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BASICS (CH4 SUMMARY): Equation of state: For compressible flow: For incompressible flow (V < 100m/s OR M < 0. p181 Anderson. To get in metric.6 Specific fuel consumption.3): Mach number at altitude: where p1 is ambient air pressure (from table) and p0 is pressure at wing (ie measured by pitot tube or similar).3048 meters km/h -> m/s = divide by 3. . ISENTROPIC RELATIONSHIP: temperatures in kelvin. divide by 1980000 then 0.CONVERSIONS: 1 foot = 0.3048. found in ISA table below.

OR SKIN FRICTION: and .

0 is found from the NACA charts) DRAG: . LIFT: At higher speeds: (c_l. Experimentation is needed. Critical reynold's number finds the theoretical transition point between laminar and turbulent air flow.Incompressible turbulent boundary layers: ZERO LIFT DRAG COEFFICIENT: Theoretical prediction of transition from laminar to turbulent layers is very difficult.

Cp is plotted upside down. For For .MOMENT: STALLING: is is is is higher for greater weight lower for greater lower for greater wing area lower for greater air density MAXIMUM VELOCITY: PRESSURE COEFFICIENT: Describes how pressure on surface of wing deviates from freestream pressure. with negative axis pointed up.

level flight) LIFT SLOPE FOR A FINITE WING: Total Force Normal: STEADY AND LEVEL FLIGHT: Inverted: for lift to drag ratio.QUARTER CHORD MOMENT: COEFFICIENT OF DRAG (FINITE WING) (e is Oswald efficiency factor) COEFFICIENT OF LIFT (FINITE WING) (steady. .

p0 is pressure on wing (ie from pitot tube) page181 RATE OF CLIMB: . For jets: THRUST REQUIRED: ALTITUDE EFFECTS: so p1 is ambient pressure (from table).POWER REQUIRED POWER AVAILABLE: For prop planes: where P is total power available from both engines.

RADAR: RANGE (get ready): (props) c = specific fuel consumption (must be in N/(J/s) (s)) (jets) ENDURANCE: Maximum endurance is found at maximum (props) .GLIDING FLIGHT: Where theta is glide angle. W is weight.

(jet) LIFT OFF ROLLING DISTANCE: where Remember.7Vt Then . Get Vlo first. then sub into the equation above.7. Calculate drag and lift from this velocity. then multiply by 0. h is height of the wing above ground. IF THRUST IS LARGE: LIFT OFF VELOCITY TOUCHDOWN VELOCITY: where V(infinity) is 0. b is wingspan.

Convert this by multiplying by 0. You must multiply it by its density.4536 to get metric.MAXIMUM AERODYNAMIC RATIOS (TO FIND MAX RANGE AND MAX ENDURANCE): These replace in the range and endurance equations given above.81 to get its weight.264172052 then 0. so you cannot just multiply by 9. falls within reasonable flight // IMPORTANT . The aircraft is balanced when the trim angle of attack range. The aircraft has longitudinal static stability when: 2.64lb per US gallon. which is 5. CD0 and Cl maxes: WEIGHT OF FUEL: Avgas doesn't have the same density as water. LONGITUDINAL STABILITY AND BALANCE: 1.

. the cg location for hn for which gradient is zero.NEUTRAL POINT: The neutral point is where the aircraft is statically neutral. To stay level. is bank angle. LEVEL TURNS: In this situation. the lift produced at this bank angle must balance the weight.

The rate of turn is angular velocity: high load factor and low velocity both produce high rates of turn and tight turns. where n is very large. where n is the load factor. PULL DOWN MANOUEVRE: Seen in high performance aircraft. and again. PULL-UP MANOUEVRE: This is like a level turn. . the tighter the turn. See above for its equation. Pulling up on the stick. but on the vertical axis. The higher the lift to weight ratio is.so For circular turns: where R is radius of turn.

