alkaline and
acid soils, but develops best on those with a pH
between 6.0 and 8.0.
Establishment Propagation by seedlings is easy
and can be achieved by grafting, budding, or cut-
tings taken from hardwood, softwood, or the
roots. Root cuttings and budding appear to be the
best methods of reproducing desirable strains as
fruit trees. Large seed crops are produced every
1-2 years, and the seeds will remain viable for up
to 2 years when stored at room temperature and
Gleditsio triacanthos L. Honeylocust on Ohio State University campus, Columbus, Ohio. USA. (U.S. Forest Service)
for several years if stored in sealed containers at
0°_7°C.
• Seed treatment. Before germination can oc-
cur, the hard seedcoat must be made permeable,
either by covering with hot water (88°C) until the
seeds swell or by soaking in concentrated sulfuric
acid for 1-2 hours and then washing in water.
Treated seeds cannot be stored and must be sown
promptly.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The tree
needs weeding until it is well established.
Pests aad Diseases Honeylocust is relatively
disease free, but it is subject to a canker that can
be fatal, and also to several wood rots. The leaves
are eaten by mimosa webworm in some areas of
North America.
Umltatlons Honeylocust may suffer some
crown damage during high winds and is easily
damaged by fire. Its extensive root system can
block sewers and drains.
37
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Melaleuca quinquenervia
Botanic Name Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.)
S. T. Blake
Synonyms Me/oleuca quinquenervia is one of a
group of six closely related species (notably Me/o-
leuca leucadendron, Me/oleuca cajuputi, and
Melaleuca viridijlora) that occur in Oceania and
have been cultivated and naturalized in other
areas. Their identities have been confused, and
many references (both past and recent) must be
treated with caution.
Common Names Broad-leaved tea tree, tea
tree, paperbark tea tree, belbowrie (Australia);
melaleuca, cajeput, paperbark, punktree (USA);
niaouli (New Caledonia)
Family Myrtaceae
Main Attributes Melaleuca quinquenervia is a
moderately fast-growing tree suitable for planta-
tion cultivation on wet soils, including those sub-
ject to high rainfall and even inundation. It will
grow at high planting densities, which quickly
shade out competing vegetation. It survives fires,
but has only slight resistance to freezes (although
rootstocks survive and sprout). The species has
shown promise in plantations in northern Ni-
geria.
Description The tree is usually medium sized,
growing in Australia up to 25 m tall; the bole is
short, 4-5 m high (and to 15 m in rare cases), and
often crooked or twisted. However, if grown in
dense stands it develops relatively straight, clear
stems. It is easily recognized by its odd, whitish,
thick, and spongy bark, which splits and peels in
many cork-like layers and becomes rough and
shaggy. The tree has narrow, stiff, aromatic
leaves, 5-9 cm long, and "bottlebrush-shaped"
clusters of fuzzy, white, malodorous flowers.
Distribution This species is native to Australia
from Sydney north along the coast to the Cape
York Peninsula in Papua New Guinea and to
New Caledonia. It typically grows in almost pure
stands or with only a few associates such as
Casuarina glauca, Eucalyptus robustQ, or Euca-
lyptus tereticornis. It has been planted and nat-
uralized in many tropical regions. In southern
Florida it escaped cultivation on seasonally wet
sites and is constantly multiplying as a weed tree.
Use as Firewood The wood is an excellent fuel,
but the thick bark of mature trees must be peeled
off because only the outer layers will burn. The
38
tree could be used as a woody biomass fuel; the
problems of dust from the bark of mature trees
and the low density of the bark can be overcome
by properly engineered systems. Bark of young
seedlings has a greater heating value per unit of
oven-dry weight than the wood itself. The wood
has a specific gravity of 0.60-0.74.
Yield In the Florida Everglades, unmanaged
melaleuca stands that appear mature may have
7,000-20,000 stems per ha with an outside bark
basal area up to 133 m
Z
per ha and an outside
bark volume of 792 m' per ha. Forty-year-old
trees on good sites in Hawaiian plantations aver-
age 50 cm in diameter and 18 m in height at 6 m
x 6 m spacing. The largest trees there reach a
diameter of 90 cm and grow 24 m tall. Stumps
sprout readily.
OtlterUses
• Wood. The wood of paperbark is valued for
wharf piling, boat knees, railway ties, mine
braces, posts, fence rails, flooring, and rafters,
and, if carefully seasoned, for gunstocks, cab-
inetwork, and carving. When the wood is well
finished, some people consider it more beautiful
than mahogany.
• Bark. The bark of paperbark is an effective
insulator and was first used for packing the walls
of cold storage rooms in Australia in 1861. It is
mildew resistant and is long lasting under water,
so that sheets of bark have been used for caulking
boats. When chopped, it makes an excellent filler
in nursery potting mixes.
• Honey. The tree blooms much of the year,
providing abundant pollen and nectar. The honey
is strongly flavored and dark and is not used as
table honey. Because of its low cost, there is a
strong demand for it by the baking industry and
by natural health food dealers in Florida.
• Ornamental. Seedlings are transplanted
from the wild (especially mature trees) for 1and-
scaping new developments in Florida because of
their availability and low cost.
• Oil. Leaves, twigs, and seed capsules are
crushed and distilled to produce niaouli oil,
which together with cajeput oil from Me/oleuctl
cajeputi has pharmaceutical and other specialty
uses.
Environmental RequlremenlB
• Temperature. Paperbark grows in areas
with mean annual temepratures ranging from
18°C to 34°C.
A mature swamp stand of Mekzleuca qu/nquenervia in southern Florida durina the dry season. This was a TtlXodtum
d/st/chum forest that was killed by fire and invaded by paperbark. (T. F. Geary)
• Altitude. In Australia the tree occurs in low
altitudes up to 500 m in the coastal belt, most
commonly in seasonal swamps and the edges of
tidal waters. In Hawaii it grows well in wet condi-
tions up to 1,400 m altitude.
• Rainfall. The trees grow well in rainfall of as
little as 1,000 mm at lower elevations and as
much as 5.000 mm at higher elevations.
• Soil. In Australia paperbark can grow down
to the sea's edge and is also found 40 km inland.
It occurs on old and new alluvial soils, on shallow
soils, and on degraded soils left after shifting cul-
tivation. Trees grow to great size in oolitic lime-
stone in Florida.
Establisbment The seeds need wet soil for ger-
mination. and once established, seedlings can sur-
vive complete immersion for several weeks.
• Seed treatment. No pretreatment is neces-
sary. The seeds are small (30,000 seeds per g).
• Ability to compete with weeds. The tree suc-
cessfully competes with and outgrows other vege-
tation. The deep shade beneath a deJlSe melaleuca
canopy, combined with intense root competition
and possible allelopathic influences, restricts the
need for weed control to about the first 6 months.
Pests and Diseases None of importance has
been reported.
Limitations Because of its high incidence of
seeding, adaptability to a variety of growth con-
ditions, rapid growth, and resistance to damage
by disease, insects, flooding, and fire, the paper-
bark tree has spread rapidly throughout southern
Florida. In wetlands it has crowded out native
vegetation and destroyed wildlife habitats. Con-
trol by conventional means is difficult.
Volatile substances excreted by the flowers
have been implicated as the cause of acute respi.
ratory problems in Florida.
Related Species
In Thailand, Melaleuca cajuputi is the species
cultivated; it occurs naturally from tropical
Australia to Burma and Vietnam. Melaleuca
leucadendon occurs in northern Australia, New
Guinea, and northwestward to Amboina; Mela-
leuca viridiflora occurs in western and northern
Australia and New Guinea.
39
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Melia azedarach
Botanic Name Melia a1.edarach L.
Synonym Me/ia orienta/is M. Roem.
Common Names Chinaberry, Persian lilac, ale-
laila, paraiso, pride of India, pride of China,
bead tree, umbrella tree, bastard cedar, cape
lilac, white cedar, drek
Family Meliaceae
Main Attributes The chinaberry is well known
and has already been planted in many countries
as an ornamental. Its quick growth and small di-
mensions make it a good choice for fast fuelwood
production for household needs. In the Middle
East the species has already been used for this
purpose.
Description Chinaberry isa medium-sized de--
ciduous tree, 6-30 m tall and 50-SO cm in diam-
eter. It is popular for its showy clusters of pale
purplish spreading flowers and for the shade of
its dense, dark green foliage in summer. Its clus-
ters of small, fragant flowers are succeeded by
glossy, golden, berrylike fruits that remain long
after the leaves fall. The tree is closely related to
the neem tree, A1.adirachta indica (see Firewood
Crops Vol. I), which differs in having longer leaf-
lets, white flowers, and a more spreading and
open crown.
Distribution This native of Asia is probably
from Baluchistan and Kashmir, but has long been
cultivated throughout the Middle East and India
and is now cultivated and naturalized in most
tropical and subtropical countries. It is grown
throughout the West Indies, southern United
States and Mexico, Argentina and Brazil, West
and East Africa, Southeast Asia, and Australia.
Use as Firewood The species is often planted
for fuel supply in the Middle East as well as in
Puerto Rico and Nigeria. It is planted in refor-
estation projects in Thailand for veneer and fuel,
and in Assam (India) it is grown on tea estates for
fuel. Its specific gravity is about 0.66 (calorific
value 5,043-5,176 kcal per kg).
Yield Under good conditions the chinaberry
grows fast. In Uganda it may grow 1.70 m in
height each year. But growth slows down before
large dimensions are attained, and trees of large
girth are often hollow. Thus the trees are grown
on short rotations. They regenerate readily from
stump sprouts or root suckers.
40
OtberUses
• Wood. The wood is moderately soft and is
weak, brittle, and susceptible to attack by dry-
wood termites. Uses of wood include tool ban-
dies, cabinets, furniture, face veneer for
plywood, cigar boxes, and the manufacture of
writing and printing paper.
• Insecticide. Chinaberry, like neem, has In-
secticidal properties and its leaves and fruits are
used to protect stored clothing and other articles
against insects. Leaves, seeds, and fresh fruit
contain substances that inhibit the feeding of the
desert locust.
• Fodder. The leaves may be used for goat
fodder.
• Seeds. Chinaberry seeds are often used for
beads and rosaries.
• Ornamental. The tree is widely grown in
warmer parts of the world for its scent and for
shade. It is also used to shade coffee trees and to
shelter cattle.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The species grows in tropical,
subtropical, and warm-temperature climates
where mean annual temperatures are at least
IS°C. Young trees are frost tender, but older
trees resist frost (to a minimum of - 15°C).
• Altitude. The tree grows up to 2,000 m in the
Himalayas. In Africa the species has been recom-
mended for lowlands and medium elevations.
• Rainfall. The species is drought hardy and
can grow in areas with 600-1,000 mm annual pre-
cipitation. In drier climates it will perform well
on wet soils along rivers or when irrigated, as is
done in the Middle East for fuelwood produc-
tion.
• Soil. The tree grows on a wide range of soils.
but best growth is obtained on well-drained.
deep, sandy loams.
Establishment Chinaberry is easily propagated
from seed or cuttings. Fruits number 1,400-2.500
per kg and may be used directly or macerated to
remove the pulp. Each fruit contains 1-5 seeds.
which if not extracted may produce several seed-
lings. Seeds number 4,000-13,000 per kg. Aver-
age germination is about 65 percent. As planting
stock, I-year-old seedlings are preferred in tem-
perate climates, while 6-month-old seedlings are
used in the tropics.
• Seed treatment. To hasten germination,
seeds should be soaked in water for a few days.
Melia audaT'flch. Fifteen-year-old tree in Pakistan. (M. I. Sheikh)
Seeds retain viability for a year, or for several
years if kept in sealed cold storage.
Pests and Diseases The tree-especially if
forced into fast growth-is susceptible to wind
damage. From Jamaica, attacks of shootborers
are reported. Several other pests and diseases
have only been observed incidentally and are not
particularly significant.
Umltatlons The tree is short-lived and its brittle
limbs are easily broken by the wind. The fruits
are bitter and have poisonous or narcotic proper-
ties.
Related species
• Melia azedarach L. var australasica (A.
Juss.) C.OC. (white cedar, tulip cedar) from
Australia (synonym Melia dubia). This species
grows to a much larger size than Melia azedarach
and is widely planted in Australia as a shade tree.
• Melia a. forma umbraculiformis Berckm.
(Texas umbrella, chinaberry).
41
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Robiniapseudoacacia
Botanic Name Robinia pseudoaCQcia L.
Common Names Black locust, false acacia, yel-
low locust
Family Leguminosae (Papillionaceae)
MaIn Attributes Black locust is fast growing. It
can be planted and regenerated easily, has no seri-
ous diseases, is an important nitrogen-fIXing spe-
cies, and tolerates a wide variety of soils. Because
of this adaptability, the species is often used for
afforestation of gullies and surface-mined areas
in the United States. The wood is perhaps the best
firewood in North America.
Description A medium-sized, deciduous tree
reaching 18-25 m tall, black locust has an open,
irregular crown and a straight bole if forest
grown. It has short, upright, brittle branches and
a wide-spreading, shallow root system with no
taproot. There are many varities of the tree, with
variable form and growth. Most are spiny, but
spineless individuals are known.
Distribution Native to the Appalachian and
Ozark mountains of the southeast and central
parts of the United States, this species is now
grown in most temperate and Mediterranean
zones of the world. Hungary, for example, has
almost 300,000 ha of black locust plantations. In
central and eastern Europe considerable work on
selection and improvement of the species has
been carried out for more than a century, using a
series of cultivars in pure and mixed-wood plan-
tations.
Use as Firewood As firewood, black locust is
popular for its high caloric value and its good
combustibility, even when wet. It is slow to ig-
nite, but burns like coal, with a bright blue con-
centrated flame. The specific gravity of the wood
is 0.70-0.80, and it is well suited for charcoal pro-
duction. In India and South Korea the species has
been used to establish fuelwood plantations.
Yield Young black locust trees grow fast on
good sites, but the species matures early and
growth rate decreases rapidly after 30 years. In
Korea, on clay loam, the yield of fuel material
per year per hectare from the coppice of black lo-
cust fuelwood plantations ranges from 10 to 17
tons 3 years after establishment. In Hungary,
where the rotation age is 25-35 years, the average
standing volume at age 1-10 is 23 m) per ha; at
42
age 11-20, 100 m) per ha; at age 21-30, 149 m)
per ha; and, finally, 184 m) per ha at age 31-<40.
Coppicing brings excellent results and may be
done twice without reduction of volume incre-
ment.
Other Uses
• Wood. Robinia pseudoacacia wood is
heavy, hard, and strong. It is highly resistant to
shock and is extremely durable. It is used exten-
sively for round, hewn, or split mine timbers and
for fence posts, poles, railroad ties, stakes, and
electric insulator pegs.
• Erosion control. Black locust is commonly
planted for erosion control. Because of the nitri-
fying bacteria in nodules on its roots, it is espe-
cially effective in improving the fertility of
eroded soils. It has also grown quite well when
planted on spoil banks created by mining.
• Shelterbelts and sand dune stabilization.
Because of its wide-spreading root system, which
suckers vigorously, it is used all over the tem-
perate regions of the world for fixing coastal and
continental sand dunes. It has also often been
planted in shelterbelts.
• Fodder and wildlife use. In Hungary the
leaves are readily eaten by game and grazing ani-
mals, with no harmful effects observed. The seed
is eaten by quail.
• Ornamental. The tree has attractive flowers
and is widely planted as an ornamental on farm-
steads and roadsides. The flowers are used inten-
sively by bees for producing honey, which is
regarded as one of the finest in the world.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The tree grows in areas with a
mean annual temperature of 8°-18°C and a mean
minimum temperature in the coldest month of
- 8.1 °C. It is tolerant of temperatures as low as
-18°C to -20°C. It is a light-demanding
species.
• Altitude. Black locust is found from sea
level up to 2,500 m.
• Rainfall. Precipitation in its native habitat is
more than 1,000 mm per year, mainly in the sum-
mer. The tree has been successfully planted where
the rainfall is lower, down to 300-400 mm, and in
areas with a winter maximum of rainfall. The
species can withstand dry periods of 2-6 months.
• Soil. The species will grow on a variety of
soils, including light sand and strongly acid soils
and mine spoils, with limestone soils being most
Black locust, Kentucky. USA. (U.S. Forest Service)
c) c.:oogle
44
~ t dt'vGooglc
Left: Youna black locust stumps sprout prolific:ally
after cuttina. thus shortening subsequent rotations and
makiDa reseneration easy. (S. B. Carpenter)
favorable. Compact, plastic soils are unfavor-
able, since black locust does not grow well in
waterlogged areas. It is able to withstand air
pollution and is sometimes planted in industrial
areas for this reason.
Establishment Good seed crops are produced
nearly every year. Seeds number 35,000-70,000
per kg and can be stored for several years under
dry, cold conditions. In the past, black locust was
established mainly from planted seedlings, but
today direct seeding is a common practice, espe-
cially on steep slopes on disturbed sites where
seeding is easier, safer, and less costly than hand
planting.
• Seed treatment. Pretreatment is needed to
break seed coat dormancy, either by mechanical
scarification, by immersion in concentrated sul-
phuric acid for 20-60 minutes, or by pouring
boiling water (five times as much water as seeds)
over seeds. Germination of pretreated seed aver-
ages about 70 percent.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Black locust
is intolerant of shade but is fairly tolerant of her-
baceous competition in humid environments. In
the Appalachian area of the United States the
Above: RobiniD pseudOQCQcitl stocks, 3 years old,
lopped once a year for fuel supply. (Institute of Forest
Genetia,Suwon, KORa)
trees often coexist with a luxuriant understory of
cool-season grasses and forbs.
Pests and Diseases In the United States the sap-
lings are often heavily damaged by the locust
borer Megacyllene robiniae. Trees in the open
and in pure plantations are especially subject to
the attack of a woodboring insect (Cyllene
robiniae Forst.), which frequently renders them
unsightly for shade and unfit for timber, but not
for fuelwood. However, few pests of any impor-
tance have been reported.
Limitations A vigorous growth of suckers with
stout spines is produced from the roots, and this
can be particularly objectionable in the garden,
on the farm, or in public areas.
Although the foliage is used for livestock in
some countries, it has been reported that humans,
horses, cattle, sheep, and poultry may be poi-
soned by eating roots, bark, sprouts, seed pods,
and trimmings.
Frost damage can decrease growth, and be-
cause black locust branches are fragile and the
wood splits easily, the tree suffers from wind
damage and ice and snow break.
4S
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Sapium sebiferum
Botanic Name Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.
Synonyms Stillingia sebifera Mich., Croton
sebiferums L., Excoecaria sebifera Muell. Arg.,
Stil/ingia sebifera Boj.
Common Names Chinese tallow tree, Chinese
vegetable tallow tree, soap tree, popcorn tree,
pau de sebo (Brazil), tarcharbi or pahari shishum
(India), arbol de la cera (Cuba)
Family Euphorbiaceae
Main Attributes The Chinese tallow tree holds
promise as a highly useful species for short-
rotation, intensive silviculture. It is a fast-
growing, insect- and disease-resistant tree, and
tolerates a wide range of soil conditions, includ-
ing poorly drained and saline soils. Prolific
sprouting occurs from stumps and injured roots.
DescrIption A small, deciduous tree, it seldom
grows taller than 12 m. Superficially, it resembles
an aspen with glossy, heart-shaped leaves and a
rough, gray bark. Form ranges from low, spread-
ing, and multiforked strains to slender and col-
umnar strains with small pendant branches.
seeds are borne in clusters of green capsules,
which dry and split to expose white, pea-sized
seeds. Their color results from a covering of hard
tallow. The trees are notable because they turn
brilliant autumn colors even in warm regions
where other trees remain green.
Distribution The Chinese tallow tree is native to
semitropical areas of central South China. Usual-
ly occurring below about 32°N, it may be found
at higher latitudes in coastal areas. It has been
widely introduced and has been reported in
Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Burma, northern In-
dia, Java, Pakistan, Hawaii, Brazil, Cuba, St.
Vincent, Martinique, southern Europe, and the
Sudan. * It is very likely present, but simply not
recognized, throughout the semitropical and
milder temperate zones of the world. In the
United States it has become naturalized along the
Gulf and southern Atlantic Coasts from North
Carolina to Texas, as well as in California.
Use as Firewood Moisture content of tallow
tree wood cut in the Texas Gulf Coast ranged
from 41 to 45 percent, wet basis. Specific gravity
*0. Hooper. 1904. Chinese or vegetable tallow. Its
preparation, uses, and composition. Agricultural
Ledger 11(2):11-18.
46
ranged from 0.37-0.48. Energy values ranged
from 4,134 to 4,277 kcal per kg. The wood burns
well in wood stoves or fireplaces if it has been
allowed to dry adequately. It produces a pleasant
odor while burning and has been used for Texas
barbecues.
Yield In Texas, Chinese tallow plantations with
0.6 m x 0.6 m spacing produced 38.1 tons per ba
of oven-dry wood at the end of four seasons of
growth (22 m
J
per ha per year). Well-stocked 15-
year-old natural stands placed under coppice
management produced in excess of 45 tons per ba
during 4 years of regrowth (26 m
J
per ha per
year). Roots and stumps cut at any time of the
year coppice prolifically.
Other Uses
• Wood. In China, the wood reportedly has
been used for making implement handles as well
as carved-wood products. Its durability and resis-
tance to decay in exterior use are very low. The
wood may be suitable for pulp. Fiber lengths in
trees from the vicinity of Houston, Texas, aver-
aged 0.8 mm, while similar measurements of trees
from Taiwan averaged 1.3 mm.
• Seed. The.white, aril-like outer covering of
the seed contains a hard, edible tallow (commer-
cially known as Chinese vegetable tallow), which
has found use in soap and candle making and
other traditional uses of tallow products. The
kernel oil (stillingia oil) has been used as an il-
luminant and is a powerful drying oil that could
substitute for similar oils such as tung and lin-
seed. The clusters of white seeds are attractive; in
Texas they are used in decorative plant arrange-
ments.
• Flowers. The showy yellow catkins of the
male flower first appear during the third growth
season and yield a major honey and pollen crop.
The honey is moderately dark and exceptionally
flavorful.
• Ornamental. The Chinese tallow has been
used extensively as an ornamental tree. Because
of its rapid growth, it produces quick shade, and
some varieties are very colorful in the fall, even in
warm climates.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The tree will tolerate frosts
and, in the dormant state, will tolerate brief lows
of - 10°C. There is considerable variability in
cold tolerance among strains. Some strains may
be sensitive to high temperatures and some may
Stlpirlm .biftrum. A sinale season of IJ'owth on the
severed stern of a larae tree. The cut forks on this tree
were 6-8 inches in diameter at the time of severance.
(W. Scheid)
require a period of cool weather and dormancy
for significant flowering to occur.
• Altitude. In the United States the tree is nat-
uralized mostly in the coastal lowlands but has
been observed as a planted ornamental at eleva-
tions of several hundred meters. In China it is
reported at elevations of around 1,000 m and in
India and Pakistan at about 2,000 m, which is
probably its upper limit.
• Rainfall. Although the tree tolerates a wide
variation in quantities of annual rain, it is gener-
ally considered to be a high-moisture plant; trees
have survived for more than 2 years in areas
flooded by dam construction. But in one in-
stance. the trees grew well in a year when total an-
nual rainfall was a mere 710 mm, and the species'
lower limit is probably somewhat below 500 mm.
There is no apparent reason why it cannot be
grown in areas under irrigation. Preliminary ob-
servations suggest, however, that it is not an effi-
cient user of water.
• Soil. The Chinese tallow tree possesses a re-
markable capacity for thriving in widely varying
soil types. In the United States it has been found
growing on barrier islands, competing effectively
in pure sand with oak, pine, and palm; in salt
marshes and along salt creek borders; in rocky
upland soils; and in dense clay soils subject to ex-
tended periods of flooding. Seeds have been
observed germinating and the seedlings produced
have become established in beds of oyster shell.
The tree tolerates and competes well with other
vegetation on poorly drained. nitrogen- and
phosphorus-poor sites, but its response to phos-
phorus fertilization is dramatic.
Utabllsbment Plantations may be established
from seed, seedlings, or cuttings. The most con-
venient and economical method for establishing
stands is direct planting. Seedlings grown in a
nursery are ready for planting 6-8 weeks after
germination. Special care in handling the seedling
is not necessary. Dense plantings are practical.
• Seed treatment. Storage of seeds in the cold
in sealed glass or metal containers preserves via-
bility for at least 2 years for most varieties. Pre-
treatment of the seed to remove the tallow coat is
not necessary. Planting in autumn appears to
promote more complete germination and allows
the earliest possible start for growing seedlings.
In some races, a significant percentage of seeds
do not germinate until the second season after
planting, and seeds planted in the late spring and
summer often do not germinate until the follow-
ing spring.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The large
seedling is capable of growing ahead of most an-
nual weeds. and in closely spaced plantings crown
closure occurs early in the second season of
growth, eliminating significant competition from
grass and annual weeds. Grass is the major com-
petitor.
Pests and Diseases In the tree's native range, a
number of insect pests appear to have evolved
with it. Chinese literature refers to the ailanthus
silkworm, poisonous moth. water green moth,
and aphid. In India a number of insects have been
reported to defoliate the tree. It is not known how
serious these might be in firewood plantations. In
the United States and probably elsewhere outside
the tallow tree's native range, there are no signifi-
cant diseases or insect pests.
Umltatlons The Chinese tallow tree can be an
aggressive weed. The tallow-covered seeds are
spread widely by birds. and once established in
agricultural lands, lawns. or gardens, seedlings
and sprouts are difficult to eliminate because of
their capacity for sprouting from stumps and
roots. In general, there is a high resistance to her-
bicides. The reproductive strategy of the Chinese
tallow tree is such that breeding and production
of seed of known characteristics will be complex.
The sap (latex) is a powerful irritant that blisters
the skin.
47
Digl 'ed by Coogle
SDpiumsebl/efflm. Growth fonn ranges from very low to quite tall even in open srowing conditions. Above: This tree
possesses a strongly dominant single stem with small. usually pendant. branches. Riaht: An open·srown fonn with mul-
tiple stems may be the result of stumpsprouting. (W. ScheId)
48
Digl 'ed by Coogle
49
JvGoog c
III Fuelwood Species
for Arid and Semiarid
Regions
The dry regions of the earth- those with less than 500 mm of annual precipitation
or that have 6 or more totally rainless months - suffer more serious fuelwood prob-
lems than either the humid or highland regions of the tropics.
Four hundred and fifty million people live in these areas. Over the centuries,
clearing the forests for fuel, farming, and grazing has destroyed most of the vegeta-
tion in these fragile dry habitats. Excessive exploitation of the land has often led to
desertification, a process that is being accelerated by the demand for scarce wood
fuel.
Most nations with dry zones are seriously in need of reforestation to prevent fur-
ther loss of land and for wood fuel. The first volume of this report described the fol-
lowing species as worth testing for fuelwood crops in these dry regions.
Acacia brachystachya
Acacia cambagei
Acacia cyclops
Acacia nilotica
Acacia saligna
Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal
Acacia tortilis
Adhatoda vasica
Albizia lebbek
Anogeissus lati/olia
Azadirachta indica
Cajanus cajan
Cassia siamea
Colophospermum mopane
Emblica officinalis
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Eucalyptus citriodora
Eucalyptus gomphocephala
Eucalyptus microtheca
Eucalyptus occidentalis
Haloxylon aphyllum
Haloxylon persicum
Parkinsonia aculeata
Pinus halepensis
Pithecellobium dulce
Prosopis alba
Prosopis chilensis
Prosopis cineraria
Prosopisjuliflora
Prosopis pallida
Prosopis tamarugo
Tamarix aphylla
Ziz.yphus mauritiana
Ziz.yphus spina-christi
These species have shown the capacity to survive where annual rainfall is 500 mm
or less or where rainfall is extremely variable. Their adaptive mechanisms include
50
Plantina seedlings of Casuariflll tqUiMtifolia (see P81e 38, Volume I) to prevent sand-dune formation
south of Da Nana. Vietnam. (WFP photo by F. Mattioli)
deep root systems that penetrate to subsoil moisture or wide-spreading root systems
to gather spare moisture, with some species having both root types; adaptation to
the high salinity often found in arid areas; small leaf blades or needle-like leaves to
reduce transpiration during drought or other physiological mechanisms to conserve
moisture by slowing evaporation through the leaves; and unpalatability or thorni-
ness that discourages grazing animals.
This section outlines further examples of successful adaptations by trees and
shrubs to arid and semiarid conditions. Other species described elsewhere in this
report that should be included are: Eucalyptus tereticornis. Gleditsia triacanthos.
Melia azedarach, and Robiniapseudoacacia.
51
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Ailanthus excelsa
Botanic Name Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.
Common Names Ganges, ardu, aura, maha-
ruka, mothoaraduso, peru, mahanium, coroman-
del ailanto
FamUy Simaroubaeeae
Main Attributes Ailanthus excelsa is a fast-
growing tree that regenerates well by coppicing.
It provides valuable fodder and shade and makes
good shelterbelts. Although it is generally unrec-
ognized as a fuel tree, its pruned branches and cut
stems are much used as fuelwood in India, its
native region.
Description Ardu is a large tree (18-24 m) with
rough, grayish brown bark. The deciduous leaves
are variable in shape with coarsely and irregularly
toothed leaflets.
Distribution This species is native to central,
southern, and western India and is often culti-
vated in various parts of that country.
Use as Firewood The wood is fairly light (spe-
cific gravity 0.45) and therefore is not an ideal
fuel; however, as already noted, it is used as fire-
wood.
Yield In Assam, India, the species was planted
at a spacing of 3 m x 3 m. The growth rate after
9 years averaged 5-6 m in height.
Other Uses
• Fodder. Twice a year this tree produces
highly palatable and nutritive fodder. The leaves
are commonly sold in the vegetable markets of
Rajasthan, India, especially for nourishing stall-
fed goats. The leaves are also dried, ground, and
added to concentrate mixtures for livestock feed,
notably as a protein supplement to poor-quality
roughages.
• Wood. The wood of Ailanthus excelsa is yel-
lowish white, very light, soft, and perishable. It is
used for making boats, fishing floats, knife and
tool handles, toys, spear sheaths, drums, cigar
boxes, and packing cases.
• Shelterbelt. The tree is planted in rows along
farm boundries and irrigation channels.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Ardu grows in an area where
temperatures range from 20°-40°C. It can with-
stand considerable frost.
52
• Altitude. It is grown at low altitudes.
• Rainfall. It grows best with annual rainfall
of more than 600 mm, although it survives on 400
mm a year.
• Soil. The tree grows in a variety of soils, but
sandy loams seem most suitable. Soils should be
well drained and not clayish or waterlogged.
Establishment The plant is usually propagated
by seed; however, it can be raised by shoot as well
as by root cuttings. A sapling 30 em high and
45-60 days old may be transplanted in pits previ-
ously prepared and manured. Monthly watering
may be needed during the first year or until the
trees are established.
• Seed treatment. The papery fruits (actualiy
winged seeds or samaras) contain one to two
seeds each. The seeds, however, cannot be sep-
arated from the wings undamaged, and it is
necessary to sow the entire fruit. Soaking the
pods for 3 days before sowing improves the
results.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Good, ex-
cept under drought conditions when ardu's com-
petitiveness is poor.
Pests and Diseases In the rainy season, leaf
growth is attacked by a caterpillar that eats the
leaves and discharges a sticky material, making a
netting and totally spoiling the leaves. Regular
pruning provides some control.
Umitations Survivability is poor if the trees are
not sufficiently watered during the first and sec-
ond years of establishment. The leaves have a dis-
agreeable odor when crushed.
Related Species Ailanthus altissima Swingle
(see Firewood Crops Vol. I, p. 74, Ailanthus
glandulosa Desf.). A native of northern China,
this species has been introduced to Japan, North
and Central America, and Mediterranean coun-
tries. In Mediterranean regions it is common as
an ornamental. It is particularly useful on stony
sites. Initially of fast growth up to 25 m high and
to a diameter of 60-89 cm, it reproduces by cop-
pice and suckers, and under favorable conditions
it may spread and become a weed that invades
natural formations (for example, maquis in Cor-
sica and in other parts of southern Italy).
Aik"'thus a ~ l s q . India. (N. D. Vieuneyer)
53
JYGoog (:
Balanites aegyptiaca
Botanic Name Balanites aegyptiaCQ(L.) Del.
Synonym Ximenia aegyptiaCQ L.
Common Names Desert date, lalob, soapberry
tree, thorn tree, Jericho balsam, heglig (Arabic);
corona di Jesus, lamunch, shimaron
najlij
FamUy Balantiaceae (formerly placed in Zygo-
phyllaceae)
Main Attributes This multipurpose, drought-
resistant species of the arid zone produces wood
that is highly valued for fuel because it produces
almost no smoke, making it ideal for use inside
dwellings. The trees are slow growing, but they
are indifferent to soil conditions and withstand
fires.
DescrIption The desert date is a shrub or, more
usually, a small tree up to 10 m high with scaly,
fissured, gray or brown bark, intricately
branched stems, and slender drooping branchlets
that bear long green spines. The gray-green leaves
with two ovate leaflets are either evergreen or are
wholly or partially deciduous during the dry sea-
son. The tree has shallow, wide-spreading lateral
roots and a narrowly branched taproot that may
penetrate several meters to the water table.
Distribution The species is indigenous to Afri-
can woodlands along the Sahara's southern border
from the Atlantic to the Red Sea (Sahel-Sudan
region). It is also found on the Arabian peninsula
and in Israel and Jordan. Small plantations have
been established in Niger and Chad. Individual
trees have been planted extensively in African
villages far south of its natural range, as well as
in India and Puerto Rico. Introduced to the
Caribbean island of in 1885, it has over-
run a large part of the dry east end of the island.
Use as Firewood The pale yellow or yellowish
brown wood is hard, heavy, and tough (specific
gravity 0.65). It makes excellent firewood and
good-quality charcoal. The trees regenerate
vigorously after they are cut or lopped. Calorific
value is 4,600 kcal per kg.
Yield The tree grows slowly. In Puerto Rico,
one trial sowing of 43 trees produced specimens
only 2-5 m high after 8 years' growth. In Israel 2-
to 3-year-old coppice shoots have reached 1-3 m
in height.
S4
Other Uses
• Fences. The thorny branches are massed to-
gether to form brushwood fencing; root cuttings
strike readily to form living fences.
• Wood. The attractive wood is easily worked,
fine grained, durable, and resistant to insects. It
saws and planes well and is used for bowls, mor-
tars and pestles, tool handles, gunstocks, and
cabinetwork.
• Food. The fruit is oblong, resembling a yel-
lowish date with Ic;x>se, leathery skin. It has gum-
my, bittersweet pulp that is edible when fully
ripe. The pulp contains about 40 percent sugar
and is macerated in water to make a refreshing
beverage or is sometimes fermented to make an
alcoholic drink. The seed kernel has been made
into bread and soup and contains 30-58 percent
of an edible oil (Zachon oil). The residue, which
is 50 percent protein, is used in cooking and soap
making.
• Forage. The young leaves, fruits, and even
the thorns are eaten by goats, camels, and wild-
life.
• Pest control. Extracts of the fruit and bark
have been found to kill the freshwater snails that
are intermediary hosts for schistosomiasis (bil-
harzia), and they also kill the life
forms of this parasite, making it a suitable tree
for planting along banks of irrigation canals. A
strong emulsion of the fruits is toxic to fish. It is
also lethal to the waterflea that harbors dracun-
culiasis (guinea worm).
• Sapogenin source. All parts of the plant, in-
cluding the seed kernel, yield the sapogenins dios-
genin and yamogenin, both of which are used in
the partial synthesis of steroid drugs.
• Soap substitute. Because of the saponin con-
tent of the roots, bark, fruits, and wood chips, all
of these parts have been used as "soap" for wash-
ing clothes.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The desert date easily with-
stands high temperatures ranging up to 4O.5°C.
• Altitude. The altitudinal range of the tree is
from 380 m below sea level to 1,500 m above sea
level.
• Rainfall. The tree is commonly found where
rainfall is between 250 mm and 800 mm per year.
In some drier areas it is confined to sites such as
riverbanks with available groundwater.
• Soil. Desert date can be found on a great
(Top: H. A. Musnad; bottom: G. E. Wickens)
variety of soils; however, on sandy soils its
growth is poor and only scattered trees occur. It
appears sensitive to salinity and does not tolerate
prolonged waterlogging.
Establishment Seeds casually distributed by hu-
mans or animals germinate readily. The trees can
also be reproduced by seed and root suckers.
• Seed treatment. None is needed when fruits
or seeds are sown in summer or autumn. In
winter, seeds are soaked for 24 hours at room
temperature.
• Ability to compete with weeds. The tree's
slow growth would make it a poor competitor
with weeds in fertile soils. It must be protected
from fire and cattle for at least 3 years to ensure
the survival of plantations.
Pests and DIseases Seeds are often attacked by a
borer.
Umltations The desert date is thorny and, as
noted, very slow growing. Browsing by animals
can inhibit its growth, but it has run wild in abun-
dance in despite free-ranging goats.
Because the tree is widely distributed in Africa
and other continents, it must have several forms,
if not subspecies. It is therefore quite possible to
find a form with such requisite characteristics as
fast growth and small thorns or no thorns.
55
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Combretum micranthum
Botanic Name Combretum micranthum G.
Don
Synonyms Combretum altum Perr., C. flori-
bundum Engl. & Diels, C. parviflorum Reichb.
Common Names Kinkeliba, randga (Upper
Volta); paramerga, lardaga (Ghana); kolobe,
koubou, gugumi, gieze, landaga (West African
Sahel)
FamUy Combretaeeae
Main Attributes A tough drought- and fire-
resistant shrub or tree, Combretum micranthum
will survive in barren, rocky wastes where little
else will grow.
DescrIption Combretum micranthum is nor-
mally a spreading shrub or spreading small tree
2-5 m high and 5-8 cm in stem diameter, although
it can grow to IS m with a 1.5 m trunk. Typically,
it is reduced to a shrubby habit by repeated burn-
ing of the savanna. It has a shaggy, peeling red-
dish bark, with greenish maroon leaves, white
flowers, and four-winged, glossy red fruits.
Distribution This species is common in Savanna
woodlands and in some places near the coast
from Senegal to northern Nigeria. It has been
successfully introduced for cultivation in South
Vietnam; plantings around Saigon, made in the
19SOS, have flourished.
Use as Firewood The branches and stems of
Combretum micranthum are slim and can be used
for firewood, particularly around the towns
where it is abundant. In Sakata, Nigeria, the
wood is much used for charcoal.
Yield No data available.
S6
Other Uses
• Craftwork. Young stems are tough and flex-
ible and are used in basketry, while older ones are
used as walking sticks and rafters. Unsplit stems
are used for the interior center part of a thatch
roof.
• Beverage. Combretum micranthum's main
use in Senegal and Mali is for the Kinkeliba bev-
erage. Young leaves are collected, dried, and pro-
cessed into bundles to be sold in cities and along
roads. These leaves are boiled, and the liquid is a
popular beverage, believed to be effective against
various tropical fevers and alimentary disorders.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Combretum micranthum
grows in areas with tropical temperatures such as
the Sahel.
• Altitude. The shrubs and trees grow from
sea level to 1,000 m.
• Rainfall. The species is drought resistant; in
Senegal it grows in areas with rainfall from 300
mm to 1,500 mm.
• Soil. The species grows well on arid iron-
stone plateaus. It is regarded as an indicator of
barren or nearly barren soil and is often found on
abandoned farmland.
Establishment The tree spreads by root suckers.
The germination of seeds in a nursery is difficult,
and establishment is not easy.
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. High.
Pests and Diseases The roots of Combretum
micranthum are very susceptible to termite at-
tack.
Combretum micronthum. (R. T. Wilson)
Conoearpus laneifolius
Botank: Name Conocarpus lancijolius Engler
Common Names Damas, ghalab
FamUy Combretaceae
Main Attributes A drought-resistant species,
Conocarpus lancijolius is one of the more prom-
ising trees for trials in arid areas. It is recom-
mended for a variety of soil types, including
saline soils, and yields excellent charcoal and
valuable wood.
DescrIption Damas is an evergreen tree that
grows up to 20 m in height and 60-250 cm or
more in diameter. However, it is believed that the
larger trees have now been almost entirely felled.
Whereas it is usually a multibranched tree in its
natural habitat, trees planted in the Sudan
formed a single, straight stem.
Distribution Natural stands of damas are found
beside intermittent watercourses of northern
Somalia and in the southwest part of the Arabian
Peninsula. Some of these streams are salty and
some sulphurous. The tree is also cultivated in
Somalia, as it is in Djibouti, Sudan, Kenya, north
and south Yemen, and Pakistan. A small planta-
tion has been established in Sudan's Khashm EI
Birb Arboretum. About 10,000 trees have been
planted successfully in limestone near Mombasa,
Kenya.
Use as Firewood The wood is light colored and
of medium to heavy density (specific gravity
0.81). It makes good firewood (although some
reports suggest that the wood smolders rather
than burns) and excellent charcoal.
Yield The annual yield of one irrigated planta-
tion was approximately 21 m] per ha. Early
growth of more than 2.5 m per year has been
achieved in irrigated plantations, though 1.0-
1.75 m per year is more typical in early years.
Other Uses
• Wood. Damas wood is strong and is used
for poles in house construction and in carpentry.
At one time it was exported to Aden, where its
chief use was for building dhows, and it is still
favored for use as ship knees.
• Fodder. The tree is evergreen and its foliage
makes a good fodder.
• Other. It is a good shade and roadside tree.
In South Yemen it is used for windbreaks around
irrigated agricultural areas and for avenue plant-
ings.
58
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. Damas grows best in areas
where the mean annual temperature ranges from
20°-30°C, but where the maximum summer tem-
perature has reached 50°C. During summer, the
dry, hot air of the tree's natural habitat is laden
with sand carried by the southwesterly monsoons.
Winter temperatures are moderate and free of
frost.
• Altitude. The tree grows from sea level up to
about 1,000 m.
• Rainfall. The rainfall in its natural habitat is
generally between 50 mm and 400 mm, but the
tree grows mainly along seasonal watercourses. It
can be grown in plantations in areas with less
than about 400 mm but grows well only if irri-
gated or within reach of groundwater. It with-
stands drought conditions for several months
when irrigation fails.
• Soil. Damas does well on deep soils ranging
from pure sand to clays and loams, but has diffi-
culty on shallow soils. It will tolerate moderately
saline soils. Experiments carried out in Yemen
showed that damas can grow on highly saline-
alkaline soils of pH 9.5, provided water is in
reach.
Establishment The tree seeds prolifically at an
early age and the seed, which is small and light,
has a germination capacity of about 25 percent.
When sown, it should preferably be left uncov-
ered or covered only thinly. Seeds should be sown
in rows 5 cm apart. broadcast in moist seedbeds,
or planted in sandy soil in containers 30 cm x 15
cm with a number of holes drilled in the bottom
to facilitate irrigation. Irrigation should be pro-
vided daily for the first 6-8 months, after which
the plants are ready for planting out. Plants
grown in a semishaded area in polyethelene bags
can be transplanted when the seedlings gain 4-5
leaves. Damas can also be raised by cullings.
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Weeding and
watering are essential after planting to ensure
establishment.
Pests and Diseases Newly germinated seedlings
are highly susceptible to damping-off. Damas is
attractive to browsing animals, and complete
protection is necessary if plantations are to sur-
vive.
Umltatlons Without irrigation or ready access
to soil moisture, the tree grows more slowly and
on some sites may not reach usable size in a rea-
sonable time.
CoIIOCllrpflS limcUoIhIs. (Left: Mohlen A. R.
Bazara'a; below: R. Melville)
Dalbergia sissoo
Botulc Name Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.
Commoll Names Sissoo, sisu, sarsou, shisharn,
nelkar, karra, tanach, shewa, tali, yette
FamOy Leguminosae (Papilionoideae)
Malll Attributes Dalbergia sissoo is a moderate-
ly fast growins tree that adapts well to semiarid
conditions and produces flfSt-class firewood. Its
timber is highly valued for construction and gen-
eral utility purposes. Under savanna conditions
the trunk is usually crooked, but it is much
sought for furniture, shipbuilding, and fuel.
DelIertpdoll A large, fast-growing tree with a
spreading crown, sissoo grows to a height of lO-
IS m in arid regions and up to 30 m high in the
irrigated plains of Pakistan, in the northern part
of India with its high rainfall, and along river-
banks. The tree has long, superficial roots, which
send up suckers when injured, and small yellow-
ish flowers with a pervasive fragrance.
Dlstrlbudoll Sissoo occurs throughout the In-
dian subcontinent from the Indus to Assam. It
descends the river valleys for some distance into
the plains and is planted or self-sown in many
parts of India and Pakistan. It has been exten-
sively grown in irrigated plantations, along roads
and canals, and around farms and orchards as a
windbreak. The tree shows promising results in
the Khartoum greenbelt (Sudan) under irrigation.
It has been less successful in Ghana, northern
Nigeria, northern Cameroon, and Togo; how-
ever, it is being increasingly planted as a street
tree in southern Florida, where it is running wild.
There are experimental forestry plantings in
Puerto Rico, the West African Sahel, South
America, and the Middle East.
Use as Firewood Sissoo wood is classed as an
excellent fuel; calorific values of the sapwood
and heartwood are 4,900 and 5,200 kcal per kg,
respectively. Specific gravity is between 0.64 and
0.7, depending on the locality. The wood is also
suitable for making charcoal. As fuelwood, it is
grown on a 10- to IS-year rotation. The tree pro-
duces profuse root suckers and coppices well
enough to be managed on a short rotation.
Yield Yield on a rotation of 10 years will
amount to 61-99 tons per ha per year, or 9-15
m'. Growth is strongly dependent on soil condi-
tions. Under favorable conditions in Ghana, trees
60
grew an exceptional 3.0-3.7 m in the first year
and 9-11 m in 5 years. Compared with other
species (for example, eucalyptus) the yield is rela-
tively low with the same input of labor and sissoo
should be used in sites not favorable for other
species.
OtIlerUses
• Wood. The wood is hard, elastic, and close
grained, with a little white sapwood and dark-
brown heartwood that soon becomes dull. The
heartwood is durable and valued for furniture,
including bentwood items, and for veneers,
carved articles, structural work, handles, cart
wheels, railway carriages, boat building, ploughs,
toys, frames for tennis rackets, hockey sticks,
skis, and minute parts of musical instruments.
• Fodder. Young branches and leaves are used
for fodder.
• Erosion control. The strong development of
root suckers and runners favor sissoo's use as a
living barrier against soil movement, and it is
planted for this purpose across the bottom of
eroding gulleys.
• Ornamental. In many Mediterranean coun-
tries the tree is valued as an ornamental.
Envlronmelltal Requlremeatl
• Temperature. Sissoo grows in an area where
the temperatures range from just below freezing
to nearly 50
G
C. It is considered frost hardy.
• Altitude. Although mainly a species of river
bottoms, the tree also ascends to 1,500 m in the
Himalaya foothills.
• Rainfall. Sissoo thrives in rainfall ranging
from 500 mm to 2,000 mm and can tolerate arid
and semiarid conditions.
• Soil. It is most typically found on alluvial
ground in and along the beds of streams and
rivers or on sand or gravel along the banks of
rivers or on islands. It also springs up on land-
slips and other places where mineral soil is ex-
posed. Porous soil with adequate moisture seems
best; stiff clay should be avoided.
Eltabllsbment Sissoo is normall, propagated
by direct seeding. However, in arid regions it is
established by transplanting seedlings or by
stump plantings. It may also be raised by shoot
cuttings. Shade or partial shade is necessary for
germination and seedling development.
• Seed treatment. It is difficult to extract seed
from the sissoo pod, so the pods are usually
Dalbergia sissoo, Sagarnath, Nepal, on a 9.S-year-old planlation. This tree was 20 em in diameter and 22 m in height.
(D. B. Amatya)
broken and pieces containing one or two seeds are
sown. The broken pods should be soaked in water
for at least 24 hours before sowing. Sissoo seeds
germinate best at 30°C.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Regular
weeding is necessary in the plantation during the
first 2-3 years.
Pests and Diseases Insects have been noted to
damage the root system. Irrigated plantations
may be severely damaged by root fungus. In In-
dia and Pakistan a leaf fungus (Phy/lactinia) and
a leaf wilt (Fusarium solani sensa) have damaged
plantations. Sissoo is also susceptible to attack by
the pinhole borer. The tree is a host of Loranthus
spp., Tapinenthus dodoneifolius, and the defoli-
ator Plecoptra rejlexa. Young plants are browsed
by deer and cattle.
Limitations There is evidence in Nigeria and
Zaire that after two or three coppice rotations the
stumps lose their vigor. A change of species or re-
planting with fresh Dalbergia sissoo is probably
necessary in these areas. Sissoo needs protection
against fire and animal browsing.
61
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Populus euphratica*
Botank: Name Populus euphratica Oliv.
Synonyms Populus diversijolia Schrenk, P. ari-
ana Dode, P. maur;tan;ca Dode, P. bonnetiana
Dode, P. litw;now;ana Dode, P. glaucicomans
Dode, P. ;//icitana Dode, P. denhardtiorum
Dode, P. euphrat;ca f. pruinosa (Schrenk) Nevski
Common Names Euphrates poplar, bahan,
bhan, hotung, hodung, gharab, palk, saf-saf, In-
dian poplar
Family Salicaceae
Main Attributes Populus euphrat;ca grows fast.
Annual diameter increments of 4.0-5.3 cm have
been measured. It can tolerate a high degree of
salinity and extremely arid and "continental type"
climatic conditions, provided the subsoil is moist.
It also grows on land that is seasonally flooded
and on which no other form of cultivation ap-
pears possible.
Description Populus euphratica is a small- to
medium-sized tree (7.5-15 m in height) capable of
attaining a diameter of 30-70 cm under good con-
ditions. It is often seen in Syria with a bent and
nearly always forked stem.
Distribution The tree extends from China to
Spain and western Morocco and as far south as
Kenya. It is found chiefly in Turkestan, Iran,
Iraq, and Syria, where natural stands are eco-
nomically important, but it occurs also in
Turkey, Pakistan, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Algeria,
and the Chinese provinces of Hopei, Sinkiang,
Shansi, and Manchuria. In India the tree is typ-
ically gregarious, occurring in pure stands or
associated with other species. Remarkably adapt-
able, it reaches to the upper elevation of tree
growth and is found even in the hottest parts in
the plains, where in fact it thrives under river in-
undations.
Use as Firewood Formerly, Populus euphrat;ca
constituted dense forests (mixed with willow,
tamarisk, and mulberry) along watercourses and
their tributaries throughout its vast range, but
these forests have been almost completely de-
stroyed to supply firewood. A few remnant for-
• Populus euphratica Oliv. is a complex species with
many varieties and ecotypes. Formerly classified as P.
inphratica (now a separate species); (I) pro syn P.
euphratica Oliv.; (2) pro syn P. euphratica Oliv.; (3) pro
syn. P. euphratica Oliv.; (4) formerly pro syn P. pruin-
0Stl Schrenk.
62
ests are still exploited for firewood, but now
mainly by coppice on short rotations of one or
two years. The wood is only moderately dense
(specific gravity up to 0.48). The calorific value is
reported to be 5,019 kcal for the sapwood and
5,008 kcal for the heartwood.
Yield Unreported.
Other Uses
• Fodder. The leaves afford a good fodder for
sheep, goats, and camels: -
• Dental use. The twigs are chewed and used
for cleaning teeth.
• Wood. The wood is easy to saw and works
to a good finish. It is a good turnery wood and
can be peeled off on a rotary cutter. It is used for
planking, lacquer work, artificial limbs, match
boxes, and splints. It is also suitable for plywood,
cricket bats, shoe heels, and bobbins, and can be
used for pulp.
Environmental Requirements
• Tempemture. Populus euphrat;ca grows in
areas with a minimum temperatue of - 5°C to a
maximum of 49°-52°C. It is frost hardy. During
the growing season it reqUires much light and
heat.
• Altitude. It is found from below sea level in
the Middle East to an altitude of 4,000 m in
Ladakh (India) and western Tibet.
• Rainfall. Rainfall range is 75-200 mm, but
it mostly grows as a riverine species whose growth
does not depend on rainfall.
• Soil. Populus euphratica occurs naturally in
soils with a high salt content, as much as three
parts per thousand.
Establishment Natural reproduction is through
root suckers or seeds. The seedlings spring up on
fresh alluvial soil after the floods recede. Three
sizes of cuttings are used for rooting in the
nursery for subsequent planting in India. Plant-
ing is done at a spacing of 2 m x 3 m, although
wider spacing is sometimes used to provide space
for sowing alfalfa for improving soil and to pro-
vide fodder. The tree coppices well. It is well
adapted for treatment under coppice or coppice-
with-standards, reproduction being obtained
from root suckers and coppice shoots.
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. High.
Pests and Diseases In the Near East the tree is
Thrce-year-old Populus euphralica coppice stand in India. CA. L. Griffith)
subject to attack by various beetles of the genus
Gapnodis and by Cuscuta monogyna. It is also
attacked by a number of other insect defoliators,
borers, and gall-forming pests.
Limitations The finest specimens of Populus
euphratica were felled long ago, and the trees that
now remain (for example, along the banks of the
Euphrates) are inferior in form.
63
Digl 'ed by Coogle
Sesbania sesban
Botanic Name Sesbania sesban (Linn.) Merrill
Synonym Sesbania aegyptiaea (Pair.) Pers
Common Names Sesban, Egyptian rattle pod,
suriminta, soriminta
Family Leguminosae (Papillionaceae)
Main Attributes Sesban is a fast-growing, short-
lived tree that regenerates rapidly after pruning.
It has a tendency to form root nodules by sym-
biotic association with soil bacteria capable of
fIXing atmospheric nitrogen.
Description A shrub or small tree, sesban grows
4.3-6 m high. It is copiously branched, with pin-
nate leaves, pale yellow flowers, and slender,
slightly twisted seedpods up to 23 em long and
containing many seeds.
Dlstribatlon Sesban is said to be one of the first
garden plants grown in Egypt. It is now wide-
spread in tropical Africa and throughout tropical
Asia. It is cultivated and naturalized to some ex-
tent in Hawaii.
Use as Firewood In Africa and in India, where
fuel is scarce, the tree is sometimes planted to
provide firewood, which is used especially for
boiling the sap of the sugar palm. The wood
yields an excellent gunpowder charcoal.
Yield A stem growth of 3 m in 12 months has
been reported, and the yield recorded in India
was 30 tons per acre (10 percent moisture) in 1
year.
Other Uses
• Food. In Bihar the flowers are eaten as a
vegetable. The leaves are eaten in Thailand. The
seeds, high in protein (33.7 percent), are eaten as
a famine food in India; they are first soaked for 3
days and then cooked for half an hour to remove
the toxic constituent caravanine.
• Fodder. The leaves and young branches are
cut for fodder for cattle and sheep.
-. Wood. The wood weighs 432 kg per m]. In
Senegal the stems are used for arrows and pipes.
In Assam the wood is split and plaited into mats.
The very soft wood is made into toys in Burma.
In India and Pakistan, stems are used as roofing
64
for huts; in fact, the plant is cultivated as a sub-
stitute for bamboo.
• Fiber. The bark fiber is used for making
ropes, while the pith serves as fishing floats.
• Other. In India, sesban is extensively
planted as a windbreak and shade for vegetable
gardens; as support for grape, black pepper, cu-
curbits, and betel vines; and as a shade for coffee,
turmeric, sweet oranges, mandarin oranges, and
cotton. In Pakistan it is planted as an intercrop
for soil improvement because it is unusually rich
in nitrogen. In India it is often grown as green
manure in both dry and wet rice fields and
plowed in before the crop is planted. It is also
grown as a support for sugarcane, each plant
bracing six canes. Lopped leaves are composted
for use as fertilizer.
Environmental Reqalrements
• Temperature. In Pakistan the tree requires
from lO
o
e t043°e.
• Altitude. Sesban grows at 300-300 m in Pa-
kistan. In India it is grown throughout the plains
and up to an altitude of 1,200 m.
• Rainfall. It requires 330-1,000 mm rainfall.
• Soil. It tolerates a wide range of soil condi-
tions, withstanding acid soil, periodic flooding,
and waterlogging. It can endure 0.4-1.0 percent
salt concentration in the seedling stage and
0.9-1.4 percent near maturity.
Establlsbment
• Seed treatment. None required.
• Ability to compete with weeds. Good; two
or three weedings will be required during the first
2 months.
Pests and Diseases The seed is destroyed by in-
sects. Several species of fungi attack the plant.
The baterium Xanthomonas sesbaniae affects the
stems and foliage. The tobacco caterpillar eats
the leaves; a weevil, A/cidodes buho, damages the
plant; and the larvae of AUlgoph/eps sea/aris tun-
nels through the main stem. Infested plants must
be uprooted and burned.
Umltatlons The area under cultivation requires
protection from cattle; it bears very palatable
foliage and is subject to browsing.
Sesbanio sesban, I year old, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Kamal, India. (I. P. Abrol)
Tarchonanthus camphoratus
Botanic Name Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.
Synonyms Tarchonanthus /itakunensis DC.•
Tarchonanthus minor Less., Tarchonanthus cam-
phoratus var litakunensis (DC) Harv.
Common names Camphor bush, camphor
wood, kanferhout, vaalbos (South Africa); lele-
shua (East Africa)
FamUy Compositae
Main Attributes This is a many-branched shrub
or small tree that is common in open sites in
many parts of southern and eastern Africa. It is
easy to establish, grows fairly fast, and coppices
well. The wood bums with a pleasant-smelling
smoke and can be used as fuel even when not
completely dry.
Description Under favorable conditions large
specimens may reach 9 m, forming a medium-
sized tree. More usually, in semiarid areas it re-
mains a densely leaved and bushy shrub some 2-3
m in height. The leaves are oblong to elliptic,
1.3-1S cm long, gray-green above and wooly
white below. When crushed they give off a pleas-
ant scent of camphor. The tree is dioecious and
has small flowers on different plants, the female
forming decorative, many-headed sprays. The
fruiting heads that follow are also densely coated
with glossy, fluffy white hairs.
Distribution The camphor bush grows from the
coast to semiarid inland areas and from the
southern tip of Africa to Ethiopia and Somalia.
In some areas it is common, forming an extensive
shrub savannah.
Use as Firewood The usual multistemmed
growth makes the camphor bush easy to harvest
for fuel. The bole from which the branches grow
adds a substantial piece of firewood. The wood is
dense and burns slowly; it ignites well even when
only partly dried, making it valuable when short-
ages of fuel require the harvesting of live wood.
People like the pleasantly scented smoke. Oood-
quality charcoal can be made from the wood.
Yield The camphor bush coppices well under
heavy utilization, sprouting even when the bole is
burnt or cut almost to the ground. Although pre-
cise yield data are not available, its adaptation to
harsh environments and fairly rapid growth sug-
gest it as a valuable fuelwood species.
66
Other Uses
• Windbreak. With its tolerance of wind and
extremes of temperature from hot days to freez-
ing nights, the plant makes a valuable windbreak
in semiarid areas. It can grow at the shoreline
fully exposed to salt spray, making it useful in
fIXing drifting sands.
• Fodder. The dense, leafy canopy provides
good fodder for livestock, especially during
droughts and in midwinter when there is a short-
age of grazing. In some semiarid areas of Africa,
it is the principal source of fodder for wild and
domesticated animals.
• Wood. The wood is heavy, tough, close
grained, and termite proof. It is good for fence
posts, boatbuilding, spear shafts, musical instru-
ments, and decorative work.
Environmental Requirements
• Temperature. The camphor bush thrives in
temperate to semidesert climates with daily ex-
tremes of temperature.
• Altitude. The plant grows from sea level to
about 2,000 m.
• Rainfall. The rainfall ranges from ISO mm
to more than 800 mm per year. The plant can tol-
erate long periods of drought.
• Soil. The camphor bush grows well on open.
semiarid plains and rocky places. It is not found
in arid areas with deep sands.
Establishment The camphor bush grows easily
from seed and may be propagated from cuttings.
Seedlings transplant well.
• Seed treatment. Probably none is needed
since it seeds and germinates profusely.
• Ability to compete with weeds. It is invasive
in overutilized vegetation (bush encroachment).
but not in vegetation in good condition.
Pests and Diseases The camphor bush is re-
markably free of pests and diseases, being appar-
ently repellant to insects.
Limitations The bush encroaches on grazing
lands in East Africa, and because of its tenacious
root system it is highly resistant to burning or cut-
ting. Repeated chemical control is successful
after the first regeneration. Although it is thorn-
less, a splinter from the wood produces a trouble-
some sore that heals with difficulty.
Related Species The camphor bush is often seen
together with other woody members of the Com-
TarchoNlnthus camphoratus (camphor bush) Jl"owing near the sea, south of Cape Town, South Africa. (A. V. Hall)
positae family, particularly of the genus Brachy-
mena. In Kwazulu in South Africa, it often
grows in association with Brachy/aefl/l ilki/o/io,
which is as much used locally for firewood as the
camphor bush.
67
Digl 'ed by Coogle
APPENDIX 1
Summary of Characteristics
by Climatic Zones
The table following reviews the attributes of the various species duscussed in each
section of Volumes I and II of Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy
Production. It only includes data contained in the two reports: environmental re-
quirements, yields, calorific values, other uses (uses other than for firewood), cop-
pieing abilities, and nitrogen-fIXing abilities.
Our table is based on one prepared by Alan Grainger for his review of Volume I of
Firewood Crops in International Tree Crops Journal Volume 2 No. I, 1982.
Abbreviations used In table:
Temperature
Altitude
Rainfal1
Yields
Other Uses
F Frost tolerant
LF Tolerates light frost
NF Not frost tolerant
Extremes are given in parentheses.
Extremes are given in parentheses.
<100 + indicates that trees tolerate less than 100mm but also a much
higher rainfal1.
Estimates are in m' fha/year except when stated otherwise.
Typical rotations are given in parentheses when available.
8 Bee forage
DY Dye
F Food
Fd Fodder
Fi Fiber
G Gum
GM Green manure
H Hedges
M Medicine
o Oil
Or Ornamental
68
P Perfume
PC Pest control
PW Pulpwood
R Resin
S8 Shelterbelts
SC Soil conservation
Sh Shade
Si Silkworm forage
T Timber, of whatever quality
Ta Tannin
T........ H........
Tempera- Calorific Nitro-
ture Altitude Rainfall Drouaht Coppic:inl Yields Value Other
a
en
Species ·C m mm Resistance Soil Needs AbililY m
3
/halyr teal/ta Uses Fixina
AaIdlI tIft:Iumu 12-2.5 2.5-1,000 900-1,600 - Aclaplable Ya 6-16 3,530-3,940 Ta, T, SII,
f (2,500) 2.5 (Sri Lanka) SB,H
(IS)
AaIdlI_msii f 300-1,100 500-1,000
-
Aclaplable, not calcareous Poor 10-25 (Indonesia) 3,500-4,000 Ta,SC, Yes
solis (7-10) GM,PW
AI.lllf1l1S./,Iss/mo f 102,000 + 350-600 Uplol Very adaptable Ya
- - T, SC, SII,
months SB
A/1I11S/llClllltl"",. 4-27 1,200-3,200 1,000-
- Aclaplable, likes cI<ep well· Naturally IO-IS (Costa
-
T,SC Ya
f 3,000 + drained Ioams or loMIy Rica)
sands (20)
-
1,000-3,000 over 500 - Aclaplable as above, bul Yes - - T Probably
(300) needs moist soli
A/_fIIlHrI bdow1SO 600-3,000 - Adaplable, likes moist soits Ya 11-21 (USA) 4,600 T,PW,SC Yes
E..../1pt11S ,1obtt1llS Moderate 103,000 100-1,500 No Aclaplable, bul needswdJ. Ya 10030(Spein) 4,100 T,SC,
lemperature drained solis (5-1S) PW,O,B
EIKW/ypIIIS,,,,Ifdb -3-40 102,700 1,000-2,500 Moderale Prefen moist, wdl-drained Yes 11-45 (Upnda)
- T,PW
Lf soils (6)
EtM»IyplllS robtuI. 3-32 101,600 1,000-2,000 4 months Boclorn slopes, swamps, and Ya 10-35 - T,SB, SII,
Lf salt_aestuaries PW,Ta
E..../1p111S tnflkomls 11-38 600 -1,000 100-1,500 Yes Aclapcable Ya 20-2.5 - T,PW,
f (400-3,500) (IS) SC,O,B
GI«lIultt ,,..,,,1tM Varia 1,500 + 500- Ya AcIapIabie Ya - -
T, f, SII,
1,500 + SC,H, SB.
Or
GtrtI#II«I1ObtIsM Man 20 102,300 1SO-1, 500 Ya Aclaplable, Iika cI<ep, 110I Poorly, but
- - T, SII, II.
Nf (400-2,500)
-a!oAed soils poItards Or
1,.,.,- - LowIaDd - Some Aclaplable Ya - -
T,Sh,B,f
",.",.,. qlllttqwMrv. 18-34 10500 1,000-5,000 - Wetsoits Ya - -
T,B,O,
Lf (1,400) Or
M.QIdMecIl -IS-II 10,2,000 600-1,000 Ya Adaptable Ya - 5,043-5,116 T,PC,fd,
Sh,Or
-20-11 102,$00 1,000
2-6 __
AdaptabIi' Ya 10-11 lOllS from Hiah T,SC,SB. Ya
()00-400) 3 yean (Korea) fd,Or
s.,MIlII.tJiI- Varia 101,000 110 + - Adaptable Ya 26 4, 134-4.m T,O, II.
$
12,000) (500) (4) Or

