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UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: Prof: Uma Shankar
A paper submitted in the partial fulfillment for the requirement of Psychology. FYBMM (2ND SEM)
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 26th February 2009
SIES COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE, & COMMERCE, SION (WEST),MUMBAI- 400022
On a successful completion of our project, we would like to extend our sincere thanks to all the people who have helped us. Firstly we would like to take this opportunity to thank Prof. Uma Shankar for her valuable time and guidance throughout the project. Last but not the least our parents and our friends who put up with us while we are going about with our routine and helping us with our work.
prostitution. polishing shoes. or cleaning. "selling many things on the streets. helping in the parents' business. having one's own small business (for example selling food). Child labour was utilized to varying extents through most of history. rather than in factories and sweatshops. morally. or by blocking access to education). sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants (where they may also work as waiters). Some children work as guides for tourists. is the employment of children at regular and sustained labour. agriculture. mining. and can be factory work. mentally. Child labour is still common in some places where the school leaving age is lower. most child labour occurs in the informal sector.WHAT IS CHILD LABOR? "Child labor" is. or doing odd jobs." And all the work that they did was done in all types of weather. stocking a store's products. work for children that harms them or exploits them in some way (physically. and was also done for minimal pay. at work in agriculture or hidden away in houses — far from the reach of official labour inspectors and from media scrutiny. However. quarrying. and with the emergence of the concepts of workers' and children's rights. Child labor. . generally speaking. with changes in working conditions during industrialization. This practice is considered exploitative by many countries and international organizations. Child labour is common in some parts of the world. but entered public dispute with the beginning of universal schooling. Other children are forced to do tedious and repetitive jobs such as: assembling boxes.
little or no pay.S. and inadequate food. fishing. water. Children have been found harvesting: • • • • • • • bananas in Ecuador cotton in Egypt and Benin cut flowers in Colombia oranges in Brazil cocoa in the Ivory Coast tea in Argentina and Bangladesh fruits and vegetables in the U. MANUFACTURING Electroplate Worker About 15 million children are estimated to be directly involved in manufacturing goods for export. Pakistan. footwear made in India and the Philippines Soccer balls sewn in Pakistan Glass and bricks made in India Fireworks made in China.AGRICULTURE Nearly 70% of child labor occurs in agriculture. health risks from pesticides. El Salvador. the Dominican Republic. and Peru Surgical instruments made in Pakistan . including: • • • • • • Carpets from India. Children in commercial agriculture can face long hours in extreme temperatures. and sanitation. Guatemala. hunting. India. and forestry. Egypt Clothing sewn in Bangladesh.
work in domestic service. especially girls. Domestic child laborers can be victims of physical. and quarries. This type of child labor is linked to child trafficking. Nine-year-olds work underground setting explosives and carrying loads. Children work in a range of mining operations. sieve. sometimes starting as young as 5 or 6. but there are indications of considerable abuse. . the terms of the interest and repayment often led to debt bondage.MINING AND QUARRYING Child laborers suffer extremely high illness and injury rates in underground mines. and carry ore. emotional. including: • • • • • • Gold in Colombia Charcoal in Brazil and El Salvador Chrome in Zimbabwe Diamonds in Cote d’Ivoire Emeralds in Colombia Coal in Mongolia DOMESTIC SERVICE Many children. children’s work in hotels and restaurants is linked to prostitution. Low pay is the norm. HOTELS. Children as young as 6 or 7 years old break up rocks. and RETAIL Some of the work of young people in this sector is considered legitimate. RESTAURANTS. opencast mines. child hotel workers received such low pay that they had to take out loans from their employers. and in some tourist areas. and sometimes sexual abuse. and wash. In at least one example.