2070 1.943 2.MAXIMUM LOAD FACTOR: ISA table: Pressure Kinematic -pThermal Speed of Elevation Temperature Viscosity (bar NOT RelativeDensity Conductivity Sound -z-T-νTO BE .4047 3.0996 1.117 2.8 .9 -1500 297.528 2.787 2.9 0.4292 2.4 0.416 2.6 4500 258.7 0.6578 0.6166 0.353 326.088 306.7469 0.405 2.2650 0.5 0.7 0.5694 2.4 0.405 330.5 2000 275.15 1.007 299.8638 1.2 0 288.5405 0.457 334.3830 0.6 3000 268.3080 0.7423 1.028 2.3813 3.169 312.355 2.5 2500 271.509 338.142 310.3 0.4722 0.6012 2.9546 0.5 6500 245.2858 0.2 1.7 1.01325 1.5054 0.6 5000 255.9 0.3315 0.0748 1.2778 1.8988 0.4 1500 278.4817 2.5 0.034 301.8 9500 226.7 10000 223.3 7500 239.2067 1.646 2.301 322.4111 0.5389 2.2 0.8217 1.461 2.1 -500 291.0000 1.301 2.5775 0.311 2.6689 2.4408 0.4 0.9075 1.483 336.1522 1.7012 0.4 1000 281.9529 1.1393 1.715 2.611 346.9 0.2 0.046 2.771 2.211 2.222 316.4 7000 242.8456 0.0 -1000 294.904 2.275 320.0 9000 229.525 2.4549 2.6343 2.581 2.0 0.6 3500 265.7 0.6 4000 262.4 1.3376 3.ρ/ρo -k-c(m) (K) x 10-5 USED FOR (kW/m K) (m/s) (m2/s) Cp) -2000 301.560 342.352 2.7812 1.3565 0.431 332.253 2.2 0.7950 0.379 328.534 340.0489 1.7 0.196 2.2 8000 236.5 6000 249.7 0.5096 2.115 308.520 2.327 324.636 347.248 318.646 2.1 8500 233.863 2.9 1.9 0.5 5500 252.3589 3.7048 1.195 314.3 500 284.2 0.061 303.585 344.

194 7.1 295.980 1.7 216.7 216.527 1.6 222.47 12.05266 0.001 2.801 9.899 4.726 1.7 216.557 4.07258 0.1417 0.07850 0.98 5000 -17.1 295.952 1.990 10.45 8000 -36.06995 0.950 7.821 1.94 9000 -43.1 295.2755 0.05529 0.1 295.2546 0.895 8.10500 11000 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 17500 18000 18500 19000 19500 20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000 220.1 295.08850 0.639 13.7 216.988 7.7 216.422 1.422 .50 0 15.952 1.7 216.952 1.2176 0.50 Dynamic Density Viscosity -ρ-μ-1 3 -5 (10 kg/m ) (10 2 N.1310 0.985 2.08489 0.2 295.237 9.1 295.02047 0.4 297.749 7.09182 0.952 1.211 0.96 7000 -30.00 3000 -4.1162 0.02972 0.952 1.1720 0.00 1000 8.s/m ) 13.08182 0.952 1.952 1.1256 0.364 6.1 295.4 295.2270 0.49 4000 -10.03832 0.722 4.670 14.565 3.07565 0.810 9.01197 Acceleration of Gravity -g2 (m/s ) 9.50 2000 2.1658 0.6 220.01616 0.706 3.601 5.2354 0.805 11.1 295.1 295.8891 1.493 1.213 4.743 42.7 216.952 1.1 295.791 9.952 1.47 6000 -23.989 22.930 5.7 216.093 8.1 295.018 2.1 295.166 5.333 5.1 295.758 1.080 2.405 80.952 1.948 0.439 58.90 15000 -56.07 9.3172 0.300 7.1211 0.952 1.5529 3.968 1.0 216.952 1.794 9.09572 0.745 0.784 15.952 1.034 297.595 1.694 1.1035 0.7 216.1590 0.1359 0.12 10.7 216.1074 0.012 6.953 1.628 1.02188 0.7 218.7 216.135 1.04047 0.1 295.7 216.900 5.258 4.789 1.1793 0.2978 0.1 295.5 0.458 1.785 9.2012 0.05980 0.7 216.5 226.50 20000 -56.540 9.1470 0.239 6.1533 0.952 1.952 1.671 4.788 9.134 1.2454 0.768 6.5 224.405 4.06467 0.952 1.111 3.650 1.13 8.4 301.7 216.201 30.25 11.1860 0.1 295.686 12.1940 0.8 216.776 9.952 1.1 295.7 299.761 9.797 9.807 9.42 10000 -49.7 216.39 10.779 9.1 300.7 216.561 1.01503 Absolute Pressure -p4 2 (10 N/m ) 11.952 1.661 1.782 9.1 296.1120 0.09930 0.804 9.7 216.7 Geo potential Altitude Temperature above Sea -tLevel o ( C) -h(m) -1000 21.02797 0.2098 0.