0
H.1IlId Tropics
Tempera- Calorific Nitro-
ture Altitude RainfalJ Drought Coppicina Yields Value Other gen
Species ·C m mm Resistance Soil Needs Ability mJ/ha/yr kcal/kg Uses Fixilll
Aarir 1lllrinlJq0l7flis 26-30+ 10600 1,500-1,100 Upl06 Adaptable 10<Yen lhe
P__,but
17-20 (Indonesia) 4,100..4,900 PW,Sh, Yes
nIonlhs poorest soils reacnenues well (10-12) Or,SC,T.
AlbiVtI/__ttU'ItI
22-29 101,000 0-2momhs WdJ...ined, dccpwith Yes 2,865-3,3S7 PW,Sh,
(1,500)
hiIh fertililY
(10) T.. T
s.,,.,,, s/mtI",btJ LF 101,000 500-1,400 - Very adapcable, best in rich Yes - -
T,H,R,
0,800) 1owlaDds, saline loIeranl Or
C"/liIIttd", C1IIo'"J1nIU -
1,000 Mockrate Adaptable Yes 3S-65 (Indonesia) SC,Fd, B, Yes
(I) Or
e-rtM«tJIimjfolill 10-33 101,500 200-S,OOO 6-8 months Tolerates caIc:a.-.s or Notradily 7. S-20 (Malaysia) 4,950 T,SC, Yes
NF l\iahtly saline soils, not loasIha DY,PW,
heavy clays (7-10) Sa. T.
C«t:oIoIMlI'ljfml LF 500-1,400 - Pure sand 10 Inland, IIOOd Yes
- -
T,H,F,B,
drainqe, saline loIeranl T.. Or,
DY
Onrls ittdiaJ 101,200 Yes Adaptable, hiahJy saline Yes - 4,600 T,Fd,O,
loIeranl PC,Fi,SC
ElICfIlJlpltIS bfflSSillltll 1032 1,000 3-Smomhl Adaptable, lypIcaIIy infertile Ya - - T
NF minimum
EllCfllypltlS""'PIII
24--32 101,800
- Adaptable, c:oloniza Usually not 2O-«l (Papua
volcanic uh and pumice NewOvinea)
- PW,T
(IS)
EIIal/ypltlSpftIllII 6-33 900-2,300 - Adaptable - - -
T,B
LF
ElICfIIyprru uf'Ol1/lylJll 11--28 300-3,000
- Medium 10 heavy soil cle- Ya 20-30 -
T,PW
rived from nooca1careouI
rock
GllrlcIdilllttpiM", 22-30 1,500-
- Adaptable 10 both moiJl and Ya -
4,900 T,Sh,H, Ya
(101,6001 2,300 + dry soils Fd, a.
OM, Or
GNWtlltllm-. IOS2 101,000 Some AdapcabIe 10 acIcI, Ya 2O-3S 4,800 T,PW,B
NF
caIc:a.-.s and latallie soi\s (5-1)
but not _a-\oaed or
IelIchcd soi\s or dry sand
G_ubrtVoIM Troplc:al 101.200 4-7 months Adapcablc - -
MocIcrately T.Fd,B, Yes
hard Sh,F
HibimIs ,UitIcftu NF 10500 1,400 - Adapgble, hiabJy sail Yes - - Fi.T,SC.
loIeranl H,Or
NF 10500 600-1,700 Yes Adapgble. IIOl ac:id ""Is Yes 4,200-4,600 F, T.SC. Yes
(Philippines) Fd,GM
Maaopds ",.i"ii 16-27 1011-700 1,200-3,000 - MocIcrate fertile, well- - 20-30(Upnda) - F, T.Sh,
(101,200) drained 50iIs (30) PW
1-20Common in
many areas
M_JetllHrlM
-
102.400
- -
Adapgble, IlOl _ 50iIs
Yes
- -
PW,GM, Yes
Or
MUIt,u.,itlcrdtIbIurI Humid 101.300 1.000-2,000 - Tolemes poor soils. saJine - - - Sh.PW.
Iroplc:al loIeranl Fi, F,Or
I'Itnut:rIrlI»N 22-21 1.000 1.000-1,100 - Variable. aeneraJly well - 21-40 - PW.T
(5-37) (1.5001 (3,900) drained
(660)
PsIdIIurt ,.WI NF 10100 4-5monlhs Acid ""Is. poor in MaY)' Yes - 4.792 F, Ta, T,
(1.500) ,lays DY
NF Estuarine/ 1,000 - Tidal areas Yes - 4,000-4,300 T.SC.
A •.,.""itllpedes coutaI PW,TI
zones
Versatile 101,200 550-1.100 Yes Adaptable, lolemes salines. -
I5lons1yr (haly)
- G. PW, Fi, Yes
a1kaliDe. and _ ""Is (2 hIrYaUIyr in OM.Fd
Ihe lropics)
NF 10100 1,000 Few months Adapgble 10 dry and moist - 20-2j (Indoaesia)
- F,Fd.SC. Yes
lOlls PW.G,Ta,
Or,S&' H.
OM
SYO'IiJuIt CV1ItUti - 10600 1,500- - Adapgble Yes
-
4,100 T,F,H,
(1,100) 10.000 SB, Ta,B.
Or
TmrtbwJMt:rIUIPfJII Troplc:al. 10300 1.000 Yes Adaptable. saline loIeranl - 2-3.6Ions!h11yr - T,F,Ta,
humid (10) SC. Sh, 51.
Or
TmttIIlpedes - 102.000 Varies Varies Adaptable 10 poor soils Yes -
4,$00 SC.Sh.
PW.T,Fd
-.J
-
...,J ArId udse.IarId ....
N
Tempera- Calorific Nitro-
ture Ahitude Rainfall Droupt Coppicina Yields Value Other
sen
Species ·C m mm Resistance Soil Needs Ability mJ/balyr kcallka Uses Fixing
A.... 4-58 10600 Ya AdaplabIe
- - - T.Fd
A.... 1034 + 5_11s AdaplabIe
- - - T
A.... 5-31 300 200-I0O Ya Adaptable. lolema salinity Rarely
- - Fd
LF and cIunc c:rau (7-10)
A"""I/olkw - Varia Hlab Adaptable Only
- T.Fd,
LF occuionaJIy (20-301 Ta,O.B
A......... 13-30 10300 Hlab Ya 1.5-10 -
SC, SB,
NF (1,000) ac:id• .u.aIiDe, saIlne solis (5-10) Fd.O
Atwda...., 14-43 100-1,'700 300-450 HIab, Sand and clay soils. but not Ya - -
T,O.Fd, Ya
(200-800) I-II months WIIICI'Ioaed lila F,SG, Fi
A.... Hot Lowland 350 Ya Adaptable. iDcIudina moist - - -
T.Fd,O Probably
(102.100) lila
AClldltonllb 1050 LowlaDd 100-1,000 Hlab Prefen alkaline soils Ya 54lons111a 4.400 T,Fd,SC
NF (12)
Ad"",.--*" NF 101.300 500-1.650
-
Adaptable Ya - - M,OM,
PC.DY.H
Alia"""""
2O-«l Low 600
-
Adaptable but not clay Of Ya - -
Fd. T,SB,
(400)
-Ioaed SII
AIbUI«JbIIc - 0-1,600 500-2.000 Ya Uta moist conditio.... Ya 5(India) 5.200 T,SII.B, Ya
LF saline loIeranl (10-15) Fd,SC.
OM
.14......._/1.
-
101,300 600 Ya Dry. saDdy. or rocIly solis Ya
-
4.900 T,O.Ta,
DY.Fd.
SI.PW
AlIIIdftdIMiItdJm G-44 450-1.150
HiIb Adaptable. not WIIICI'Ioaed Ya 13-J7(Ghua) Hlab T.O,SB,
(l30IIIiD) or saline soils (I) SII.SC.
Ta,PC
s.JaJter -upda:tl 1040.5 250-100 Ya Adaptable. MMitive 10 Ya - 4.600 H.T,F,
sallnlry and -erloaiDI Fd,M.PC
c.-." 11-29 103.000 600-1.000 Ya Adaptable, not WIIICI'Ioaed PoIIards 2 + woody
- F. Fd, SI. Ya
NF (400-2.500) soils utIlllballJOW- SII.SB.
iDI-
SC.H
CIa* __
NF Lowland 1.000 + - Deep. wcll-dnllned soils Ya 1015 - T.SB,SC
(5·10)
eo,....,,-1ftOPIUW 36+ 10900 2OG-45O AdapWllc. lOIcrala dty Ya
- HiIh T,Fd,SC No
LF (125-100)
-
.u.aIine or IIIIne ICliIs
e:-brmurI mkrwlfllllurt lroplcaJ to 1,000 500-1,-'00 Ves Arid IrOIlll.... p1a1.W - -
-
I'I,P
e-,-.ltCjfol*u 20-30 101.000 5O-tOO Ves Adaptable. moderate saIlne
-
21 (Irr1ptcd) -
T. Pd.Sh,
(50) soils
58
DtIIINrP--
1050 101,-'00 500-2,000 Ves POl'OUI soU with moislure Ves 9-15 4,900-5,200 T,Fd,SC,
F (10) Or
EM,.. Q/JIdMIis to 46 101,800
- - Adaptable. tikes moist soils, Ves
_.
'.200 T.F,Fd.
LF loleraies poor a1kalinc oon- OM
dhions
varies 1,200 + 400-1.250 - Various wllh provenance Ves 2O-l' (Araentina) 4,100 T.SB,SIl,
JO(IsneI) B,PW
(1-10)
E. cltriodolll 1029-H 10900 900 Ves Adaptable 10 poor soUs Ves
" (Tanzania) - T.P.B,Or
LF (2.000 (600 min) (I)
polS.)
Mild 102.000 700-1,000 Ves Adaptable, lolerales saIinc. Ves 6-7 (dirflCUlt
- T,SC.Sh.
(300) but IIOl .....erloaed soils siles) 58
21-44 (impled)
(1-10)
E. ",icro,1t«#
'-31
10-340 200-1.000 Ves Prefers clay and/or .lkaline Ves - - T,SB, Sh.
F (10700) soils (6) SC
E. ot:rIIdIrtw& 2-31 50-300 500-760 Ves Prerers clays. saline loleru' - - -
T,Sh
F
Hilioxylotl qltyu..m -3'-50 Lowlancl 100 + Ves Adaptable, sanely soils. Ves 1.4 tonslha/yr -
SC,Fd,
saline loIeranl (') SB
HII/oxy/oft pws/ctIm Less resis- - 100 + Hip As .bove. but less saline Ves
- -
SC,Fd
laDllOcold lolcram
lhan.bove
AutIMollitl tICII_1II lol' 101.300 200-1.000 Hip Adaptable 10 poor soils. Ves Fasll'OWlh - SC.Fd,
LF salinc tolerant. IIOl ....Ier- Or.H
logedsoils
Plmu""..w
II to hip 101.000 250-100 Ves Adaptable, does nOlloierale - 3-12 - T.R,Or,
F (2.000) saline or ....Icrloaed soils ,-6(haly) SC.SB
P. ftdtIricII 104' - 200+ Ves As.boYe
F
PI,It«:ftIobbuII dvh - 101,800 450-600 Ves Very adapt.ble Ves
- '.200-',600
T,Sh,SB,
(101.650) F.Fd,O.
Ta,H.Or.
B
Popubu"''''''''0
-'-'2 104.000 "-200 -
Tolcrales hlp salinity and Ves - '.008-'.019 Fd,M,T,
F arid condilions provldcd PW
subsoil is moist
Prosopb II/btl ,,+ Lowlands 100--'00 Ves Likes sand wllh clay. saIinc - 7 (Araenlina) - T.Fd,F. Ves
..... LF (101.000) t01eran1 (10) SB

-.J

ArId aDd Semiarid RegIons (continued)
Tempera- Calorific Nitro-
ture Altitude Rainfall Drought Coppicina Yields Value Other sen
Species
DC
m mm Resistance Soil Needs Ability mJ/halyr kcallkg Uses Fixilll
P. chilmm Hot (27) 340-1,230 200--<400 Hilh Adapted 10 light ",ii, - - -
Fd, T,o. Y..
IF 1102,900)
P. c1lWtf1ritl lowland Y.. Adaptabk, toleral.. .alinilY Y.. 21 MOO Fd,SC, T Y..
IF or hilh alkalinilY
P. jllliflora HOI High Adaptabk Y.. '-6lonvhalyr High T, B, F, Fd Y..
(10)
P. ptIl1id1l NF 0-300 Y.. Adaptabk Y.. -
High Fd. F,SC Y..
P. """·"'10
-12-36 0-10 Hi8h Hilhly ..Ii"" toleranl Yes S1owlrowth -
T, Fd
Sesbtl"iIl snbtI" \ll-4' - Adaptabk Yes - -
F, Fd, T, Yes
11,200) Fi,Sh,SB,
OM
T.IIttl'ix .p/lylltl - Y.. Very adaptabk. hilh ..line Yes - - T,SC,SB
(100 +)
T.rrltOlttl"thllS t:rImp/loratllS - 102,000 Yes Adaptable but not deep Yes - - SB,SC,
.and. Fd, T
Zif,Yp/rJu _rll."iIl Hot <600 Y.. Adaptabk Yes Fast Irowth 4,900 T,F,H.
F 1102,000) Ta, Si, Fd
Zif,Yp/l1ISspi-.-hristi HOI 100 + High Adaptable, lik.. deep Yes - High T, Fd. Sc,
allu_ial soil. H.SB
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AadI ".""...
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APPENDIX 3
Research Contacts
AC8CiI deaurwtU
Coaservator of Forests (Research), Tamil Nadu,
Madurai, Tamil Nadu 62S 020 India
R. N. Kaul, Director of Forestry Research and Central
Silviculturist, Forest Research Institute and Col-
leges, P.O. New Forest, Dehra Dun 248 006, U.P.,
India
Seed Section, CSIRO Division of Forest Research, P.O.
Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
V. R. Nanayakkara, Conservator of Forests, Forest De-
partment, P.O. BoxSOlJ, Colombo 2, Sri Lanka
M. D. Tindale, Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs. Mac-
quarie's Road, Sydney, N.S. W. 2000, Australia.
AiIIurtIuu uMMI
P. K. Khosla, Department of Forestry, Agricultural
Complex, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural Univer-
sity, Nauni, Solan 173 230, H.P., India
M. Kolar, Associate Director, Forest Department, Land
Development Authority, P.O. Box 4S, Kiriat
Hayim, Israel (Aikmthus glonduloso (A. altissima)
seed only)
Memendra Kumar Nath, Silviculturist, Forest Depart-
ment-Govemment of Assam, South Sarania, Gau-
bati 7, Assam, India
H. Y. Mohan Ram, Department of Botany, University
of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
K. M. Siddiqui, Director, Forest Products Research
Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Paki-
stan
N. P. Singh, Central Sheep and Wood Research Insti-
tute, Avikanll8er, Rajasthan, India
AIb/rJII jllktUJu1ll
Harun Alrasyid, Silviculturist, Balai Penelitian Hutan
(Forest Research Institute), P.O. Box 66, Jalan Gun-
ungBatu, Bogor, Indonesia
Robert M. Bennett, Principal Forest Officer, Depart-
ment of Agriculture, P.O. Box 129, Vila, Vanuatu,
S. W. Pacific
Tan Kee Chong, Sabah Softwoods Sdn. Bhd., P.O. Box
137, Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia
Director, Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Selangor,
Malaysia
lreneo L. Domingo, Forest Research Director, Paper
Industries Corporation of the Philippines, Bislig,
Surigao del Sur, Philippines
Ta-Wei Hu, Division of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry
Research Institute, S3 Nan-Hai Road, Taipei, Tai-
wan
Kuswata Kurtawinata, Head, Herbarium Bogoriense,
LBN-LIPI, Jalan Raya Juanda 22-24, Bogor, Indo-
nesia
Hua Seng Lee, Silviculturist, Forest Research Section,
Forestry Department, Badruddin Road, Kuching,
Sarawak, Malaysia
Eduardo B. Principe, Research Officer, Silviculture
Division, Forest Research Institute, College, Laguna
3720, Philippines
Jose O. Saraento, Makiling Experimental and Demon-
stration Forests, Colleae of Forestry, University of
the Philippines at Los Banos, CoUeae, Lquna 3720,
Philippines
Neptali Q. zabala, Associate Professor of Forest Tree
Improvement, Silviculture and Forest Influences De-
partment, University of the Philippines at Los
Baiios, College, Laguna 3720, Philippines
BilltulltaI»IYpdIu:a
R. Karschon, Director, Forestry Division, Agricultural
Research Organization, 42l1OS lIanot, M. P. Lev
Hasharon, Israel
Hassan A. R. Musnad, Silviculturist, Arid Zone For-
estry Research, Forestry Research Institute, P.O.
Box6S8,Khartoum,Sudan
SEPASAT, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond,
Surrey, TW9 3AE, England, United Kingdom
Ezekiel Abayomi Sofowora, Department of Pharma-
cognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ire,
lie-Ire, Nigeria
H. J. von Maydell, Professor, Federal Research Center
for Forestry and Forest Products, Leuschnerstrasse,
91, 2OS0 Hamburg SO, West Germany
&IrNtv IimiInIbtI
K. S. Bawa, Professor, Department of Biology, Univer-
sity of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts 02llS,
USA
Director, Direccion de Basques, INDERENA, Carrera
14, No. 2SA66 Piso 2, Bogota, D.E., Colombia
Director, Instituto Forestal Latino-Americano, Apar-
tado 36, Merida, Venezuela
Institute of Tropical Forestry, P.O. Box AQ, Rio
Piedras, Puerto Rico 00928, USA
CoccoIobtlll'l'U""
Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensen-
anza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica
Director, Direccion de Bosques, INDERENA, Carrera
14, No. 2SA66 Piso 2, Bogota, D.E., Colombia
Director, Instituto Forestal Latino-Americano, Apar-
tado 36, Merida, Venezuela
Everglades Sod and Landscape, Inc., 19100 Krome Ave-
nue, Miami, Florida 33187, USA (commercial pro-
duction)
Institute of Tropical Forestry, P.O. Box AQ, Rio
Piedras, Puerto Rico 00928, USA
George N. McHugh, 28S90 S.W. 1700h Ave., Home-