4 million children are involved in work that.“Unconditional Worst Forms” of CHILD LABOUR 8. they sell flowers and other items. including the sale and trafficking of children into debt bondage. serfdom. commercial sexual exploitation. They go hungry for days to gather. STREET CHILDREN Children on the streets work as beggars. such as producing and trafficking drugs. instead of being sent to school. and illicit activities. they are starved so that people feel sorry for them and give them alms. . is considered unacceptable for children. In fact. It includes the forced recruitment of children for armed conflict. and forced labor. under any circumstance.
In Latin America.one in six children in the world. "In Africa." -. one child in five works. and in Latin America. another 44 million are engaged in child labour. In both these continents. 17% of the workforce is children. Millions of children are engaged in hazardous situations or conditions. Canada. in homes. The proportion of child laborers varies a lot among countries and even regions inside those countries. working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or working with dangerous machinery. and 8% in Latin America.UNICEF STATISTICS AND WORLDWIDE NEWS According to UNICEF. In South Asia. 60% in Asia. 22% of the workforce is children.Unicef’s 1997 State of the World’s Children Report. one child in three is at work. 23% in Africa. . The percentage varies from continent to continent. in the fields or on the streets. Europe and other wealthy nations In Asia. In Sub-Saharan Africa around one in three children are engaged in child labor. such as working in mines. representing 69 million children. 1% in US. only a tiny proportion of child workers are involved in the formal sector and the vast majority of work is for their families. there are an estimated 158 million children aged 5-14 are engaged in child labor .
• In 1998 the Global March Against Child Labor the movement began with a worldwide march when thousands of people marched together to jointly put forth the message against child labor. in a statement accepted that the child laborers were working in production of GAP Kids blouses and has already made a statement to pull the products from the shelf. 1998. touched every corner of the globe. • After the news of child laborers working in embroidery industry was uncovered in the Sunday Observer on 28 October 2007. The GAP Inc. built immense awareness and led to high level of participation from the masses. . This march finally culminated at the ILO Conference in Geneva. • BBC recently reported on Primark using child labor in the manufacture of clothing.00 hand embroidered shirt was the starting point of a documentary produced by BBC's Panorama (TV series) program. which started on January 17. BBA activists swung into action. In particular a £4. The march.
non availability and non accessibility of schools. Poverty and over population have been identified as the two main causes of child labor. shelter and clothing drives their children in the trap of premature labor. This is the case in most Asian and African countries.CAUSES OF CHILD LABOR Absence of compulsory education at the primary level. . more work can be extracted from them and there is no union problem with them. The industrial revolution has also had a negative effect by giving rise to circumstances which encourages child labor. It is also very difficult for immature minds and undeveloped bodies to understand and organize themselves against exploitation in the absence of adult guidance. Sometimes multinationals prefer to employ child workers in the developing countries. They are themselves uneducated and unexposed. Monetary constraints and the need for food. This is so because they can be recruited for less pay. even when they know it is wrong. forcing them to drive their little ones to work to keep the fire burning their homes. the ineffectively of child labor laws in terms of implementation. This attitude also makes it difficult for adults to find jobs in factories. When there are limited means and more mouths to feed children are driven to commercial activities and not provided for their development needs. Illiterate and ignorant parents do not understand the need for wholesome proper physical. parental ignorance regarding the bad effects of child labor. so they don’t realize the importance of education for their children. Over population in some regions creates paucity of resources. Parents are forced to send little children into hazardous jobs for reasons of survival. cognitive and emotional development of their child. boring and unpractical school curriculum and cheap child labor are some other factors which encourages the phenomenon of child labor.
artists and persons of eminence lost to child labor .EFFECTS OF CHILD LABOR • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Stunted growth of future generation Inability to harness human resources Inability to contribute to development Inability to benefit from development Citizens with accumulated frustration Adult unemployment Depreciation in wages Perpetuation of poverty Persistence of child labour Perpetuation of economic inequality Increased abuse of children Increased illiteracy Ignorant populace Citizens with inferiority complex Malnourished citizens Sick citizens Political instability Early morbidity of citizens Mental deformity of citizens Perpetuation of ill treatment Inter generational phenomenon of child labour Increased bottlenecks in the development process Wasted human resources Wasted human talents and skills Scientists.