448 1. assuming laminar flow.calculate local shear stress at locations 1 and 5cm from leading edge of plate given in question above. calculate Mach number of aircraft. density and pressure at point A of airfoil.nozzle flow p168 . altitude given.4008 0.704 1. p219 . Given flow velocity and dimensions of plate. Given free-stream pressure. What is mach # and velocity at point A? p196 . pressure.pitot tube on cessna wing.0001846 1. Find velocity at exit + mass flow through nozzle.003097 0. p213 .Compute mach number given altitude. specific gas constant R and gamma plus area of nozzle. pressure in pitot tube. p165 .594 9. altitude. .01027 0. p212 .Supersonic fighter.601 1. altitude.0008283 0.Basic Aerodynamics: SUMMARY PAGE 247.715 9. pressure in pitot tube. given metric numbers for ambient air temp.475 1.0287 0. boundary layer is turbulent. velocity.13 -53.03996 0.isentropic flow in a rocket engine. Compute airspeed. What area ratio is required.same flow over same plate. p187 .624 9.584 1.design a supersonic wind tunnel that has mach 2 flow @ sea level conditions in test section.boundary layer thickness and drag force on plate. p164 . p181 .321 BOOK SOLUTION PAGES AND THE QUESTIONS THEMSELVES: CH4 .pitot tube question.684 9.1841 0.isentropic flow over airfoil.2549 0.57 -74. Assume infinitely thin wing. p216 .00052 0.564 0.730 9.00011 0. Given temperature. Calc boundary layer thickness at trailing edge and drag force on plate. velocity.1197 0.60 -46.51 9.80 -2. Calculate airflow velocity. p198 .438 1.007978 0.002196 0.25000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 -51. Estimate shear stress 2ft downstream of leading edge.5 -26. Given air temp.654 9. now assume boundary layer COMPLETELY TURBULENT. p178 .64 -22.mercury manometer in a subsonic wind tunnel.