CombretllmmJcrantJuun
Directeur, lnstitut de Recherches Agricoles,
81
Centre National de Recherches Forestiaes, Pan:
Forestier de Hann, B.P. 2312, Dakar, senepl
H. J. von Mayde1l, Professor, Federal Research Center
for Forestry and Forest Products, Leusclmerstrass,
91, 2CBO HamburJ, Germany
J. C. Okafor, Forestry Investiption Unit, No. 2 Works
Road, Enugu, Nigeria
SEPASAT, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond,
Surrey, TW9 3AE, EnaJand, United Kingdom
COftOClll'pIU Itmc(folbu
Mohsen A. R. Bazara'a, Forestry Section, Research and
Extension Department, El-Kod Research Station,
Ministry of Agriculture, Aden, People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen
R. D. Haller, Bamburi Portland Cement Co., Ltd.,
P.O. Box 90202, Mombasa, Kenya
Hassan A. R. Musnad, Silviculturist, Arid Zone For-
estry Research, Forestry Research Institute, P.O.
Box 6S8, Khartoum, Sudan
SEPASAT, Royal Botanic Oardens, Kew, Richmond,
Surrey, TW9 3AE, England, United Kinsdom
~ ' I u o o
Devendra B. Amatya, Forestry Services, Ravi Bhawan
Road, Kalimati, Kathmandu, Nepal
Chief Forest OffICer, Community Forestry and Affor-
estation Division, Hattisar, Naxa1, Kathmandu,
Nepal
P. K. Khosla, Department of Forestry, Agricultural
Complex, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural Univer-
sity, Nauni, Solan 173 230, H.P., India
M. Kolar, Associate Director, Forest Department, Land
Development Authority, P.O. Box 4S, Kiriat
Hayim, Israel
Adanh Kumar, Research Officer, Plant Physiology
Branch, Forest Research Institute, P.O. New Forest,
DehraDun248006, U.P., India
Hassan A. R. Musnad, Silviculturist, Arid Zone For-
estry Research, Forestry Research Institute, P.O.
Box 6S8, Khartoum, Sudan
K. M. Siddiqui, Director, Forest Products Research
Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Paki-
stan.
Paul Soderholm, USDA Subtropical Horticulture Re-
search Unit, 13601 Old Cutler Road, Miami, Florida
331S8, USA
EIIctllyptlll brlJllillnll
J. W. Turnbull, CSIRO Division of Forest Research,
P.O. Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
N. H. S. Howcroft, Forest Research Station, P.O. Box
134, Bulolo, Monrobe Province, Papua New Ouinea
J. C. Doran, CSIRO Division of Forest Research, P.O.
Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
Ellctllyptlll dqluptll
Tan Kee Chong, SBbah Softwoods Sdn. Bhd., P.O. Box
137, Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia
J. Davidson, Eucalyptus and Forestry Service, P.O.
Box 419, Armidale, N.S.W. 23S0, Australia
Director, Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 66, Jalan
Ounung Batu, Bogor, Indonesia
Director, Forest Research Institute, Colleae, Laguna
3720, Philippines
Director, OPFLOR, Companhia Florestal de Monte
Dourado, Caw263, Helem, Parli, Brazil
N. H. S. Howcroft, Forest Research Station, P.O. Box
134, Bulolo, Monrobe Province, Papua New Ouinea
C. P. Munoz, 24B Jasmin Street Ext. Carmen, Cagayan
de Oro, Philippines
82
J. W. Turnbull, CSIRO Division of Forest Research,
P.O. Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
Ellctllyptlll J*IIttI
J. W. Turnbull, CSIRO Division of Forest Research,
P.O. Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
E. Campinhos, Jr., Rua Prof. Lobo, 1.128, Aracruz,
Esp. Santo, Brazil
EIu:fIlyptlll roIHutII
T. F. Geary, USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station, P.O. Box 938, Lehigh Acres,
Florida 33936, USA
Forestry Research Station, Charla Omar Ibn EI Khat-
tab, B.P. 763, Rabat (Agdal), Morocco
R. N. Kaul, Director of Forestry Research and Central
Silviculturist, Forestry Research Institute and Col-
leaes, P.O. New Forest, Debra Dun 248 006, U.P.,
India
M. Kolar, Associate Director, Forest Department, Land
Development Authority, P.O. Box 4S, Kiriat
Hayim, Israel (seed)
George Meskimen, USDA Forest Service, Southeastern
Forest Experiment Station, P.O. Box 938, Lehigh
Acres, Florida 33936, USA
L. D. Pryor, Professor, Department of Forestry, The
Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Can-
berra, A.C.T., 2600, Australia
D. R. Quaile, Eucalypt Tree Breeder, Forest Research
Centre, P.O. Box HO S9S, Highlands, Harare, Zim-
babwe
Roger O. Skolmen, USDA Forest Service, Pacific
Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,
Institute of PacifIC Islands Forestry, IISI Punch-
bowl Street, Room 323, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813,
USA
J. W. Turnbull, CSIRO Division of Forest Research,
P.O. Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, AustraIia
EIu:fIlyptlll t..mcomb
J. C. Delwaulle, Directeur, Centre Technique Forestier
Tropical, B.P. 764, Pointe Noire, Republique Popu-
laire du Congo
Forestry Research Station, Charla Omar Ibn EI Khat-
tab, B.P. 763, Rabat (Agdal), Morocco
T. F. Geary, USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station, P.O. Box 938, Lehigh Acres,
florida 33936, USA
INDERENA, Apartado Aereo S1912, Bogota, D.E. 2,
Colombia
P. K. Karani, Senior Conservator Research, Forest De-
partment, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Re-
sources, P.O. Box 31, Entebbe, Uganda
M. Kolar, Associate Director, Forest Department, Land
Development Authority, P.O. Box 4S, Kiriat
Hayim, Israel (seed)
Kodira A. Kushalapa, Deputy Conservator of Forests,
Yellapur S81 3S9, U.K. Dist., Karnataka, India
L. D. Pryor, Professor, Department of Forestry, The
Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Can-
berra, A.C.T., 2600, Australia
D. R. Quaile, Eucalypt Tree Breeder, Forest Research
Centre, P.O. Box HO S9S, Highlands, Harare, Zim-
babwe
K. M. Siddiqui, Diector, Forest Products Research
Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Paki-
stan
J. W. Turnbull, CSIRO Division of Forest Research,
P.O. Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
J(. Viveltanandan, Chief Research Officer, Forest De-
partment, P.O. Box SOlJ, Colombo 2, Sri Lanka
P. J. Wood, Unit of Tropical Silviculture, Common-
walth Forestry Institute, Oxford OXI 3RB, En-
&land
&alyptIUIU'OpIIyI1II
E. Campinhos, Jr., Rua Prof. Lobo, 1.128, Aracruz,
Esp. Santo, Brazil
J. C. Delwaulle, Directeur, Centre Technique Forestier
Tropical, B.P. 764, Pointe Noire, Rq,ublique Popu-
\aire du Congo
J. C. Doran, CSIRO Division of Forest Research, P.O.
Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
Director, OPFLOR, Companhia Floresta! de Monte
Dourado, Caixa Postal 263, Belem, Para, Brazil
V. P. G. Moura, CPAC/EMBRAPA, Km 18-BR 020,
BSB-For., 73JOO-P\analtina-D.F., Brazil
Senior Forest Officer (Research), Forestry Division,
Munda, W/Province, Solomon Islands
J. W. Turnbull, CSIRO Division of Forest Research,
P.O. Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia
GWluIII triIIctInthos
Robert M. Blair, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 7600,
SFA Station, Nacogdoches, Texas 7S962, USA
James Hanover, Department of Forestry, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824,
USA
l. Nahal, Professor of Forestry and Ecology, Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria
David Scanlon III, Tennessee Valley Authority, Divi-
sion of Land and Forest Resources, Norris, Tennes-
see37828,USA
Gregory Williams, Appalachian Regional Office, Inter-
national Tree Crops Institute, U.S.A., Inc., Route
I, Gravel Switch, Kentucky 40328, USA
HlblsaatlJl«au
Central Silviculturist, Forest Research Institute and
Colleaes, P.O. New Forest, Dehra Dun 248 006,
U.P., India
Department of Natural Resources, Forest Research In-
stitute, College, Laguna 3720, Philippines
Forest Products Research Institute, University P.O.
Box 63, Kumasi, Ghana
Institute of Tropical Forestry, P.O. Box AQ, Rio
Piedras, Puerto Rico 00928, USA
~ P * IIfIiIIII
Commonwealth Forestry Institute, South Parks Road,
Oxford OXI 3RB, Ena\and, United Kingdom (J.
Burley, H. C. Dawkins, R. A. Plumptre)
Director, Forestry Research Institute, Kepong, Selan-
lor, Malaysia
Division of Forestry, Faculty of Alriculture, Forestry,
and Veterinary Sciences, University of Dar es
Salaam, P.O. Box 643, Morogoro, Tanzania
Hua Sma Lee, Silviculturist, Forest Research Section,
Forestry Department, Badruddin Road, Kuching,
Sarawalt, Malaysia
I. A. Odero, Deputy Director, Kenya Agricultural Re-
search Institute, P.O. Box 74, Kikuyu, Kenya
Senior Silviculturist, Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box
17S2, Kampala, Uganda
Silviculturist, Forest Division, Silviculture Research
Station, P.O. Box 9S, Lushoto, Tanzania
~ qrU1lqWMrVIII
C. B. Briscoe, Agroforester, P.O. Box 18, Las Cumbres
IS,Panama
T. F. Geary, USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station, P.O. Box 938, Lehiah Acres,
Florida 339J6, USA(silviculture and utilization)
Directeur, Institut serqaJais de Recherches Agric:oles,
Centre National de Recherches Forestihes, Pare
ForestierdeHann, B.P. 2312, Dakar, ~
J. B. Huffman, School of Forest Resources and Conser-
vation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611, USA
Kuswata Kurtawinata, Head, Herbarium Bo1'JOriense,
LBN-LlPI, Jalan Raya Juanda 22-24, Bogor, In-
donesia
J. Morton, Morton Collectanea, University of MiaIiu,
Box 248204, Coral Gables, Florida 33124, USA
Seed Section, CSIRO Division of Forest Research, P.O.
Box4008,Canberra,A.C.T.2600,Australia
S. L. Woodall, USDA Forest Service, Southeastern For-
est Experiment Station, Lehiah Acres, Florida
339J6, USA
M611Udtuwd1
Sa-ard Boonkird, Emeritus Instructor, Colleae of For-
estry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 9, Thailand
C. B. Briscoe, Agroforester, P.O. Box 18, Las Cumbres
IS, Panama
P. K. Khosla, Department of Forestry, Agriculture
Complex, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural Univer-
sity, Nauni, Solan 173 230, H.P., India
Sompherm Kittinanda, Royal Forest Department, Min-
istry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Phaholyothin
Road, Bangkok 9, Thailand
M. Kolar, Associate Director, Forest Department, Land
Development Authority, P.O. Box 4S, Kiriat
Hayim, Israel (seed)
I. Nahal, Professor of Forestry and Ecology, Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Syria
M. I. Sheikh, Director General, Pakistan Forest Insti-
tute, Peshawar, Pakistan
PI1uu CIII'iJMM
T. I. W. Bell, Principal Research Officer, Fiji Pine
Commission, P.O. BoxS21, Lautoka, Fiji
Robert M. Bennett, Principal Forest Officer, Depart-
ment of Agriculture, P.O. Box 129, Vila, Vanuatu,
S. W. Pacific
C. B. Briscoe, Agroforester, P.O. Box 18, Las Cumbres
IS, Panama
Chief Conservator of Forests, Forestry Division,
M.A.F., Tower Hill, Freetown, Sierra Leone
Chief Forest Officer, Ministry of Natural Resources,
Belmopan, Belize
Commonwealth Forestry Institute, South Parks Road,
Oxford OXI 3RD, England, United Kingdom (R. D.
Barnes, J. Burley, R. A. Plumptre, P. J. Wood)
William Dvorak, Director, CAMCORE Cooperative,
North Carolina State University, P.O. Box S988,
Raleiah, North Carolina 276SO, USA
Carl M. Gallegos, Senior Research Forester, Central
and South American Species, International Paper
Company, Mobile, Alabama 36601, USA
INDERENA, Apartado Aereo SI912, Bogota, D.E. 2,
Colombia
Hua Seng Lee, Silviculturist, Forest Research Section,
Forestry Department, Badruddin Road, Kuching,
Sarawak, Malaysia
Jose A. Lewald, Silviculturist, Seed Expon, P.O. Box
S43, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Harry E. Murphy, RF/ACF, Resource Manlllement
Service, Inc., P.O. Box 43388, Birminghlun, Ala-
83
bama 3S243, USA
D. R. Quaile, Eucalpyt Tree Breeder, Forest Research
Centre, P.O. Box HG S9S, Hi&blands, Harare, Zim-
babwe
Senior Forestry Research Officer, Forest Research In-
stituteofMalawi, P.O. Box 270, Zomba, Malawi
Jc* Rodolfo Salazar, Celulosa de Turrialba, S.A., Ap
17, Turrialba, Costa Rica
Roy Voss, c/o Tropical Reforestation Enterprises, Rt.
3, Box 434, Alachua, Florida 326IS, USA
P o p l l / l u ~
Forestry Research Station, Charia Omar Ibn EI Khat-
tab, B.P. 763, Rabat (Agda1), Morocco
R. N. Kaul, Director of Forestry Research and Central
Silviculturist, Forest Research Institute and Col-
leges, P.O. New Forest, Dehra Dun 248 006, U.P.,
India
P. S. Kaushal, Asst. Professor of Forestry, Punjab
Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004,
India
P. K. Khosla, Department of Forestry, Agricultural
Complex, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural Univer-
sity, Nauni, Solan 173230, H.P., India
I. Nahal, Professor of Forestry and Ecology, Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria
I. A. <>dero, Deputy Director, Kenya Agricultural Re-
search Institute, P.O. Box 74, Kikuyu, Kenya
Salabadin University, Colleae of Agriculture, Aski-
Kalak, Arbil, Iraq (Latif AI-Najjar)
K. M. Siddiqui, Director, Forest Products Research
Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Paki-
stan
Poplar and Fast Growing Exotic Forest Trees Research
Institute, Izmit, Turkey
PJIdiumIfUVtlvtJ
C. B. Briscoe, Agroforester, P.O. Box 18, Las Cumbres
IS, Panama
Carl W. Campbell, University of Florida, IFAS,
AREC, I890S S.W. 280th St., Homestead, Florida
33031, USA (fruit production)
Centro Agronornico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensen-
anze (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica
C. Lens Chia, Extension Specialist, Department of
Horticulture, University of Hawaii, 3190 Maile
Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA
Director of Forestry, Federal Department of Forestry,
PMB 'SOII,lbadan, Nigeria
M. Kolar, Associate Director, Forest Department, Land
Development Authority, P.O. Box 4S, Kiriat
Hayim, Israel (seed)
J. C. Okafor, Forestry Investigation Unit, No.2 Works
Road, Enugu, Nigeria
Robin. PSftldOflCfldtl
Stanley B. Carpenter, Department of Forestry, Okla-
homa State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078,
USA
Valeriu Enescu, Institutul de Cercetari si Amenajari Sil-
vice (ICAS), R-72904, Bucuresti, Sector 2, SOS,
Stefanesti, Romania
D. H. Graves, Department of Forestry, University of
Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 4OS46, USA
James Hanover, Department of Forestry, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824,
USA
Sin Kyu Hyun, Institute of Forest Genetics, Suwon,
P.O. Box 24, Kyunggido, South Korea
84
Peter Jaciw, Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, On-
tario, Canada LOJ lEO
B. Keresztesi, Forest Research Institute, H-I024 Buda-
pest, Frankel Leo U. 42-44, Hungary
P. K. Khosla, Department of Forestry, Agricultural
Complex, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural Univer-
sity, Nauni, Solan 173 230, H.P., India
Chung Suk Kim, Department of Biology, College of
Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University,
Jinju, Gyeongnam 620, South Korea
Jorge A. Lopez, Director, Forest Seeds Center, Na-
tional Forestry Corporation, Constitucion 291
Casilla S, Chillan, Chile
I. Nahal, Professor of Forestry and Ecology, Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria
David H. Scanlon Ill, Tennessee Valley Authority,
Division of Land and Forest Resources, Norris, Ten-
nessee 37828, USA
K. M. Siddiqui, Director, Forest Products Research
Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Paki-
stan
Willis G. Vogel, Range Scientist, USDA Forest Service,
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 8eRa,
Kentucky 40403, USA
Gregory Williams, Appalachian Regional Office, Inter-
national Tree Crops Institute U.S.A., Inc., Route I,
Gravel Switch, Kentucky 40328, USA
SflpIIun NbUmurt
Center for Development Technology, Washington Uni-
versity, Campus Box 1106, St. Louis, Missouri
63130, USA(H. M. Draper, E. B. Shultz, Jr.)
Department of Biology, University of Houston, Hous-
ton, Texas 77004, USA (G. N. Cameron, J. R.
Cowles, H. W. Scheid)
Department of Biology, University of Houston at Clear
Lake City, Houston, Texas 77OS8, USA (N. B. Bell,
M. Vrccenar)
C. R. Engler, Food Protein Research and Development
Center, Texas A &: M University, College Station,
Texas 77843, USA
Ta-Wei Hu, Division of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry
Research Institute, S3 Nan-Hai Road, Taipei, Tai-
wan
P. K. Khosla, Department of Forestry, Agricultural
Complex, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural Univer-
sity, Nauni, Solan 173230, H.P., India
A. D. Krikorian, Department of Biochemistry, State
University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony
Brook, New York 11794, USA
S. L. Mathieu, Center for Development Technology,
Washington University, Campus Box 1106, St.
Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
K. M. Siddiqui, Director, Forest Products Research
Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Paki-
stan
SGIMnItIIGINm
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal132 001,
India (I. P. A. Abrol, R. Chhabra)
Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, La-
hore, Pakistan (I. Ahmad, Rab Nawaz, Khan Niazi)
• Director, National Agricultural Research Centre, P.O.
National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
D. O. Evans, College of Tropical Agriculture and Hu-
man Resources, Department of Agronomy and Soil
Science, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822,
USA
K. M. Siddiqui, Director, Forest Products Research
Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Paki-
stan

A. Gubb. McGregor Museum, P.O. Box 316, Kimber·
ley. 8300South Africa
Mark Gandar, Institute of Natural Resources, Univer·
sity of Natal, P.O. Box 375, Pietermaritzburg, 3200
South Africa.
Anthony V. Hall, Associate Professor, Bolus Her-
barium, University of Cape Town, Rondebosc:h,
7700 South Africa
8S
APPENDIX4
Index of Plants
Species described or referred to in the body of the report are indexed below. An asterisk in-
dicates that the species was described in full in the text of Volume I.
-Acacio auriculi/ormis, 2, 70
-bnachystachya, SO, 72
-cambagei, SO, 72
-cyclops, SO, 72
thtzlbata, 28, 29
decurT,ms, 28-29, 69, 7S, 81
julva, 29
-mt!llrnsii, 26, 28, 29, 69
-nilota, SO, 72
parramallensis, 29
-Silligna, 50, 72
-senegal, SO, 72
-seyal, SO, 72
sylvestris, 29
-tortilis, SO, 72
-Adhatodtl vasica, SO, 72
-AiIIlnthus altissima, 26, S2, 69
72, 7S,81
gkmdulOStl, S2
Albizio, I
ja/cQtarUl, 4-S, 20, 70, 7S, 81
-lebbek, SO, 72
Albiuio ja/cQta, 4
molluCCQfUl, 4
A1elai1a, 40
Almacigo, 6
-Alnus acumifUlta, 26, 69
-Mpalensis, 26,69
-rubna, 26, 69
Ampupu, 16
-Anogeissus lati/olio, SO, 72
Arbol de la cera, 4(j
Ardu, S2
Aura, S2
Australian brown mahogany, 30
Avicennio species, 71
-Auzdirachta indica, 40, SO, 72
Bagras,12
Bahamas pine, 22
Bahan, bhan,62
Balanites aegyptioca, S4-SS, 72, 7S,
81
Bastard cedar, 40
Balai,4
Bay grape, 8
Baya de praga, 8
Bead tree, 40
Beakpod eucalyptus, JO
Belbowrie, 38
Black locust, 42-4S
Blue sum, 32
Bnachylllena ilici/olio, 67
86
Broad-leaved tea-tree, 38
Brown gum, JO
Bursera gummi/ena, 6
ovali/olio, 6
simaruba, 6-7, 70, 7S, 81
-OVanus ctQan, SO, 72
Cajeput, 38
-Calliondna calothyrsus, 2, 70
camphor bush, camphor wood, 66
Cape lilac, 40
Cape York red sum, 10
Caribbean pine, 22
-ClIssio siom«z, SO, 72
-CIlsuorlfUl equiseti/olio, 2, SI, 70
g/Quca, 38
Chinaberry, 40, 41
Chinese tallow tree, 46-47
Chinese vegetable tallow tree, 4(j
Cocc%ba uvi/ena, 8-9, 70, 76, 81
Cocc%bis uvi/ena, 8
-Colophospermum mopaM, SO, 72
Combretum altum, S6
florlbundum, S6
micnanthum, S6-S7, 73, 76, 81
parviflorum, S6
Conocarpus lanci/olius, S8-S9, 73,
76,82
Coromandel ailanto, S2
Corona di Jesus, S4
Croton sebi/erums, 4(j
Daintree stringybark, 14
Dalbergio sissoo, 26, 60-61, 73, 76,
82
Damas, S8
-Derris indica, 2, 70
Desert date, S4-SS
Djeungjing, 4
Drek,4O
Egyptian rattle pod, 64
Elllphrlum simaruba, 6
Emajagua, 18
-Emblica olfleifUllis, SO, 73
Esenge,20
Eucalyptus "C," 3S
Eucalyptus "llABL," 3S
Eucalyptus alba, 16
ampli/olia, 3S
10-11,70,76,82
-camah1Uknsis, 10, 34, 3S, SO, 73
-citrlodona, SO, 73
dectlisnt!llfUl, 16
Eucalyptus (cont'd.)
degJupta, 12-13, 70, 76, 82
aserta, 10
g/Qucinll, 3S
-globulus, 26, 69
SO, 73
-gnandis, 16, 26,69
-microthectl, SO, 73
multiflona, JO
naudiniofUl, 12
-occidentalis, SO, 73
peNila, 14-IS, 70, 76, 82
resini/ena, 14
robusla, 2S, 30-31, 38, 69, 77, 82
rostrlcla, 34
speclabilis, 14
lerelicornis, 10, 32-3S, 38, SI, 69,
77,82
urophyllll, 16-17,70,77,83
umbel/ala, 32
Euphrates poplar, 62
ExCO«tUill sebi/ena, 4(j
Falcata, 4
False acacia, 42
Forest red sum, 32
OaIo de incienso, 6
Ganges, S2
Ghalab, S8
Gharab,62
Giezc, S6
Gleditsehio, J6
Gleditsio IrUlcanlhos, J6-37, SI, 69,
77,83
-Gliricidio seplum, 2, 70
-GmeJifUl arbofWl, 2, 70
Green-wattle, 28
-Gf'f!Villt!II robusla, 26, 69
Guava, 24
Guayaba,24
-GUQVlma ulmi/ollll, 2, 71
Gugumi, S6
Gumbo limbo, 6
Gum-elemi, 6
Gum-topped peppermint, 10
Gumtree,6
- Haloxylon aphylJum, SO, 73
-persicum, SO, 73
Hau, 18
Heglig, S4
Hibiscus Iilioceus, 18-19,71,77,83
,
J
Honduran pine, 22
Hooeylocust, 36
Hopwood,8
Horsewood, 8
HOhWng, hodung, 62
Indian poplar, 62
Indio desnudo, 6
·/nga Vf!f'tl, 26,69
Jericho balsam, S4
Kamarerc, 12
Kanferbout, 66
lCaro, 10
K.arra, 60
Kayu mads, 4
Kina wattle, 28
Kinkeliba, S6
Kolobe, Koubou, S6
Lalob, S4
Lamunch, S4
Landpp, S6
Larc:Iap, S6
Large-fruited red mahogany, 14
Leda, 12
Lelesbua, 66
-Leru:aena /euCOCt!plullo, 2, 71
Maesopsis eminii, 20-21, 71, 78, 83
Mahanium, S2
Mabaruka, S2
Maboc:, 18
Majqua, majagua de playa, 18
Mangle de falda, 8
·Mangroves, 2
Mara, 4
Melaleuca, 38
MelaJeuca cajllputi, 38, 39
38, 39
qIlinqllenenio, 2, 38-39, 69, 78,
83
viridiflora, 38, 39
Melill azedarach, 40-41, SI, 69, 78,
83
a. fonna IlmbraCll/i/ormis, 41
dIIbio,41
orienta/is, 40
-Mimosa 2, 71
Molucca albizzia, 4
Moluccan sau, 4
Motboaraduso, S2
Mountain gum, 32
Mubumuia, 20
eMllntlngia calobllra, 2, 71
Musizi,2O
Mysore gum, 32
"Mysore bybrid," 3S
Najlij, S4
Ndunga, 20
Nelkar,6O
NiaouH,38
<>COte blanco, 22
Pabari sbishum, 46
Palk,62
Palo muiato, 6
Paperbark, 38
Paperbark tea-tree, 38
Paraiso,4O
Parameraa, S6
Pariti tiliamun, 18
Paritillm ti/iacnm, 18
-Parlcinsonkl aClllata, SO, 73
Pau de sebo, 46
Persian lilac, 40
Peru, S2
Pino de la costa, pino colorado,
pino caribaea de Honduras, pino
macho, 22
PlnIlS btllulmensis, 22
71, 78, 83
eidarial, 73
elliottii, 22
-haJepensis, SO, 73
ho1ldllrmsis,22
Pitcb pine, 22
-Pithece/lobillm dlllce, SO, 73
Placata, plakata, 4
Polygonum uVi/era, 8
Popcorn tree, 46
Popuills arUma, 62
bonnetklna, 62
denJuzrdtiorllm, 62
diversi/olia, 62
73, 78, 84
glollcicomans, 62
illiciJana, 62
inphratica,62
litwinowklna, 62
mallritanica, 62
Pride of China, 40
Pride of India, 40
-Prosopis albtl, SO, 73
-chilensis, SO, 74
-cineraria, SO, 74
-jlliiflora, SO, 74
-pa/lida, SO, 74
-tamarllgo, .SO, 74
Psidillm cattreianllm, 2S
71, 79,84
littorare, 24
Puab,4
Punktree, 38
Queensland blue gum, 32
Queen wattle, 28
Raisin la mer, 8
Randga,S6
Red birch, 6
Red gum, 30, 32
Red iron gum, 32
Red mabogany, 14
Red strlngybark, 14
Rhizophora species, 71
River red gum, 34
Robinkl psewdOOcacUl, 2, 42-4S, SI,
69,79,84
Robusta, 30
Saf-saf,62
Sapillm sebi/erllm, 46-49, 69, 79, 84
Sarsou,6O
Seagrape, 8
Sea hibiscus, 18
Seaside grape, 8
Seaside maboe, 18
Senaon, 4
Sesban,64
Sesbtlnia aegyptiaca, 64
- bispinosa, 2, 71
-grandiflora, 2, 71
74,80, 84
Shewa,6O
Shimaron, S4
Shisbam,6O
Sissoo, sisu, 60
Soapberry tree, S4
Soap tree, 46
Soetpeul, 36
Stillingio sebi/era, 46
Suriminta, soriminta, 64
Swamp mahogany, 30
Swamp messmate, 30
Sweet-locust, 36
Sydney black wattle, 28
- S;yz,ygitun CIlmlni, 2, 71
Tali,6O
Tamalini,4
-Tamarix aphyllo, SO, 74
Tanacb,6O
Tarcbarbi, 46
TarchonanthllS camphoratllS, 66-67,
74,80,8S
litakllnensis, 66
minor, 66
Tea-tree, 38
- Terminalia catappa, 2, 71
Texas umbreUa, 41
Thorntree, 36, S4
Three-thorned acacia, 36
Timor mountain gum, 16
-Trema spp. 2, 71
Tulip cedar, 41
Turpentine tree, 6
UmbreUa-tree, 40
Uva de mer, uva de playa, uva
caleta, 8
Uvero, 8
Vaalbos,66
VRivai,4
West Indian birch, 6
White albizzia, 4
White cedar, 40, 41
White mahogany, 30
Ximenia aegyptklca, S4
YeUow locust, 42
Yette, 60
- mallritiana, SO, 74
SO, 74
87
Advisory Committee on Tecbnology Innovadon
HUGH POPENOE. Director. International Programs in Agriculture. University of
Florida. Gainesville. Florida. Choirmlln
Memben
WILLIAM BRADLEY. Consultant. New Hope. Pennsylvania
HAROLD DREGNE. Director. International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land
Studies. Texas Tech University. Lubbock. Texas (member through 1981)
ELMER L. GADEN. JR.• Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Virginia.
Charlottesville. Virginia
CARL N. HODGES. Director. Environmental Research Laboratory. Tucson. Arizona
CYRUS MCKELL. Native Plants. Inc.• Salt Lake City. Utah
FRANCOIS MERGEN. Pinchot Professor of Forestry. School of Forestry and Environ-
mental Studies. Yale University. New Haven. Connecticut (member through
1982)
DONALD L. PLUCKNETI. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Re-
search. Washington. D.C.
THEODORE SUDIA. Deputy Science Advisor to the Secretary of Interior. Department
ofinterior. Washington. D.C.
Board on ScIence and Tecbnology for Intemadonal Development
GEORGE BUGLIARELLO. President. Polytechnic Institute of New York. Brooklyn.
New York. Choirman
Memben
SAMUEL P. ASPER. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Phila-
delphia. Pennsylvania
DAVID BELL. Department of Population Sciences. Harvard School of Public Health.
Boston. Massachusetts
LEONARD BERRY. Professor. Graduate School of Geography. Clark University.
Worcester. Massachusetts
ERNEST J. BRISKEY. Dean. School of Agriculture. Oregon State University. Cor-
vallis. Oregon
HARRISON S. BROWN, Director. Resources Systems Institute. East-West Center.
Honolulu, Hawaii
ROBERT H. BURRIS. Department of Biochemistry. University of Wisconsin. Mad-
ison, Wisconsin
CLAUDIA JEAN CARR. Associate Professor, Conservation and Resource Studies.
University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California
NATE FIELDS, Director, Developing Markets, Control Data Corporation, Minne-
apolis. Minnesota
ROLAND J. FUCHS. Chairman. Department of Geography. University of Hawaii at
Manoa. Honolulu, Hawaii
ELMER L. GADEN, JR., Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Virginia,
Charlottesville, Virginia
JOHN HOWARD GIBBONS, Director. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assess-
ment. Washington. D.C.
N. BRUCE HANNAY. Foreign Secretary. National Academy of Engineering. Washing-
ton,D.C.
88
WILUAM HUOHES, Director, Engineering Energy Laboratory, Oklahoma State Uni-
versity, Stillwater, Oklahoma
WILLIAM A. W. KREBS, Vice President, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Acorn Park, Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts
GEORGE I. LYTHCOTI, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine, Madison, Wis-
consin
JANICE E. PERLMAN, Executive Director, Committee for a New New York, New
York City Partnership, New York, New York
HUOH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida
FREDERICK C. ROBBINS, President, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sci-
ences, Washington, D.C.
WALTERA. ROSENBUTH, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, Wash-
ington, D.C.
FREDERICK SEITZ, President Emeritus, The Rockefeller University, New York, New
York
RALPH HERBERTSMUCKLER, Dean of International Studies and Programs, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, Michigan
GILBERT F. WHITE, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado,
Boulder, Colorado
BILL C. WRlOHT, Assistant Dean for International Programs, Oklahoma State Uni-
versity, Stillwater, Oklahoma
JOHN o. HURLEY, Director
MICHAEL O. C. McDONALD DOW, Associate Director/Studies
MICHAEL P. OREENE, Associate Director/Research Grants
89
Board on Science and Technology for International Development (JO-217D)
Office of International Affairs
National Research Council
2101 Constitution Avenue
Washington. D.C. 20418. USA
How to Order BOSTID Reports
Reports published by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development
are sponsored in most instances by the U.S. Agency for International Development and are
intended for free distribution primarily to readers in developing countries. A limited number
of copies are available without charge to readers in the United States and other industrialized
countries who are affiliated with governmental, educational, or research institutions, and
who have a professional interest in the subjects treated by the report. Requests should be
made on the institution's stationary.
Single copies of published reports listed below are available free from BOSTID at the above
address while the supplies last.
EoelJ)'
19. Melballe GeoeratioD from Humu. Ammal. aDd Apkultural Wastes. 1977. 131
pp. Discusses means by which natural process of anaerobic fermentation can be controlled by
man for his benefit and how the methane generated can be used as a fuel.
33. Alcohol Fuels: Optlou for DeYelopl.. CoUDtrIes. 1983. 128 pp. Examines the p0-
tential for the production and utilization of alcohol fuels in developing countries. Includes in-
formation on various tropical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional
and novel processes.
36. Producer Gas: ADother Fuel for Motor Trauport. 1983. 112 pp. During World
War II Europe and Asia used wood, charcoal, and coal to fuel over a million gasoline and
diesel vehicles. However, the technology has since been virtually forgotten. This report
reviews producer gas technology in motor vehicles and its modern potential.
38. SupplemeDt to EoelJ)' for Rural DeveiopmeDt: Renewable Resources aDd Alter-
Dative Teebnoloates for Developl.. CooDtrIes. 1981. 240 pp. Updates the 1976 BOSTID
publication and offers new material on direct and indirect uses of solar energy. Provides in-
dex to both volumes.
39. Proc:eedi.... IDtematioul Worksbop OD EDeIJ)' Suney Methodoloates for DeYe"
opt.. CouDtrles. 1980. 220 pp. Examines past and continuing energy survey efforts in
developing countries. Includes rural, urban, industry, and transportation energy survey
methodologies, excerpts from 12 background papers, and a directory of energy surveys for
developing countries.
48. Worksbop OD EDeIJ)' ud Alrlc:ulture ID Developt.. CoUDtrles. 1981. Discusses the
energy used in agricultural production as well as the energy used to transport, process, and
store agricultural products and to prepare food. It reviews current issues and advises USAID
of promising opportunities to help solve energy-related problems in agriculture in
developing areas.
Teebnolop Optlou for Developl.. CouDtrIes
a. Ferroc:emeut: Appllc:atloulD DeYelopl.. CoUDtrIes. 1973. 89 pp. Assesses state of
the art and cites applications of particular interest to developing countries such as boat build-
ing, construction, and food and water storage facilities.
90
14. More Water for Arid LudI: PromiIbIa TediDoIoaJes aad Raearch OpportaDities.
1974. 153 pp. Outlines little-known but promising small-scale technologies to supply and con-
serve water in arid areas. (French language edition is also available from BOSTID.)
21. MaId... Aqudc Weeds URI,,: Some Penpectlns for DeveloplDa Countries.
1976. 175 pp. Describes ways to exploit aquatic weeds for grazing, and by harvesting and
processing for use as compost, animal feed, pulp, paper, and fuel. Also describes utilization
for sewage and industrial wastewater treatment. Examines certain plants with potential for
aquaculture.
28. MIcrobIal Processes: PromiIbIa Teebnolops for DeveiopiDa Countries. 1979. 198
pp. Discusses the potential importance of microbiology in developing countries in food and
feed, plant nutrition, pest control, fuel and energy, waste treatment and utilization, and
health.
31. food, fuel, aad fertUlzer forOrpak Wutes. 1981. 150 pp. Examines some of the
opportunities for the productive utilization of organic wastes and residues commonly found
in the poorer rural areas of the world.
34. Priorities ID Bloteebnolop Researcb for IDterHtlouai DeveiopmeDt: Proeeedlgp of
a Workshop. 1982.261 pp. Examines opportunities for biotechnology research in develop-
ing countries. Includes background papers and specific recommendations in vaccines, animal
production, monoclonal antibodies, energy, biological nitrogen fIXation, and plant cell and
tissue culture.
Plants
16. Ullderexploited Tropical Pluts with Promlsl... EeonOllllc VaI.e. 1975. 187 pp.
Describes 36 little-known tropical plants that, with research, could become important cash
and food crops in the future. Includes cereals, roots and tubers, vegetables, fruits, oilseeds,
forage plants, and others.
22. Guyule: AD Alterative Source of Natunt Rubber. 1977. 80 pp. Describes a little-
known bush that grows wild in deserts of North America and produces a rubber virtually
identical with that of the rubber tree.
25. Tropical Leaumes: Resources for tile future. 1979.331 pp. Describes plants of the
family Leguminosae, including root crops, pulses, fruits, forages, timber and wood prod-
ucts, ornamentals, and others.
37. The WI...ed lieu: A HIgb ProteiD Crop for tile Tropics. (Second Edition) 1981. 59
pp. An update of BOSTID's 1975 report of this neglected tropical legume from Southeast
Asia and Papua New Guinea that appears to hold promise for combatting malnutrition
worldwide.
47. Amanath: Modern Prospects for an Andent Crop. 1984. Before the time of Cor-
tez grain amaranths were staple foods of the Aztec and Inca. Today this nutritious food has a
bright future. The report also discusses vegetable amaranths.
Innovations In Tropical Reforestation
27. firewood Cr0p8: Shrub and Tree Species for EaeraY Production. 1980. 237 pp.
Examines the selection of species suitable for deliberate cultivation as firewood crops in
developing countries.
35. Sowl... forests from tile Air. 1981. 64 pp. Describes experiences with establishing
forests by sowing tree seed from aircraft. Suggests testing and development of the techniques
for possible use where forest destruction now outpaces reforestation.
40. firewood CroPl: Sbrub and Tree Species for EDeIlY Production. Volume 2. 1983.
100 pp. A continuation of BOSTID report number 27. Describes 27 additional species of
woody plants that seem suitable candidates for fuelwood plantations in developing countries.
91
41. MaatillDl and OIlIer FUI-Growina Acadu for the HIIIIlId Tropics. 1983.63 pp.
Highlights 10 acacias species native to the tropical rain forest of Australasia. That they could
become valuable forestry resources elsewhere is suggested by the exceptional performance of
ACtlcill mangium in Malaysia.
42. CaI1IaDdra: A Ve....tIIe Small Tree for the HIIIIlId Tropics. 1983. S6 pp. This Latin
American shrub is being widely planted by villagers and government agencies in Indonesia to
provide firewood, prevent erosion, yield honey, and feed livestock.
43. Cuaarlau: NilrOiell-Fblq Trees for Adverse Sites. 1984. These robust nitrogen-
fIXing Australasian trees could become valuable resources for planting on harsh, eroding
land to provide fuel and other products. Eighteen species for tropical lowlands and high-
lands, temperate zones, and semiarid regions are highlighted.
S2. LeacH..: PromJsiq Foraae and Tree Crop for the Tropia. (Second edition in
preparation) Describes Leucaena leucocephllla, II little-known Mexican plant with vigorously
growing bushy types that produce nutritious forage as well as tree types that produce timber,
firewood, and pulp and paper. The plant is also useful for revegetating hillslopes and for
other purposes.
Maaaatq Tropical ADimai Resoan:es
32. TIle Waler Buffalo: New Prospects for an UDderutlllzed ADimai. 1981. 118 pp.
Water buffalo are performing well in recent trials in new locations in the United States, Aus-
tralia, and Brazil. Report discusses the animal's promise, particularly emphasizing its poten-
tial for use outside Asia.
44. B81terf1y FarmlqlD Papa New G8iaea. 1983.36 pp. Indigenous butterflies are
being reared in Papua New Guinea villages in a formal government program that both pro-
vides a cash income in remote rural areas and contributes to the conservation of wildlife and
tropical forests.
4S. CrocodUel U a Resource for the Tropia. 1983.60 pp. In most parts of the tropics
crocodilian populations are being decimated, but programs in Papua New Guinea and a few
other countries demonstrate that, with care, the animals can be raised for profit while the
wild populations are being protected.
46. UUle-IDOWD AllaD ADI..... witb a ProaaIIiq Ecoaomic Future. 1983. 124 pp.
Describes banteng, madura, mithan, yak, kouprey, babirusa, Javan warty pig, and other
obscure, but possibly useful, wild and domesticated indigenous Asian animals.
Geueral
29. Postbarvest Food Loaes ID Developbaa Coutrles. 1978.202 pp. Summarizes ex-
isting work and information about losses of major food crops and fish; discusses economic
and social factors involved; identifies major areas of need; and suggests policy and program
options for developing countries and technical assistance agencies.
30. U.S. Science and Teelmology for DeveiopmeDI: CoDtrlbadous 10 the UN COBfer-
eaee. 1978.226 pp. Prepared for the U.S. Department of State as a background document
for the U.S. national paper presented at the 1979 United Nations Conference on Science and
Technology for Development.
The following topic is now under study and will be the subject of a future BOSTID report:
• JoJoba
For a complete list of publications, including those that are out of print, please write to
BOSTIDat the address above.
92
While the limited supply lasts, a free copy of Firewood Crops Volume 2 will be sent
to institutionally affiliated recipients (in government, education, or research) on
written request or by submission of the form below. Please indicate on the labels the
names, titles, and addresses of qualified recipients and their institutions who would
be interested in having this report.
Please return this form to:
BOSTID (JH-217D)
National Research Council
2101 Constitution Avenue
Washington, D.C. 20418, USA
40
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The National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private,
nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technol-
ogy, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence.
Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916,
the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970.
The National Research Council
The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916
to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of
furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accor-
dance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional
charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing member-
ship corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National
Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services
to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is admin-
istered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of En-
gineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under
the charter of the National Academy of Sciences.
The Office of International Affairs
The Office of International Affairs is responsible for many of the international activities of
the Academy and the Research Council. Its primary objectives are to enhance U.S. scientific co-
operation with other countries; to mobilize the U.S. scientific community for technical assis-
tance to developing nations; and to coordinate international projects throughout the institu-
tion.
The Board on Science and Technology for International Development
The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Of-
fice of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science
and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of
social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with sci-
entific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. BOSTID's Advisory
Committee on Technology Innovation publishes topical reviews of unconventional technical
processes and biological resources of potential importance to developing countries.

.

'..>4. (r F '::. ~ 1< • I l.REFERENCE COpy FOR LIBRARY USE ON1.Y Firewood Crops Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production Volume 2 Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs Funding for this study was provided by the Agency for International Development I~AS-NAt NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington. D. i "c .C.y. I:' c ( c'[ I t . 1983 JAN 9 1984 LIBRARY .

