autotransformer | Power Engineering | Electrical Engineering

Auto Transformers

Ankit D Mahapatra
School of Electronics Engineering, KIIT University Bhubaneswar - 751024, Odisha

Abstract: This paper presents details about autotransformer, its operation, limitations and applications. Keywords: Transformer,winding,power applications,transmission,electrical isolation

The winding has at least three taps where electrical connections are made. One end of the winding is usually connected in common to both the voltage source and the electrical load. The other end of the source and load are connected to taps along the winding. Different taps on the winding correspond to



An autotransformer (sometimes called autoformer) is an electrical transformer with only one winding.

different voltages, measured from the common end. In a step-down transformer the source is usually connected across the entire winding while the load is connected by a tap across only a portion of the winding. In a step-up transformer, conversely, the load is attached across the full winding while the source is connected to a tap across a portion of the winding. II. OPERATION As in an ordinary transformer, the ratio of secondary to primary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns of the winding they connect to. For example, connecting the load between the middle and bottom of the autotransformer will halve the voltage. Depending on the application, that portion of the winding used solely in the higher-voltage (lower current) portion may be wound with wire of a smaller gauge, though the entire winding is directly connected.

The auto- prefix refers to the single coil rather than any automatic mechanism. In an autotransformer portions of the same winding act as both

the primary and secondary winding.

Fig 1.Single-phase tapped autotransformer with output voltage range of 40%–115% of input

the "neutral" side of the output will not be either. between microphone and a high-impedance amplifier input. special autotransformers with automatic tap-changing Furthermore. Because it requires both fewer windings and a smaller core. it is common to power the trains at 25 kV AC. In UK railway applications. . In three phase power have transmission the applications.III. as and a for impedance low-impedance autotransformers limitations suppressing harmonic currents and as acting as another source of ground fault currents.beyond that range a two-winding transformer is usually more economical. To increase the distance between electricity supply Grid feeder points they can be arranged to supply a 25-0-25 kV supply with the third wire (opposite phase) out of reach of the train's overhead collector pantograph. In audio applications. LIMITATIONS An autotransformer does not provide electrical isolation between its windings as an ordinary transfomer does. up to a voltage ratio of about 3:1 . APPLICATIONS Autotransformers in power applications are to frequently interconnect used systems operating at different voltage classes. This is an important safety consideration when deciding to use an autotransformer in a given application. A failure of the insulation of the windings of an autotransformer can result in full input voltage applied to the output. tapped autotransformers are used to adapt speakers to constant-voltage audio distribution matching such systems. for example 138 kV to 66 kV for transmission. A zig-zag transformer provides a path for current that is common to all three phases (socalled "zero sequence" current). The links between the UK 400 kV and 275 kV 'Super Grid' networks are normally three phase autotransformers with taps at the common neutral end. IV. Another application is in industry to adapt machinery built (for example) for 480 V supplies to operate on a 600 V supply. so that customers at the far end of the line receive the same average voltage as those closer to the source. A large three-phase autotransformer may have a "buried" delta winding. if the "neutral" side of the input is not at ground voltage. The variable ratio of the autotransformer compensates for the voltage drop along the line. At autotransformers operate on time-varying magnetic fields and so cannot be used directly on DC. to absorb some harmonic currents. not connected to the outside of the tank. They are also often used for providing conversions between the two common domestic mains voltage bands in the world (100-130 and 200250). of not equipment are inserted as voltage regulators. The 0 V point of the supply is connected to the rail while one 25 kV point is connected to the overhead contact wire. an autotransformer for power applications is typically lighter and less costly than a two-winding transformer. Like multiple-winding transformers. A special form of autotransformer called a "zig zag" is used to provide grounding (earthing) on threephase systems that otherwise have no connection to ground (earth). On long rural power distribution lines.

in/courses/IITMADRAS/Electrical_Machines_I/pdfs/1_11.svg [3] Limitations & Advantages – NPTEL site http://nptel. output sections. Bhubaneswar for providing a free hand in choosing the topic for our choice and allowing us to work as per our will for the completion of this document.frequent (about 10 km) REFERENCES [1] Autotransformer – Wikipedia http://en. limitations and applications of autotransformer has been presented in this paper. Asst.pdf [4] IEEE Paper Template in A4(V1) www. an autotransformer links the contact wire to rail and to the second (antiphase) supply conductor. reduces induced interference into external equipment and reduces cost. A variant is occasionally seen where the supply conductor is at a different voltage to the contact wire with the autotransformer ratio modified to suit. etc. Autotransformer has many limitations and advantages over ordinary It is the Perfect way to safely troubleshoot power supplies. V. Debani Prasad Mishra. CONCLUSION [2] Image Courtesy – Wiki File http://en. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author is grateful to Mr. Professor at the School of Electrical Engineering. This system increases usable transmission distance. KIIT University.wikipedia.doc NIT Hamirpur .

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