*Kevin Raymond Fregil, Max Anthony Galang, Archival Bryan Gan, Amanda Erika Gonzales, Hermogino, Reiner John Group 5 2B Medical Technology

A specific amount of sodium dihydrogen phosphate hydrate and disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate were mixed with distilled H2O to make the ssecoundary phosphate buffer solution. The solids were first dissolved in water and then transferred to a 250mL volumetric flask. The solution was then transferred to an amber bottle for proper storage. Pre-prepared solutions of 6M HCl and 6M NaOH were then used to adjust the pH of the buffer to the required pH with the aid of a pH meter.


Figure 1. The formula for pH, wherein pH is + the negative log of the concentration of H ions. A pH meter can be used to measure the pH of a solution. The tip of the device has a probe that measures pH as the activity of hydrogen ions surrounding a thin-walled glass bulb at its tip. The probe produces a small voltage (about 0.06 volt per pH unit) that is measured and displayed as pH units by the meter. Buffer solutions act as neutralizing agents that contain both positive and negative ions of a weak acid. Thus, if a base such as NaOH is added to the solution, the positive H+ ions will react with the negative (OH-) ions to neutralize the solution. Similarly, if an acid is added to the buffer, the negative ions (such as OH- or C2H3O2-) will react with the hydronium ions to neutralize the solution.

A buffer solution is a solution that resists any change in pH if small quantities of acid or base are added. These are useful in chemical reactions in which slight pH changes could drastically alter the efficiency or products produced. Before creating a buffer solution, the acid and base used to create the solution must be selected. The first consideration is what the pH being buffer actually is. Buffer solutions can be acidic (have a pH less than 7) or alkali (have a pH greater than 7). A buffer solution using citric acid and monopotassium citrate will have a pH of 3.1. A buffer solution of boric acid and sodium hydroxide will have a pH of 12.7. The acid and base selected should not have any type of reaction with whatever compound is being buffered. The concentration of the acid and base in the buffer solution should be equivalent. The actual proportions might be altered slightly to adjust the pH but will still be quite close. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a sample. It is derived from the formula of Figure 1.


II. METHODOLOGY A. Reagents and Materials used: Volumetric flasks, beakers, electronic balance, watch glass, funnel, sodium dihydrogen phosphate hydrate and disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate.



a) Prepare 250mL 0.10M of the buffer solution. M = n/L n = MxL = 0.250L x 0.10M n = 0.025n Weak Acid : Salt of Base :

Slowly, drops of the preprepared 6M HCl or 6M NaOH were added to the solution to adjust it to the required pH.

Figure 2. A pH meter.

 : 0.025n pH=pKa+log  



Antilog 0.29= 


There are 1.95 moles of HPO42- for every mole of H2PO4-.       +   =2.95n = 1.95n/2.95n = x/ 0.025n = x =0.0165n

  = 1n/ 2.95n = x/0.025n   =x =0.0085n g Na  = 0.0085n x 138g/mol = 1.17g g Na2HPO4 = 0.0165n x 268g/mol = 4.42g b) Adjustment of pH using pH meter. The probe of the pH meter was cleaned using tissue paper. The prepared buffer solution is then transferred to a large beaker. The probe was immersed in the solution.

The compounds sodium dihydrogen phosphate hydrate and disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate were used because they exhibited the common ion effect. The common ion effect is an effect which results when two substances which both ionize to give the same (common) ion are involved in a chemical equilibrium. In this case, the common ion is  .  can ionize further to release a H+ which could further increase the acidity of the buffer. So if an alkalinic substance was introduced to the system, the  can give off a proton ( the H+) to neutralize the base, therefore ensuring chemical equilibrium. Also,  can get the free H+ should an acid be introduced to the system. This will reduce the neutralize the effect of the acid, thus again ensuring chemical equilibrium.
SOURCES: 15002730AANPWxr Bursten, B.E., Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E.(2004). Chemistry: The Central Science. 9th ed.

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