It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. BOSTlD's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation pu~ lishes topical reviews of technical processes and biological resources of potential imponance to developing countries. Agency for International Development. nonprofit. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. self-governing membership corporation. Office of International Affairs. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its conaressional charter of 1863. The National Academy of Enaineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970. This repon has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation. This repon has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Repon Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences.. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to ass0ciate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of funhering knowledge and of advising the federal government. the public. D. the National Academy of Enaineering. DAN-SS38-G-OO-I023-OO. Washington. The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. under the chaner of the National Academy of Sciences. whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences. under Grant No. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 80-83796 . and the Institute of Medicine. and the Institute of Medicine. Board on Science and Technology for International Development.NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this repon was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. for the Office of the Science Advisor. respectively. which establishes the Academy as a private. the National Academy of Enaineering. The members of the committee responsible for the repon were chosen for their special competences and with reprd for appropriate balance. and the scientific and enaineering communities. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Enaineering in the conduct of their services to the government. National Research Council.C.

D. Agricultural University. Forest Industries and Trade Division. Senior Lecturer and Assistant Curator. Washington D. USA LoUTFY BoULOS. D. International Development Research Centre. College of Forestry. GREGERSEN.PANEL ON FIREWOOD CROPS EDWARD S. USA. Morton Collectanea. MOHAN RAM. Washington. The Netherlands. Dokki. Wisconsin. Rio Piedras. USA ANTHONY V. D. Washington.. USA JULIA MORTON. Director. Senior Advisor to the President. Chairman JOHN G. Former Dean. Delhi. Y. Timber Management Research. Department of Botany. Connecticut. HALL. WADSWORTH. Former Director. Florida. Principal Research Forest Geneticist. Former Wood Technologist. Forestry Department. South Africa R. Oxford. BETHEL. Director. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Pioneer Research Unit. Bolus Herbarium. Professor. USA HANS-JURGEN VON MAYDELL.C. KRUGMAN. Commonwealth Forestry Institute.C. Seattle. Smithsonian Institution. Egypt GERAROO BUOOWSKI. University Lecturer. University of Oxford. Staff Member. Head. University of Miami. Washington. Professor. University of Cape Town. Editor . Puerto Rico K. Study Director NOEL D. USA BoHUMIL F. R. Forest Products Laboratory. RUSKIN. FREERK WIERSUM. Australia STANLEY L. Madison. United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service. Institute of Tropical Forestry. School of Forest Resources. Division of Forest Research. England ERICK ECKHOLM. JOHNSTON. USA HANs M. Turrialba. West Gennany FRAN~lsMERGEN. BENE. Department of Silviculture.. New Haven. Italy FRANK H. Canada JAMES S. KUKACHKA. Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products. India JOZEFSWIDERSKI. School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Wageningen. United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service. Coral Gables. University of Delhi. Canberra. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Chief. Principal Research Scientist. International Institute for Environment and Development. Office of Biological Conservation. Costa Rica JEFFERY BURLEY. Mechanical Wood Products Branch. Minnesota. Rome. Professor.C. VIETMEYER. Yale University. Professional Associate F.. USA H. Natural Renewable Resources Program. National Research Centre. Rondebosch. Head. Professor. Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza. University of Minnesota. Hamburg-Reinbek. Minneapolis. Cairo. National Research Council Sttiff MARy JANEENOQUlST. Staff Associate. Ottawa. University of Washington. AYENSU.

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species suited to plantation cultivation for fueling small industrial factories. establish easily. It was decided that these additional species should be evaluated and described in a second volume. Most of the plants are little known in traditional forest production. In addition to the first report.plants that adapt well to different sites. After publication of the book. but to provide some general concepts and methods for planners and technicians to consider. still more information on further species was received. lownutrient or toxic soils. and high calorific value. as of its predecessor. and crop driers are also discussed. During the final preparation of the first report. and tropical highlands. but these many-branched.Preface In 1980 the National Academy of Sciences published Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species/or Energy Production. sometimes short-lived species may better meet requirements for small-scale village use. ability to coppice. other ACTI publications in the series Innovations in Tropical Re/orestation that contain information on some exceptionally promising firewood species and related technologies are:· • • • • • Sowing Forests/rom the Air (1981) Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias o/the Humid Tropics (1983) Calliandra: A Versatile Small Tree/or the Humid Tropics (1983) Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites (1984) Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics (Second edition in preparation) ·For information on how to order these and other reports. and plants that have characteristics such as nitrogen-fixing ability. rapid growth. The original book describes 60 tree species or groups of species with promise for cultivation around the home or village or in firewood plantations. It is one of a series of reports that propose unconventional scientific approaches to problems of developing countries. and require little care. arid zones. is not to delineate strategies for growing and utilizing firewood in any given region of the world. We particularly looked for multipurpose plants that have uses in addition to providing fuel. but it does examine one part of the solution: the selection of species suitable for cultivation in different climatic zones. plants that thrive in problem environments such as steep hillslopes. The purpose of this report. electric generators. a report prepared by an ad hoc panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation (ACTI). However. Some are woody shrubs rather than forest trees. see pqe 90. crooked. Primary emphasis is on species suitable for growing firewood for individual family needs. v . It does not suggest a comprehensive solution to the firewood crisis. information was received on other species that also seemed to have potential as firewood crops but could not be included because of time constraints and lack of information.

This study was sponsored by AID's Office of the Science Advisor. in more equable environments. if misunderstood. West Virginia 26503. 27). It was prepared as a companion volume to Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species/or Energy Production (Report No. West Virginia. A related report was written by E. Because of the severity of the firewood crisis.S. WARNING This book. which also made possible the free distribution of this report. Post Office Box 3170. Single copy price: $13. fast-growing trees is also contained in Report No. is potentially dangerous. Department of Agriculture (Common Fuelwood Crops: A Handbook/or Their Identification.Information on promising. local species sbould always be given priority. Agency for International Development (AID). These seem appropriate for cultivation in areas of extreme fuel shortage. particularly where climates and soil conditions are harsh. Communi-Tech Associates. the panel has selected trees and shrubs that are aggressive and grow rapidly. USA. Morgantown. and where no fuelwood shortages exist.. Little. under a contract funded by AID and administered by the Forest Service. such potentially invasive plants should be introduced only with great care and with serious consideration for the threat posed by their weediness.S. Available for purchase from Communi-Tech Associates. The main objective ofthe handbook is to aid in the identification of the common trees and shrubs grown as fuelwood crops in plantations and forests chiefly in tropical regions.50 (softcover». 25. Morgantown. L. Tropical Legumes: Resources/or the Future (1979). U. However. vi . Jr. These publication activities are supported largely by the U. In any trials of fuelwood plantations.

Contents INTRODUCTION I 1 FUELWOOD SPECIES FOR HUMID TROPICS 2 AlbiziJljalCtltariJl 4 Bursera simaruba 6 Coccoloba uvifera 8 EuCtllyptus brassiJl1lQ 10 EuCtllyptus deglupta 12 EuCtllyptus pellita 14 EuCtllyptus urophylla 16 Hibiscus tiliJlceus 18 Maesopsis eminii 20 Pinus Ctlribaeo 22 Psidium guajava 24 FUELWOOD SPECIES FOR TROPICAL HIGHLANDS 26 ACtlciJl decurrens 28 EuCtllyptus robusta 30 EuCtllyptus tereticornis 32 GleditsiJl triJlCtlnthos 36 MelaleuCtl quinquenervia 38 MeliJl azedarach 40 Robinia pseudoaCtlciJl 42 Sapium sebiferum 46 FUEL WOOD SPECIES FOR ARID AND SEMIARID REGIONS 50 Ailanthus exce/sa 52 Balanites aegyptiJlCtl 54 Combretum micranthum 56 Conocarpus lancifolius 58 Dalbergia sissoo 60 Populus euphratiCtl 62 Sesbania sesban 64 Tarcho1lQnthus Ctlmphoratus 66 APPENDIXES 1 SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS 68 2 SELECTED READINGS 75 3 RESEARCH CONTACTS 81 4 INDEX OF PLANTS 86 Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation BOSTID Publications 90 88 88 Board on Sciences and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) II III vii .

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for instance. Albizio is used for pulp. • This essential resource. No less than one-and-a-half billion people in developing countries derive at least 90 percent of their energy requirements from wood and charcoal.1'f!Wood. In the Korean fuelwood plantation program. the species can be turned to these alternative uses. Worldwatch Paper I. D..C. 1 . but rather a failure of political systems. some of them have much higher value for other uses. the wasteful burning of animal manures to cook food rather than help produce it. Indeed. 30 percent of the species planted were required to have commercial uses in addition to fuelwood. and new technologies could certainly ease its severity in any country. in the final analysis. Eckholm 1975. Another billion people meet at least SO percent of their energy needs this way. the trees would still serve some useful purpose. a growing drain on incomes and physical energy expended to satisfy basic fuel needs. USA. but some blend of fuel conservation. Many of the species included in this book would not be appropriate under certain conditions for fuelwood. The advantage of Albizio and a number of pine species. The growth in human population is far outpacing the growth of new trees . and an ecologically disastrous and potentially irreversible spread of treeless landscapes. Worldwatch Institute. however. is seriously threatened. of social organization. The idea was that if fuelwood demands turned out to be less than initially anticipated. it has been estimated that at least half the timber cut in the world still serves its original role for mankind: as fuel for cooking and heating. Washil13ton. tree planting. -E. There is no single magical solution to the firewood scarcity. it could at the same time serve as firewood if that were needed. Should fuel needs diminish.Introduction The problems of firewood shortages and the promise of firewood plantations were described extensively in the first volume. The developing world is facing a critical firewood shortage. reflect an absence of suitable technologies. The results are soaring prices for wood. Setting up a dependable national supply of firewood seems an ideal project for combined action by a country's government and its people.not surprising when the average user burns as much as a ton of firewood a year. for example. is that they have multiple uses. The failure of many affected countries to meet the firewood challenge does not. The Other Energy Crisis: F.

these 200 million people fell acres of trees each year. To provide fuelwood and charcoal for their daily needs. is concerned with ways of establishing self-replenishing sources of fuelwood. and the idea has become more attractive as the price of other fuels rises. Conditions in the humid tropics promote the growth of many kinds of trees and shrubs. Species included in other sections of this volume that are worth testing in the humid tropics are Melaleuca quinquenervia and Robinia pseudoacacia. 2 . In addition. which trees are the best candidates for deliberate cultivation? The first volume of this report described the following species as worth testing for fuelwood crops in the humid tropics: Acacia auriculijormis Calliandra calothyrsus Casuarina equisetijolia Derris indica Gliricidia sepium Gmelina arborea Guazuma ulmijolia Leucaena leucocephala Mangroves Mimosa scabrella Muntingia calabura Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Syzygium cumini Terminalia catappa Tremaspp This section of the present volume describes further shrub and tree species that hold promise for cultivation in humid tropical regions both for profit and for staving off the threat of fuelwood depletion in developing tropical countries.I Fuelwood Species for Humid Tropics Of the one billion people in the humid tropics. the result is depletion of tropical forests at a rate that exceeds any present attempts to replenish them. This study. with the heat and dampness ensuring high rates of photosynthesis and short harvest cycles. Together with commercial timber logging and expansion of agriculture. In some countries trees are already being profitably cultivated in energy plantations. The question is. perhaps a fifth live in or adjacent to forests. much fuelwood is cut for shipment to urban markets. the second of two volumes.

t C 3 gic lVe . Salazar) . (R.Pinus Ctlriboaz (see PllIe 22) 8 months old. intercropped with corn I month old in Turrialba. Costa Rica.

It produces seeds prolifically and regularly from an early age. placata.24-0. and the Moluccas. Molucca albizzia. Plantings in the Philippines are subject to attack by the fungus Coiticum sa/monic%r. and lacks strength (specific gravity 0. The species is grown in plantations. and usefulness when grown in combination with agricultural crops. On Java. In some regions like Western Samoa and Java the species is already used as fuelwood. Best germination occurs after mechanical scarification or treatment with sulfuric acid for 12 minutes followed by water for IS minutes. • Ability to compete with weeds. Like some other legumes. Establishment The tree regenerates easily by natural seeding on any clearing. mara.49). its crown spreads to form a large umbrellashaped canopy. falcata. The best Philit> pine growth has been achieved on sites with an annual rainfall of 4. Description One of the fastest growing of all trees. tamalini. removed from heat. Yield On better soils growth can be up to SO m] per ha per year. Sri Lanka. pale color. notably in the Philippines and elsewhere in Southeast Asia and in Fiji. soft.) Fosberg Synonyms A/biuiDfa/co/a (L. Tests performed in Java show that it makes good charcoal and that its caloric potential varies from 2. the Solomon Islands. It is now naturalized in many urban areas of Sabah. plakata Family Leguminosae (Mimosoidae) OtberUses • Wood. It is grown at altitudes up to I. • Shade. These diseases normally follow wind damage. A/biziD fa/cotaria requires a temperature range of 22°-29°C. especially west Java. and tea plantations. it is likely to perform better on slightly alkaline than on acid soils. • Soil. When grown in the open.86S-3. West Irian. banana. and wrapped in wet cloth for 24 hours. mo//UCCOfIQ Miq. It has also been used in variety trials in India." Main Attributes Because of its rapid growth. A/bizia fa/cotariD does best on welldrained.3S7 kcal per kg. • Altitude. and boxes. • Pulp. it should be considered for firewood. The practice is quite widespread in the area and can yield a substantial income for villagers. notwithstanding its low specific gravity and low caloric value. This tropical species thrives in humid tropical climates with no more than a slight dry season (0-2 months). causing "albizia canker. Distribution A/biziD fa/co/ariD is native to Papua New Guinea. • Rainfall. furniture components. Pests and Diseases Various white and brown rots are the most serious diseases afflicting A/bizill fa/cotaria plantations.000 m elevation. 30 m in 10 years. A/biziDfa/co/ariD is widely used as a shade tree for cattle and for cocoa. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. In the Philippines it is successfully used for newsprint. matches. Common Names Batai. vaivai. kayu macis. Use as Firewood The wood is light. it is planted in home gardens and gardens mixed with herbaceous and tree crops (for example fruit trees) as a source of timber and firewood.A lbizia falcataria Botanic Name A/biziDfa/co/ariD (L. but generally does best in plantations below 800 m. white albizzia. but in plantations it has a narrow crown. vigorous coppicing. sengon. and fiber length and qualities. The wood is excellent for fiber board and particle board. • Seed treatment. A. therefore. Within its natural range. and 44 m in 17 years. (Growth tends to culminate at or before 10 years. It is also used as veneer core stock and for pallets and crating. Seed may also be placed in boiling water.SOO mm and no dry period. The species is most suitable for ground wood pulp because of its low density. Its flowers are creamy white and have a slight fragrance. puah. djeungjing. and Western Samoa. deep soils with reasonably high fertility. A/biziD fa/co/ariD reaches (under favorable conditions) IS m in height in 3 years. usually from 3 to 4 years on. Remarkably fast initial growth is typical of A /biziD fa/cotarill.) Backer. while average sites yield up to 39 m] per ha per year on a la-year rotation. Taiwan. this species occurs up to 1.) 4 . Occasional elimination of vines may be necessary after that. M<>luccan sau. weeding normally can be limited to one complete weeding and three spot weedings during the first year after planting. coffee.Soo m.

the low-density wood is easily attacked by fungi. Grass and herbaceous plants are soil retainers. Vaea. and it should not be planted on steep hillsides. . Western Samoa. where it is widely used for firewood. Umltatlons A lbizia falcotaria is extremely susceptible to uprooting and breakage of branches by high winds. rather than holding the soil. Harmful insects are EuTtmo blanda. which bring about rotting of the trees. have an opposite effect. Large tree roots. Cahusac) which can be devastating unless controlled with Bordeaux mixture or other fungicides. Once exposed. (B. near Apia.Albizillla/cQtarill growing on Mt. ~miothise spp. The tree has a massive root system that is known to contribute to soil erosion. and Penthicodesjarinosa. Eurema hecobe.. Xystocertl festiva (wood borer).

Fully grown trees stand occasional brief winter frosts. with slight shrinkage. it is seldom deliberately propagated by seed. • Ability to compete with weeds. the gumbo limbo tolerates shade at all stages of growth. It is found from sea level to 1. moist forest habitats to dry. even trees blown down by winds send up shoots. barren limestone. Use as Firewood The wood has a high moisture content. It is fairly strong. forming thick vertical branches that fork again higher up. which peels off in thin flakes. Description The gumbo limbo as it grows in forests is an erect. • Rainfall.400 mm. B. It is easily propagated . Yield No studies have been made of the potential firewood yield.800 m elevation in Guatemala. The leaves are compound and have a turpentine odor when crushed. red birch. It has a high degree of salt tolerance. The tree abounds where annual rainfall averages 500-1. green and oven dried. Distribution This handsome tree is native to and esteemed in areas from central Florida through the Bahamas and West Indies and from southern Mexico to the northern parts of South America. • Soil. of 0. Pests and Diseases The resin is a natural insect repellent. The aromatic resin. Gumbo limbo requires a subtropical or tropical climate. and matchsticks and toothpicks. soles for sandals. turpentine tree. which may be snapped off by strong gusts of wind. is concentrated and dried and the chips offered as tithes or burned as incense in South American churches.green branches thrust into the ground take root quickly and grow vigorously. and the discoloration of the timber by the Main Attributes This handsome tree is esteemed for fuel and for living fence posts throughout Central America and the Caribbean.000 m. Establishment While the tree reseeds itself in its natural areas. and polishes satisfactorily. but when thoroughly dry it is commonly burned as firewood and charcoal. It is not retarded by the shade of competing vegetation even in the juvenile period. saws. is typically copper colored (sometimes silvery) and glossy.Bursera simaruba Botanic Name Bursera simaruba Sarg. surveys have shown populations of up to 57 trees per ha in the wild. Being a forest tree. Other Uses • Wood. the branches spread and form a broad crown. the handicaps seem to be only the brittleness of branches. The tree is bare during the cool.40. the perishability of exposed wood. The gumbo limbo is much used as an ornamental. it is virtually unknown elsewhere. Elophrium simaruba Rose Common Names Gumbo limbo. almacigo. The wood seasons well. light furniture. • Resin. straight. In southern Florida it is planted as a landscape tree in new developments and along streets. is easily worked. The trees regenerate swiftly after cutting. The wood has a specific gravity. Indians of Yucatan use it for kindling.30-0. indio desnudo. but is not durable for outside use. which soon become trunks as big as the original. it is made into boxes and crates. West Indian birch. Gumbo limbo endures extreme soil types ranging from fertile. which oozes from an incision as a thick. and many others Family Burseraceae paper birch and for plywood for interior use. however. but survives. Synonyms Bursera gummifera L. galo de incienso. In fact. ovalifolia Engler. and no pests or diseases are reported in available literature. but also because of the newly awakened appreciation of native species.. • Altitude. When growing in the open. planes. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. resinous tree reaching 20-30 m. gum-elemi. Under the severely arid conditions of some Caribbean islands it is rather stunted and crooked. aumtree. beetles. and termites. In Belize. The bark. • Beautification. and is used commercially for a veneer that resembles 6 . dry season. Because of its flammability. but generally occurs below 1. but it grows best in rich lowlands. palo mulato. UmltatIons Apart from cold sensitivity. Locally. So far. holds nails firmly. with a stout trunk (to 75 cm) that is often forked about 2 m from the ground. amber gum. It has long been planted as a living fence throughout the Caribbean area. being attacked by borers. mainly because of its quick growth.

Morton) S8IHtain fungi to which it is prone l:lecause of its high moisture content.) Digl 'ed by Goog e . (Such staining can be avoided by immediate kiln drying or by immediate sprayil1l of the cut logs with a fungicide.BUfWra simorubo. (From j()(J Plants ofSouth Florida by J.

was regularly exported to Europe for use in tanning and dyeing. oolitic limestone. In Florida it occurs up to the central part of the peninsula. but they are soon replaced by silky new growth with a bronze hue. low-branching tree up to IS m high. The wood is fine grained. Use as Firewood Throughout its range. horsewood. but is su~ ject to dry-wood termites. and hard. It does need full sun. and it has withstood brief freezes that have killed mature mango trees. uva caleta. heavy. hopwood FamUy Polygonaceae Main Attributes Seagrape is one of the first woody species to become established on sandy shores. The fruits are popular in -the Cari~ bean. The stiff and leathery leaves are large. Its specific gravity is reported to be from 0. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. multistemmed if pruned. The seagrape is widely grown as an ornamental tree and is a great favorite for Florida landscaping in even the most sophisticated sites. smokeless. small dry branches and twigs were lit with matches. It takes a high polish and is valued for furniture and cabinetwork.. and in another S minutes there were bright. seaside grape. The first flames gave off a little smoke. mangle de falda. Establishment Seeds germinate readily. though high in moisture. Yield should be exceptional. • Soil. thick. • Ornamental. OtberUses • Wood. and West Indies. compact. Small and fragrant white flowers are borne profusely in spring and develop into red-purple grapelike clusters of velvet-skinned edible fruits. It was introduced into the Philippines and Zanzibar about 40 years ago.S m high) and forms dense colonies. uvero. and almost circular. and the honey. Po/yfor cooking. It is also close planted and trimmed as a hedge. The seagrape is remarkable in its ability to thrive in nearly pure sand and on rocky coasts. Throughout its range. • Bark. but a seedling seagrape may not fruit for 6-8 years. • Altitude. It is often planted as a seashore windbreak in the Hawaiian Islands. smooth branches and a stout trunk to I m in diameter. They make excellent jelly. though no statistics are available. the seagrape is subject to great variations in annual precipitation. Distribution The seagrape is native to southern Florida. uva de playa. the wood is commonly employed as firewood and for making charcoal. Common Names Seagrape. The bark is rich in tannin. In the past. uva de mar.7 to 0. and profusely branched. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. is of good quality. the red-brown evaporated decoction of the wood and bark. the Bahamas. Synonyms Cocc%bis uVi/era Jacq. even flames whose intense heat surpassed the maximum 204°C on a thermometer held 40 cm above the fire. It is extremely tolerant of salt.) L. the seagrape is dwarfed and bushy (to 2. but with good drainage. The seagrape requires a su~ tropical or tropical. either free form or trimmed to a globular head. It also grows from the northeast coast of Mexico along the Atlantic coast of Central America.Cocc%ba uvifera Botanic Name Cocc%bo uVi/era (L. raisin la mer. • Fruit. light amber in color. reaching down both coasts of South America as far as Peru and Brazil. proving the seagrape to be ideal 8 . It flourishes inland as well as in coastal locations and is long lived. Yield The seagrape is fast growing. called kino. • Rainfall. and diabase.96. bay grape. being more hardy in these exposed places and more tolerant of salt than most trees. The flowers yield abundant nectar. In Mexico the charcoal has been particularly prized by blacksmiths and silversmiths. from the 1. They turn scarlet or yellow and drop off in the winter dry season. with thick. dry or wet. within S minutes there were red coals and only wisps of smoke. In an ignition trial. Bermuda.400-mm Florida average to the SOO-mm average of the near-arid islands of the Caribbean. and spicy. as well as in marl. climate. where they are sold by street vendors and in local markets. Description Fully exposed on windswept seacoasts. On leeward shores and inland locations it becomes a roundtopped. In the Philippines the tree grows well from sea level to an elevation of SOO m. spreading. Vegetative propagation is preferred because it is gonum uVi/era L. • Honey. baya de praga.

• Ability to compete with weeds. and grafting are practiced. Morton) quicker and is the only way to assure reproduction of female trees or selected cultivars. For this reason. under adverse conditions. None required. the leaves are affected by rust or fungal or algal leaf spots. and there have been reports of mushroom root rot. low altitudes. Limitations The seagrape is not adapted to extremely hot and humid environments. ground layering. seagrapes planted inland are attacked by the rose beetle Adoretus sinicus. • Seed treatment. the seagrape is virtually free of pests and diseases. and J. (K. Digl 'ed by Goo Ie .Cocc%bo uvifera tree and fruit. and mild winter weather where only brief frosts may occur. The seagrape cannot tolerate shade. cuttings are more practical because they become established quickly and outdistance the weeds. but mature wood cuttings are most commonly employed for mass multiplication. Leaf fall may be a nuisance in cold dry seasons. but occasionally. It needs full sun. Air layering. therefore. seedlings should be weeded until they outgrow competition. Generally. Pests and Diseases In Hawaii.

Rapid initial growth is dependent on complete weeding during the first year. the minimum annual rainfall is 1. It has recently been introduced to several subhumid to humid tropical areas. In Bangladesh the tree's growth rate is similar to that of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Related Species The tree is related to the wellknown fuelwood species Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Provenance trials are required to determine the optimum seed sources. None required. The wood is moderately dense. In its native habitat the tree tolerates a dry season lasting from 3 to 5 months. the timber has been used very little. Doran) 10 . strong. Australia. between latitudes 8° and 16° S. and Brazil. The natural stands occur at low altitudes from sea level to 650 m. Distribution A tropical eucalypt. T. Eucalyptus brassiana. and to Eucalyptus exserta. The trunk may be moderately straight for half the tree's height. Descrlplion The tree often grows from 7 to 15 m high on infertile sites but reaches more than 30 m on better sites. Typically. Yield Trees in experimental plots in Malaysia have reached as high as 7. The species grows from well-drained rocky slopes to undulating plains and on seasonally inundated flats and depressions. • Seed treatment.6 m. fast-growing tree adapted to a variety of site conditions in the lowland tropics. In Queensland and Papua New Guinea. It has grown well on the margins of rice fields in Bangladesh. karo (Papua New Guinea) Family Myrtaceae Main Attributes Eucalyptus brassiana is a hardy. The brown or pale reddish brown heartwood is hard. Under favorable conditions. parts of East and West Africa. • Rainfall. heavy. Seed germination is high. which is widely planted in the People's Republic of China.Eucalyptus brassiana Botanic Name Eucalyptus brassiana S. it is regarded as an excellent building timber for general construction and posts. and the seedlings are likely to be frost-sensitive. plantable seedlings can be produced within 6-10 weeks after sowing. The seedlings can be raised in trays and transplanted into containers or sown directly in containers. Establishment Eucalyptus brassiana regularly produces good seed crops. and the seeds are long lived when kept sealed and dry in cold storage. Use as Firewood Eucalyptus brassiana is a fastgrowing species with the capacity to produce coppice shoots. since the mean maximum temperature of the hottest month is around 32°C. (J. gumtopped peppermint (Queensland). It tolerates periodic flooding and readily coppices. The plantable stock raised in the nursery is likely to be about 25 percent of the viable seeds sown. The best development is on lowland sites in Papua. • Ability to compete with weeds. Frosts have not been recorded. Umitatlons There is little experience with planting this species in large areas. with a diameter of 6. On Daru Island. the climate is tropical and humid to subhumid. Blake Common Names Cape York red gum. Eucalyptus brassiana occurs in southwestern Papua New Guinea and on Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. while it has shown average-togood growth rates in trial plots in Vietnam.000 mm. The trees withstand high temperatures.5 years of age. the natural habitat of the species. • Soil. Papua New Guinea. but is often badly shaped. it divides into several large ascending branches. Poor. Other Uses • Wood. probably similar to that of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. and its silvicultural requirements are not well known. The soils are typically infertile.3 em at 2. and durable. Because the natural stands occur in areas of low population density. northern Australia. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. but it must be kept free of weeds during the establishment phase. • Altitude.

.

Ant control must be continuous in Brazil. Near sea level the mean maximum temperature of all months may be 30°-32°C. furniture. Kamarere's native climate is subequatorial in coastal areas and tropical elsewhere.Eucalyptus deglupta Botanic Name Eucalyptus deglupta Blume Synonym E. 12 . bagras (Philippines). Its wood has a specific gravity of 0. Ceram. but at higher altitudes the mean maximum of the coolest month may be only 24°C. f1QudiniafIQ F. It is normally considered too valuable for use as firewood. • Seed treatment.500 mm in its native habitat. • Altitude. Trees greater than IS years of age yield good charcoal. Use as Firewood The main use of Eucalyptus deglupta is as a pulpwood. The best development occurs on riverine banks at altitudes mainly below 150 m in New Britain. None required. termites are the most serious pests of Eucalyptus deglupta. The mean annual rainfall is mainly 2. Pulps of good yield have been obtained using the sulfate process. Muell. • Rainfall. The tree grows best on deep. Kamarere usually does not coppice. Yield Test plots in Papua New Guinea suggest that in 15 years' time it may reach 44 m in height. but there is no upper limit for planted stands on well-drained sites. but also occurs on soils derived from volcanic ash and pumice. with diameters of 0. Distribution A wholly tropical eucalypt. Young trees in particular are brittle and easily damaged by strong winds. and intolerant of drought. susceptible to frost damage. Common Names Kamarere (Papua New Guinea).500-3. Sulawesi. thereby decreasing the viability of seed. Young trees in Malaysia have been damaged severely by the cossid moth Zeuzera cojjeae and a ring bark borer (family Hepialidae). • Soil. The planting fields for kamarere must be weeded for the first 6 months and some weeding is necessary until the end of the second year. The wood from natural stands has been used for heavy construction. Trees of some provenances have been attacked by a stem and bark borer (Agrilis spp) in Papua New Guinea and the Philippines. UmUations The bark is very thin and the tree is sensitive to fire. Tip dieback of young trees in the Solomon Islands is caused by the coreid bug. Although most stands occur on alluvium along rivers. leda (Indonesia) Family Myrtaceae Main Attributes Kamarere is one of the world's fastest growing trees. moderately fertile sandy loams. Normally. and Irian Jaya in Indonesia. the seedlings are field planted as tubed stock. kamarere has a markedly discontinuous distribution that includes Mindanao in the Philippines. landslides and volcanic disturbances provide sites for small stands inland. • Ability to compete with weeds. Other Uses • Wood.5-2 m or greater. Description This is a large tree.40-0. and parts of the mainland and New Britain in Papua New Guinea. Shrinkage and fibre collapse have been slight. Yields of 20-40 m 3 per ha per year are common to that age in several countries. with a diameter at breast height of 54 em. The seed germinates quickly and subsequent seedling growth is usually fast. However. and flooring.800 m. Environmental Requirements • Temperature.80. it grows so quickly that in suitable fuel-short areas it could be considered for both uses. generally reaching from 35 to 60 m high but occasionally reaching up to 75 m. The species has been introduced to many humid tropical areas. Establishment Under plantation conditions. Pests and Diseases In both natural stands and plantations. kamarere flowers at an early age. It is found from sea level to about 1. The trunk is one-half to two-thirds of the tree height and is typically straight. • Pulp. On unstable soils and river alluvia the tree often develops buttresses 3-4 m high. It is capable of colonizing land eroded by landslides and areas of recent volcanic activity. usually by 3-4 years.

Four-year-old tree planted in Costa Rica by a small farmer on land used for aaroforestry. (H.Euetllyptus deglupta. von Maydell) Digl 'ed by Coogle 13 . J.

heavily branched crown.9 m tall with a diameter of 13. The mean annual rainfall in the tree's natural Australian habitat is 900-2. • Ability to compete with weeds.300 mm. with a large. Muell. In Minas Gerais State.3 cm at the same age. red mahogany is recommended for planting only in welldrained. a northern provenance reached a mean height of 13. No pretreatment is required.Eucalyptus pellita Botanic Name Eucalyptus pel/ita F. though it is found to a limited extent on steep. Eucalyptus pellita's growth rate has not been good enough to demonstrate an advantage over the better-known Eucalyptus resinijera. red stringybark. the wood is not difficult to work. Limitations In areas other than Australia where it has been grown. Northern provenances have grown well in moist tropical areas. They provide large quantities of pollen for the bee colonies. Red mahogany is found mainly in the humid climatic zone. Daintree stringybark Family Myrtaceae Main Attributes Red mahogany grows quickly in humid and subhumid tropical lowland regions. It has a wide range of uses for building and heavy ornamental work. well-drained slopes. the same provenance was 14. DescrIption Red mahogany is a medium to large tree. especially in Brazil. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. The tree grows mainly on gentle-tomoderate topography. Muell. • Rainfall. On bare rock above beaches it may be reduced to a bushy shrub.7 m and a diameter of 12. sandy soil. Brazil. Northern populations occur from near the top of Cape York Peninsula to between Cairns and Townsville (latitude 12°_ 18°S) and southern ones from near Brisbane to the Batemans Bay area in southern. The flowers are a minor source of thin. strong. The seeds remain viable for many years under controlled storage conditions. It prefers moist sites-the lower slopes of large ridges and even alongside small streams in the drier and hotter parts of its occurrence. Other Uses • Wood.5 years. Although the grain is somewhat interlocked. Soil types range from shallow sandy podsols derived from sandstone to deep forest loams. Good provenances from the Cape York Peninsula could provide the basis for important new eucalypt trials in tropical countries. and durable in and out of the ground. coastal New South Wales (27° -36°S). usually 20-25 m in height but exceeding 35 m under favorable conditions. However. Common Name Red mahogany.6 cm in 3. The heartwood is moderately heavy. these results appear to be based largely on the southern provenances. From sea level to about 750 m. frosts are absent or occur less frequently than five times a year. The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month varies from 24° to 33°C and the mean minimum of the coolest from 6° to 16°C. the tree forms a dense crown that shades out weeds at an early stage. 14 . strong-flavored honey from January to February in Queensland. However. Establishment • Seed treatment. Use as Firewood The tree has a high density (990 kg per m3 ) suitable for charcoal and fuelwood. • Honey. • Altitude. spectabi/isF. At its best its trunk grows straight up to half the tree height. large-fruited red mahogany. Pests and Diseases Eucalyptus pellita is moderately resistant to the stem canker CryphonectrifJ cubensis (Bruner) Hodges. • Soil. Once established. Synonym E. Distribution This eucalypt occurs on lower coastal slopes of Australia. Yield In Espirito Santo.

Eucalyptus pe/lita, Australia. (R. D. Johnston)

Digl 'ed by

Coogle

IS

Eucalyptus urophylla
Botanic Name Eucalyptus urophyllll S. T. Blake Synonyms E. decaisneano, also erroneously referred to as E. alba Common Names Ampupu, Timor mountain gum Family Myrtaceae Main Attributes Eucalyptus urophylla shows promise in tropical or subtropical countries where the rainfall exceeds 1,000 mm annually. It is highly resistant to the stem canker Cryophonectria cubensis (Bruner) Hodges, which has caused serious losses to eucalypts in Latin America. Description On favorable sites this species can exceed SO m in height, with diameters of up to 2 m and straight clear boles for half or two-thirds of the tree height. There is considerable variation within the species in the degree of retention of rough bark, ranging from only a short stocking to boles fully clothed in rough fibrous bark. Distribution Eucalyptus urophylla occurs in Timor and other Indonesian islands. It was introduced into Brazil in 1919 under the name Eucalyptus alba, and the progeny from this introduction were used to establish large areas of plantations. The progeny were mainly hybrid stock, and these trees have become known as "Brazil alba." The pure species has grown extremely well in Brazil, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, and the People's Republic of Congo and is showing considerable promise in areas in Southeast Asia and the Pacific where there is a distinct but not too severe dry period in the cool season. Use as Firewood Although one of the less dense eucalypts, young trees make a satisfactory fuelwood. It coppices well. Yield Yields of 20-30 m l per ha per year have been reported under favorable growing conditions. Low-altitude provenances have usually given the highest yields. OtllerUses • Wood. The wood of older trees is used in heavy construction, building poles, and fena: posts and gives a high pulp yield. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. Mean monthly temperatures range from 18° to 28°C in Eucalyptus urophylltts natural habitat. • Altitude. This is primarily a mountainous species, growing at altitudes from 300 m to almost 3,000 m. • Rainfall. The rainfall can be as low as 1,300-1,400 mm, but the tree does best with rainfall of 2,000-2,SOO mm. • Soil. This eucalypt grows best on deep, moist, free-draining, medium-to-heavy soils derived from noncalcareou's rock. Establishment The species seems to grow best under nursery conditions. In one trial in Costa Rica, seedlings were transplanted SS days after sowing to polyethylene bags containing loamsand mixture. In northeast Brazil the seedlings are grown in polyethylene bags in the nursery. They reach an optimum size of about 25 em in 7S days. A technique to raise Eucalyptus urophylill and a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis vegetatively by cuttings has been developed in Brazil and the Congo. • Seed treatment. None required. • Ability to compete with weeds. The tree is highly sensitive to competition in the early stages, and the plantation must be kept weed free for 612 months after planting. After that time, the dense crown inhibits competing weeds. Pests and DIseases Eucalyptus urophyllll is susceptible to termite attack. In Australia defoliation by a range of insects has reduced the growth considerably. The trees are resistant to the canker disease in Brazil. Leaf-cutting ants, Alia spp. and Acromyrmex spp., can be a problem in parts of South America; control measures are essential where the ants are present. Umitatlons Seeds are not yet readily available from plantations or natural forests; however, a seed orchard has been planted in the Congo.

16

Eucalyptus urophylla, Brazil production stand. (CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia)

and for mats. It is also used for laths for huts and for tool handles and cabinetwork.Hibiscus tiliaceus Botanic Name Hibiscus ti/ioceus L. On high. rounded head and clear trunk. Some scattered specimens are found on the coasts of extremely dry regions. marl. its rough outer surface is peeled off. and put forth new growth. In the past. floats for outriggers and for light boats. household strainers. • Bark. Paritium ti/ioceum St. but the product is of low quality because of the wood's short fibers and is fit only for wrapping purposes. The handsome leaves are somewhat heart shaped. Synonyms Pariti ti/ioceum Britton. in Hawaii. rounded crown. The species is adapted to warm. The lowest branches bend down. to trap soil to reinforce the coastline. the tree is recommended for planting on poor sojls as a firewood resource. it has a shon trunk and a broad. The heartwood is yellowish or purplish. Description The mahoe is an evergreen that may grow 12 m tall. Yield No systematic study has been made of the productivity of mahoe for firewood. In American Samoa and other Pacific islands. Its rapid growth and spreading habit. and limestone. it is also employed as firewood in Ghana. providing it is "raised up" by pruning the base when the tree is young. for long." The wood has a specific gravity of 0. vigorous shoots from which quantities of rope can be made. The tree has been of such inestimable value to Pacific seafarers that it was formerly necessary to obtain permission before cutting a single branch. The tree has no particular soil require-ments. it is prized for making fire by friction because it ignites readily when a hardwood stick is twirled rapidly against it. majagua de playa. When reduced to fiber. porous. Distribution The mahoe is pantropic. The mahoe is ofen planted to stablize sand dunes and. however. well-drained land it becomes an elegant landscape plant with a symmetrical. forming a low and sprawling massive mound. sand. sea hibiscus. augur well for high volume per hectare. The mahoe grows from sea level 10 SOO m elevation. The mahoe is widely valued as an ornamental because of its lush foliage and attractive flowers. among others Family Malvaceae Main Attributes The wood of this fast-growing tree is used chiefly for fuel. and takes a high polish. close grained. 18 . Normally. the wood is used principally for fuel. growing just inshore of the mangroves on the coastal fringe and extending up estuaries and rivers. from near-tropical (for example southern Florida) to ultratropical. it seems to grow equally well in mud. planking. Coppicing is remarkably swift and profuse. The bark has always been used for making rope and twine. OtllerUses • Wood. It is sometimes close planted as a living fence. produce long. humid areas. tapa cloth. hau. easy to work. flexible. In wetlands it is branched close to the ground. Hil. majagua. • Altitude. this is not a tree for small gardens. and hula skirts. for harpoon lines and fish traps. oiled sticks of mahoe wood were set afire and thrown from cliffs in quick succession as "fireworks. • Rainfall. although the fibrous bark is much used for cordage. thus forming extensive tangled thickets. when cut back. It thrives where there is annual precipitation of 1. The trees sprout from stumps and.400 mm. Durable in salt water. In India it is planted to prevent erosion on the banks of rivers and reservoirs. Use as Firewood In Puerto Rico. Enylronmental Requirements • Temperature. Common Names Mahoe. with multiple long stems arising from cut stumps. and Malaya. • Beautification. dry sites inland than in its native habitat-shallow brackish swamps. India. leaving a smooth surface. light but firm. It is stronger wet than dry. seaside mahoe. it is similar to jute. and pilings for dwellings in wetlands. In Malaya. emajagua. it is popular for fishing-net floats. Easily stripped from the branches in long ribbons. It is highly salt tolerant. It has been pulped for papermaking. Enough space must be available for development of its form. on muddy shores.6. take root. assuming greater stature on high. strong cables for hauling logs and ships. • Soil. • Erosion control and dune fixation.

low elevations. 19 Digl 'ed by Coogle . India. If planted in swampy. saline sites. and attributed to Alternaria dianthi. Spring and summer wilting was observed at Lahore. Growth is rapid. Seedlings should be weeded in the early stages if planted inland. in 2-3 years the tree is large enough to provide shade. where the seeds readily germinate and colonize the area. humid. • Ability to compete with weeds. Morton) Establisbment The seed capsules may float for months until they reach favorable shores. though mature trees have not been seriously injured by brief frosts in southern Florida. or by air layering. It is intolerant of cold. there will be little vegetative competition and they will be self-sustaining. UmltatioDS The mahoe is limited to warm. In Florida it is sometimes affected by leaf spot caused by G/oeosporium spp or Phyllosticta hibiscina. Pests and Diseases The mahoe is an extraordi- narily healthy tree with few problems.Hibiscus tiliaeeu.s. which is locally prevalent on other plants. In cultivation the tree is easily raised from seed or cuttings. The tree recovers by the following season without treatment. (From 500 Plants 0/ South Florida by J.

is tough and easy to work. In Uganda. while in Uganda it grows to 36 m. It is also suitable for plywood and pulpwood. On Java. In Zaire the trees are planted to shade coffee and cocoa plantations. respectively. It is too wide crowned for use where maximum productivity per unit of land is the aim. DescrIption This fast-growing deciduous tree is cylindrical. In many areas. Artificial regeneration can be effected by direct seeding. Distribution The species is native to tropical Central Africa from Liberia to Tanzania. The size of the tree decreases across the African continent from east to west. Establishment Natural regeneration is good. ndunga. or collapse during seasoning. Its specific gravity is 0. In zaire. with a neutral to acid pH. The tree cannot tolerate Imperata grass competition during its early growth. In Nigeria it is seldom over IS m high. OtberUses • Fruit. but in several countries. including Uganda. Indonesia. Nursery stock should be planted out as pot plants at an early age.000 mm of uniform summer rains. short-lived species suggested for enrichment planting in the humid tropics where it grows well if the canopy opening is sufficient and there is no dense shade. It tends to warp. straight. since the plants rapidly form long taproots. Trials have been established in other African countries and in Costa Rica. but it is safer to raise seedlings in nurseries. it grows well up to 1. Limitations The species cannot stand heavy weed competition or waterlogged soils. and zaire. and has a wide-spreading crown. joinery. Maesopsis eminii grows in an area of mean annual temperatures ranging from 22° to 27°C. yields of 8-20 m 3 per ha are common. It does not like 20 . Tanzania.200-3. • Seed treatment. well-drained. but it can also be used for underplanting or enrichment planting in open woodlands.38-0. • Altitude. The species requires 1. large quantities of seed are eaten and distributed by birds. on fertile volcanic soils of Malaysia and Indonesia annual yields even reached 20-30 m 3 per ha with a maximum of 33 m 3 and 40 m 3 per ha. the rather dense umbrella crown rapidly suppresses competition. • Soil. It is also recommended for well-drained grassy areas of watercourses. Maesopsis eminii is considered best suited to moderately fertile.48. Yield On good soils in Africa the tree may grow 2-3 m in height per year while it is young. contain an edible oil. split. Hawaii. • Ability to compete with weeds. esenge FamUy Rhamnaceae Main Attributes Maesopsis eminii is a quickgrowing. Plantations have been established or natural forests managed in Fiji. It is a lightdemanding species that can be planted in pure plantations. • Wood. The wood of Maesopsis eminii is open grained and light brown and.200 m. covering a range of latitudes from 8°N to 2°S. free of branches for 9-20 m. Western Samoa. Pests and Diseases Young trees are susceptible to cankers caused by Fusarium solani and other fungi. producing a final volume of 20-30 m 3 per ha per year. although light weight. The seeds number about 700 per kg. • Miscellaneous. damage by the Monochamus scabiosus borer has been reported. Stumps cannot be used. which damages theAlbizill. which are often eaten by animals. Seeds must soak in cold water for 2-3 days. While the mean minimal temperatures of the coldest months are 16°-24°C. and veneers for matchboxes. light-to medium-textured soils. Use as Firewood Plantation wood of Maesopsis eminii is light and therefore is not an ideal fuelwood. and the Solomon Islands. • Rainfall. but if it has been well tended during its early years. but is used for general indoor construction. Bacterial wilt has been reported from a site in Malaysia with impeded drainage. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. Kenya. Indonesia. muhumula.Maesopsis eminii Botanic Name Maesopsis eminii Engl. Malaysia. The fruits. musizi forest plantations are managed on a 3O-year rotation. Uganda. the species has been proposed as a substitute for AIbizill jalcatarill because of its similar wood quality and its resistance to the Xystrocera woodborer. The tree is normally found between 100 m and 700 m elevation. Common Names Musizi.

but not more than 3 months. (R.Maesopsis eminii. In the tropics. L. Trees in poorly drained. Left: 2-year-old seedlings. 21 Digl 'ed by Coogle . well-dried seeds can be stored. Sudan. infertile soil and on hillsides or in valleys are highly canker prone. Below: 2S-yearold tree. Plumptre) grass competition.