drag = 34. PRessure coefficient variations over upper and lower surfaces are given (three equations with limits).p222 .Pressure point on wing given.6m. Calculate drag coefficient. mointed in test section of wind tunnel. Calc profile drag due to flow separation.Split flap question. altitude given. . deflected at 60 degrees.Find skin friction drag of wright flyer. Calculate the normal force coefficient. p229 . Flow velocity given and pressure at a point on airfoil given. Calc velocity at point two.same wing in same flow. Chord = 0. Velocity in tunnel is given and is at sea level. velocity of aircraft given. the lift.Two different points on surface of airplane wing at 80m/s. What is the angle of attack. V(infty) and transition reynolds number. Incompressible flow. given S. If wing is at 4 degrees angle of attack.6.aircraft flying at velocity of 100m/s at standard altitude of 3km. .Flow velocity is increased so that the free-stream Mach number is 0.Airfoil number given. flow velocity given. p283 . p276 . Given airfoil number and chord length. Leading edge located at x/c = 0.2. standard sea level conditions. Pressure coefficient given for point one.7N. and what angle of attack must the wing be pitched to to obtain L = 0 Newtons? p276 .Low subsonic wind tunnel. p277 . Velocity of wind is given.Airfoil with chord length c and running distance x. per unit span. p284 . p283 . Given length and width. p283 . Find pressure coefficient of this point on wing. What is pressure at this point? p284 .Airfoils. trailing edge at x/c = 1. Pressure coefficient at point 2 given. Spans entire tube.7N is drag per unit span. p275 . Wings and Other Aero dynamic Shapes: SUMMARY PAGE 390. At zero angle of attack.Given name of airfoil. What is the pressure coefficient. wingspan = 1m. drag and moments around the quarter chord. CH5 . Hence 34.Model wing in wind tunnel. flush with the walls. p289 . Flow velocity is 97m/s. again. Calculate drag on airfoil due to skin friction. pitched to angle such that lift per unit span is 700N. profile drag given (angle of attack is zero). Pressure coefficient at a point on plane is -2. Induced drag is zero.

99. at Re = 3. level flight. S given.65e6. e = e1 = 0. For an angle of attack of 6 degrees. Assume e = 0.Wingspan of plane in previous question is 25. Calculate the lift coefficient.AR = 10. p318 .93.p291 .25ft. calculate total drag on aircraft. p328 . p329 . weight of 160.Supersonic fighter. plus graph of pressure coefficient distribution over its surface.21m^2. p330 . p355 . Calculate stalling speed at standard sea level. e = 0. mach 2 at an altitude of 10km. Calculate lift and wave drag coefficients. e=0. Density altitude is 3km and flight velocity is 100m/ s. Weight given. calculate CL and CD (finite wing).95.Full load of fuel.258kg.000ft. Flight velocity is 250mi/h at sea level. calculate the induced drag and profile drag at 140mph. Weight of plane given as 7.Given V = 30mi/h. Max velocity given.A flying wing with wing area of 206m^2. Calculate instantaneous lift exerted on the airplane.000lb of lift. Calculate stalling speed. Assume e = 0. S = 18. Calculate the induced drag coefficient and induced drag. pilot suddenly pitches the airplane to an angle of attack of 10 degrees. calculate the induced drag on the wings. airplane weighs 10. Thin wing.Boeing 727 with low stalling speed.\ p370 . p317 . What is the critical mach number of this airfoil at zero angle of attack? p315 . Assume Re = 5e6.Airfoil given. Wing span given. S = 19.5m squared. AR = 10. Two naca airfoils shown. p357 .Fighter airplane with S = 170ft^2. Generates 18.Can an airfoil produce lift when it is flying upside down? Yes. Calculate its angle of attack at Mach 2 at sea level and 10km altitude. and lift and wage drag per unit span. At this altitude and velocity. Empty weight is 6071 kg. Weight is 7262kgf. obtain the lift coefficient for each. Angle of attack is 5 degrees.Flying at steady. At sea level. but not effectively. when fuel tanks are full and empty. and NACA 4412 airfoil. p335 .Thin supersonic airfoil with chord length c = 5 ft in a Mach 3 freestream at altitude 20. calculate and compare the induced drag and profile drag of the wing. what is the lift coefficient? p298 .North american p-51 mustang. CLmax = only 1. .5e5N. S = 1650ft^2. Altitude given. p336 .NACA 4412 airfoil at angle of attack 4 degrees. NACA airfoil given. NACA airfoil given.000lb. level flight (L=W).95. Steady. This also shows the g forces on the pilot. Max lift coefficient of 3.. If wing at 4 degrees angle of attack.8.15 because of thin wings.7. p329 . If free-stream mach number is 0.