Celebrity kids as child labor?? The producers of a few small screen shows have been given notification by the Child labor Commission on the complaints of Maharashtra government .. It should be understood that kids working for serials are definitely treated like kings and they are least not worried or tired with the work they do. But the Maharashtra government feels that it is illegal. Psychological Impact on the Children . They are enjoying what they are doing and in a way it is comforting their body and soul. The notice issued to producers of Balika vadhu was certainly poor example. Be it in the form of beggar or daily laborer. India being a developing country has a large percentage of people living below poverty line and as such their children have to get to work the moment they are born. If the government is that concerned about child labor then it should come out on the streets and find that there are thousands and thousands of children on the streets of Mumbai who toil all day long to make a living. as children below 14 years of age should not be working. The ministry says that the kids working in this program do not have regular attendance in their schools.” Chota Packet Bada Dhamaka” have been given legal notification.The popular television shows like “Balika Vadhu” and a few other reality dance shows like “Chote Ustad”. But have ther ever considered the fact that the kids who actually work in hazardous conditions have never even seen a school?? Child labor is indeed an issue that is hard to deal with..
This is especially true in rural settlements where the family responsibilities and needs are greater. they are at risk to fail and finally drop out of school because they do not find the time to attend school or do homework. language and cognitive difficulties. The older children are expected to take up responsibilities which are much beyond their capabilities. and denial of their basic human rights to health care and protection. school uniforms and educational materials. beatings and abuse. avoidance and teasing by other children. Reality. One of the main reasons for dropping out of school is poverty. neglect. social isolation and discrimination can lead to behavioural disturbances. CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA .. Outcomes include developmental delays. resulting in lasting health problems. Victims of child trafficking experience inhumane living conditions. HIV/AIDS There are a number of psychological impacts affecting children of HIV/AIDS parents. School attendance is not free of charge. however. unsafe abortions. Anger and neglect are other concerns. poorer academic performance. The child is likely to react with fear and anxiety and sometimes will blame themselves . The psychosocial impacts of stress. inadequate diet and hygiene. Furthermore. extreme forms of child maltreatment. A parent who is HIV infected may show less interest in the child due to the dramatic mood swings associated with the pressure of being infected. Victims of CSE are further threatened by unsafe sexual practices.The child’s world goes through many changes as the family structure and way of doing things also changes. Thus. Children who have to work in order to support their family often do not have enough money to pay for school. and sexually transmitted diseases. shows a different picture. only families that can provide for money to cover tuition. Children tend to worry all the time and live a very stressful life. heightening risks of unwanted pregnancies. grief. deficits in verbal and memory skills. and grade retention Child trafficking Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) are crimes.Impact on education In principle every child has access to formal education. complications from frequent high-risk pregnancies. are able to offer their children formal education. Traffickers use psychological manipulations and coercive methods to maintain control over their victims and to make their escape virtually impossible by destroying their physical and psychological defenses. and major violations of children’s human rights.
the child is sold to the loaner like a commodity for a certain period of time.functional in terms of implementation. Here the bonded child is allowed to reside with his parents. The practice of child bonded labor persists like a scourge to humanity in spite of many laws against it.m. .India accounts for the second highest number where child labour in the world is concerned. every day. His labor is treated like security or collateral security and cunning rich men procure them for small sums at exorbitant interest rates. children are in a pathetic condition. In this. The most inhuman and onerous form of child exploitation is the age old practice of bonded labor in India. but is very conspicuously in the Vellore district of Tamil Nadu. The fact is that across the length and breadth of the nation. if he presents himself for work at 8 a. Africa accounts for the highest number of children employed and exploited. The practice of bonded child labor is prevalent in many parts of rural India. These laws although stringent and providing for imprisonment and imposition of huge fines on those who are found guilty are literally non.