The seeds sometimes respond to moderate stratification. fine-grained clay that allows easy movement of air and water. is found in western Cuba and the Isle of Pines. Generally the stem is straight and the branching is regular. except when rainfall is below 1..Pinus caribaea Botanic Name Pinus cariboeo Morelet* Synonyms Pinus bohamensis Griseb. Pinus caribaeo can bear severe competition from shallow-rooted grasses. although the very thin layer of soil on top of the coral platforms of the Bahamas has a pH of 8. They can be stored up to 10 years at 00_5°C with moisture content below 10 percent. • Rainfall. which has fast initial growth. The pH is usually between 5. Soils are usually loams or sandy loams.900 mm. or Caribbean pine. • Seed treatment. • Ability to compete with weeds. with a maximum of 37°C and minimum of 5°C sometimes experienced. In mainland coastal plains. heavy construction. Pinus cariboeo grows in a climate with summer rainfall and a winter dry season. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. weeding must Main Attributes Caribbean pine. However. particularly in the branching habits of natural stands. has become one of the more important pines for commercial timber plantations in tropical areas below 1. Throughout its natural habitat. pino macho Family Pinaceae used for boat building.66).4-0. • Soil. Some stands. pitch pine. the species grows best at altitudes below 1. Distribution Three geographic varieties of Pinus cariboeo are distinguished. Fast initial growth is typical of the species. 0. Description Pinus cariboeo is a large tree that under the best conditions may grow to 45 m in height and 135 em in diameter.5. Inland it can be found on a wide range of parent materials.800 mm. and therefore weeding is often required for only one year after planting. is native to the Bahamas and Caicos Islands. Pinus cariboeo var cariboeo (typical). although it is planted up to 1. and both thinnings and branches from sawlog or pulp plantations could yield valuable fuel. Pinus cariboea from natural forests is used in Nicaragua and Honduras for general-purpose pulpwood. with poorly drained sites sometimes becoming waterlogged at the height of the rains. In coastal areas rainfall may reach 3. In Cuba the soil is a deep.000 m. ocote blanco. It is essential to ensure that the correct mycorrhizae are available in the nursery soil to ensure root infection.000 mm and 1. • Wood. • Altitude. The wood is soft. The tree requires a warm.0 and 5. Pinus cariboeo var bohamensis.4. Bahamas pine. grow on sites where annual rainfall may be as low as 660 mm. Pinus hondurensis Loock Common Names Caribbean pine. Yield A mean annual increment of 21-40 m) per ha can be achieved on suitable sites up to the thirteenth year of growth. Pinus cariboeo occupies the well-aerated sands and silts and the levee banks where pH is between 4 and 5. and (form permitting) for veneer. pino colorado. rainfall varies between 1. Honduran pine or pino hondurei'io. The wood is excellent for particle board and noncompressed fiber board. Because of the knowledge about the tree and its adaptability to equatorial lowlands or degraded lowland sites. Before 1950 it included Pinus elliallii. In the equatorial zone. grows in the Atlantic lowland of Central America from northern Belize to northern Nicaragua. moderately lightweight (specific gravity. a 24hour water soak followed by 2-3 days of cold storage at 4°_5°C. equable climate with no frost. In its native habitat.000 m. Use as Firewood Young trees often grow rapidly. however. interior joinery and furniture components.000 mm. Establishment Easy germination and rapid early growth reduce costs of seedling production. It is light demanding and cannot tolerate much overhead shade from tall grasses. sometimes with high amounts of gravel and generally well drained. that is.500 m. pino caribaea de Honduras. there is great variation in tree form. it also deserves consideration as a fuelwood species. Pinus cariboeo var hondurensis. 22 . mean temperatures range from 22° to 28°C. On the islands and on most inland areas. OtberUses * Pulp and papermaking. and resinous. pino de la costa. It also is ·This species was often confused with Pinus elliallii Engelm.

Serious insect pests are Dendroclonus (in Central American natural populations). 23 Digl 'ed by Coogle . Kemp) continue longer when the trees compete with climbing vines because of little shade production. Indigenous seed of Pinus caribaea is available through commercial sources. Indonesia. needle cast. stem form. porcupines. Ips beetles. stem and root damage. depending on the location of the plantation. Rhyacionia. and pest resistance. However. Damage to young plantations has been caused by squirrels. and the Nantucket tip moth. outside its native habitat Pinus caribaea produces cones at low altitudes in the tropics. Hyatarela. termites. difficulties may be encountered in procuring seed for large plantations because the tree is so successful that seed is in high demand.' growth. in the short term. Voss) Pinus caribaea var hondurensis in Guatemala. leaf-cutting ants. and sap stain. In addition. L. LimitatIons The great genetic variation existing within this species suggests abundant possibilities for genetic improvement in yield. dieback. East Kalimantan. Pests and DIseases This species is susceptible to soil-borne pathogens that cause "damping ofr' and to various fungi that cause foliage blights. heart rot. (R. the Australian case moth. which reduces seed supplies.Pinus caribaea. and tree shrews feeding on the bark of stems and branches. branching habit. the pine aphid. Two-year-old plantation growing in ultisol soil (R. H.

where it occurs wild and cultivated. and thrips are reported to cause damage to the guava. It has been naturalized in many countries. however. The seeds remain viable for several months and will germinate in 3-5 weeks in the warm season.SOO m. • Wood.000 mm rainfall). fragrant white flowers are solitary or grow in small clusters on new axiliary shoots.000-6. None required. Wilt. Description Guava is generally a shrub or low. but if the freeze is not too severe they grow back quickly by suckering from below the soil. The small. In some countries the tannin-rich leaves and green fruits are used for dyeing and tanning. Yield Firewood cutting causes the guava to spread by suckering. Guava does well on slightly to strongly acid soils. although the plant can be a problem weed and its wider planting should be encouraged only where enough utilization to keep it in check can be assured. • Soil. A bark-eating caterpillar and mealy scale may cause severe damage.5 and is usually fatal. being spread by birds. Excellent. reportedly occurs on soil above pH 7. Distribution Guava is indigenous to the American tropics. Bark canker and dieback are diseases that kill branches. • Rainfall. or by inarching. Guava grows in the tropics from sea level to I. • Ability to compete with weeds. It also tolerates considerably lower temperatures and higher elevations than Psidium guajava. However. mealy bugs. and nectar.Psidium guajava Botank Name Psidium guajava L. Related Species • Psidium littorale is a native of Brazil that grows to a height of 8 m and can grow in dense shade as well as in the open. cuttings. strong. Because of its strength the wood has been used for tool handles and implements. jam. vegetative propagation (for example. air layering) of superior clones is more common. the most serious enemy of the tree in India. Its ability to withstand repeated cutting should make it an exceptionally fine firewood.85 percent ash. juice. OtberUses • Fruits. It flourishes in Florida on limestone and marl with a pH of 7. Use as Firewood The hard. It coppices readily and its growth rate is rapid at first and slower as the tree ages. and suckers. • Leaves. Establishment The tree can be propagated from seeds. scale insects. Guava fruits are made into preserves. jelly.792 kcal with 0. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. • Altitude. Limitations The trees can become serious pests.8 and makes excellent firewood and charcoal. They require light.5-8. and red guavas are also a good source of vitamin A. it normally grows slowly at altitudes above 800 m. heavy wood has a specific gravity of 0. guayaba FamUy Myrtaceae Main Attributes In high-population areas guava should be a good tree for use as firewood. Psidium guajava does weU in areas of 1. particularly with the root suckering induced by firewood cutting. in some places it has become a troublesome weed in pastures and has been declared a noxious weed in Fiji.000 mm or more of well-distributed rainfall. wide-spreading evergreen tree 3-10 m high. The trees are susceptible to frost. • Seed treatment.0. it is reported to tolerate flooding and to grow in areas where drainage is poor. The gross calorific value per gram of dry matter (ash free) is 4. but because of the great variability of guava fruits. 24 . and it may become a pest in high-rainfall areas. most guavas have been grown from seed. Pests and Diseases Fruit flies. Guava is an aggressive plant that can withstand partial shading and can take over a site when it receives full sunlight. paste. In the past. It then spread throughout the tropics. It is a good understory firewood in eucalyptus plantations in wet areas (5. Common Names Guava. mostly to the fruit. It branches close to the ground and often produces suckers from roots near the base of the trunk. At an early date the Spanish took it to the Philippines and the Portuguese to India. and it can endure 4-5 months of drought. It grows relatively poorly in heavy clay soils. They contain two to five times the vitamin C content of fresh orange juice.

(R.Psidium guajava tree. (H. Q. Skolmen) 25 Digl 'ed by Coogle . Y. Nakasone) Eucalyptus robusta (see PIlle 30) with a PsidiJIm cattleklnum undentory on the island of Hawaii.

siltation. The forests are receding rapidly up the hillsides as villages are forced to go higher in their constant search for fuel. the forests have been cut to make way for cultivation. 26 . but much of the denuded land results from the local population cutting trees and shrubs for fuelwood. The result is flash flooding. Reforestation of the highlands is official policy in many developing countries where subsistence farming is traditional. The first volume of this report described a number of species worth testing for highland fuelwood crops: A cada mearnsii A i/anthus altissima Alnus acuminata Alnus nepalensis Alnusrubra Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus grandis Grevillea robusta Inga vera This section describes further species of trees and shrubs that merit testing in tropical highland areas. and efforts are under way to identify tree species best suited for these areas.II Fuelwood Species for Tropical Highlands In the highlands (those areas above 1. Only 10 percent of the population of tropical countries lives in the highlands. In part. Another species described in section III of this book that should be tested in the tropical highlands is Dalbergia sissoo.000 m elevation) the problem of deforestation has become critical in many tropical developing countries. all of which cut farmland productivity. and drying up of streams needed for livestock and irrigation. but the 40 percent living in the adjacent lowlands is also affected by the deforestation of hillsides that can no longer retain rainwater.

Eucalyptus in Peru. Barker) 27 cd ty LJoogle . (M. L.

• Ability to compete with weeds. The tree spreads rapidly.600 mm. green wattle fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Sydney black wattle. king or queen wattle Family Leguminosae (Mimosoideae) was therefore stopped in favor of other acacias. The seeds are soaked 2 hours in acid or dipped in boiling water and left to cool and soak. Main Attributes Acacia decurrens yields excellent fuelwood and charcoal and has proved suitable for growing in many countries. Pests and Diseases Acacia decurrens is susceptible to the defoliator Acanthopsyche junode. Recent research.500 m. Seeds can be germinated after many years of storage in a cool. has shown that this problem can be eliminated by changing the tanning process or by adding other suitable tanning materials. The wood is used for building poles! mine props. In its Australian home the tree grows in low valleys and on hillslopes (25-1. golden flowers. Limitations Acacia decurrens. Distribution This species is native to the coastal strip within 200 km of Sydney. but the bark is esteemed second only to that of Acacia mearnsii for tanning purposes. The bark of Acacia ·decurrens yields 35-40 percent good-quality tannin. Australia. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. In the Nilgiris (India) it attains a height of 30 m and a diameter of 37 em. It is frost resistant and shade tolerant. • Altitude.50-0. Description This is a beautiful tree with strong.) Synonym Acacia decurrens var normalis Benth. Common Names Green wattle. Fiji.70. and. • Soil.940 kcal per kg. Severe attacks by the rust fungus Uromycladium in the i920s caused most plantations in New Zealand to be felled. and some brown friable earths derived principally from shales. It has been planted fairly widely on moist sites in southeastern Australia. with a specific gravity of 0. It does make a good firewood. South Africa. forming solid stands too dense to permit grass or other vegetation to intrude.or feather-like green foliage and in spring has a crowded head of fluffy. I). Establishment The species spreads rapidly by seed and root suckers and regenerates by coppicing. The wood is little used for fuel except in Australia.Acacia decurrens Botanic Willd. podsols. It has also been used as hedges on tea estates in Sri Lanka. however. and to adjacent lower montane valleys. dry place. However. and in the literature these species have often been confused. • Seed treatment. usually reaching 6-12 m in height.000 m). According to one report. it contains undesirable coloring matter. the Philippines. • Wood. Acacia decurrens thrives in a climate of 12°-25°C mean annual temperature. fence posts. introduced to Hawaii about 1890. OtberUses • Tanning. India. for hardboard. Use as Firewood The wood is not suitable for sawtimber because of its small dimensions. in recent years. and parts of Central and South America. and seedlings can be transplanted in 5-7 months. Yield A yield of 6-16 m) per ha per year has been reported. Like other acacias. Hawaii. which reduces the value of the leather. Acacia decurrens prefers deep soils that are light to medium and free draining. but mainly below 700 m. The species also occurs on basalt-derived soils. Seeds germinate in 7-14 days. and in Sri Lanka the yield of firewood on a 15-year rotation averaged 25 m) per ha. • Shelterbelt. Kenya. The mean annual rainfall for this species is 900-2. • Rainfall. to 10 em long.530-3. crowding out other plants. Name Acacia decurrens (Wendt. The slender seedpods. It has a fern. upright growth. but less so than Acacia mearnsii. has been declared noxious for state land leases because it spreads rapidly by seed and root suckers. The tree is used for shade and windbreaks. it has a caloric potential of 3. planting 28 . It occurs naturally on soils of only moderate fertility: acid and neutral yellow earths. Elsewhere the tree may range up to 2. The species is closely related to Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) and Acacia dealbata (see Firewood Crops Vol. snap open when mature and throw the seeds a good distance. acid-bleached red duplex soils. It has also been introduced to Sri Lanka.

Acacia sylvestris. 29 Digl 'ed by Coogle .AeQeUz decurrens shelterbclt. G. SChonau) Related species • Acacia dealbata and Acacia mearns/i occur much more widely than Acacia decurrens. but these have not yet been tested in cultivation. (A. P. and Acacia lUNa-with similar site requirements. South Africa.for example. There are several species of relatively restricted distribution . Acacia parramattensis.

• Altitude. In its naturai habitat in Australia the tree occurs mainly on bottom slopes.600 m. Australia. Humidity is high in all seasons of the year. The gum contains about 30 percent tannin. brown gum.000 mm a year. Malawi.. it grows much more vigorously in better soils if there is no competition from other eucalypts. and Florida (16. Seedlings are best planted early in the Common Names Swamp mahogany. In open-grown trees the crown has long. • Shelterbelt. zaire (2Q. Cameroon. The species cal> pices well up to age 25. year-old trees).500 mm with a 4-month dry season. Eucalyptus robusta does best in areas with evenly distributed rainfall of more than 2. depending on latitude. New South Wales. three companies were reported in 1961 to be making veneer and plywood of the timber. Synonym Eumlyptus multiflora Pair. red gum (Sri Lanka and India) Family Myrtaceae Main Attributes Swamp mahogany is one of the most widely planted eucalypts.70-0. Papua New Guinea.8 m 3 per ha per year from IQ. This species is suitable for planting in coastal areas as shelterbelts. and Malaysia. The timber is used for pulpwood. white mahogany. and general construction. Mauritius (10 m 3 per ha per year). • Soil. • Tannin. but because of its ability to grow on both poorly drained and droughty locations.2 m (however. but the pulp is dark reddish brown and is not as good for this purpose as some other species of eucalypts. Winter frosts are rare. Sri Lanka. It will grow reasonably well when there is rainfall of 1. In plantations in humid climates a portion of the trees form aerial roots on the main trunk as far as 6 m above ground. Use as Firewood Eucalyptus robusta has been used as firewood in Madagascar. Papua New Guinea (21 m 3 per ha per year). The wood can also be used for poles. In Madagascar 150. in Hawaii some giant specimens have reached 55 m with a 25-m trunk). fencing. but there are limited supplies. and on the edges of saltwater estuaries and lagoons. Establishment Eucalyptus robusta is most commonly grown from seeds in containers in nurseries. swamp messmate (Australia). but it is not a common method of reproduction. It grows from sea level to about 100 m. India. Chile. Description Swamp mahogany is a tree normally attaining heights of 25-30 m and diameters of 1-1. The timber is used in the round and sawn for lumber. The bark must be removed from the stem before pulping. irregular. it is usually planted on adverse sites. In Hawaii. Environmental Requirements • Temperature.000-1. The tree grows on coastal sites from sea level to 1. provided frosts are not severe. Summer temperatures are warm. wharf and bridge work. but has done poorly on droughty sands in northern Brazil. but 5 or 10 frosts may occur as long as they are not severe. It grows well in plantations on good sites. 23.to 38-year-old 30 . It does relatively well in stiff clays and leached sandy loams.30 m 3 per ha per year).Eucalyptus robusta Botanic Name Eucalyptus robusta Sm. plantations have a mean annual increment of 26 m 3 per ha. It is intolerant of salt spray but is quite wind firm and is used as a windbreak. so that little crown spread occurs. Mean minimum temperature in the coldest winter month is 3°_5°C.80. When artificially assisted. The wood has a specific gravity of 0.000 ha have been planted. and it makes a good roadside shade tree. with a mean maximum of 30°-32°C. OtberUses • Wood. In Hawaii. • Pulp. beakpod eucalYI> tus (USA). in swamps. • Rainfall. Yield Good yields have been reported from Brazil. Australian brown mahogany. Uganda. forming a dense canopy. Distribution The species occurs naturally in a narrow coastal belt from Queensland to south of Dega. The trunk is typically straight and branch free for about half the height of the tree. In closely spaced plantations the branches are almost erect. and brittle branches. Vegetative propagation by grafting and rooting of stem cuttings has been done with young trees. robusta. It is also used for charcoal. Madagascar (10-35 m 3 per ha per year). It has been planted in many other countries and adapts to varied conditions from equatorial regions to about latitude 35°. spreading.. Malaysia.

terium Phytomonas tumifaciens. ble to attack by the Gonipterus beetle and to ter• Seed treatment. Planted seedlings are susceptible to competition Llmltallolll Eucalyptus robusta hybridizes with and shading and generally require two weedings many other eucalypt species. New South Wales. The tree is also susceptiducecl. This same Digl 'ed by Coogle 31 . mites when it is young.EucaJyptllS robusta near Coff. Australia) organism has been detected in plants originating rainy season. Harbour. Removal of vegetative cover before planting is essential. Natural regeneration on bare ground adjacent to plantations is common in in the United States and Chile. In California. Australia. Eucastreet planting because the tops break readily in lyptus robusta has been attacked by the bacstrong winds. None required. this tree has been abandoned for Pests ud DIseun In SAo Paulo. The most common injuries in swamp plantations in Uganda are many countries where the tree has been introwindthrow and root rot. • Ability to compete with weeds. which can make the in the first 6 months. (Division of Forest Research. CSIRO. USA. collection of seed of true origin difficult. Brazil.

It coppices vigorously and is one of the principal eucalypts grown as fuelwood. Other Uses • Wood. and in West Africa. Outside its range it has 32 . This is considered one of the best trees for fiber for paper pulp and rayon-grade pulp in India. The leaves are among the commercial sources of eucalyptus oil.75 or higher).500 mm. It has been introduced to many tropical and subtropical countries in Africa.500 mm in Papua New Guinea). which also makes good charcoal. but trees have been planted in areas with lower rainfall (. 550 mm in Israel. fiberboard. Small clusters of white flowers appear every year. and 580 mm in Zimbabwe) and with considerably higher rainfall (2. • Altitude. It grows also in the savanna woodlands of Papua New Guinea's south coast. and South America. umbel/ata (Gaertn. blue gum. The wood is immune to termites and dry rot and is therefore one of the most durable of timbers. The optimum precipitation appears to be between 800 mm and 1. mountain gum. As an exotic. In its natural habitat this species ranges from 600 m in Papua New Guinea to 1. but heavy blooming occurs only every 3 or 4 years in spring and summer. This species does best on deep.000 m. Distribution This species occurs naturally in the widest latitudinal range of any eucalypt (6°_38°S) along the eastern Australian coast from southern Victoria to Queensland. red gum (Australia). Queensland blue gum. • Soil. It is found in open forest or as scattered trees on alluvial flats and along stream banks. In Uruguay and Costa Rica Eucalyptus tereticornis has been used for sand dune reclamation. • Rainfall. This species is an important provider of nectar and pollen for honeybee colonies.Eucalyptus tereticornis Botanic Name Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. thereafter. Asia. This tree may withstand up to 15 frosts a year in the southern end of its natural range. The species is extensively used in afforestation works in India. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. especially during the first 6-12 months after planting. Eucalyptus tereticornis attains a height of 30-45 m and a diameter of 1-2 m. valued for construction. the Pacific basin. red iron gum. Use as Firewood The wood is hard. and Latin America. More than 400. In unirrigated plantations under good conditions in Africa the tree will yield 20-25 m) per ha per year for the first 15 years. including brackish water. Higher yields are reported along canal banks and under irrigated conditions. especially underground. in Pakistan it is used with maize. heavy. and in India with tapioca (cassava) during the first 2 years. • Honey and pollen.) Common Names Forest red gum. In South China and Pakistan it is reported to survive temperatures down to -7°C. The tree is widely planted in areas of summer rainfall with moderate to severe dry seasons. It has a variety of other uses including poles. Mysore gum (India) Family Myrtaceae Main Attributes Eucalyptus tereticornis grows rapidly and withstands periodic flooding for short periods.000 m in Australia. welldrained. The crown is large and somewhat open. from the coastal plains to the mountains in the Himalayas. • Intercropping. Yield The yield is very dependent on moisture. unless the trees are coppiced. • Sand dune reclamation. for example. light-textured soils that are neutral or slightly acid. • Afforestation and reforestation. Density is lower in plantations in the tropics. the yield drops to 10-15 m) per ha. Description A moderately large tree. and particle board.000 ha have been planted in India. Africa. but not seasonal inundation. It will tolerate some flooding. Synonym Eucalyptus Domin. notably Zaire. • Pulp.180 mm in Colombia and 3. it is planted from sea level (Zaire) to more than 1. and strong (specific gravity 0. • Oil.wo mm in India. The trunk is usually straight and at least half the total height. Eucalyptus tereticornis occurs within a wide climatic range with mean annual temperatures from 17°C to 38°C. posts. Coppice regeneration has been widely used and it can be done three to four times on a Io-year rotation. Eucalyptus tereticornis has been used as an intercrop. The tree produces first-class fuelwood.

(Division of Forest Research. CSIRO. Australia. Australia) Digl 'ed by Goog e 33 .Eucalyptus tereticornis. northern Queensland.

the climber Merremia. Eucalypts are very sensitive to grass competition. In most countries. has similar wood that is used for the same purpose. Periodic soil working between rows by tractors has given good yield. 34 Digl 'ed by Coogle . and they can be produced in the nursery in 3-4 months. silts. A. and advice should be sought in selecting the most appropriate provenance in a new locality. the snout beetle Gonipterus.Afforestation with Eucalyptus tereticornis in Karnataka. Kushalappa) been planted on a wide variety of sites that include alluvial soils. Termites will attack the young plants unless they are protected. and the mole cricket. Establishment For Eucalyptus tereticornis the site of the seed collection is important. • Seed treatment. and sandy clays. India. seeds from native stands in both Australia and Papua New Guinea may need cold. • Ability to compete with weeds. Related Species • Eucalyptus rostricta Schlecht. and weeds should be removed until the canopy closes. and some countries have reported problems with varied fungi like Cylindrocladium. None required. moist stratification. Pesls and DIseases Most plantations have been free of pests and diseases. however. (K. care needs to be taken in assessing reports of growth. Umltatlons Because it is closely related to river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and intermediate forms occur. seedlings 15-25 em high are used as planting stock.

and intermediate forms occur commonly in Queensland. . some of which were thought to be hybrids.Eucalyptus "C." Mysore gum. India . • A number of land races. Kushalappa) • Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. A."Mysore hybrid." Madagascar. It occurs in northern coastal New South Wales. India (K. • Eucalyptus ampl(folia Naudin is a some- what smaller tree that grows on clay soils (sometimes waterlogged) often at slightly higher altitudes than Eucalyptus tereticornis in eastern New South Wales.A 12-year-old seed stand of Eucalyptus ttrretlcornis in Bangalore. is closely related. • Eucalyptus glaucina (Blakely) L." Zanzibar . occur.Eucalyptus "12ABL. var glaucina (Blakely) Cameron. Johnson. now regarded as a species. Zaire. Some of these are: . was formerly Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm.

A plantation in Colorado had good survival at 2.4 m tall. The wood is used principally for posts. The trees coppice freely. heavy. can be found in North America from Ontario to Texas. thorntree. and Australia.100 m. Description A broad-crowned. Honeylocust has deep roots and can make use of the moisture reserves of the subsoil. but on a smaller scale for furniture. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. Large seed crops are produced every 1-2 years. Trees 18-35 years old in plantations in the Central Plains of the United States had an average increase in diameter of 4. flat-topped tree. and general utility purposes. The timber is hard. especially when crushed to make the high-protein seeds more digestible. Normal annual precipitation for good growth varies from 500 mm to more than 1. with trunk diameters of 60-90 em. It is tolerant of low temperature. and the heartwood is durable in contact with the ground. The tree seems particularly worth testing as a new crop for tropical highlands such as those found in Nepal. and northern races are hardy to . but occurs most commonly on rich alluvial floodplains of major rivers and on soils of limestone origin. Australia. but a thornless form (f.70-0. or cuttings taken from hardwood. This species can be grown up to altitudes of 1. • Erosion control. Synonym The genus name has also been spelled G/editschia Common Names Honeylocust. New Zealand. three-thorned acacia Family Leguminosae (Caesalpinioideae) Main Attributes Honeylocust is widely planted as an ornamental and for windbreaks. soetpeul. Southern races are subject to frost damage when planted in cooler areas. It provides light shade that encourages a grass cover. and so the tree is often planted for pasture shade. greenish. and wildlife. fodder.5 m per year for 7 years. northern Thailand. • Ornamental and shade tree. structural work. Distribution This valuable tree legume. tolerance of alkaline and saline sites. but develops best on those with a pH between 6. crooked pods in fall. have sweet-tasting pulp that is relished by people and animals alike. The species tolerates both alkaline and acid soils.0 and 8. • Rainfall. and South America. and salt. Root cuttings and budding appear to be the best methods of reproducing desirable strains as fruit trees.Gleditsia triacanthos Botanic Name G/editsia triaconthos L. and the seeds will remain viable for up to 2 years when stored at room temperature and 36 . A strong taproot. Although some bisexual types are known. Central Africa.) has been developed for cultivation. well suited to cooler zones. it has small. the United States. livestock. and strong.500 m or more. manybranched lateral roots. Use as Firewood Honeylocust has strong and durable wood of specific gravity 0. Honeylocust is tolerant of low temperatures.80. even if the surface is dry. Trunks and limbs of wild trees usually bear branching thorns. The tree grows in most soil types. the species is often planted for shade and beautification along roads and in towns. It is also used for hedges (the thorny kind makes impenetrable hedges) and windbreaks. fragrant flowers in spring and flat. The tree's pods are rich in sugar and are enjoyed by people. • Soil. The long pods. softwood.500 mm. The pods make high-quality livestock feed. In temperate areas of many countries such as South Africa. Yield Growth is fairly rapid on good sites under average conditions. Height growth in shelterbelts throughout the Central States has averaged 0. budding. It is a moderately fast-growing tree with hard. strong wood that is quite resistant to decay. Other Uses • Timber. sweet locust. and ease of reproduction make honeylocust a valuable erosion control species for temperate and subtropical areas. It has also been naturalized in Europe and introduced into parts of Africa. although the trees averaged only 2. and Latin America.0. drought. most specimens are either male (pollen producing) or female (fruit producing). The tree needs light. In this way it is able to survive on all but the driest sites. inermis Schneid. and hedges. borne in profusion. • Pods.34°C.6 em each 10 years. Establishment Propagation by seedlings is easy and can be achieved by grafting. the honeylocust typically attains a height of 24 m. • Altitude. or the roots.

Columbus. Ohio. (U . Treated seeds cannot be stored and must be sown promptly. Umltatlons Honeylocust may suffer some crown damage during high winds and is easily damaged by fire. the hard seedcoat must be made permeable. Honeylocust on Ohio State University campus. • Ability to compete with weeds. but it is subject to a canker that can be fatal. Its extensive root system can block sewers and drains. and also to several wood rots. Forest Service) for several years if stored in sealed containers at 0°_7°C.S. Digl 'ed by Coogle 37 . Pests aad Diseases Honeylocust is relatively disease free. The tree needs weeding until it is well established. either by covering with hot water (88°C) until the seeds swell or by soaking in concentrated sulfuric acid for 1-2 hours and then washing in water.Gleditsio triacanthos L. • Seed treatment. The leaves are eaten by mimosa webworm in some areas of North America. USA. Before germination can occur.

twigs. which quickly shade out competing vegetation. and. malodorous flowers. The 38 . The tree has narrow. thick. posts. The wood of paperbark is valued for wharf piling. Distribution This species is native to Australia from Sydney north along the coast to the Cape York Peninsula in Papua New Guinea and to New Caledonia. Environmental RequlremenlB • Temperature. and seed capsules are crushed and distilled to produce niaouli oil. tea tree. It has been planted and naturalized in many tropical regions. growing in Australia up to 25 m tall. It will grow at high planting densities. The largest trees there reach a diameter of 90 cm and grow 24 m tall. aromatic leaves. The bark of paperbark is an effective insulator and was first used for packing the walls of cold storage rooms in Australia in 1861. so that sheets of bark have been used for caulking boats. When chopped. the problems of dust from the bark of mature trees and the low density of the bark can be overcome by properly engineered systems. unmanaged melaleuca stands that appear mature may have 7. Stumps sprout readily. providing abundant pollen and nectar. Blake Synonyms Me/oleuca quinquenervia is one of a group of six closely related species (notably Me/oleuca leucadendron. but the thick bark of mature trees must be peeled off because only the outer layers will burn. flooring. which together with cajeput oil from Me/oleuctl cajeputi has pharmaceutical and other specialty uses. Forty-year-old trees on good sites in Hawaiian plantations average 50 cm in diameter and 18 m in height at 6 m x 6 m spacing. T. for gunstocks. Yield In the Florida Everglades. Because of its low cost. Their identities have been confused. and many references (both past and recent) must be treated with caution. The tree blooms much of the year. and spongy bark. or Eucalyptus tereticornis. In southern Florida it escaped cultivation on seasonally wet sites and is constantly multiplying as a weed tree. melaleuca. mine braces. • Ornamental. but has only slight resistance to freezes (although rootstocks survive and sprout). Bark of young seedlings has a greater heating value per unit of oven-dry weight than the wood itself. It is mildew resistant and is long lasting under water.000-20. railway ties. cabinetwork. When the wood is well finished. Eucalyptus robustQ.000 stems per ha with an outside bark basal area up to 133 m Z per ha and an outside bark volume of 792 m' per ha. stiff. Paperbark grows in areas with mean annual temepratures ranging from 18°C to 34°C. and often crooked or twisted. Leaves. the bole is short. and carving. The species has shown promise in plantations in northern Nigeria. Common Names Broad-leaved tea tree. clear stems. cajeput. The honey is strongly flavored and dark and is not used as table honey. including those subject to high rainfall and even inundation. paperbark tea tree. Description The tree is usually medium sized. It is easily recognized by its odd. Use as Firewood The wood is an excellent fuel. and rafters. It typically grows in almost pure stands or with only a few associates such as Casuarina glauca. some people consider it more beautiful than mahogany. Seedlings are transplanted from the wild (especially mature trees) for 1andscaping new developments in Florida because of their availability and low cost. • Oil. and Melaleuca viridijlora) that occur in Oceania and have been cultivated and naturalized in other areas. • Bark. punktree (USA). niaouli (New Caledonia) Family Myrtaceae tree could be used as a woody biomass fuel. OtlterUses • Wood. which splits and peels in many cork-like layers and becomes rough and shaggy. white. However. if carefully seasoned. boat knees. paperbark. • Honey.M elaleuca quinquenervia Botanic Name Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav. fence rails. Main Attributes Melaleuca quinquenervia is a moderately fast-growing tree suitable for plantation cultivation on wet soils. belbowrie (Australia). it makes an excellent filler in nursery potting mixes. and "bottlebrush-shaped" clusters of fuzzy. It survives fires. there is a strong demand for it by the baking industry and by natural health food dealers in Florida.) S. 4-5 m high (and to 15 m in rare cases).60-0. if grown in dense stands it develops relatively straight. 5-9 cm long. The wood has a specific gravity of 0.74. whitish. Me/oleuca cajuputi.

most commonly in seasonal swamps and the edges of tidal waters.A mature swamp stand of Mekzleuca qu/nquenervia in southern Florida durina the dry season. The deep shade beneath a deJlSe melaleuca canopy. seedlings can survive complete immersion for several weeks. on shallow soils. • Soil. and northwestward to Amboina. Melaleuca leucadendon occurs in northern Australia. In wetlands it has crowded out native vegetation and destroyed wildlife habitats. and resistance to damage by disease. In Australia paperbark can grow down to the sea's edge and is also found 40 km inland. ratory problems in Florida. Related Species In Thailand. In Hawaii it grows well in wet conditions up to 1. Trees grow to great size in oolitic limestone in Florida. Digl 'ed by Coogle 39 . and on degraded soils left after shifting cultivation. combined with intense root competition and possible allelopathic influences. The tree successfully competes with and outgrows other vegetation. rapid growth. Melaleuca viridiflora occurs in western and northern Australia and New Guinea. (T. flooding. It occurs on old and new alluvial soils. In Australia the tree occurs in low altitudes up to 500 m in the coastal belt. adaptability to a variety of growth conditions. The trees grow well in rainfall of as little as 1. insects. • Seed treatment. F. The seeds are small (30. Melaleuca cajuputi is the species cultivated. the paperbark tree has spread rapidly throughout southern Florida. and once established. restricts the need for weed control to about the first 6 months.000 seeds per g). No pretreatment is necessary. Limitations Because of its high incidence of seeding. Establisbment The seeds need wet soil for germination. Volatile substances excreted by the flowers have been implicated as the cause of acute respi. Pests and Diseases None of importance has been reported.000 mm at higher elevations. This was a TtlXodtum d/st/chum forest that was killed by fire and invaded by paperbark. Geary) • Altitude.000 mm at lower elevations and as much as 5. and fire. • Ability to compete with weeds. it occurs naturally from tropical Australia to Burma and Vietnam.400 m altitude. New Guinea. Control by conventional means is difficult. • Rainfall.

Its quick growth and small dimensions make it a good choice for fast fuelwood production for household needs. Seeds number 4. Fruits number 1. In Uganda it may grow 1.Melia azedarach Botanic Name Melia a1. brittle. bead tree.400-2. which differs in having longer leaflets. Each fruit contains 1-5 seeds. Roem.000 mm annual precipitation. Southeast Asia. As planting stock. Common Names Chinaberry. To hasten germination. and in Assam (India) it is grown on tea estates for fuel. alelaila. In drier climates it will perform well on wet soils along rivers or when irrigated. has Insecticidal properties and its leaves and fruits are used to protect stored clothing and other articles against insects. In the Middle East the species has already been used for this purpose. I-year-old seedlings are preferred in temperate climates. like neem. Its clusters of small. deep. and warm-temperature climates where mean annual temperatures are at least IS°C. Uses of wood include tool bandies. Young trees are frost tender. • Fodder. I). Chinaberry. A1. sandy loams. Synonym Me/ia orienta/is M. West and East Africa. bastard cedar. 6-30 m tall and 50-SO cm in diameter.15°C). It is grown throughout the West Indies. Use as Firewood The species is often planted for fuel supply in the Middle East as well as in Puerto Rico and Nigeria. and the manufacture of writing and printing paper.000 per kg. while 6-month-old seedlings are used in the tropics. face veneer for plywood.70 m in height each year. Leaves. Average germination is about 65 percent. Establishment Chinaberry is easily propagated from seed or cuttings. Chinaberry seeds are often used for beads and rosaries. Yield Under good conditions the chinaberry grows fast. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. Description Chinaberry isa medium-sized de-ciduous tree. but older trees resist frost (to a minimum of . and fresh fruit contain substances that inhibit the feeding of the desert locust. It is also used to shade coffee trees and to shelter cattle. white cedar. seeds.500 per kg and may be used directly or macerated to remove the pulp. subtropical. Its specific gravity is about 0. • Altitude. as is done in the Middle East for fuelwood production.adirachta indica (see Firewood Crops Vol. and a more spreading and open crown. golden. white flowers. It is planted in reforestation projects in Thailand for veneer and fuel. dark green foliage in summer. which if not extracted may produce several seedlings.edarach L. • Rainfall. The tree is closely related to the neem tree.66 (calorific value 5. cape lilac. The tree is widely grown in warmer parts of the world for its scent and for shade. Persian lilac. The wood is moderately soft and is weak. In Africa the species has been recommended for lowlands and medium elevations. • Ornamental. The species is drought hardy and can grow in areas with 600-1. seeds should be soaked in water for a few days.000-13. and susceptible to attack by drywood termites. • Insecticide. OtberUses • Wood. cigar boxes. The leaves may be used for goat fodder. and trees of large girth are often hollow. furniture. • Seeds. Thus the trees are grown on short rotations. The tree grows up to 2. pride of China.176 kcal per kg). fragant flowers are succeeded by glossy. cabinets. paraiso. But growth slows down before large dimensions are attained. They regenerate readily from stump sprouts or root suckers. berrylike fruits that remain long after the leaves fall. • Seed treatment. but best growth is obtained on well-drained. umbrella tree. The species grows in tropical. drek Family Meliaceae Main Attributes The chinaberry is well known and has already been planted in many countries as an ornamental. southern United States and Mexico. but has long been cultivated throughout the Middle East and India and is now cultivated and naturalized in most tropical and subtropical countries. The tree grows on a wide range of soils. 40 . and Australia. Distribution This native of Asia is probably from Baluchistan and Kashmir.043-5. • Soil. It is popular for its showy clusters of pale purplish spreading flowers and for the shade of its dense.000 m in the Himalayas. Argentina and Brazil. pride of India.

or for several years if kept in sealed cold storage.) C. (Texas umbrella. Sheikh) Seeds retain viability for a year. are bitter and have poisonous or narcotic properties. Juss. The fruits Digl 'ed by Coogle 41 . This species grows to a much larger size than Melia azedarach and is widely planted in Australia as a shade tree. From Jamaica. Pests and Diseases The tree-especially if forced into fast growth-is susceptible to wind damage. I. (M.Melia audaT'flch. attacks of shootborers are reported. var australasica (A. forma umbraculiformis Berckm.OC. chinaberry). tulip cedar) from Australia (synonym Melia dubia). Fifteen-year-old tree in Pakistan. Related species • Melia azedarach L. Umltatlons The tree is short-lived and its brittle limbs are easily broken by the wind. (white cedar. Several other pests and diseases have only been observed incidentally and are not particularly significant. • Melia a.

at age 11-20. In India and South Korea the species has been used to establish fuelwood plantations. Because of its wide-spreading root system. which is regarded as one of the finest in the world. The flowers are used intensively by bees for producing honey. • Erosion control. • Rainfall. • Ornamental. The tree has attractive flowers and is widely planted as an ornamental on farmsteads and roadsides. on clay loam. but the species matures early and growth rate decreases rapidly after 30 years. 100 m) per ha. • Fodder and wildlife use. has almost 300. false acacia. It is highly resistant to shock and is extremely durable. and electric insulator pegs. The tree has been successfully planted where the rainfall is lower. black locust is popular for its high caloric value and its good combustibility. and. irregular crown and a straight bole if forest grown. at age 21-30. It has also often been planted in shelterbelts. and it is well suited for charcoal production. where the rotation age is 25-35 years. has no serious diseases. In Hungary. poles.70-0. but burns like coal. hard. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. is an important nitrogen-fIXing species. yellow locust Family Leguminosae (Papillionaceae) MaIn Attributes Black locust is fast growing. with a bright blue concentrated flame. with variable form and growth. which suckers vigorously. even when wet. 184 m) per ha at age 31-<40. it is especially effective in improving the fertility of eroded soils. including light sand and strongly acid soils and mine spoils. and in areas with a winter maximum of rainfall. brittle branches and a wide-spreading. or split mine timbers and for fence posts. The seed is eaten by quail. Use as Firewood As firewood. Black locust is found from sea level up to 2. It is a light-demanding species. The tree grows in areas with a mean annual temperature of 8°-18°C and a mean minimum temperature in the coldest month of . the average standing volume at age 1-10 is 23 m) per ha.000 mm per year. upright. Most are spiny. In Hungary the leaves are readily eaten by game and grazing animals. deciduous tree reaching 18-25 m tall. It has short. 149 m) per ha. using a series of cultivars in pure and mixed-wood plantations.1 °C.8. • Shelterbelts and sand dune stabilization. Black locust is commonly planted for erosion control. the species is often used for afforestation of gullies and surface-mined areas in the United States.500 m. Hungary. Robinia pseudoacacia wood is heavy. Distribution Native to the Appalachian and Ozark mountains of the southeast and central parts of the United States. down to 300-400 mm. It can be planted and regenerated easily. The wood is perhaps the best firewood in North America. The species will grow on a variety of soils. Common Names Black locust. railroad ties. this species is now grown in most temperate and Mediterranean zones of the world. In Korea. shallow root system with no taproot. The specific gravity of the wood is 0. and tolerates a wide variety of soils. In central and eastern Europe considerable work on selection and improvement of the species has been carried out for more than a century. with no harmful effects observed. It is tolerant of temperatures as low as -18°C to -20°C.80. The species can withstand dry periods of 2-6 months. black locust has an open. stakes. Description A medium-sized. It is slow to ignite. and strong. but spineless individuals are known. with limestone soils being most 42 . the yield of fuel material per year per hectare from the coppice of black locust fuelwood plantations ranges from 10 to 17 tons 3 years after establishment. hewn. Because of this adaptability. Because of the nitrifying bacteria in nodules on its roots. It has also grown quite well when planted on spoil banks created by mining. Precipitation in its native habitat is more than 1. • Altitude. Yield Young black locust trees grow fast on good sites. Other Uses • Wood. It is used extensively for round.000 ha of black locust plantations. There are many varities of the tree. • Soil.Robinia pseudoacacia Botanic Name Robinia pseudoaCQcia L. for example. it is used all over the temperate regions of the world for fixing coastal and continental sand dunes. Coppicing brings excellent results and may be done twice without reduction of volume increment. mainly in the summer. finally.