calculate (CL/CD)max and (CL^(3/2)/CD)max for the CP-1. obtain the CJ-1 power-required curve at sea level. The wings are 6ft above the ground. evaluate Vmax at sea level.Estimate the liftoff distance for the CJ-1 at sea level.Calculate the Thrust Required Curves at Sea Level for these two planes given. Assume CL. Calculate the ratio of lift to drag (L/D) at this condition.Calculate and compare the time required for the CP1 and CJ1 to climb to 20. Assume paved runway ( ). Spoilers increase CD. p440 . p415 .000ft. In this case. p420 .0025.CH6 . p478 .Estimate the landing ground roll distance at sea level for the CJ-1.000ft.max during ground roll is limited to 1. p474 .228.Airplane with C_D.0 by 10%.000 ft. p459 .Calculate the absolute and service ceilings for the CP-1 and the CJ-1.0 = 0. p410 . calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured along the ground covered by the CP-1 in a power off glide that starts at an altitude of 10. AR = 7. though spoilers are used so that L=0.000ft. p444 . maximum R/C at sea level.Elements of Airplane Performance: SUMMARY PAGE 522.The maximum lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio for the CP-1 is 13. p463 .Calculate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ-1 (jet). Aircraft is flying such that CL = 0. . No thrust reversal used. Less weight. Max lift coefficient with flaps fully deployed is 2. each corresponding to the minimum glide angle. p463 .5. so neglect weight of fuel. p447 .Calculate the maximum velocity of CJ-1 at sea level. p442 . lets assume that its been changed to a UAV.Given a power required curve at 22.For the CP-1.37 and e=0.0.6. calculate the equilibrium glide velocities at altitudes of 10. Fuel tanks are empty.Calculate Rate of Climb (R/C) versus velocity at sea level for the CP-1 and CJ-1.000 and 2000ft.Using CP-1 airplane of previous examples. p436 .8.calculate (CL^(1/2)/CD)max and (CL/CD)max for the CJ-1. p469 .Calculate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CP-1. p454 .Calculate the power-required curves for the CP-1 at sea level and the CJ-1 at an altitude of 22. p429 . p502 .

Calculate the elevator deflection angle necessary to trim airplane at vel of 61m/s at sea level. S = 19m^2.35c.52. UCAV (L/D)max = 25. Does this model have longitudinal static stability and balance? p560 . . Its elevator hinge moment derivs are XYZ. At 5 degrees angle of attack.1 per degree.04. aerodynamic centre (ac) lies 0.Given wing-body combination.L=0 at angle of attack -1. W = 2. If angle of attack is 7.1m^2 and 0. elevator control effectiveness is 0.05 chord length ahead of the CG.0 degrees and 7.Consider wing-body-tail wind tunnel model in previous question.Aerea and chord of wing are 0. Weights of people and equipment removed total 880lb.05 respectively.17m. p570 . If CL is 0.8. Assess the stick-free static stability of this airplane. p561 .maximum range. calculate p558 .002m^2. @ 1. p576 . calculate the moment coefficient about the center of gravity. At the same flight velocity.From previous question's model.Conventional plane (L/D)max = 9. p505 .88 degrees.45.Stability and Control SUMMARY PAGE 586. The momenbt coefficient about the aerodynamic center is -0. p550 . maximum endurance at sea level. CMs about CG are measured as -0. calculate the neutral point location. partial alpha = 0. p556 .016. CH7 . compare the turn radius and turn rate for these two aircraft.88 degrees.35. Epsilon zero is 0. p551 . Calculate the location of the aerodynamic center and the value of . Assume horizontal tail is added to model.Consider airplane in example 7.7 degrees.Full size airplane with the same aerodynamic characteristics as the model in the previous questions. St = 0. calculate the static margin. Distance from CG to tac is 0.From the model in previous questions. tail lift slope is 0. CG is located at 0. partial epsilon.1m respectively.01 and 0. Tail setting angle is 2. CL = 0.5 degrees.27e4N.

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