GOVERNMENT ACTS AGAINST CHILD LABOR . It is now very important for all International donors to put pressure on the Indian government to enforce bonded labor and child labor laws in the country. but most of their efforts came to naught with time. forced to work in inhuman conditions. Moreover the government efforts did not reach high profile industries like bidi. cigarette making and carpet weaving. Dalit family’s functions as bonded labor due to caste based discrimination and violence and not poverty in many cases. Dalits or the so called untouchable are denied access to land in India. and expected to perform labor for free. . This is due to the so called upper castes boycotting them socially and subjecting them to economic exploitation. The caste system in India is one of the main foundations on which the edifice of bonded labor rests.Governments did take few directions on the right track initially. This attitude of society keeps the poor families bonded in a scourge of perpetual poverty and labor.
. While setting out a long list of child labour monitoring obligations of the State Governments. India has ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 forbids the employment of children in specified hazardous industries. In addition. In addition. it also prescribes heavy fines for employers caught with children at work. in an attempt to fill the loopholes left in previous legislation and to bring in judicial activism to social issues ordered the setting up of a fund for the child workers aimed at controlling and eventually eliminating child labour across the length and breadth of the entire country. Children [Pledging of Labor] Act (1933) Employment of Children Act (1938) The Bombay Shop and Establishments Act (1948) Child Labor -Prohibition and Regulation Act Plantations Labor Act (1951) The Mines Act (1952) Merchant Shipping Act (1958) The Apprentice Act (1961) The Motor Transport Workers Act (1961) The Atomic Energy Act (1962) Bidi and Cigar Workers (Condition of Employment) Act (1966) State Shops and Establishments Act At present. but both Article 24 of the Indian Constitution and Section 67 of the Factories Act explicitly direct that children below the age of 14 years are not to work in factories. the legislations in India only specifically outlaw child labour in designated hazardous industries and bonded child labour. 1996. The Supreme Court ruling of December 10.
.Experience at Pratham Interviewing street kids As we proceeded with the project we realized the amount of work that all NGO’S do in order to make the society a better place. Child labor is indeed a very serious issue and considering the statistics it is also our responsibility as students to play an active part in the prevention of child labor.
SOLUTION 1. some beg because their drunkard parents force them to do so and they have no option. Increased family incomes 2. The list of problems goes on and on but the solution to this must be implied as soon as possible. Social services — that help children and families survive crises. some had left school and were working in order to make a living. we realized the worth of having a loving and caring family besides us. such as disease. Some of these kids were forced to work by their parents. Family control of fertility — so that families are not burdened by children . as responsible citizens of the country address this issue and make others aware of it. Education — that helps children learn skills that will help them earn a living 3. or loss of home and shelter 4. These children will be the future of our country and it is ours as well as the government’s responsibility to see to it that no child is deprived of his basic amenities.As we went on to the streets of dharavi and also interviewed kids who were just outside the college. Every child has the right to follow his path of dreams this will be possible only if we.
Strong advocates of this approach are Boyden. The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for children to participate in important decisions that will affect their lives." and the Save the Children family of non-governmental organizations. CONCLUSION . Concerned for Working Children in Karnataka. Myers and Ling.The ILO’s International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) has explored many programs to help child laborers. Some educators and social scientists believe that one of the most important ways to help child workers is to ask their opinions. and involve them in constructing "solutions" to their own problems. India. many children’s "unions" and "movements.
PURVI. JANARDHAN AND HARD COPY PURVI AND EDITED THE DATA FOR PRESENTATION. MADE THE TANUSHREE AND JANARDHAN PRESENTATION.DATE & TIME WORK DONE PEOPLE PRESENT 12TH FEB 11. JANARDHAN. JANARDHAN AND TANUSHREE TANUSHREE.OO PM COLLECTED DATA FOR THE PROJECT. ABIGAIL AND PURVI 18TH FEB MADE THE TANUSHREE. 22ND FEB . TOOK THE INTERVIEW OF PEOPLE TO GET MORE KNOWLEDGE.30PM 15TH FEB 2.
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