S. USA. Kentucky. (U. Forest Service) c) c.Black locust.:oogle .

44 ~ t dt'vGooglc .

Suwon. cattle. B. sheep. Pests and Diseases In the United States the saplings are often heavily damaged by the locust borer Megacyllene robiniae. on the farm. and trimmings. horses. 3 years old. black locust was established mainly from planted seedlings. In the Appalachian area of the United States the Above: RobiniD pseudOQCQcitl stocks. • Seed treatment. especially on steep slopes on disturbed sites where seeding is easier. cold conditions. Digl 'ed by Coogle 4S . bark. Frost damage can decrease growth. Limitations A vigorous growth of suckers with stout spines is produced from the roots. Trees in the open and in pure plantations are especially subject to the attack of a woodboring insect (Cyllene robiniae Forst. Pretreatment is needed to break seed coat dormancy.). or by pouring boiling water (five times as much water as seeds) over seeds. Although the foliage is used for livestock in some countries.000 per kg and can be stored for several years under dry. (Institute of Forest Genetia. seed pods. In the past. the tree suffers from wind damage and ice and snow break. which frequently renders them unsightly for shade and unfit for timber. thus shortening subsequent rotations and makiDa reseneration easy.000-70. (S. it has been reported that humans. Carpenter) favorable. • Ability to compete with weeds. but today direct seeding is a common practice. plastic soils are unfavorable. and poultry may be poisoned by eating roots. KORa) trees often coexist with a luxuriant understory of cool-season grasses and forbs. However. and this can be particularly objectionable in the garden. It is able to withstand air pollution and is sometimes planted in industrial areas for this reason. sprouts. few pests of any importance have been reported. Seeds number 35. Black locust is intolerant of shade but is fairly tolerant of herbaceous competition in humid environments. since black locust does not grow well in waterlogged areas. and less costly than hand planting. safer. Germination of pretreated seed averages about 70 percent.Left: Youna black locust stumps sprout prolific:ally after cuttina. Establishment Good seed crops are produced nearly every year. or in public areas. by immersion in concentrated sulphuric acid for 20-60 minutes. Compact. and because black locust branches are fragile and the wood splits easily. either by mechanical scarification. but not for fuelwood. lopped once a year for fuel supply.

The showy yellow catkins of the male flower first appear during the third growth season and yield a major honey and pollen crop. spreading. The. Its preparation. Excoecaria sebifera Muell. Form ranges from low. uses. arbol de la cera (Cuba) Family Euphorbiaceae ranged from 0. Synonyms Stillingia sebifera Mich. Usually occurring below about 32°N. it seldom grows taller than 12 m. Martinique. Croton sebiferums L. Specific gravity *0. Its durability and resistance to decay in exterior use are very low. which has found use in soap and candle making and other traditional uses of tallow products. Roots and stumps cut at any time of the year coppice prolifically.. while similar measurements of trees from Taiwan averaged 1.6 m spacing produced 38. even in warm climates. southern Europe. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. Well-stocked 15year-old natural stands placed under coppice management produced in excess of 45 tons per ba during 4 years of regrowth (26 m J per ha per year). Hooper. Distribution The Chinese tallow tree is native to semitropical areas of central South China. Their color results from a covering of hard tallow. The trees are notable because they turn brilliant autumn colors even in warm regions where other trees remain green. Vietnam. wet basis. Brazil. Fiber lengths in trees from the vicinity of Houston. soap tree. Cuba. • Flowers. Superficially. pau de sebo (Brazil).48. There is considerable variability in cold tolerance among strains. aril-like outer covering of the seed contains a hard. Chinese or vegetable tallow. in Texas they are used in decorative plant arrangements. which dry and split to expose white. averaged 0. gray bark. and composition. St. and tolerates a wide range of soil conditions. The Chinese tallow has been used extensively as an ornamental tree. the wood reportedly has been used for making implement handles as well as carved-wood products. The honey is moderately dark and exceptionally flavorful. it resembles an aspen with glossy. throughout the semitropical and milder temperate zones of the world. but simply not recognized. DescrIption A small. • Ornamental. including poorly drained and saline soils.and disease-resistant tree.134 to 4. Java.1 tons per ba of oven-dry wood at the end of four seasons of growth (22 m J per ha per year).37-0. seeds are borne in clusters of green capsules. deciduous tree.6 m x 0.Sapium sebiferum Botanic Name Sapium sebiferum (L. Because of its rapid growth. Common Names Chinese tallow tree. It is a fastgrowing. Pakistan. northern India. Other Uses • Wood.10°C. Agricultural Ledger 11(2):11-18. Energy values ranged from 4. Arg. intensive silviculture. Some strains may be sensitive to high temperatures and some may Main Attributes The Chinese tallow tree holds promise as a highly useful species for shortrotation. 1904. The wood may be suitable for pulp. The wood burns well in wood stoves or fireplaces if it has been allowed to dry adequately. Chinese vegetable tallow tree. it may be found at higher latitudes in coastal areas. Burma. popcorn tree. edible tallow (commercially known as Chinese vegetable tallow). tarcharbi or pahari shishum (India). The clusters of white seeds are attractive. will tolerate brief lows of ..8 mm. * It is very likely present. in the dormant state. and the Sudan. and multiforked strains to slender and columnar strains with small pendant branches. heart-shaped leaves and a rough.) Roxb. it produces quick shade. • Seed.277 kcal per kg.3 mm. insect. Prolific sprouting occurs from stumps and injured roots. 46 . It has been widely introduced and has been reported in Japan. Texas. pea-sized seeds. Yield In Texas. Chinese tallow plantations with 0.white. The kernel oil (stillingia oil) has been used as an illuminant and is a powerful drying oil that could substitute for similar oils such as tung and linseed. Vincent. It produces a pleasant odor while burning and has been used for Texas barbecues. Taiwan. Use as Firewood Moisture content of tallow tree wood cut in the Texas Gulf Coast ranged from 41 to 45 percent. as well as in California. In China. In the United States it has become naturalized along the Gulf and southern Atlantic Coasts from North Carolina to Texas.. and some varieties are very colorful in the fall. The tree will tolerate frosts and. Hawaii. Stil/ingia sebifera Boj.

eliminating significant competition from grass and annual weeds. however. a number of insect pests appear to have evolved with it. A sinale season of IJ'owth on the severed stern of a larae tree. Although the tree tolerates a wide variation in quantities of annual rain. Storage of seeds in the cold in sealed glass or metal containers preserves viability for at least 2 years for most varieties. which is probably its upper limit. • Rainfall. and in dense clay soils subject to ex- Umltatlons The Chinese tallow tree can be an aggressive weed. Pretreatment of the seed to remove the tallow coat is not necessary.biftrum. seedlings. Planting in autumn appears to promote more complete germination and allows the earliest possible start for growing seedlings. there is a high resistance to herbicides. in salt marshes and along salt creek borders. Grass is the major competitor. nitrogen. that it is not an efficient user of water. in rocky upland soils. • Soil. The sap (latex) is a powerful irritant that blisters the skin. • Ability to compete with weeds. (W. Stlpirlm .000 m. and aphid. Seedlings grown in a nursery are ready for planting 6-8 weeks after germination. • Altitude. and seeds planted in the late spring and summer often do not germinate until the following spring. The Chinese tallow tree possesses a remarkable capacity for thriving in widely varying soil types. In China it is reported at elevations of around 1. • Seed treatment. lawns. or gardens. Chinese literature refers to the ailanthus silkworm. and once established in agricultural lands. In the United States it has been found growing on barrier islands. and palm. water green moth. pine. there are no significant diseases or insect pests. seedlings and sprouts are difficult to eliminate because of their capacity for sprouting from stumps and roots. In India a number of insects have been reported to defoliate the tree. It is not known how serious these might be in firewood plantations. Special care in handling the seedling is not necessary. In general. There is no apparent reason why it cannot be grown in areas under irrigation. and the species' lower limit is probably somewhat below 500 mm. In the United States and probably elsewhere outside the tallow tree's native range. but its response to phosphorus fertilization is dramatic. In some races.and phosphorus-poor sites. The reproductive strategy of the Chinese tallow tree is such that breeding and production of seed of known characteristics will be complex. Utabllsbment Plantations may be established from seed. or cuttings. The tallow-covered seeds are spread widely by birds. a significant percentage of seeds do not germinate until the second season after planting. Digl 'ed by Coogle 47 . Seeds have been observed germinating and the seedlings produced have become established in beds of oyster shell. Preliminary observations suggest. Scheid) require a period of cool weather and dormancy for significant flowering to occur.tended periods of flooding. it is generally considered to be a high-moisture plant. In the United States the tree is naturalized mostly in the coastal lowlands but has been observed as a planted ornamental at elevations of several hundred meters. Pests and Diseases In the tree's native range. trees have survived for more than 2 years in areas flooded by dam construction. The most convenient and economical method for establishing stands is direct planting. and in closely spaced plantings crown closure occurs early in the second season of growth. The large seedling is capable of growing ahead of most annual weeds. poisonous moth. But in one instance. The tree tolerates and competes well with other vegetation on poorly drained. Dense plantings are practical. competing effectively in pure sand with oak. the trees grew well in a year when total annual rainfall was a mere 710 mm. The cut forks on this tree were 6-8 inches in diameter at the time of severance.000 m and in India and Pakistan at about 2.

Above: This tree possesses a strongly dominant single stem with small. (W.SDpium sebl/efflm. ScheId) 48 Digl 'ed by Coogle . Riaht: An open·srown fonn with multiple stems may be the result of stump sprouting. usually pendant. branches. Growth fonn ranges from very low to quite tall even in open srowing conditions.

49 JvGoog c .

clearing the forests for fuel. Four hundred and fifty million people live in these areas.suffer more serious fuelwood problems than either the humid or highland regions of the tropics. Excessive exploitation of the land has often led to desertification. farming.yphus mauritiana Ziz.those with less than 500 mm of annual precipitation or that have 6 or more totally rainless months . Acacia brachystachya Acacia cambagei Acacia cyclops Acacia nilotica Acacia saligna Acacia senegal Acacia seyal Acacia tortilis Adhatoda vasica Albizia lebbek Anogeissus lati/olia Azadirachta indica Cajanus cajan Cassia siamea Colophospermum mopane Emblica officinalis Eucalyptus camaldulensis Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus gomphocephala Eucalyptus microtheca Eucalyptus occidentalis Haloxylon aphyllum Haloxylon persicum Parkinsonia aculeata Pinus halepensis Pithecellobium dulce Prosopis alba Prosopis chilensis Prosopis cineraria Prosopisjuliflora Prosopis pallida Prosopis tamarugo Tamarix aphylla Ziz. Most nations with dry zones are seriously in need of reforestation to prevent further loss of land and for wood fuel.III Fuelwood Species for Arid and Semiarid Regions The dry regions of the earth . Over the centuries. a process that is being accelerated by the demand for scarce wood fuel.yphus spina-christi These species have shown the capacity to survive where annual rainfall is 500 mm or less or where rainfall is extremely variable. The first volume of this report described the following species as worth testing for fuelwood crops in these dry regions. and grazing has destroyed most of the vegetation in these fragile dry habitats. Their adaptive mechanisms include 50 .

and unpalatability or thorniness that discourages grazing animals. small leaf blades or needle-like leaves to reduce transpiration during drought or other physiological mechanisms to conserve moisture by slowing evaporation through the leaves. with some species having both root types. Other species described elsewhere in this report that should be included are: Eucalyptus tereticornis. Melia azedarach. adaptation to the high salinity often found in arid areas. Gleditsia triacanthos. 51 Digl 'ed by Coogle .Plantina seedlings of Casuariflll tqUiMtifolia (see P81e 38. Mattioli) deep root systems that penetrate to subsoil moisture or wide-spreading root systems to gather spare moisture. Volume I) to prevent sand-dune formation south of Da Nana. Vietnam. This section outlines further examples of successful adaptations by trees and shrubs to arid and semiarid conditions. (WFP photo by F. and Robinia pseudoacacia.

cannot be separated from the wings undamaged. and western India and is often cultivated in various parts of that country. • Ability to compete with weeds. p. its native region. Good. The leaves are commonly sold in the vegetable markets of Rajasthan. The leaves are also dried. A sapling 30 em high and 45-60 days old may be transplanted in pits previously prepared and manured. North and Central America. and Mediterranean countries. it can be raised by shoot as well as by root cuttings. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. It provides valuable fodder and shade and makes good shelterbelts. notably as a protein supplement to poor-quality roughages. aura.Ailanthus excelsa Botanic Name Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. its pruned branches and cut stems are much used as fuelwood in India. but sandy loams seem most suitable. especially for nourishing stallfed goats. The seeds. however. as already noted. Related Species Ailanthus altissima Swingle (see Firewood Crops Vol. It is grown at low altitudes. • Seed treatment. • Shelterbelt. The deciduous leaves are variable in shape with coarsely and irregularly toothed leaflets. The growth rate after 9 years averaged 5-6 m in height. It is particularly useful on stony sites. Yield In Assam. Distribution This species is native to central. mahanium.45) and therefore is not an ideal fuel. Pests and Diseases In the rainy season. It is used for making boats. it is used as firewood.). grayish brown bark. Establishment The plant is usually propagated by seed. Other Uses • Fodder. ardu. The papery fruits (actualiy winged seeds or samaras) contain one to two seeds each. spear sheaths. except under drought conditions when ardu's competitiveness is poor. The wood of Ailanthus excelsa is yellowish white. Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. coromandel ailanto FamUy Simaroubaeeae Main Attributes Ailanthus excelsa is a fastgrowing tree that regenerates well by coppicing. and perishable. leaf growth is attacked by a caterpillar that eats the leaves and discharges a sticky material. the species was planted at a spacing of 3 m x 3 m. Monthly watering may be needed during the first year or until the trees are established. it reproduces by coppice and suckers. It grows best with annual rainfall of more than 600 mm. maharuka. India. toys. Regular pruning provides some control. however. very light. India. • Soil. this species has been introduced to Japan. mothoaraduso. and packing cases. Soils should be well drained and not clayish or waterlogged. A native of northern China. and added to concentrate mixtures for livestock feed. Description Ardu is a large tree (18-24 m) with rough. maquis in Corsica and in other parts of southern Italy). • Rainfall. It can withstand considerable frost. cigar boxes. • Altitude. Umitations Survivability is poor if the trees are not sufficiently watered during the first and second years of establishment. soft. Although it is generally unrecognized as a fuel tree. The leaves have a disagreeable odor when crushed. The tree is planted in rows along farm boundries and irrigation channels. 52 . Use as Firewood The wood is fairly light (specific gravity 0. • Wood. and under favorable conditions it may spread and become a weed that invades natural formations (for example. Ardu grows in an area where temperatures range from 20°-40°C. fishing floats. drums. In Mediterranean regions it is common as an ornamental. however. although it survives on 400 mm a year. 74. Common Names Ganges. Initially of fast growth up to 25 m high and to a diameter of 60-89 cm. I. knife and tool handles. and it is necessary to sow the entire fruit. southern. The tree grows in a variety of soils. making a netting and totally spoiling the leaves. peru. ground. Soaking the pods for 3 days before sowing improves the results. Twice a year this tree produces highly palatable and nutritive fodder.

Aik"'thus a~lsq. D. India. Vieuneyer) 53 JYGoog (: . (N.

Desert date can be found on a great S4 . and they also kill the fr~swimming life forms of this parasite. Extracts of the fruit and bark have been found to kill the freshwater snails that are intermediary hosts for schistosomiasis (bilharzia). The residue. • Sapogenin source. shimaron (Cura~o). DescrIption The desert date is a shrub or. bark. The pulp contains about 40 percent sugar and is macerated in water to make a refreshing beverage or is sometimes fermented to make an alcoholic drink. It saws and planes well and is used for bowls. fruits. including the seed kernel. • Forage. and wood chips. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. one trial sowing of 43 trees produced specimens only 2-5 m high after 8 years' growth.Balanites aegyptiaca Botanic Name Balanites aegyptiaCQ (L. but they are indifferent to soil conditions and withstand fires. The young leaves. The tree has shallow. The thorny branches are massed together to form brushwood fencing. Synonym Ximenia aegyptiaCQ L. and resistant to insects. camels. durable.) Del.600 kcal per kg. intricately branched stems. both of which are used in the partial synthesis of steroid drugs. The fruit is oblong. • Rainfall. corona di Jesus. Jericho balsam. • Wood. tool handles. fine grained. All parts of the plant. The attractive wood is easily worked. yield the sapogenins diosgenin and yamogenin. a small tree up to 10 m high with scaly. The tree is commonly found where rainfall is between 250 mm and 800 mm per year. • Soap substitute. In Puerto Rico. leathery skin. Yield The tree grows slowly. The altitudinal range of the tree is from 380 m below sea level to 1.65). lalob.5°C. which is 50 percent protein. it has overrun a large part of the dry east end of the island. lamunch. It is also found on the Arabian peninsula and in Israel and Jordan. In some drier areas it is confined to sites such as riverbanks with available groundwater. heglig (Arabic). Introduced to the Caribbean island of Cura~o in 1885. gunstocks. root cuttings strike readily to form living fences. It is also lethal to the waterflea that harbors dracunculiasis (guinea worm). Other Uses • Fences. all of these parts have been used as "soap" for washing clothes. The trees regenerate vigorously after they are cut or lopped. soapberry tree. • Food. In Israel 2to 3-year-old coppice shoots have reached 1-3 m in height. wide-spreading lateral roots and a narrowly branched taproot that may penetrate several meters to the water table. mortars and pestles. Calorific value is 4. Common Names Desert date. bittersweet pulp that is edible when fully ripe. and slender drooping branchlets that bear long green spines. It makes excellent firewood and good-quality charcoal. thorn tree. Use as Firewood The pale yellow or yellowish brown wood is hard.x>se.500 m above sea level. droughtresistant species of the arid zone produces wood that is highly valued for fuel because it produces almost no smoke. The trees are slow growing. It has gummy. fissured. as well as in India and Puerto Rico. Distribution The species is indigenous to African woodlands along the Sahara's southern border from the Atlantic to the Red Sea (Sahel-Sudan region). is used in cooking and soap making. The desert date easily withstands high temperatures ranging up to 4O. fruits. resembling a yellowish date with Ic. heavy. • Pest control. and tough (specific gravity 0. gray or brown bark. najlij FamUy Balantiaceae (formerly placed in Zygophyllaceae) Main Attributes This multipurpose. making it ideal for use inside dwellings. more usually. Small plantations have been established in Niger and Chad. • Soil. The seed kernel has been made into bread and soup and contains 30-58 percent of an edible oil (Zachon oil). and wildlife. making it a suitable tree for planting along banks of irrigation canals. A strong emulsion of the fruits is toxic to fish. Individual trees have been planted extensively in African villages far south of its natural range. • Altitude. and even the thorns are eaten by goats. Because of the saponin content of the roots. and cabinetwork. The gray-green leaves with two ovate leaflets are either evergreen or are wholly or partially deciduous during the dry season.

It must be protected from fire and cattle for at least 3 years to ensure the survival of plantations. Establishment Seeds casually distributed by humans or animals germinate readily. seeds are soaked for 24 hours at room temperature. It appears sensitive to salinity and does not tolerate prolonged waterlogging. The trees can also be reproduced by seed and root suckers. Browsing by animals can inhibit its growth. The tree's slow growth would make it a poor competitor with weeds in fertile soils. very slow growing. 55 Digl 'ed by Coogle . Because the tree is widely distributed in Africa and other continents. Musnad. it must have several forms. however. (Top: H. It is therefore quite possible to find a form with such requisite characteristics as fast growth and small thorns or no thorns. • Seed treatment.&lltmitelQ~pt#l1aJ. bottom: G. • Ability to compete with weeds. E. Wickens) variety of soils. None is needed when fruits or seeds are sown in summer or autumn. A. but it has run wild in abundance in Cura~o despite free-ranging goats. Pests and DIseases Seeds are often attacked by a borer. on sandy soils its growth is poor and only scattered trees occur. Umltations The desert date is thorny and. if not subspecies. In winter. as noted.

Combretum micranthum's main use in Senegal and Mali is for the Kinkeliba beverage. • Soil. paramerga. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. & Diels. believed to be effective against various tropical fevers and alimentary disorders.and fireresistant shrub or tree. gieze. Don Synonyms Combretum altum Perr. • Ability to compete with weeds. The shrubs and trees grow from sea level to 1. The germination of seeds in a nursery is difficult. It has been successfully introduced for cultivation in South Vietnam. In Sakata. Use as Firewood The branches and stems of Combretum micranthum are slim and can be used for firewood. • Altitude. kolobe. and processed into bundles to be sold in cities and along roads. None required.5 m trunk. landaga (West African Sahel) FamUy Combretaeeae Main Attributes A tough drought. plantings around Saigon. particularly around the towns where it is abundant. Nigeria. Typically. Establishment The tree spreads by root suckers. Young leaves are collected. Distribution This species is common in Savanna woodlands and in some places near the coast from Senegal to northern Nigeria.Combretum micranthum Botanic Name Combretum micranthum G. and the liquid is a popular beverage. randga (Upper Volta). it is reduced to a shrubby habit by repeated burning of the savanna. Other Uses • Craftwork. C. parviflorum Reichb. It is regarded as an indicator of barren or nearly barren soil and is often found on abandoned farmland. Young stems are tough and flexible and are used in basketry.500 mm. white flowers. and establishment is not easy. the wood is much used for charcoal. while older ones are used as walking sticks and rafters. rocky wastes where little else will grow. floribundum Engl. Common Names Kinkeliba. in Senegal it grows in areas with rainfall from 300 mm to 1. These leaves are boiled. lardaga (Ghana). Combretum micranthum grows in areas with tropical temperatures such as the Sahel. glossy red fruits. It has a shaggy. C. Yield No data available. • Beverage. dried. peeling reddish bark. with greenish maroon leaves.. The species is drought resistant. High. made in the 19SOS. koubou. although it can grow to IS m with a 1. Pests and Diseases The roots of Combretum micranthum are very susceptible to termite attack. S6 . Combretum micranthum will survive in barren. • Rainfall. have flourished. Unsplit stems are used for the interior center part of a thatch roof. and four-winged. gugumi. The species grows well on arid ironstone plateaus. • Seed treatment.000 m. DescrIption Combretum micranthum is normally a spreading shrub or spreading small tree 2-5 m high and 5-8 cm in stem diameter.

T. (R.Combretum micronthum. Wilson) .

Damas grows best in areas where the mean annual temperature ranges from 20°-30°C. DescrIption Damas is an evergreen tree that grows up to 20 m in height and 60-250 cm or more in diameter. Conocarpus lancijolius is one of the more promising trees for trials in arid areas. and Pakistan. where its chief use was for building dhows. Winter temperatures are moderate and free of frost. • Ability to compete with weeds. Establishment The tree seeds prolifically at an early age and the seed. Damas does well on deep soils ranging from pure sand to clays and loams. broadcast in moist seedbeds. When sown. after which the plants are ready for planting out. About 10. but the tree grows mainly along seasonal watercourses. ghalab FamUy Combretaceae Main Attributes A drought-resistant species. Other Uses • Wood. north and south Yemen. • Seed treatment. Use as Firewood The wood is light colored and of medium to heavy density (specific gravity 0. The tree grows from sea level up to about 1. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. It withstands drought conditions for several months when irrigation fails. but has difficulty on shallow soils. Early growth of more than 2.75 m per year is more typical in early years. Experiments carried out in Yemen showed that damas can grow on highly salinealkaline soils of pH 9. It is a good shade and roadside tree. Irrigation should be provided daily for the first 6-8 months. • Soil. straight stem. 58 . which is small and light. • Altitude. Seeds should be sown in rows 5 cm apart. In South Yemen it is used for windbreaks around irrigated agricultural areas and for avenue plantings. • Fodder.5. • Other. Damas can also be raised by cullings.01. Kenya. though 1. Kenya. and it is still favored for use as ship knees. has a germination capacity of about 25 percent.81). • Rainfall. Pests and Diseases Newly germinated seedlings are highly susceptible to damping-off. It will tolerate moderately saline soils. The tree is also cultivated in Somalia. None required. including saline soils. It makes good firewood (although some reports suggest that the wood smolders rather than burns) and excellent charcoal.5 m per year has been achieved in irrigated plantations. Weeding and watering are essential after planting to ensure establishment. trees planted in the Sudan formed a single. It can be grown in plantations in areas with less than about 400 mm but grows well only if irrigated or within reach of groundwater. the dry. During summer. However. hot air of the tree's natural habitat is laden with sand carried by the southwesterly monsoons. Sudan.000 trees have been planted successfully in limestone near Mombasa. Yield The annual yield of one irrigated plantation was approximately 21 m] per ha. the tree grows more slowly and on some sites may not reach usable size in a reasonable time. as it is in Djibouti.Conoearpus laneifolius Botank: Name Conocarpus lancijolius Engler Common Names Damas. it should preferably be left uncovered or covered only thinly. A small plantation has been established in Sudan's Khashm EI Birb Arboretum. It is recommended for a variety of soil types. it is believed that the larger trees have now been almost entirely felled. The rainfall in its natural habitat is generally between 50 mm and 400 mm. but where the maximum summer temperature has reached 50°C. The tree is evergreen and its foliage makes a good fodder. or planted in sandy soil in containers 30 cm x 15 cm with a number of holes drilled in the bottom to facilitate irrigation. Plants grown in a semishaded area in polyethelene bags can be transplanted when the seedlings gain 4-5 leaves. Distribution Natural stands of damas are found beside intermittent watercourses of northern Somalia and in the southwest part of the Arabian Peninsula. Whereas it is usually a multibranched tree in its natural habitat. provided water is in reach.000 m. Damas is attractive to browsing animals. and yields excellent charcoal and valuable wood. Umltatlons Without irrigation or ready access to soil moisture. Some of these streams are salty and some sulphurous. At one time it was exported to Aden. and complete protection is necessary if plantations are to survive. Damas wood is strong and is used for poles in house construction and in carpentry.

Melville) . below: R. Bazara'a.CoIIOCllrpflS limcUoIhIs. (Left: Mohlen A. R.

northern Nigeria. • Rainfall.500 m in the Himalaya foothills. and close grained. where it is running wild.to IS-year rotation. northern Cameroon. It is considered frost hardy. Yield Yield on a rotation of 10 years will amount to 61-99 tons per ha per year. Commoll Names Sissoo. The tree produces profuse root suckers and coppices well enough to be managed on a short rotation. it is being increasingly planted as a street tree in southern Florida. and it is planted for this purpose across the bottom of eroding gulleys. and the Middle East. and for veneers. The heartwood is durable and valued for furniture. propagated by direct seeding. The tree shows promising results in the Khartoum greenbelt (Sudan) under irrigation. tanach.200 kcal per kg.7 m in the first year and 9-11 m in 5 years. Young branches and leaves are used for fodder. stiff clay should be avoided. however. in the northern part of India with its high rainfall. Its timber is highly valued for construction and general utility purposes. It may also be raised by shoot cuttings. The tree has long. skis. sisu. superficial roots. so the pods are usually Use as Firewood Sissoo wood is classed as an excellent fuel. which send up suckers when injured. Although mainly a species of river bottoms. OtIlerUses • Wood. including bentwood items. It has been less successful in Ghana. Specific gravity is between 0. elastic. respectively. yette FamOy Leguminosae (Papilionoideae) Malll Attributes Dalbergia sissoo is a moderately fast growins tree that adapts well to semiarid conditions and produces flfSt-class firewood. fast-growing tree with a spreading crown. sarsou. tali. in arid regions it is established by transplanting seedlings or by stump plantings. Sissoo grows in an area where the temperatures range from just below freezing to nearly 50G C. boat building. • Ornamental. • Altitude.Dalbergia sissoo Botulc Name Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Shade or partial shade is necessary for germination and seedling development. the West African Sahel.900 and 5. Envlronmelltal Requlremeatl • Temperature. hockey sticks. toys. cart wheels. and around farms and orchards as a windbreak. nelkar. • Fodder. Under favorable conditions in Ghana. The wood is hard. shisharn. ploughs.0-3. carved articles. South America.64 and 0. along roads and canals. shewa. In many Mediterranean countries the tree is valued as an ornamental. As fuelwood. calorific values of the sapwood and heartwood are 4. The wood is also suitable for making charcoal. There are experimental forestry plantings in Puerto Rico. However. Growth is strongly dependent on soil conditions. It also springs up on landslips and other places where mineral soil is exposed. Compared with other species (for example. shipbuilding. • Erosion control. depending on the locality. and Togo. Eltabllsbment Sissoo is normall. with a little white sapwood and darkbrown heartwood that soon becomes dull. It descends the river valleys for some distance into the plains and is planted or self-sown in many parts of India and Pakistan. DelIertpdoll A large. the tree also ascends to 1. Sissoo thrives in rainfall ranging from 500 mm to 2. It is most typically found on alluvial ground in and along the beds of streams and rivers or on sand or gravel along the banks of rivers or on islands. It is difficult to extract seed from the sissoo pod. frames for tennis rackets. handles. grew an exceptional 3. and minute parts of musical instruments.000 mm and can tolerate arid and semiarid conditions. Porous soil with adequate moisture seems best. Dlstrlbudoll Sissoo occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent from the Indus to Assam. and along riverbanks. • Soil. sissoo grows to a height of lOIS m in arid regions and up to 30 m high in the irrigated plains of Pakistan. structural work. trees 60 . The strong development of root suckers and runners favor sissoo's use as a living barrier against soil movement. • Seed treatment. Under savanna conditions the trunk is usually crooked. and fuel. and small yellowish flowers with a pervasive fragrance. it is grown on a 10. karra.7. It has been extensively grown in irrigated plantations. but it is much sought for furniture. eucalyptus) the yield is relatively low with the same input of labor and sissoo should be used in sites not favorable for other species. or 9-15 m'. railway carriages.

This tree was 20 em in diameter and 22 m in height. (D.. The broken pods should be soaked in water for at least 24 hours before sowing. Tapinenthus dodoneifolius. Limitations There is evidence in Nigeria and Zaire that after two or three coppice rotations the stumps lose their vigor. Sissoo is also susceptible to attack by the pinhole borer. and the defoliator Plecoptra rejlexa. Sissoo seeds germinate best at 30°C. Irrigated plantations may be severely damaged by root fungus. In India and Pakistan a leaf fungus (Phy/lactinia) and a leaf wilt (Fusarium solani sensa) have damaged plantations. Nepal. Regular weeding is necessary in the plantation during the first 2-3 years. 61 Digl 'ed by Coogle . The tree is a host of Loranthus spp.S-year-old planlation. • Ability to compete with weeds. Sissoo needs protection against fire and animal browsing. Amatya) broken and pieces containing one or two seeds are sown. on a 9. Young plants are browsed by deer and cattle. Sagarnath. Pests and Diseases Insects have been noted to damage the root system. A change of species or replanting with fresh Dalbergia sissoo is probably necessary in these areas.Dalbergia sissoo. B.

The tree coppices well. • Ability to compete with weeds.. Iran. where in fact it thrives under river inundations. but it occurs also in Turkey. and camels: • Dental use.. Rainfall range is 75-200 mm. The calorific value is reported to be 5.tan. The seedlings spring up on fresh alluvial soil after the floods recede. match boxes. Three sizes of cuttings are used for rooting in the nursery for subsequent planting in India.ca constituted dense forests (mixed with willow. hodung. The leaves afford a good fodder for sheep. bonnetiana Dode.now. Establishment Natural reproduction is through root suckers or seeds. P. tamarisk. ests are still exploited for firewood. • Soil. A few remnant for• Populus euphratica Oliv. and bobbins. Indian poplar Family Salicaceae Main Attributes Populus euphrat. denhardtiorum Dode. goats.3 cm have been measured. Annual diameter increments of 4. Algeria.0-5. It is found chiefly in Turkestan. euphratica Oliv. and Manchuria. In India the tree is typically gregarious.000 m in Ladakh (India) and western Tibet. Distribution The tree extends from China to Spain and western Morocco and as far south as Kenya. (3) pro syn. It is used for planking. P. euphratica Oliv.ana Dode. and mulberry) along watercourses and their tributaries throughout its vast range. it reaches to the upper elevation of tree growth and is found even in the hottest parts in the plains. It is found from below sea level in the Middle East to an altitude of 4. P. None required. but now mainly by coppice on short rotations of one or two years. It is a good turnery wood and can be peeled off on a rotary cutter. lacquer work. as much as three parts per thousand.to medium-sized tree (7. and Syria. where natural stands are economically important. • Rainfall. The wood is easy to saw and works to a good finish. saf-saf.5°C to a maximum of 49°-52°C. Shansi. Other Uses • Fodder. (2) pro syn P. palk. . shoe heels.ca grows fast. (4) formerly pro syn P. During the growing season it reqUires much light and heat. but it mostly grows as a riverine species whose growth does not depend on rainfall. euphratica Oliv. Pakistan. • Altitude. P. Israel. hotung. pruinosa (Schrenk) Nevski Common Names Euphrates poplar. The twigs are chewed and used for cleaning teeth.. It can tolerate a high degree of salinity and extremely arid and "continental type" climatic conditions. glaucicomans Dode.48). Populus euphrat. The wood is only moderately dense (specific gravity up to 0. High. Egypt. artificial limbs. • Seed treatment. cricket bats. inphratica (now a separate species).//icitana Dode.ca f. It is also suitable for plywood. It is well adapted for treatment under coppice or coppicewith-standards. maur. Sinkiang. (I) pro syn P. Remarkably adaptable.ca grows in areas with a minimum temperatue of . and can be used for pulp. It is often seen in Syria with a bent and nearly always forked stem. Formerly classified as P.5-15 m in height) capable of attaining a diameter of 30-70 cm under good conditions. and splints. gharab. bhan. P. Pests and Diseases In the Near East the tree is 62 .019 kcal for the sapwood and 5. but these forests have been almost completely destroyed to supply firewood. Populus euphrat. P. ariana Dode. is a complex species with many varieties and ecotypes. Description Populus euphratica is a small. provided the subsoil is moist. reproduction being obtained from root suckers and coppice shoots. Yield Unreported. pruin0Stl Schrenk. Populus euphratica occurs naturally in soils with a high salt content. P. • Wood. litw. euphrat. bahan. Use as Firewood Formerly. Iraq. occurring in pure stands or associated with other species. It also grows on land that is seasonally flooded and on which no other form of cultivation appears possible. It is frost hardy. Libya. Planting is done at a spacing of 2 m x 3 m. Synonyms Populus diversijolia Schrenk.ca Dode.008 kcal for the heartwood. P. and the Chinese provinces of Hopei.Populus euphratica* Botank: Name Populus euphratica Oliv. Environmental Requirements • Tempemture. P. although wider spacing is sometimes used to provide space for sowing alfalfa for improving soil and to provide fodder.

Limitations The finest specimens of Populus euphratica were felled long ago. It is also attacked by a number of other insect defoliators. and gall-forming pests. borers. Griffith) subject to attack by various beetles of the genus Gapnodis and by Cuscuta monogyna. L. and the trees that now remain (for example. 63 Digl 'ed by Coogle . along the banks of the Euphrates) are inferior in form.Thrce-year-old Populus euphralica coppice stand in India. CA.

7 percent). It is cultivated and naturalized to some extent in Hawaii. In India and Pakistan. The leaves are eaten in Thailand. In Senegal the stems are used for arrows and pipes. In Pakistan the tree requires from lO o e t043°e. The wood yields an excellent gunpowder charcoal. the plant is cultivated as a substitute for bamboo. mandarin oranges. • Altitude. Umltatlons The area under cultivation requires protection from cattle. and the larvae of AUlgoph/eps sea/aris tunnels through the main stem.Sesbania sesban Botanic Name Sesbania sesban (Linn. In India. each plant bracing six canes. two or three weedings will be required during the first 2 months.) Merrill Synonym Sesbania aegyptiaea (Pair. • Fodder. It can endure 0. It is now widespread in tropical Africa and throughout tropical Asia. In Bihar the flowers are eaten as a vegetable. Good. In India it is grown throughout the plains and up to an altitude of 1. it bears very palatable foliage and is subject to browsing. while the pith serves as fishing floats. black pepper. It is also grown as a support for sugarcane. Egyptian rattle pod. Wood. sweet oranges. cucurbits. sesban grows 4. The bark fiber is used for making ropes. In Assam the wood is split and plaited into mats. and waterlogging. soriminta Family Leguminosae (Papillionaceae) for huts. and betel vines. the tree is sometimes planted to provide firewood. Several species of fungi attack the plant. Dlstribatlon Sesban is said to be one of the first garden plants grown in Egypt. The tobacco caterpillar eats the leaves. and cotton. where fuel is scarce. Infested plants must be uprooted and burned. The leaves and young branches are cut for fodder for cattle and sheep. • Fiber. Main Attributes Sesban is a fast-growing.) Pers Common Names Sesban. The baterium Xanthomonas sesbaniae affects the stems and foliage. A/cidodes buho. • Rainfall. withstanding acid soil. and slender. Description A shrub or small tree. Use as Firewood In Africa and in India. • Soil. periodic flooding. in fact. sesban is extensively planted as a windbreak and shade for vegetable gardens. shortlived tree that regenerates rapidly after pruning.4-1. and the yield recorded in India was 30 tons per acre (10 percent moisture) in 1 year.0 percent salt concentration in the seedling stage and 0. In Pakistan it is planted as an intercrop for soil improvement because it is unusually rich in nitrogen. • Ability to compete with weeds. It tolerates a wide range of soil conditions. Environmental Reqalrements • Temperature. Establlsbment • Seed treatment. stems are used as roofing 64 . slightly twisted seedpods up to 23 em long and containing many seeds. Other Uses • Food. It has a tendency to form root nodules by symbiotic association with soil bacteria capable of fIXing atmospheric nitrogen.9-1. which is used especially for boiling the sap of the sugar palm. as support for grape. Pests and Diseases The seed is destroyed by insects. -. pale yellow flowers.4 percent near maturity. The wood weighs 432 kg per m]. The seeds. • Other. turmeric. Lopped leaves are composted for use as fertilizer.3-6 m high.000 mm rainfall. with pinnate leaves. The very soft wood is made into toys in Burma. It is copiously branched. are eaten as a famine food in India. Sesban grows at 300-300 m in Pakistan. a weevil.200 m. and as a shade for coffee. damages the plant. It requires 330-1. Yield A stem growth of 3 m in 12 months has been reported. None required. In India it is often grown as green manure in both dry and wet rice fields and plowed in before the crop is planted. high in protein (33. suriminta. they are first soaked for 3 days and then cooked for half an hour to remove the toxic constituent caravanine.

Sesbanio sesban. (I. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. India. I year old. P. Abrol) . Kamal.

People like the pleasantly scented smoke. sprouting even when the bole is burnt or cut almost to the ground. It is invasive in overutilized vegetation (bush encroachment). Ooodquality charcoal can be made from the wood. spear shafts. leleshua (East Africa) FamUy Compositae Main Attributes This is a many-branched shrub or small tree that is common in open sites in many parts of southern and eastern Africa. It is easy to establish. Limitations The bush encroaches on grazing lands in East Africa. The bole from which the branches grow adds a substantial piece of firewood.000 m. • Fodder.• Tarchonanthus minor Less. In some semiarid areas of Africa. in semiarid areas it remains a densely leaved and bushy shrub some 2-3 m in height. Seedlings transplant well. the female forming decorative. Environmental Requirements • Temperature. Use as Firewood The usual multistemmed growth makes the camphor bush easy to harvest for fuel. The wood is dense and burns slowly. The tree is dioecious and has small flowers on different plants. close grained. It is not found in arid areas with deep sands. Related Species The camphor bush is often seen together with other woody members of the Com- 66 . a splinter from the wood produces a troublesome sore that heals with difficulty. camphor wood. and termite proof. fluffy white hairs. its adaptation to harsh environments and fairly rapid growth suggest it as a valuable fuelwood species. Establishment The camphor bush grows easily from seed and may be propagated from cuttings. Other Uses • Windbreak. The fruiting heads that follow are also densely coated with glossy. Distribution The camphor bush grows from the coast to semiarid inland areas and from the southern tip of Africa to Ethiopia and Somalia. The wood bums with a pleasant-smelling smoke and can be used as fuel even when not completely dry. Although it is thornless. forming an extensive shrub savannah. semiarid plains and rocky places.. and decorative work. It is good for fence posts. The camphor bush grows well on open. Probably none is needed since it seeds and germinates profusely. it ignites well even when only partly dried. Repeated chemical control is successful after the first regeneration. making it useful in fIXing drifting sands. gray-green above and wooly white below. • Rainfall. especially during droughts and in midwinter when there is a shortage of grazing. many-headed sprays. kanferhout. Description Under favorable conditions large specimens may reach 9 m. 1. Common names Camphor bush. It can grow at the shoreline fully exposed to salt spray. Pests and Diseases The camphor bush is remarkably free of pests and diseases.3-1S cm long. it is the principal source of fodder for wild and domesticated animals. The plant can tolerate long periods of drought. boatbuilding. and coppices well. • Soil. In some areas it is common. vaalbos (South Africa). More usually. musical instruments. The plant grows from sea level to about 2. The leaves are oblong to elliptic. • Altitude. Tarchonanthus camphoratus var litakunensis (DC) Harv. forming a mediumsized tree. The rainfall ranges from ISO mm to more than 800 mm per year. leafy canopy provides good fodder for livestock. The camphor bush thrives in temperate to semidesert climates with daily extremes of temperature.Tarchonanthus camphoratus Botanic Name Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. When crushed they give off a pleasant scent of camphor. and because of its tenacious root system it is highly resistant to burning or cutting. • Seed treatment. • Ability to compete with weeds. The dense. With its tolerance of wind and extremes of temperature from hot days to freezing nights. making it valuable when shortages of fuel require the harvesting of live wood. the plant makes a valuable windbreak in semiarid areas. Although precise yield data are not available. Yield The camphor bush coppices well under heavy utilization. • Wood. grows fairly fast. tough. being apparently repellant to insects. but not in vegetation in good condition. Synonyms Tarchonanthus /itakunensis DC. The wood is heavy.

it often grows in association with Brachy/aefl/l ilki/o/io. which is as much used locally for firewood as the camphor bush. south of Cape Town. particularly of the genus Brachy- mena. Digl 'ed by Coogle 67 . (A. In Kwazulu in South Africa.TarchoNlnthus camphoratus (camphor bush) Jl"owing near the sea. Hall) positae family. V. South Africa.

<100 + indicates that trees tolerate less than 100mm but also a much higher rainfal1. of whatever quality Tannin 68 . yields. Abbreviations used In table: Temperature F LF NF Frost tolerant Tolerates light frost Not frost tolerant Altitude Rainfal1 Extremes are given in parentheses. I. 1982. coppieing abilities. other uses (uses other than for firewood). Extremes are given in parentheses.APPENDIX 1 Summary of Characteristics by Climatic Zones The table following reviews the attributes of the various species duscussed in each section of Volumes I and II of Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. Yields Other Uses 8 Bee forage Dye DY F Fd Fi G GM H M o Or Food Fodder Fiber Gum Green manure Hedges Medicine Oil Ornamental P PC PW R S8 SC Sh Si T Ta Perfume Pest control Pulpwood Resin Shelterbelts Soil conservation Shade Silkworm forage Timber. Our table is based on one prepared by Alan Grainger for his review of Volume I of Firewood Crops in International Tree Crops Journal Volume 2 No. calorific values. It only includes data contained in the two reports: environmental requirements. Estimates are in m'fha/year except when stated otherwise. and nitrogen-fIXing abilities. Typical rotations are given in parentheses when available.

m II.tJiI- 101. SB.0003.QIdMecIl RobhtM~. SC.000 600-1..100 Ya A/_~ -~5 1..500 + 1SO-1 ./1pt11S ...600 Drouaht Resistance Soil Needs Aclaplable Coppic:inl AbililY Ya Yields m 3 /halyr 6-16 2.000-2. Or T..O. SII. -a!oAed soils Some Aclaplable Wetsoits Adaptable Poorly.5 (Sri Lanka) (IS) 10-25 (Indonesia) (7-10) Calorific Value teal/ta 3...f T.B. bul needswdJ.. SB.PW T.600 4.fd.000 102.000 1.O.000 $ 12.PW T.5-1.Ta T.H Nitroa en Fixina - AaIdlI_msii 300-1.SC. Or T. bul needs moist soli Adaplable. 110I 1.PW..500) mm 900-1.SB. 500 (400-2..100 102..MIlII.Sh../. Or T..5 f f Altitude Rainfall m 2.200-3... PW. qlllttqwMrv..500 IO-IS (Costa - A/1I11S /llClllltl"".000 solis Very adaptable Aclaplable.$00 AdaptabIi' Ya s.1obtt1llS EIKW/ypIIIS Moderate lemperature -3-40 Lf 3-32 Lf 11-38 f Varia ..000 (2..lllf1l1S . SII.SC. E.SC Yes AI. II.T. 1 M.500 (400-3.500 + Yes Ya 11-45 (Upnda) (6) 10-35 20-2. Or Probably A/_fIIlHrI Yes E.PW.SC T..Iss/mo f 350-600 1. and Ya Ya - .500) 5001..043-5.SB.000 100-1.500-4..".. GM.940 Other Uses Ta.Or T.000 ()00-400) 110 + (500) Ya 2-6 _ _ 10-11 lOllS from 3 yean (Korea) 5. 10.2.Or T.B T. SC.....600 600 -1. likes moist soits Aclaplable.000) - Adaptable 26 (4) 34-4. drained solis Prefen moist.. Sh..000 Yes Ya Ya 11-21 (USA) 10030(Spein) (5-1S) T T./1p111S tnflkomls GI«lIultt 1.000-2.. f.H. SB T.5 (IS) - EtM»IyplllS robtuI. not calcareous Poor Ya Naturally 3.". SC.000 1.000 (300) bdow1SO 103. T. likes cI<ep well· drained Ioams or loMIy sands Aclaplable as above. swamps.700 101. SII. 4-27 f No Moderale 4 months Yes Ya Rica) (20) 4. Species AaIdlI tIft:Iumu Temperature ·C 12-2..300 Ya Aclaplable.O.. SII.000-3. SII..O.PC.400) 1..B. PW..000-5.000 + over 500 600-3. Iika cI<ep. fd. but poItards Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya 18-34 Lf -IS-II -20-11 Varia LowIaDd 10500 (1.000 Uplol months Aclaplable.500 1...B T.SC. .000 100-1. H..200 500-1.530-3..Ifdb 102.1tM AcIapIabie - - GtrtI#II«I1ObtIsM Man 20 Nf 102.500) salt_a estuaries Aclapcable Boclorn slopes. wdl-drained soils Ta.000 + 1.116 Hiah 4..

.. T.500-1. s/mtI".600 Onrls ittdiaJ ElICfIlJlpltIS bfflSSillltll O-~ 101.800) 150-I.H.s and latallie soi\s but not _a-\oaed or IelIchcd soi\s or dry sand Ya 2O-3S (5-1) T.Sh. S-20 (Malaysia) loasIha (7-10) 4.000 Medium 10 heavy soil clerived from nooca1careouI 4.s or 7. a.4.400 (10) s.~ Drought Resistance Upl06 nIonlhs 0-2momhs Soil Needs Adaptable 10 <Yen lhe poorest soils Coppicina Ability P__.H.~ Some ~ Ya 20-30 300-3.400 Yes 3-Smomhl Pure sand 10 Inland. Or T.ined. Or T.SC T Nitrogen Fixilll Yes AlbiVtI/__ttU'ItI 22-29 LF WdJ. caIc:a. dccpwith 2.~ - EllCfllypltlS ""'PIII 101.-. Or.900 rock GllrlcIdilllttpiM". lypIcaIIy infertile Yes 2O-«l (Papua NewOvinea) (IS) 4. PC. Or SC.T T. IIOOd drainqe.300 1.SC.865-3. Fd.900 Other Uses PW.6001 1.Fd.~ Adaptable 10 both moiJl and dry soils AdapcabIe 10 acIcI.Fd. hiahJy saline loIeranl Adaptable. 22-30 ~ (101.000 Ya 4.200 10~ 500-2.000 Yes Yes e-rtM «tJIimjfolill 101. Or.300 + 750-4.000 (1.800 ... .300-2.B T.5002. not heavy clays Tolerates caIc:a.O.B Ya GNWtlltllm-. IOS2 NF 101.500) 101.7~ 10-33 NF 1.F.0 ~ H. saline loIeranl Adaptable.PW..OOO l\iahtly saline soils.Sh. DY T. B. T.R.SC..Sh. T. saline loIeranl Adaptable 3S-65 (Indonesia) (I) 4. best in rich 1owlaDds.~ Yes Ya Usually not 1032 NF 24--32 1.B.100 4.3S7 hiIh fertililY 500-1. PW.but reacnenues well Yes Yes Yes Notradily Yields mJ/ha/yr 17-20 (Indonesia) (10-12) 39-~ Calorific Value kcal/kg 4. DY.~.500 200-S.800 - Adaptable.~ RainfalJ mm 1. C1IIo'"J1nIU Mockrate 6-8 months Very adapcable. Sa. T.T.1IlId Tropics Temperature ·C 26-30+ Species Aarir 1lllrinlJq0l7flis Altitude m 10600 101.PW EIIal/ypltlS pftIllII ElICfIIyprru uf'Ol1/lylJll 6-33 LF 11--28 107~ 900-2.000 minimum 2..Fi.000 0..100. .950 C«t:oIoIM lI'ljfml LF 10~ 500-1.500-3.btJ C"/liIIttd".PW.. c:oloniza volcanic uh and pumice Adaptable - PW.H.-. OM. T T.

000 1.Or PW.Sh.i"ii - MocIcrate fertile. H.000 Yes Adapgble Yes 2-3.F.J .Ta.100 Adaptable.100 (3.GM. DY T.5001 10100 (1. T. PW.300 1. Fi.000 Yes 4.500) Estuarine/ 1.~ 4-7 months Adapcablc Adapgble..T..Ta.50010.000 A • .200) 7011-1. PW.000-2.600 NF 16-27 ""Is Yes (Philippines) Maaopds ". F.B.900) (660) ~. and _ ""Is - - Ihe lropics) 20-2j (Indoaesia) SGIMItitII~ NF 10100 1..$00 TmttIIlpedes - 102. Fd.200-4.H.400 600-1. PW Yes 1. OM.WI NF NF ""Is.G.SC. saline loIeranl Yes 4.Fd.6Ions!h11yr (10) 4.. PW.F.S&' H. SC.000 (1. Or Sh.F Fi.lays Yes Yes I'Itnu t:rIrlI»N 22-21 (5-37) 4.GM F. Fi.T.UitIcftu J. Sh.100) 1. IIOl ac:id Yes Yes ~ MocIcrately hard T.SC. Ta. IlOl _ 50iIs Yes 21-40 PW.000 1.000-1. Ta.000 Varies Varies Adaptable 10 poor soils - -. Or T. T.300 PsIdIIurt .PW.Fd F. saJine loIeranl Variable. 51.700 1.200-3.. a1kaliDe.000-4.B.SC.-~ Troplc:al NF 101.SC.200 10500 10500 1011-700 (101. Or. Sh.100 TmrtbwJM t:rIUIPfJII 10300 Adaptable. poor in MaY)' I5lons1yr (haly) (2 hIrYaUIyr in F.TI G. welldrained 50iIs - 20-30 (Upnda) (30) - 1-20 Common in many areas M_JetllHrlM MUIt.T Yes 4-5monlhs Tolemes poor soils. hiabJy sail loIeranl Adapgble. Or SC.OOO Adapgble. OM T.u.itlcrdtIbIurI Humid Iroplc:al 102.G_ubrtVoIM HibimIs . PW. lolemes salines. aeneraJly well drained Acid . humid 10600 (1. T.200 550-1.Fd.000 Few months Adapgble 10 dry and moist lOlls Yes SYO'IiJuIt CV1ItUti Troplc:al.""itllpedes SabtI"itI~ coutaI Yes Tidal areas zones Versatile 101. SB.400 101.Sh.792 4.Or F.Fd Yes RIt~lpedes 1.

lOIcrala dty Ya Ya eo. SI.aIine or IIIIne ICliIs - T.Fd. Ta. saline loIeranl Dry.~.-1ftOPIUW 1015 (5·10) HiIh 36+ 2OG-45O (125-100) LF - .. saIlne solis Sand and clay soils. Ta.300 600 Ya 13-J7(Ghua) (I) 4. . ~ A .SC No ..SII.F.Fd. T.000) 300-450 (200-800) (20-301 1.000 lila Prefen alkaline soils Adaptable Adaptable but not clay Of Ya Ya Ya Ya 54lons111a (12) 4.000 500-1..000 + Ya Ya Adaptable.SC sen Fixing Rarely (7-10) - 4.5-10 (5-10) 13-30 NF 14-43 ac:id• ..PC H.SB. ~ A"""I/olkw A . or rocIly solis 5.PW T. Temperature Ahitude m 10600 75-~ Rainfall mm 200-~ J2j-~ Species A .O.IarId .B.....900 AlIIIdftdIM iItdJm 5o-1.5 11-29 NF NF 3llO-1. Fi T.SB.O T. Fd..J N ArId ud se. ~ AClldltonllb Ad"".000 soils - Ya iDILowland 10900 - Deep. .B SC.Fd.150 (l30IIIiD) HiIb or saline soils Adaptable.. saDdy. ~ A. SII. PC.300 NF 2O-«l Low 0-1..O.JaJter -upda:tl 1040. iDcIudina moist - Ya Probably Hot 1050 NF Lowland (102.SC.'HO 300 10~ 200-I0O Varia 3~ Ya Hlab Hlab HIab.aIiDe. not WIIICI'Ioaed Ya PoIIards 2 + woody utIlllballJOW- 4..14.100) 350 100-1... SB.. ..600 Ya Ya 5 (India) (10-15) - -Ioaed Uta moist conditio. but not Ya Ya - WIIICI'Ioaed lila Adaptable.-. SII.200 .000 (400-2." CIa* _ _ 103. A ...H T.... . SII T. Atwda . lolema salinity and cIunc c:rau Adaptable AdaplabIeIO~. wcll-dnllned soils AdapWllc. OM T.. SC. I-II months Ya Hlab Adaptable.. .O.Ta..500) 1. F.600 c...Fd.'700 (1.400 LowlaDd 101. _/1.Fd T Fd T.Fd.u.OM..SG.... DY...SB..DY. Fd.--*" Alia""""" AIbU I«JbIIc ·C 4-58 1034 + 5-31 LF LF Droupt Resistance Ya 5_11s Coppicina Yields mJ/balyr Soil Needs AdaplabIe AdaplabIe Ability Calorific Value kcallka NitroOther Uses T.O.Fd..SC M.H Fd. LF - Ya G-44 101.M..~ 250-100 600-1.SC. - - Only occuionaJIy 10300 100-1. .u. not WIIICI'Ioaed Ya Hlab s.~ 450-1.SB.650 600 (400) 500-2.PC F.O T. Fd..T.. .. SI. Fd. MMitive 10 sallnlry and -erloaiDI Adaptable...

58 E.It«:ftIobbuII dvh -'-'2 F .000 Ves Ves 4...000 Hip Ves SC.000) 250-100 200+ 450-600 (101.-'00 Ves Ves Arid IrOIlll.boYe Very adapt..Ierlogedsoils Adaptable..650) Ves Ves Ves - 3-12 .-6 (haly) - T. 2O-l' (Araentina) JO(IsneI) '.200 + Ves Ves 4.Fd.Sh.Fd.w II to hip F 104' F 101.1t«# E. salinc tolerant.800 500-1.Sh. 58 T. Or. does nOlloierale saline or ..+ LF Ves 7 (Araenlina) (10) '..-'00 101.000 500-760 Ves Ves Ves Prefers clay and/or . Or T. saIinc t01eran1 Ves '..F.800 PI..Fd. ".H Plmu "".erloaed soils Ves " (Tanzania) - E.Icrloaed soils As. OM T. p1a1.200-'.000 101.. saline loleru' Adaptable.SB. ftdtIricII 101.SC. B Fd.000 (300) 6-7 (dirflCUlt siles) 21-44 (impled) (1-10) (6) - T.000 700-1..Or 1050 F to 46 LF varies Ves 400-1.100 (1-10) E.ltCjfol*u DtIIINrP-EM.bove 10-340 (10700) 50-300 200-1.. ..900-5.600 T.Fd.. SC.4 tonslha/yr (') Lowlancl 100 + 101. B.Fd Ves 1. cltriodolll 1029-H LF 10900 (2.. moderate saIlne soils POl'OUI soU with moislure Adaptable.300 100 + Hip Ves Fasll'OWlh AutIMollitl tICII_1II lol' LF 200-1.W Adaptable.e:-brmurI mkrwlfllllurt lroplcaJ to 1. lolerales saIinc.icro. saline loIeranl As .Fd.P T.008-'. but IIOl .B. F.SB.Sh.000) 100--'00 - - .P.. SB Ves Popubu "''''''''0 104. loleraies poor a1kalinc oondhions Various wllh provenance - 21 (Irr1ptcd) 9-15 (10) e ..Sh SC.M. Ta. tikes moist soils...Fd.lkaline soils Prerers clays.O.) 900 (600 min) Adaptable 10 poor soUs Ves (I) Ves Adaptable.~ Mild 102.000 101.250 - _.Or. SC T.R.SC.. Q/JIdMIis 20-30 (50) 5O-tOO 500-2.019 ~ .000 polS..SIl. Pd.. Sh. IIOl . sanely soils.PW T.F.bove.200 ~.. ot:rIIdIrtw& Hilioxylotl qltyu. Prosopb II/btl Lowlands (101. SB SC. but less saline lolcram Adaptable 10 poor soils.-JdIIJnuis 1.T.200 I'I.000 (2..SB. PW T.Or.SB P.000 "-200 Ves Tolcrales hlp salinity and arid condilions provldcd subsoil is moist Likes sand wllh clay.ble Ves - T.m HII/oxy/oft pws/ctIm '-31 F 2-31 F -3'-50 Less resislaDllOcold lhan.H...

SC...rrltOlttl"thllS t:rImp/loratllS 3~'00 Very adaptabk.SC T.. Fi.230 Rainfall mm 200--<400 7S-8~ Drought Resistance Hilh Soil Needs Adapted 10 light ". T T. T. Adaptabk.. Fd.SB Hot F HOI 1~800 Adaptable but not deep .. High IF P..and.~ 21 '-6lonvhalyr (10) MOO High High Y .000 Sesbtl"iIl snbtI" \ll-4' 11. T T..Yp/rJu _rll.900 High Yes OM T.. Sc. Ta.~ 300-~ 2~1. Y ..000) 100 + Zif. Fd F..H. Fd. Y ..alinilY or hilh alkalinilY Adaptabk Adaptabk Hilhly . F. Fd.SC. Adaptabk Adaptable.000 (100 +) T. ptIl1id1l P.o. 1102. Y .F. """·"'10 HOI NF -12-36 1~7~ 0-300 I. Y .2~ Y . Nitrosen Fixilll Y .SB. hilh . Si.. Hi8h S1owlrowth 0-10 3~1. B. . T.200) -IO-~ Y .Yp/l1IS spi-. High - 4.line lo1cra~"C' Yes Yes Yes Yes Fast Irowth T.p/lylltl 102.SC.OOO-I.900) lowland tol.. lik.~ 3~~ 1102. Fd.. chilmm P. Fd T.• -. toleral. Fd Fd.J ArId aDd Semiarid RegIons (continued) Species P.Sh.-hristi - .IIttl'ix . jllliflora P. H. Yes Yes Yields mJ/halyr Calorific Value kcallkg Other Uses Fd. Y .ii.Ii"" toleranl Adaptabk Coppicina Ability Y ."iIl <600 lol. deep allu_ial soil. c1lWtf1ritl Temperature DC Hot (27) IF -6-~ Altitude m 340-1. F. Yes Y ..SB SB. Zif.

India. V. Eggeling. Serdang. Utilization of ardu leaves (Ailanthus ace/sQ) as a supplement for poor quality rougbaae. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. S. 171-173. Superintendent. Crown Agents for the Colonies. Dollear.APPENDIX2 Selected Readings AadI ". CANOPY 6(S) 1."". 1976. The Silvicultun of Inditln TN¥S. 1948. P.ideal fodder tree. Tropical Forestry Paper No. Clarendon Press. pp. UsrJul Plants 0/ Wut Tropical Africa (appendix to the Flora 0/ Wut Tropical AfriaJ). and J. Sofowora. P. JJwwra 6ImturIbG Lillie. K. and B. Note on the Cultivation 0/ the Gfftn Wattle Acacia dec:urrens in South AfriaJ and South Indlll. USA. 1980. F. Oil from the kernels of Ialob fruit. E. I. p. R. Inditln Mrdicinal Plants. 1939.. I. C. Troup. aIand· AIiluItJIIu aula Bbandari. Dalziel..) Fenton. R. England. 1962. I. S. Vol.) Del. Government of the Uganda Protectorate. USA. 343-347. 1961. M. A GuiM to SpeciG Srl«tion for TropiCDI and SubtropiCDI PIiIntiltions. P. J. F. Skolmen. and Editorial. EnaJand. R. B. USDA Forest Service. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical. H. 1975. and D. R. 1979. Some Woodso/HaWQii-Propertiu and USt!S of 16 Commercial Speciu. D. L. pp. Procerdings of ugumu in the Tropics.. Jackson. LowIIInd TrapiCDI Hardwoods. Economic Botany 26(2): 169-173. Leconte. 431 pp. J. Uganda. Hardman. Basu. Timbers 0/ Saboh.. L. FORI has identified the cause of A1bizia canker paving the way to an effective control of this disease that is infesting S industrial tree plan- &/anltu UfYPtItJctJ Abu EI Gasim M. Forest Products Laboratory. Dakar. Gupta. Marseille. Ragbavan. 1980. Dehra Dun. K. D. Kenya Tnuand Shrubs. Oxford.. Australlll and Nrw Z«zlllnd. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. P.. 1980. 8-9. and M. Wisconsin. Berkeley. (An annotated bibliography on selected species with plantation potential. La-Yaaran 23(3-4). 612 pp. France. 1974. Proc«dings 0/ the Snenth British Commonwealth Forestry CO!ifenn«. Farmer and Parlitlment 14(S):2S-26. 23A New Connought Place. Agricultural Handbook 249. second revised edition. Sudan Silva 9(1):63-66 (67-70 in Arabic). The Heglig tree. Oxford University Press. Studies on the digestibility and nutritive value of ardu (Ailanthus au/sQ Roxb. Forest Research Department. Nairobi. Irvine. Patnayak. Inditln Veterinary Jouf7l(ll 49(S): SI2-S16. USA. R. 1972. S68 pp. Universiti Pertanian. Madison. Fontanilla. Roper.) External Aid Division. R. Bbandari. M. R. W. J. and M. Oxford. Gupta. F. G. 1972. Mudgal. 1973. (ardu) leaves for sheep. Research Paper FPL-SS. 1980. Plantes alimentairu de l'Ouut Africain. P. and R. London. A. Smith. 1962. T. 449-4S6. G. 19S9.. Indian Veterinary Jouf7l(ll SO(8):809-812. (Contains 164 references. Malaysia.) Fosb. Oxford. London. 1973. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Socirty26(12):730-732. S. 2. New Zealand. 1921. Gerhards. Hussain. Exotic Forat TN¥S in the British Commonwealth.. Dale. Bislig. F. E. Selangor. Karschon. The wattles or the exotic acacias of Australia introduced in Madras state. The Indigenous TN¥S 0/ the Uganda Prot«torate. andF. S. R. EnaJand. J. Longwood. and G. R. D. 1977. D. Streets. N. O'Connor. S. 1964.. KrisbDaswamy. L. Madras Forest Department. PhysiaJl and MechaniaJl Propertiu ofMolucca a1bizzia Grown in HaWQii. Vol. Buchanan's Kenya Estates. and E. Common TN¥S 0/ Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. F. California. and R. Agricultural Hand- 75 . L. P. A/bhJIJ/1IbIIIrla Buraess. F. Bibliography on Albizia falcataria fL. Ng. 1974. N. Wadswonh. R. 19S7. SS8 pp. Jr.. Contributions to the arboreal flora of Israel Balanitu aegyptiaCD (L. Suripo del Sur. London. Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines. Inditln VetmnaryJouf7l(lIS4(3):I98-201. Washington. L. England. Ltd. Clarendon Press. Greenway. 491 pp. Woody Plants o/Ghana with Special R~enn« to TMir USt!S. C. Ardu-An.C. Singh. I. and Hatchards. General Technical Repon PSW-8. EnWebb. Singh. India. Giffard. 1966 (Reprinted 1980). Government Press. Entebbe. Watt. Prurnt and Potential Commercitll Timbers 0/ the CariblH!an. J. Suliman and J. Balanitu argyptiaca. USDA Forest Service. pp. A. Kirtikau. 6S4 pp. 1977. C. and P. USDA Forest Service. 1961...). R. D. England. Nutritive value of Ailanthus f!JCCt!/so Roxb. p. Bishshem Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. L'Arbn dans Ie Paysage Sinegalals. India.... Madras. 1965. R. Philippines. Wood. Sabah. Commonwealth Forestry Institute. Madras. Legumes in forestry. A reinvestigation of Balanitu af!IYptiaca as a source of steroidal sapogenins.. Senegal. C. 1949. Busson. 16. Domingo. 19S1. tations of corporate and small tree farmers. WeJlinaton. S. S. Malaysia. 868 pp. SOS.

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Academic Press. and Pinus oocarfXl Schiede international provenance trials. Sverjono. Vol. Warsopranoto. 1966. and F. A. Museum of New South Wales.. Agriculture Handbook 249.lndia. 167 pp. Kampala. USA. Lautoka. Proceedings ofMeloleuca Symposium. Seed dispersed in Meloleuca quinquenervio. 1981. A Revision of Melaleuca leucadendron and Its Allies (Mynaceae). Wade. R. R. R. R. M. 1980. Australia. Series A.". A. Rome. and C. USA. H. Woodbury. Monon. Contributions from the Queensland Herbarium. Malayan Forester 26(4):259-286. Australia. and B. Streets. pp.C. F. Woodell. 1961. Azadirachta indica and Melia audorach: Silvicultural characteristics and plantation techniques. Fiji Pine Commission. Chatterden. Vol.. Fast Growing Timber Trees of the Lowland Tropics No. Italy. Mitchell.1. Wealth ofIndio: Raw Materillls. Fenton. 1889. Wellington. 78 .5. Commonwealth Forestry Institute. 214. J. Food and Apic:uIture Organization of the United Nations. F. 1959. Sydney.) External Aid Division. L. 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Oakes. W. III. P. January: 119-129. H. BlochlmlCtl et BlophyslCtl Acta 187:I-S. A. USA. 627-628. 1969. 1970. Agricultural Handbook 271. F. S. 1972. 1979. SlIplllm HbUmurr Bolley. and N. 1969. Bourke. pp. Hsieh. B. Graves. 16-19. Garner and S. Funk. Exotic FOfWt TfWS In the British Commonweolth.. USA. Condon. R. Browne. 12. S. USA.lnd/Qn Bee Journal 34(1 12):34-3S. WeG1th 0/ India: Raw Materials. PJidIJun~ Bakhshi. and C. A. I. Locust. USDA Forest Service. III. Kao. pp. K. 1979. Indlon JOlirntll 0/Horticulture 11(3):3-4. D. J. Hart. Kim. D. N. H. Marshall. D. Populus euphTtltica Olivier and its funaaJ enemies. 1967. 1976.The false acacia. 10-16. Decologia 32:349-366. Shigeura. Oxford. Minnesota. Ronald Press. and vitamin 79 . The Wealth 0/ India: Raw Materials. 1976. A. 1974. New York. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. A. England. 642-648. J. Chung Suk. Italy. Suwon. CSIR. Exotic FOfWt Trees In the British Commonweolth. A. Structure and physiochemical and strength properties of the wood of tropical Southeast Asian tree species. L. A. Canberra. in Arid Zones. and L. 209. pp. Randhawa. USA. and T. Christian. Pan. Ind/Qn Journal oj AgricultuTtlI Science 36(4):201- try oj AustTtllia. G. Culture and management of guava. Poplors and Willows. 1969.. H. R. J. Forest Service Report No. AmerlCtln Bee Journal I 19:848-849. Vol. seeds oj Wood)' Plants In the United States. South PacUIC Bulktin 2d Quarter:28-3O.. Goor.. Nakasone. Office of Forestry. Y. C. Washington.C. FAO Forestry Series No. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pests and Diseases 0/ FOfWt Plantation TfWS. M. S. Washington. F. Myxosporium wilt of guava and its control. and R. Prasad. The Proptlgation 0/ TroplCtlI Fruit TfWS.April:17S-184. B. The Use oJTfWS and Shrubs in the Dry Coun- Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1979. A. D.lndia. W. Guava propagation in Hawaii. F. 1973. USA.u. Bright prospects for guava cultivation in the Punjab. C0operative Extension Service. l08pp. Bulletin o/Talwan Forestry Research Institute 14: 1-26. Journal oj the AmeriCtln Oil Chemists' Society 27:84-87. Y. England. B. A. D. University of Hawaii. 1979. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau. Keresztesi. Qadri.. S. Washington. Australia. Sllvles oj FOfWt TfWS in the United States. Herbicidal control of guava (Psidium guojava L. C. The Pakistan Jounllli oj ~~/~. Agricultural Handbook 4SO. Oxford. Christie. 1962. Isolation. 1961. W. 1975. Eigel. Technical Consultation on FastGrowing Plantation Broadkalled TfWS/or MedlterTtlnean and TempeTtlte Zones. 1979. R. USDA Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication No. Ku. Royce. H. CSIR. AmeriCtln Woods. Utilization of the seed of the Chinese tallow tree..). Chao. McCormack. Producing black locust biomass for fuel on southern appalachian surface mines. USDA Forest Service. Streets. Mini-monograph on Robinia pseudooCtlc/Q. R. and W.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. McA1ister. FOfWtatlon 0/ Strip-Mined Land in the CentTtlI States. 74pp. Black locust (Robin/Q pseudooCtlcia L. pp. pp. R. 244. Roach. Olson. McArthur. Roach. The black locust. 1973. Liang. A. Keresztesi. Washington. Italy. Cooperative Extension Service. Limstrom. Leigh. T. T. 301-330. 1971. Halt. pp. J.Artificial bee pasturage success story. Cameron. and T.). England.. R. N. S. 728-731. USA. R. S. Russell. J. FOfWt Tree Plonti". 1971.. Panridge.. L. FAO Forestry and Forest Products Studies No. W. Institute of Forest Genetics. J. D. 1968. W. False acacia-A promising bee plant ofKashmir. S. Rome. F. Quraishi. Italy. J. Vol. University of Hawaii. W. and S. New Delhi. Goetze. 8. Streets. M.. The guava threat in Fiji. 1967. Honolulu. Poplars In FOfWtry and Land Use. 1965. W. Rome. Chattri. USA. B. Lin.. Robln/Q. V. Black locust. Artificial reaeneration of PopIIhIs eup/lrrltica Olivier. Journal ojAgriculture 0/ Western AustTtllia 6(9):SSO-SS2. 9. USA. Robln/Q L.. Studies on the ColchltetTtlplolds 0/ Robinia pseudoacacia L. Chaudri. England. Measurements of fiber dimensions and analysis of chemical composition on Taiwan hardwoods. J. Agricultural Handbook 166. Guava. B. and B. pp. C. Y. Korea. Paul.. Observations on guava decline in Haryana and its control. 1960. A. 1980... B. O. Hawaii. E1 Baradi. Psldium guajava-guava. C. 1975. USDA Forest Service. St. North Central Forest Experiment Station.. Y. C. S. 1972. Effects of tannins on the decomposition of Chinese tallow leaves by terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. New Delhi. 230-231.. 1979. RobbdtI PMUlOtII:OCItl Carpenter. The Pakistan Jounllli oj ~onst~. LaPoint. Oxford. D. C. Boden. Pesticides 10(12):42-44. Rome. T. N. C. and J. Hotztechnologie 13:167-172. Research Report of the Institute of Forest Genetics No. Plant Disease Reporter 63(12): I07S1077. cds. Unas)'lva 32(127): 23-33. and G. The glyceride structure of Sopium seb(ferum seed oil. A. A. H. W. D. 1972. J. Chinese tallow nut protein I. India. S30-SS3. and R. The Chinese tallow tree (Sopium seb(ferum) . 19SO. 19S8. G. R. D. Dale. Holland. Hayes. A. W. Meinke. Bri&tlt prospects for guava cultivation in the Punjab. Clarendon Press. H. 1978. Honolulu. Wang. Turnbull. Suhas. Schultze-Dewitz. Shah. 1962.C. 1966. Hawaii.C. pp. pp. Slough. Oarendon Press. 12. Oxford University Press. G. 286-293. R.40pp. Barney. 1965. Forest and Timber Bureau. Black Locust: A Bibl/ogTtlph)'. Mathur. L. D.. T. G. S. 1948. J. Energy CommuniCtltions S(2):101-108.C. 1968. USDA Forest Service. MiscdIaneous Publication No. G. Jr. AbstTtlcts on TroplCtlI Agrkulture 1(3):9-16. 10. Tu"/Qlba 20(1):30-36. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. S. amino acid. Lc. A.

910. K. Trees 0/ Southern Africa. The Medicinlll and Poisonous Plants 0/ Southern and Eastern Africa. 1972. and J. The China Journlll 9:244-251. The Leguminosoe. and N. The Chinese tallow tree as a cash and petroleum-substitute crop. J. Breyer-Brandwijk. 2. MacGowan. Edinburgh. H. Aranya Vilcas (Quarterly Bulletin 0/ A. Tseng. Bell. R.. 294-295. Palmer.-J. Tree Crops for Energy Co-production on Farms. Allen. 1958. A systematical examination of Chinese tallow seeds and oil. p. W. P. Engler.. H. Stroik. Cowles. SERI Bulletin CP-622-1086. Journlll 0/ the American Oil Chemists' Society 25:418-419. B. K. Uses of Stillingill sebifera or tallow tree with a notice of the Pe-Ia. 1977. An investigation and study of Chinese tallow trees in Taiwan (Sapium sebiferum Roxb). Cape Town. 80 . C. and E. pp. and S. J. F. A. C.-C. et aI..157. Scheid. and E. W. PotlS. Trees qf Southern Africa. BUlktin o/Taiwan Forestry Research Institute 57: 137. Livingstone. R. American Journlll o/Science 12:17-22. M. Chen. 1981. Cameron..)-A source of drying oil. Krikorian. B. and M. pp.. The Chemurgic Digest 5:373-375. The Chinese tallow tree as a chemurgic crop. 1949. Schultz. Howes. 1851. Cultivation of Sesbanill aegyptioctl. pp. Economic Botany 35:391-397. 1981. N.. 1928. G. SeslMnlllsalHm Allen. South Africa. Kew Bulletin 4:573-580. Macmillan. Cape Town. 1946. Anonymous. W. J. N. Lin. N. or insect-wax of China. M. D. C. H. G. W. 1962. Forest O/fu:ers Associlltion) 17:26-34. Balkema. D. Hsu. The Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb. South Africa.155-2.. Scheid. 97-111. O. N. 1970. Scotland. Cowles. B.-C.-G. England. Pitman. London. A. Woody biomass potential of the Chinese tallow tree.analysis. E. R. TtIl'ChONlntluu CtlmphOl'fllUl Palgrave. Watt. 1981. Huang.

Carrera 14. J.W. Gaubati 7. Australia. Laguna 3720. W. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute.O. No. Colombo 2. Assam. Professor. 28S90 S. Philippines Jose O. Rio Piedras. Nauni. INDERENA. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. CoUeae. Merida. Colombia Director. lnstitut ~ de Recherches Agricoles. D. India M. Department of Pharmacognosy. A. University of the Philippines at Los Baiios. Vanuatu. Forest Research Director. P. Box 66. England. India AIb/rJII jllktUJu1ll Eduardo B. Tawau. Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines. Department of Forestry. Box 129. Forest Research Section. Silviculture Division. Head. Leuschnerstrasse.. Forestry Department. Lev Hasharon. Pakistan N. W. Makiling Experimental and Demonstration Forests. Principe. Instituto Forestal Latino-Americano. Taiwan Kuswata Kurtawinata.. USA Director. von Maydell. Forest Research Institute.. Research Officer. Kolar. Department of Biology. D. Macquarie's Road. D. Madurai. Bhd. University of Ire. Royal Botanic Gardens. Box AQ. College.O. Director. Singh. Central Sheep and Wood Research Institute. Royal Botanic Gardens. Forest Research Institute. Khosla. Miami. S3 Nan-Hai Road. 91. Israel Hassan A. Box 137. Division of Silviculture. U.. BoxSOlJ.E. Jalan Raya Juanda 22-24. M. Indonesia Hua Seng Lee. Sarawak. AiIIurtIuu uMMI P. Principal Forest Officer. Malaysia lreneo L.P. Malaysia &IrNtv IimiInIbtI K. INDERENA. P. Israel (Aikmthus glonduloso (A. New Forest. Dehra Dun 248 006. Colleae of Forestry. Forestry Division. P. Forest Department. Jalan GunungBatu. Box 4008. M. Kiriat Hayim. Costa Rica Director.. Indonesia Robert M. USA (commercial production) Institute of Tropical Forestry. Forest Department. Sri Lanka M. Surigao del Sur. Bogota. Mohan Ram.O. N. zabala. Department of Agriculture. 1700h Ave. TW9 3AE. P.P. Department of Botany. Peshawar. Associate Professor of Forest Tree Improvement. McHugh. 2SA66 Piso 2. Pacific Tan Kee Chong.T. Direccion de Basques. Herbarium Bogoriense. Agricultural Complex. Bogor. University of Massachusetts. R. Director. Massachusetts 02llS. Philippines Billtullta I»IYpdIu:a R. South Sarania. USA CoccoIobtlll'l'U"" Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE). P. Merida. India Seed Section. Box 4S. Saraento.O. Philippines Neptali Q. India H. P. University of Delhi. Philippines Ta-Wei Hu.S.. Y. altissima) seed only) Memendra Kumar Nath. Australia V.Sudan SEPASAT. Direccion de Bosques. Mrs. Nanayakkara.E. Sydney.C. P. Domingo. 2SA66 Piso 2. Federal Research Center for Forestry and Forest Products. Faculty of Pharmacy. Puerto Rico 00928. Sabah Softwoods Sdn. Director of Forestry Research and Central Silviculturist. Land Development Authority. Associate Director. Agricultural Research Organization. 19100 Krome Avenue. Silviculture and Forest Influences Department. Selangor. Vila. Kepong. Silviculturist.O. Florida 33187. P. LBN-LIPI. Forestry Research Institute. S. P. Kaul. Apartado 36. Tindale. Richmond. Rajasthan. 2600. 81 . Balai Penelitian Hutan (Forest Research Institute). Bawa.O. Bogor. United Kingdom Ezekiel Abayomi Sofowora. Conservator of Forests. USA George N. College. 2000.O. Malaysia Director. 2OS0 Hamburg SO.APPENDIX 3 Research Contacts AC8CiI deaurwtU Coaservator of Forests (Research). Badruddin Road. Colombia Director. Delhi 110007. P. 42l1OS lIanot. Solan 173 230. P. Tamil Nadu. Nigeria H. Forest Department-Govemment of Assam. Venezuela Everglades Sod and Landscape. Lquna 3720.USA(flammabilit~ Combretllm mJcrantJuun Directeur.O. Sabah. Boston. No. Canberra. R. West Germany Harun Alrasyid. Siddiqui. Kew. Professor. P. Bogota. Apartado 36. Arid Zone Forestry Research. Avikanll8er. India K. Tamil Nadu 62S 020 India R. lie-Ire. Venezuela Institute of Tropical Forestry. Karschon. Bennett. Laguna 3720.O. Forest Research Institute and Colleges. Silviculturist. Pakistan Forest Institute. Silviculturist. Rio Piedras. K. Instituto Forestal Latino-Americano. Surrey.Florida33030. Taipei. Turrialba. Bislig. University of the Philippines at Los Banos.O. H. Inc. S. Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University. Homestead. Puerto Rico 00928. Musnad. Carrera 14. Box AQ. Box6S8. Forest Products Research Division. Kuching. N..Khartoum. Silviculturist.

Canberra. Musnad. H.O. Box 4S. Ltd. B. El-Kod Research Station. Canberra.O. Campinhos. Geary. 2312.P. 763. USDA Forest Service. Highlands. Associate Director. Lehigh Acres. D. Ministry of Agriculture. The Australian National University. Hattisar. Pan: Forestier de Hann. A. 764. Doran.. Indonesia Director. Aden. R. P. Eucalypt Tree Breeder. Senior Conservator Research. Box 938. Jalan Ounung Batu. Nepal P. Eucalyptus and Forestry Service. P. A. Forestry Investiption Unit. Bamburi Portland Cement Co. R.C. Forest Research Institute. Forest Products Research Division.C. R. No. P. Forest Research Institute. USDA Forest Service. Hawaii 96813. Canberra. Kaul. Land Development Authority. Forest Department. Turnbull. Siddiqui. Box 6S8. AustraIia EIu:fIlyptlll t. Rabat (Agdal). Box 4S. Miami. Yellapur S81 3S9. Rua Prof. USDA Forest Service. Kolar. The Australian National University. Florida 33936.O. P. Box 4008. Quaile.W. USA Forestry Research Station. Geary. Diector. S. Lehigh Acres. Munoz.C. Plant Physiology Branch.. B. P. Harare. P. Box 66.O. Papua New Ouinea C. Forest Research Station. Pryor. A. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. New Forest. Republique Populaire du Congo Forestry Research Station. 91.. Amatya. K. Bogota. von Mayde1l. Australia Mohsen A. 2 Works Road. Mombasa. W. Forestry Services. Khartoum. Khartoum.O.O. P. Box 134.E.C. Colombia P. Box 137. Harare. Richmond. N. P. United Kingdom COftOClll'pIU Itmc(folbu J. Rabat (Agdal). 2600. Department of Forestry.. Forest Research Institute. Kolar. SBbah Softwoods Sdn. Laguna 3720. Zimbabwe K. Helem.T. Bhd. senepl H.. EnaJand. Haller.O.O.P. 2600. Box 4. H.P. Director. Bogor. W.O. A.T.O. Paul Soderholm.. florida 33936. India Hassan A.T. W.O. DehraDun248006. Canberra. TW9 3AE. 2CBO HamburJ. Morocco T. Musnad. Charla Omar Ibn EI Khattab. Pakistan J. U. Professor. Agricultural Complex. USA J.O. Companhia Florestal de Monte Dourado. D. M. 2600. 23S0. Kushalapa. Box 4008. Box 938. Australia Director. A. Department of Forestry.O. Bazara'a. Forest Department. P. U. P. Skolmen. Florida 331S8.T. Associate Director. Institute of PacifIC Islands Forestry. Howcroft. Sudan K. India L. Research Officer.S.T. Kathmandu. Box 4008. Khosla. Brazil N. Richmond. Australia Ellctllyptlll J*IIttI J.O. Deputy Conservator of Forests.O. Karnataka. Canberra. Forest Research Centre. IISI Punchbowl Street. P. 2600. Apartado Aereo S1912. Dakar. USA L. Peshawar. Kenya Hassan A.. Highlands. Bulolo. Associate Director. Malaysia J.P. Florida 33936. P. Carmen. Forest Department. Professor.O. M. Israel (seed) Kodira A. P. Box HO S9S. India M. P. C.O. F. 2600.. Colleae. Lobo. Canberra. USA INDERENA. Royal Botanic Gardens. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. P. D. Room 323. Kolar. USDA Forest Service. Brazil EIu:fIlyptlll roIHutII T.. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. P.O. Morocco R. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. Turnbull. P. Box 4S. Australia N. Sabah. P. Philippines Director.C. Silviculturist.C. Pakistan Forest Institute. 13601 Old Cutler Road. Forest Research Centre.O. Pakistan Forest Institute. W. P. Royal Botanic Oardens. Siddiqui.T. Australia D. Australia E. Directeur. Professor. Caw 263. Box 4. Karani. Tawau. H. Lehigh Acres. England. Australia Ellctllyptlll dqluptll Tan Kee Chong. Papua New Ouinea J. R. P. People's Democratic Republic of Yemen R. Box 4008. C. J. Land Development Authority. Parli. Box 6S8. A. Forestry Research Institute and Colleaes. Philippines 82 . Ravi Bhawan Road. 2. Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources. Kalimati. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. 2600. OPFLOR. Kiriat Hayim. Germany J. Forest Department. Eucalypt Tree Breeder. Santo. Box 31. P.P. Uganda M. Forest Products Research Division. Forestry Research Institute.O. Turnbull. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. Canberra. 24B Jasmin Street Ext.P. Charla Omar Ibn EI Khattab. USDA Subtropical Horticulture Research Unit.C. B. P. Monrobe Province.mcomb J. Delwaulle.T. P. Forestry Section.O. D.O. Arid Zone Forestry Research. Box 4008. Nepal Chief Forest OffICer. Jr. Kiriat Hayim. USA EIIctllyptlll brlJllillnll J. Armidale. Davidson. Nauni. Box 419. P. Surrey. 2600. Forest Research Station. Howcroft.O. Leusclmerstrass. Bulolo. Community Forestry and Afforestation Division. Turnbull. Kiriat Hayim.C. Honolulu. S. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. Israel Adanh Kumar. P. Box 4008. 2600. 763. Enugu. Department of Forestry. Box 134. Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University. Naxa1. Debra Dun 248 006. N.O.Centre National de Recherches Forestiaes.128. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. Dist. W.T. Zimbabwe Roger O. Monrobe Province.K. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. A. United Kinsdom ~'Iuoo Devendra B. Canberra. Kew. Box 938. Sudan SEPASAT. Peshawar. Box HO S9S. TW9 3AE. Solan 173 230. Box 90202. Cagayan de Oro. C. Silviculturist. Israel (seed) George Meskimen. Aracruz. F.. Entebbe. Land Development Authority. Pakistan. K. Kathmandu. R.. Esp. A. P.P. P. Arid Zone Forestry Research. Turnbull. B. Okafor. Forestry Research Institute. Nigeria SEPASAT. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. Pointe Noire. Research and Extension Department. Pryor.O. India M. P. New Forest.O. Federal Research Center for Forestry and Forest Products. Quaile. Director of Forestry Research and Central Silviculturist. Kew.O. U. 1. Australia D. Surrey.

O. Lautoka. Guatemala Harry E. A. Forest Research Section.T. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute.O. College. Morogoro. Vanuatu.S.2600.P. Inc. Sarawalt.C. OPFLOR.O. W/Province.F. Kikuyu. Ministry of Natural Resources. Ena\and. Murphy. University of Florida. Forestry Research Institute. Department of Forestry. Forest Research Centre. 73JOO-P\analtina-D. Box 643. P.Viveltanandan. USA Seed Section. LBN-LlPI. Central and South American Species.. Bogota. Blair. Centre National de Recherches Forestihes. P. BoxS21. USA M611Udtuwd1 Sa-ard Boonkird. Seed Expon. Box S43. Forestry Division. Box 4008. Forestry Department. Belem. C. J. Florida 33124. Rq. Directeur. J. USA l. Sheikh. Birminghlun. Pacific C. South Parks Road. Guatemala City. Companhia Floresta! de Monte Dourado. Rua Prof. USDA Forest Service.O. Campinhos. P. USA Carl M. Box 9S. Colombia Hua Seng Lee. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station.. Sarawak. Santo. L. Silviculture Research Station. J. Agroforester. Kampala. Panama Chief Conservator of Forests.O. Associate Director. CAMCORE Cooperative. Australia Director. Dakar. USA James Hanover.O.O. Box4008. Appalachian Regional Office. S. ~ J. Forest Research Institute. Pare ForestierdeHann. North Carolina 276SO. Huffman. University P. RF/ACF. BSB-For. C. W. Colombo 2. Silviculturist. Morton. USA ~P* IIfIiIIII Commonwealth Forestry Institute. Ala- 83 . Munda. New Forest. P. Raleiah. P. Lushoto. Bennett.O. Malaysia Jose A. CPAC/EMBRAPA. Box 18. Sierra Leone Chief Forest Officer. Km 18-BR 020. Jr. Norris. Esp.O. Faculty of Agriculture. Laguna 3720. Plumptre) Director. Box 18. Wood. Forest Division.Australia S. Gainesville. Phaholyothin Road. P. Forest Department. Box 129. P. Box 43388. Emeritus Instructor.128. Doran. Division of Land and Forest Resources. R. Gravel Switch. Unit of Tropical Silviculture. Kuching.P. A. Coral Gables.E. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. P. Dawkins. Malaysia I. South Parks Road. Australia T. Silviculturist. Resource Manlllement Service. Tennessee Valley Authority. Faculty of Alriculture. Khosla. B. Turnbull.O. Nauni. Forest Research Institute and Colleaes. USA INDERENA. Kiriat Hayim. &land &alyptIU IU'OpIIyI1II E. Principal Research Officer. P.O. Canberra. Aracruz. School of Forest Resources and Conservation. Inc. Forest Research Section. Wood) William Dvorak. Pakistan GWluIII triIIctInthos Robert M.C. Commonwalth Forestry Institute. P. North Carolina State University. Kepong. Chief Research Officer. Selanlor. P. Aleppo. P. Jalan Raya Juanda 22-24.A. International Paper Company. Canberra. B. International Tree Crops Institute. Senior Research Forester. Bogor. Box 74. B..O. Tennessee37828. Route I. Vila. B. Bell. Rio Piedras. P. Texas 7S962. USA Kuswata Kurtawinata. Kasetsart University. Box 938.. USA (silviculture and utilization) Directeur. Tower Hill. A. Lobo. Briscoe. Belize Commonwealth Forestry Institute. Kolar. Badruddin Road. Department of Forestry. Uganda Silviculturist. R.O. Panama P. W. Delwaulle. P. Oxford OXI 3RB. Kenya Senior Silviculturist. Institut serqaJais de Recherches Agric:oles. Oxford OXI 3RD.T. A.USA Gregory Williams.. USA Hlblsaa tlJl«au Central Silviculturist. 764.O. University of MiaIiu. Professor of Forestry and Ecology. Box 7600. USDA Forest Service. Thailand C. Barnes. University of Aleppo. Agroforester. Tanzania Hua Sma Lee. Deputy Director. Box 63. Colleae of Forestry. England. Odero. Indonesia J. Head. East Lansing.P.O. A. K. Pakistan Forest Institute. Ghana Institute of Tropical Forestry. Sri Lanka P. D. Para. P. Plumptre. 1. Florida 32611. P.Panama PI1uu CIII'iJMM T. Silviculturist. Box 17S2.A. C. Caixa Postal 263. Las Cumbres IS.O. Burley.F. SFA Station. Israel (seed) I. Solan 173 230. USDA Forest Service. Brazil Senior Forest Officer (Research). Philippines Forest Products Research Institute. Bangkok 9. University of Dar es Salaam. Herbarium Bo1'JOriense.O. Forestry Division. Land Development Authority. P. M. Freetown. Morton Collectanea. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. H. Apartado Aereo SI912. P. Agroforester. Agriculture Complex. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. Box 4008.O. Director.P. D. Nahal. Las Cumbres IS..W. Woodall. Briscoe. Solomon Islands J. Dehra Dun 248 006.O.Canberra. Geary. P. Florida 339J6. Syria David Scanlon III. 2600. Kuching. Kentucky 40328. Director General. Syria M.. Fiji Pine Commission. Box SOlJ. Faculty of Agriculture. Brazil J. United Kingdom (J. I. Malaysia Division of Forestry. G. EnJ(. India Department of Natural Resources. 2312. P. and Veterinary Sciences. Forestry Department. I. F.O. Thailand M.C. H. Lehiah Acres. Box 18. Michigan State University. India Sompherm Kittinanda. Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University. Oxford OXI 3RB.. P. Box 248204. Burley. Nahal. Forestry. Department of Agriculture. Lewald. Gallegos. 2. P. University of Aleppo. Principal Forest Officer. 2600. Michigan 48824. Moura.A. U. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. Royal Forest Department. Tanzania ~ qrU1lqWMrVIII C. Box S988. B. Belmopan. Box AQ.ublique Popu\aire du Congo J. Lehiah Acres. Las Cumbres IS. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.O. B. Forest Department. Professor of Forestry and Ecology. Puerto Rico 00928.. P. Mobile. Briscoe. United Kingdom (R. Badruddin Road. Peshawar. Florida 339J6. Bangkok 9. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical. Pointe Noire. Kumasi. Fiji Robert M. Alabama 36601. Nacogdoches. U.T. Box 4S. Brazil V.O.

Celulosa de Turrialba. Hi&blands. H. M. Campus Box 1106. P. Department of Forestry. S. M. Siddiqui. Texas 77004. Abrol. Hawaii 96822. Jinju. Director. India P. Pakistan (I. USA Gregory Williams. St. Syria David H. State University of New York at Stony Brook. Charia Omar Ibn EI Khattab. Professor of Forestry and Ecology. Tennessee Valley Authority. O. Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University. Costa Rica C. University of Florida. U. Sector 2.bama 3S243. Faculty of Agriculture. Pakistan D.P. K. P. K. M. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Box 4S. Pakistan Forest Institute. Siddiqui. E.. University of the Punjab. W. Department of Biochemistry. Box 434.O. Missouri 63130. Evans. USA (H. H. Pakistan Stanley B. Michigan State University.W. Nauni. Agricultural Complex. Lopez. <>dero. India I. Rt. Punjab Agricultural University.O. USDA Forest Service. Forest Products Research Division. 3190 Maile Way. Forest Research Institute and Colleges. Forest Research Centre. Scanlon Ill. H. P. R. Box HG S9S. USA S.O. University of Houston. Canada LOJ lEO B. Lahore.S.lbadan. Institutul de Cercetari si Amenajari Silvice (ICAS). Graves. B. Michigan 48824. Enugu. Malawi Jc* Rodolfo Salazar. USA (G. Panama Carl W. A. Lens Chia. R-72904. Kaul. Forest Research InstituteofMalawi. Vogel. c/o Tropical Reforestation Enterprises. P. R. Mathieu. Islamabad. Inc. Associate Director.P. Professor of Forestry. USA SflpIIun NbUmurt Center for Development Technology. Maple. Las Cumbres IS. Chhabra) Department of Botany. Forest Products Research Division. Kiriat Hayim.. AskiKalak. Department of Forestry. International Tree Crops Institute U. P. Ap 17. IFAS. Siddiqui. Costa Rica Roy Voss. Kikuyu.P. Eucalpyt Tree Breeder. Constitucion 291 Casilla S.. Peshawar. Hawaii 96822. Tai- wan P. Krikorian. N.. P. Forest Research Institute. Texas A &: M University. 8eRa. Box 24. Washington University. Stefanesti. USA Ta-Wei Hu. National Forestry Corporation. A.O. Houston. Appalachian Regional Office. C. Alachua. Kenya Salabadin University.) Department of Biology. Box 270. Honolulu. USA K. Lexington. H. India P.O. Kolar. Missouri 63130. Director. Izmit. P. No. Ahmad. Asst. Director. Stony Brook. Kentucky 40328.O.. Department of Forestry. India Chung Suk Kim. Siddiqui. M. Zimbabwe Senior Forestry Research Officer. Ludhiana. Solan 173 230. USA Popll/lu~ Forestry Research Station. USA K. Institute of Forest Genetics. R. Box 18. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute. Washington University. Zomba. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. Department of Forestry. Honolulu. USA D. Kentucky 40403. Louis.. University of Houston at Clear Lake City. St. USA Sin Kyu Hyun.. Director of Forestry Research and Central Silviculturist. Suwon. Land Development Authority. Romania D. Homestead. PMB 'SOII. Chile I. USA K. Cowles. Department of Biology. Stillwater. Forest Products Research Division. Route I. Campbell. Arbil. Scheid) Department of Biology.A. M. University of Kentucky. Texas 77843. New Forest. College Station. Khosla. Kentucky 4OS46. 763. Okafor. Kyunggido. Harare.O. I890S S. Forest Seeds Center.O. Agricultural Complex. AREC. Food Protein Research and Development Center. Turrialba. K. Department of Horticulture. India (I. B. Ontario. D. Box 74. Federal Department of Forestry. Florida 33031. University of Aleppo. Nahal. Solan 173230. Pakistan Forest Institute. Professor of Forestry and Ecology. Rab Nawaz. South Korea Jorge A. Forestry Investigation Unit. USA James Hanover. Dehra Dun 248 006. Bell. India A. Iraq (Latif AI-Najjar) K. Department of Agronomy and Soil Science. Campus Box 1106. Division of Land and Forest Resources. Engler. Oklahoma State University. P. Forest Department. Forest Products Research 84 .P. J. PSftldOflCfldtl Peter Jaciw. Keresztesi. Karnal132 001. Quaile. Director. M.A. Khosla. Vrccenar) C. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. 280th St. Peshawar. Director. Texas 77OS8.. Extension Specialist. College of Natural Sciences. Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University. Agricultural Complex. Department of Forestry. Frankel Leo U. Gravel Switch. University of Aleppo. Cameron. Ministry of Natural Resources. Department of Forestry. 3190 Maile Way. Hungary P. Nigeria M. USA Director of Forestry. 3. Carpenter. New York 11794. Tennessee 37828. SOS. N. Faculty of Agriculture. Range Scientist. Peshawar. Syria I.P. Center for Development Technology. Louis. Houston. Briscoe. R. Bucuresti. Israel (seed) J. Taipei. Colleae of Agriculture. Nauni. Nigeria Robin. Rabat (Agda1). East Lansing. Florida 326IS. University of Hawaii. P. 42-44. Kaushal. Khan Niazi) • Director. Solan 173230. Gyeongnam 620. H-I024 Budapest. Deputy Director. Pakistan Poplar and Fast Growing Exotic Forest Trees Research Institute. Jr. Morocco R. USA Valeriu Enescu. Turkey PJIdium IfUVtlvtJ C. B. Aleppo. Norris. Aleppo. Shultz. Draper. National Institute of Health. USA (N. Pakistan Forest Institute. Khosla. L. S3 Nan-Hai Road. Pakistan Willis G. Punjab 141004. Gyeongsang National University. Nauni. S. Oklahoma 74078. Turrialba. National Agricultural Research Centre. USA (fruit production) Centro Agronornico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanze (CATIE). Nahal. Division of Silviculture. Chillan. H.2 Works Road. Agroforester. Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University. B. South Korea SGIMnItIIGINm Central Soil Salinity Research Institute.

Pakistan Forest Institute. Hall. McGregor Museum. University of Cape Town.Division. Pakistan T~e-phOlYltlU A. P. Rondebosc:h. Anthony V. 3200 South Africa.O. Kimber· ley. Peshawar. P. Univer· sity of Natal. Institute of Natural Resources. Box 375.O. Box 316. Associate Professor. 7700 South Africa 8S . Bolus Herbarium. Gubb. Pietermaritzburg. 8300 South Africa Mark Gandar.

38. 29 -Silligna. 26. 72 Cajeput. 6 simaruba. 12 -occidentalis." 3S Eucalyptus alba. 30 Avicennio species. 18 Heglig. 50. SO. 82 aserta. 4 Drek. S6 Gleditsehio. 38.83 86 . 77. 82 resini/ena. 30-31. 6 -Alnus acumifUlta. 72. 4(j Falcata. 70. 29 -tortilis. 73 Esenge. 38 Brown gum. 29 -mt!llrnsii. 26. SO. SI. 3S b~iofUl. 72 Albiuio ja/cQta. 73. SO. SO.) degJupta. 4 molluCCQfUl. 32 Euphrates poplar. 73 peNila. 42-4S Blue sum. JO Bursera gummi/ena. 69. 38 Black locust. 4(j Cocc%ba uvi/ena. 28.Haloxylon aphylJum. 16 Eucalyptus (cont'd.82 urophyllll. 20. 69 -Mpalensis. 26. 14 robusla. 70 g/Quca.62 Balanites aegyptioca. S8-S9. 70. 60-61. 64 Elllphrlum simaruba.62 Giezc. 2.77. S6 florlbundum. SO. SO. 76. 7S.83 -Gliricidio seplum. 3S -globulus. 10. J6-37. 4 False acacia. S6 Gumbo limbo. 40. 40 Almacigo. SI.12 Bahamas pine. SO.24 -GUQVlma ulmi/ollll. S4-SS. 38 Chinaberry. 32 OaIo de incienso. 72 -CIlsuorlfUl equiseti/olio. 46-47 Chinese vegetable tallow tree. 2. S6-S7. 29 decurT. 73 dectlisnt!llfUl. J6 Gleditsio IrUlcanlhos. S2 Aura. 16 ampli/olia. S2 Albizio. 32-3S. SO.20 Eucalyptus "C. S8 Gharab. 14 lerelicornis. 34. S2 Australian brown mahogany. 2. 72 -AiIIlnthus altissima.4O Egyptian rattle pod. -Acacio auriculi/ormis. 4 A1elai1a. 8 Bead tree. 4(j Daintree stringybark. 71 Gugumi. 77. 40 Balai. 26. 22 Bahan. SO.83 umbel/ala. 72 -cyclops. 73 -persicum. SO. 69." 3S Eucalyptus "llABL. 72 Combretum altum. 76. 2. 3S. S4-SS Djeungjing. 69 Guava. 72 Arbol de la cera. 2. SO. 76.70. 29. 2. 70 camphor bush.82 -camah1Uknsis. S2 Ghalab. 70 -GmeJifUl arbofWl. 8 Baya de praga. SO. bhan. 72 -Adhatodtl vasica. 2S. 16-17. 66 Cape lilac. 4-S. 6 Gum-topped peppermint. 8-9. 42 Forest red sum. 69 ~ba. 76.69 -rubna. An asterisk indicates that the species was described in full in the text of Volume I. SO. 81 Cocc%bis uvi/ena.69 -microthectl. 70. 76. 76. 72 sylvestris.70. JO naudiniofUl. S4 Croton sebi/erums. 14 Dalbergio sissoo. 73.S~S3. 70 -bnachystachya. 73 multiflona. S2. 70. 72 Bagras. 70 Desert date. S8 -Derris indica. 81 Bastard cedar. 72 parramallensis. 16. 7S. 12-13. 70. 82 Damas. 69. 8 -Colophospermum mopaM. 73 -gnandis. 6-7. 81 -OVanus ctQan. I ja/cQtarUl. SO. 34 speclabilis. 32 Bnachylllena ilici/olio. 6 Emajagua. 7S.APPENDIX 4 Index of Plants Species described or referred to in the body of the report are indexed below. 72 thtzlbata. 81 -lebbek. 22 -ClIssio siom«z. 2. 69 -nilota. 4(j Ardu. S6 micnanthum. 40 Beakpod eucalyptus. 69 -go~hocephala. 69 Ampupu. 10. 77. 40 Cape York red sum. 72 -senegal. 26. 26. 26.6 . 18-19. 67 Broad-leaved tea-tree. SO. camphor wood. 6 ovali/olio. 10 Gumtree. 6 Gum-elemi. SO. 7S. 70 Green-wattle. 10-11. 81 julva. 73 -citrlodona. S2 Corona di Jesus. 72 -seyal. 71 -Auzdirachta indica. 73 Hau.4 Bay grape. S6 Conocarpus lanci/olius. SI. 41 Chinese tallow tree. 40.76. JO Belbowrie. 72. S4 Hibiscus Iilioceus. 18 -Emblica olfleifUllis. 82 rostrlcla. 28 -Gf'f!Villt!II robusla. SO. SO. 73. 10 g/Qucinll. SO. 16 -Anogeissus lati/olio.ms. 28-29. SO. SO.77. 14-IS. 28.82 Coromandel ailanto. 38 -Calliondna calothyrsus. SO. 69. 26. 81 parviflorum.71.81 gkmdulOStl. 62 ExCO«tUill sebi/ena. 26. 72 -cambagei. 7S. 10 Caribbean pine. 6 Ganges. 24 Guayaba.

38 Paraiso. 2. 83 a. S4 YeUow locust. 71. 73 Pau de sebo. 36 Sydney black wattle. 4 White cedar.3.6O Sissoo. 16 -Trema spp. 62 Indio desnudo. 14 Leda. 8 HOhWng.22 Pitcb pine.64 Sesbtlnia aegyptiaca. SO. 78. 78. 2..Z~phllS mallritiana. S4 Ndunga. 66-67. SO. SO. 6 ·/nga Vf!f'tl.yz. 79. 8 Randga. 39 ~ca~nd~n. 22 -haJepensis. 18 Paritillm ti/iacnm. 40-41. 36 Timor mountain gum. 74. 79. 2. 69. 73 -chilensis. 34 Robinkl psewdOOcacUl. . 66 lCaro. S6 Lalob.84 littorare. 84 Shewa. 40 -Mimosa SCtl~/la. 62 illiciJana. 22 Hooeylocust. soriminta. 46-49.4 -Tamarix aphyllo. S4 Soap tree. 2.62 Sapillm sebi/erllm. 71. 69. SI. 30 Sweet-locust. 8 Sea hibiscus. 20 Nelkar. 32 Mubumuia. 84 Sarsou. 62 mallritanica. pino caribaea de Honduras.~S. 32 Red iron gum. SI. Honduran pine. pino colorado. 28 . 66 -Leru:aena /euCOCt!plullo.~2S. 71 Tulip cedar. 30 Puab. 8 Uvero. 66 Tea-tree. SO. S2 Pino de la costa. fonna IlmbraCll/i/ormis. 78. 46 Suriminta. 12 Lelesbua. 40 Peru. 73 Placata. S4 Three-thorned acacia. 69. 36 J Hopwood. 36 Stillingio sebi/era. 30 Saf-saf.84 Musizi. 4 Kina wattle. 18 Seaside grape. 18 Senaon.SO. 41 Thorntree. 22 Ximenia aegyptklca. 62 denJuzrdtiorllm. S4 Shisbam. 74 -cineraria. 4 Melaleuca. 38.8S litakllnensis. 4 Polygonum uVi/era.~23. 78. S4 Lamunch. 71 Maesopsis eminii.6O Tamalini.~3. 2. 12 Kanferbout.41 orienta/is.S6 Red birch.S. 38 . 73 ho1ldllrmsis. 62 eIlphf'tltica. 40. 73. 60 . S4 Kamarerc. 18 Majqua. 2S ~ava. 18 Mangle de falda. 74 -pa/lida. 14 Rhizophora species. 64 . 14 Red strlngybark. 74 Psidillm cattreianllm. 71. S4 Landpp. 83 Mahanium.80." 3S Najlij. 71 Tali. 2. 40 Pride of India. 2 Mara.4O Parameraa. 40 -Prosopis albtl. 8 Popcorn tree. 38 Paperbark tea-tree. 8 Vaalbos. S2 Maboc:. S2 Mabaruka. 32 "Mysore bybrid. 60 Kayu mads.arra. SO. SO. 46 Palk. S6 Kolobe.4 Punktree. majagua de playa.ygitun CIlmlni. SO.6O Seagrape.6O NiaouH. SO. 28 Kinkeliba. 32 Queen wattle. 26. 46 Soetpeul. 22 PlnIlS btllulmensis. pino macho.69 Jericho balsam. 4 Moluccan sau. 38-39. 38.8 Horsewood. 8 Seaside maboe. SO. uva caleta. 74 87 . 62 bonnetklna. 83 viridiflora. 40 Uva de mer. plakata. 71 -grandiflora. 46 TarchonanthllS camphoratllS. 46 Popuills arUma. 30 Swamp messmate. 46 Persian lilac. 4 Motboaraduso. 74 -spi~ch~ti. 71 Molucca albizzia. 74. 41 White mahogany. S6 Pariti tiliamun. 60 Soapberry tree. 20-21. 22 -Pithece/lobillm dlllce. 39 qIlinqllenenio. SO. S6 Large-fruited red mahogany. 30.79. 6 White albizzia. 74 Tanacb. 18 -Parlcinsonkl aClllata.Terminalia catappa. 6 Red gum.62 Palo muiato. 71 Pabari sbishum. 2.bispinosa. 62 inphratica.4 West Indian birch. 66 minor.38 <>COte blanco. 6 UmbreUa-tree. S6 Larc:Iap. 71 ~btln. 24 Robusta. 74 -jlliiflora. 4 Sesban. 78. 8 ·Mangroves. 10 K. 22 caribaea. 74 -tamarllgo. 42 Yette. uva de playa. 32 Red mabogany. 64 Swamp mahogany. 38. hodung. 71 Texas umbreUa. 73 elliottii. 39 Melill azedarach.6O Shimaron. 38 MelaJeuca cajllputi. SO. 42-4S. 28 Raisin la mer. 41 Turpentine tree. 62 Pride of China. 69.62 litwinowklna. 71 River red gum. 62 diversi/olia. 20 eMllntlngia calobllra. 38 Queensland blue gum. 2. sisu.80. 36.6O Tarcbarbi. 83 eidarial. S2 Mountain gum.2O Mysore gum. 41 dIIbio. 2. 6 Paperbark. 2. Koubou. 62 Indian poplar. 84 glollcicomans.66 VRivai.

D. University of Hawaii at Manoa. New York. BRUCE HANNAY. Washington. University of Virginia. ASPER. Hawaii ELMER L.S. N. JR. Congress. Honolulu. Environmental Research Laboratory. Washington. School of Agriculture. New Haven. Board on ScIence and Tecbnology for Intemadonal Development GEORGE BUGLIARELLO. Resources Systems Institute. Corvallis. Virginia CARL N. BURRIS. BROWN. Charlottesville. Boston. Choirman Memben Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Arizona CYRUS MCKELL.C.• Salt Lake City. SAMUEL P. Office of Technology Assessment. Department of Geography. BRISKEY. Gainesville. East-West Center. University of Virginia. Polytechnic Institute of New York. Lubbock. Minnesota ROLAND J.• Department of Chemical Engineering. GADEN. Washington. Worcester. University of California at Berkeley. Wisconsin CLAUDIA JEAN CARR. National Academy of Engineering. Pennsylvania DAVID BELL. HODGES. FUCHS. D. Conservation and Resource Studies. Foreign Secretary. Director. Associate Professor. Madison. Massachusetts LEONARD BERRY. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Honolulu. PLUCKNETI. Director. Consultant. Native Plants. Control Data Corporation. 88 . Professor.D. Clark University. Virginia JOHN HOWARD GIBBONS.. Deputy Science Advisor to the Secretary of Interior. JR. Department of Biochemistry. School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Director. WILLIAM BRADLEY. Charlottesville. Harvard School of Public Health. Pinchot Professor of Forestry.C.C. Chairman. International Programs in Agriculture. Yale University. GADEN. Director.C. Choirmlln Memben and Semi-Arid Land Studies. New Hope. Department ofinterior. Dean. Director. D. Oregon State University. Berkeley. University of Florida. Oregon HARRISON S. Department of Population Sciences. Texas (member through 1981) ELMER L. Texas Tech University. Director. Connecticut (member through 1982) DONALD L. Washington. Brooklyn. Tucson. California NATE FIELDS. Utah FRANCOIS MERGEN. Massachusetts ERNEST J. Inc. Hawaii ROBERT H. U. University of Wisconsin. Minneapolis.Advisory Committee on Tecbnology Innovadon HUGH POPENOE. Developing Markets. Department of Chemical Engineering. Pennsylvania HAROLD DREGNE. THEODORE SUDIA. International Center for Arid President. Florida. Philadelphia. Graduate School of Geography.

Director. Gainesville. Stillwater. National Academy of Sciences. University of Wisconsin. President. School of Medicine. W. FREDERICK SEITZ. New York. Arthur D. Acorn Park. New York. East Lansing. HURLEY. OREENE. National Academy of Sciences. Michigan State University. Inc. Oklahoma State University. University of Florida. Cambridge. New York RALPH HERBERT SMUCKLER. Engineering Energy Laboratory. Oklahoma WILUAM HUOHES. C. Assistant Dean for International Programs.C. Dean of International Studies and Programs. KREBS. Associate Director/Studies MICHAEL P. President Emeritus. Committee for a New New York. Associate Director/Research Grants 89 . WRlOHT. Oklahoma WILLIAM A. Massachusetts GEORGE I. International Programs in Agriculture. Colorado BILL C. ROBBINS. The Rockefeller University. University of Colorado. Washington. Institute of Medicine. Michigan GILBERT F.C.. Vice President. LYTHCOTI. New York HUOH POPENOE. New York City Partnership. ROSENBUTH. Oklahoma State University. Director MICHAEL O. Wisconsin JANICE E. Institute of Behavioral Science. D. PERLMAN. Madison. Foreign Secretary. WHITE. WALTERA. Executive Director. Washington. Boulder. D. Little.Director. McDONALD DOW. JOHN o. Stillwater. Florida FREDERICK C.

process. and transportation energy survey methodologies. 112 pp. educational. 240 pp.. 128 pp. 1980.. urban. Requests should be made on the institution's stationary.. 220 pp. Ammal. However.. CouDtrIes a. Producer Gas: ADother Fuel for Motor Trauport. USA How to Order BOSTID Reports Reports published by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development are sponsored in most instances by the U. the technology has since been virtually forgotten. or research institutions. 1983. 36. 1981.C.. 1977. Agency for International Development and are intended for free distribution primarily to readers in developing countries. SupplemeDt to EoelJ)' for Rural DeveiopmeDt: Renewable Resources aDd AlterDative Teebnoloates for Developl. CooDtrIes. CouDtrles. 33. and a directory of energy surveys for developing countries... and who have a professional interest in the subjects treated by the report. Single copies of published reports listed below are available free from BOSTID at the above address while the supplies last. Includes rural. This report reviews producer gas technology in motor vehicles and its modern potential. aDd Apkultural Wastes. and store agricultural products and to prepare food. Teebnolop Optlou for Developl. 20418. Alcohol Fuels: Optlou for DeYelopl. 89 pp. 39. CoUDtrIes. Examines the p0tential for the production and utilization of alcohol fuels in developing countries. It reviews current issues and advises USAID of promising opportunities to help solve energy-related problems in agriculture in developing areas. Discusses means by which natural process of anaerobic fermentation can be controlled by man for his benefit and how the methane generated can be used as a fuel. Provides index to both volumes. Assesses state of the art and cites applications of particular interest to developing countries such as boat building. industry. Discusses the energy used in agricultural production as well as the energy used to transport. Proc:eedi. CoUDtrles. construction. 90 . excerpts from 12 background papers. Examines past and continuing energy survey efforts in developing countries.S.Board on Science and Technology for International Development (JO-217D) Office of International Affairs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington. Worksbop OD EDeIJ)' ud Alrlc:ulture ID Developt. 48. A limited number of copies are available without charge to readers in the United States and other industrialized countries who are affiliated with governmental. and coal to fuel over a million gasoline and diesel vehicles. EoelJ)' 19. Updates the 1976 BOSTID publication and offers new material on direct and indirect uses of solar energy. Includes information on various tropical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional and novel processes. CoUDtrIes. Ferroc:emeut: Appllc:atloulD DeYelopl. D. and food and water storage facilities. charcoal. 131 pp.. 38. 1981. 1983. Melballe GeoeratioD from Humu. 1973.. IDtematioul Worksbop OD EDeIJ)' Suney Methodoloates for DeYe" opt. During World War II Europe and Asia used wood.

14. More Water for Arid LudI: PromiIbIa TediDoIoaJes aad Raearch OpportaDities. 1974. 153 pp. Outlines little-known but promising small-scale technologies to supply and conserve water in arid areas. (French language edition is also available from BOSTID.) 21. MaId... Aqudc Weeds URI,,: Some Penpectlns for DeveloplDa Countries. 1976. 175 pp. Describes ways to exploit aquatic weeds for grazing, and by harvesting and processing for use as compost, animal feed, pulp, paper, and fuel. Also describes utilization for sewage and industrial wastewater treatment. Examines certain plants with potential for aquaculture. 28. MIcrobIal Processes: PromiIbIa Teebnolops for DeveiopiDa Countries. 1979. 198 pp. Discusses the potential importance of microbiology in developing countries in food and feed, plant nutrition, pest control, fuel and energy, waste treatment and utilization, and health. 31. food, fuel, aad fertUlzer forOrpak Wutes. 1981. 150 pp. Examines some of the opportunities for the productive utilization of organic wastes and residues commonly found in the poorer rural areas of the world. 34. Priorities ID Bloteebnolop Researcb for IDterHtlouai DeveiopmeDt: Proeeedlgp of a Workshop. 1982.261 pp. Examines opportunities for biotechnology research in developing countries. Includes background papers and specific recommendations in vaccines, animal production, monoclonal antibodies, energy, biological nitrogen fIXation, and plant cell and tissue culture. Plants 16. Ullderexploited Tropical Pluts with Promlsl... EeonOllllc VaI.e. 1975. 187 pp. Describes 36 little-known tropical plants that, with research, could become important cash and food crops in the future. Includes cereals, roots and tubers, vegetables, fruits, oilseeds, forage plants, and others. 22. Guyule: AD Alterative Source of Natunt Rubber. 1977. 80 pp. Describes a littleknown bush that grows wild in deserts of North America and produces a rubber virtually identical with that of the rubber tree. 25. Tropical Leaumes: Resources for tile future. 1979.331 pp. Describes plants of the family Leguminosae, including root crops, pulses, fruits, forages, timber and wood products, ornamentals, and others. 37. The WI...ed lieu: A HIgb ProteiD Crop for tile Tropics. (Second Edition) 1981. 59 pp. An update of BOSTID's 1975 report of this neglected tropical legume from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea that appears to hold promise for combatting malnutrition worldwide. 47. Amanath: Modern Prospects for an Andent Crop. 1984. Before the time of Cortez grain amaranths were staple foods of the Aztec and Inca. Today this nutritious food has a bright future. The report also discusses vegetable amaranths. Innovations In Tropical Reforestation 27. firewood Cr0p8: Shrub and Tree Species for EaeraY Production. 1980. 237 pp. Examines the selection of species suitable for deliberate cultivation as firewood crops in developing countries. 35. Sowl... forests from tile Air. 1981. 64 pp. Describes experiences with establishing forests by sowing tree seed from aircraft. Suggests testing and development of the techniques for possible use where forest destruction now outpaces reforestation. 40. firewood CroPl: Sbrub and Tree Species for EDeIlY Production. Volume 2. 1983. 100 pp. A continuation of BOSTID report number 27. Describes 27 additional species of woody plants that seem suitable candidates for fuelwood plantations in developing countries.

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41. MaatillDl and OIlIer FUI-Growina Acadu for the HIIIIlId Tropics. 1983.63 pp. Highlights 10 acacias species native to the tropical rain forest of Australasia. That they could become valuable forestry resources elsewhere is suggested by the exceptional performance of ACtlcill mangium in Malaysia. 42. CaI1IaDdra: A Ve....tIIe Small Tree for the HIIIIlId Tropics. 1983. S6 pp. This Latin American shrub is being widely planted by villagers and government agencies in Indonesia to provide firewood, prevent erosion, yield honey, and feed livestock. 43. Cuaarlau: NilrOiell-Fblq Trees for Adverse Sites. 1984. These robust nitrogenfIXing Australasian trees could become valuable resources for planting on harsh, eroding land to provide fuel and other products. Eighteen species for tropical lowlands and highlands, temperate zones, and semiarid regions are highlighted.

S2. LeacH..: PromJsiq Foraae and Tree Crop for the Tropia. (Second edition in preparation) Describes Leucaena leucocephllla, II little-known Mexican plant with vigorously growing bushy types that produce nutritious forage as well as tree types that produce timber, firewood, and pulp and paper. The plant is also useful for revegetating hillslopes and for other purposes.
Maaaatq Tropical ADimai Resoan:es 32. TIle Waler Buffalo: New Prospects for an UDderutlllzed ADimai. 1981. 118 pp. Water buffalo are performing well in recent trials in new locations in the United States, Australia, and Brazil. Report discusses the animal's promise, particularly emphasizing its potential for use outside Asia. 44. B81terf1y FarmlqlD Papa New G8iaea. 1983.36 pp. Indigenous butterflies are being reared in Papua New Guinea villages in a formal government program that both provides a cash income in remote rural areas and contributes to the conservation of wildlife and tropical forests.

4S. CrocodUel U a Resource for the Tropia. 1983.60 pp. In most parts of the tropics crocodilian populations are being decimated, but programs in Papua New Guinea and a few other countries demonstrate that, with care, the animals can be raised for profit while the wild populations are being protected. 46. UUle-IDOWD AllaD ADI..... witb a ProaaIIiq Ecoaomic Future. 1983. 124 pp. Describes banteng, madura, mithan, yak, kouprey, babirusa, Javan warty pig, and other obscure, but possibly useful, wild and domesticated indigenous Asian animals.
Geueral 29. Postbarvest Food Loaes ID Developbaa Coutrles. 1978.202 pp. Summarizes existing work and information about losses of major food crops and fish; discusses economic and social factors involved; identifies major areas of need; and suggests policy and program options for developing countries and technical assistance agencies. 30. U.S. Science and Teelmology for DeveiopmeDI: CoDtrlbadous 10 the UN COBfereaee. 1978.226 pp. Prepared for the U.S. Department of State as a background document for the U.S. national paper presented at the 1979 United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development. The following topic is now under study and will be the subject of a future BOSTID report:
• JoJoba

For a complete list of publications, including those that are out of print, please write to BOSTID at the address above.

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While the limited supply lasts, a free copy of Firewood Crops Volume 2 will be sent to institutionally affiliated recipients (in government, education, or research) on written request or by submission of the form below. Please indicate on the labels the names, titles, and addresses of qualified recipients and their institutions who would be interested in having this report. Please return this form to: BOSTID (JH-217D) National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418, USA

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.I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I I I I I I I t I I I I -. T---I I I i I I I I i .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I I I I I I t I I I I .-I-I I I I I I t t I I I I I I I .I I I I I ..

S.The National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private. and the scientific and engineering communities. scientific community for technical assistance to developing nations. the National Academy of Engineering in 1964. to mobilize the U. which establishes the Academy as a private. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. nonprofit. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970. Its primary objectives are to enhance U. The National Research Council The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916. BOSTID's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation publishes topical reviews of unconventional technical processes and biological resources of potential importance to developing countries. respectively. self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government. and to coordinate international projects throughout the institution. the public. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863. under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. scientific cooperation with other countries. and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology. nonprofit. . It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies.S. The Office of International Affairs The Office of International Affairs is responsible for many of the international activities of the Academy and the Research Council. The Board on Science and Technology for International Development The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence.

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