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CH 1:IP process

why study an activity u have don ur entire life? ther are 3 reasons:1.studing IPC will give u a new look at a
familiar topic. for instance, ina few pages u will find that some people can go years--even a life time --without
communicating n a truly IP manner. in this sense exploring human comm is rather like studing anatomy botany--
every day objects & processes take on new meaning.2..has to do with the staggering amount of time we spend
on communicating.e.g.a study of over 1000 employees revealed that workers send & receive an average of 178
msg every working day.another survay revealed that business professionals spend 80% of their day
communicatig with colleagues & clients.3.compelling reasons 4 studying IPC is to put it bluntly ,all of us could
learn to communicate more effectively.Our friendships,jobs & studies suffer b/c we fail deal with others as
effectively as is necessary.a group of senior executives cited lack of IP skills as one of the top 3 skill deficits in
today workforce.
why we communicate: we all need people.we all seed to commct
1.Physical needs:-comm is so imptnt that is presence r absence can affect phy health.recent studies confirm
that people who process -ve experience by talking about report improved life satisfaction,as well as enhanced
mental & phy health,relative to those think privately about it.n extremes cases comm can even become a matter
of life r death.Research demonstrates the imprtnc of satisfying persnal relationshp,& it explain the conclusion of
social scientst that comm is essential.not every one needs the same amount of contact ,& the quality of comm is
almost certanly imp as quantity.nonetheless,the point remains:Personal comm is essentail 4 our well-being.
2..Identity needs:-comm does more than enable us to survive.it is the way--indeed,the major way--we learn
who we r.our sense of identity comes frm d way we interact with other people.r v smart r stipid ,attcactive r ugly?
d ans to these quesn don`t come frm looking n d mirror.v decide who v r based on how others react to
us.deprived of comm with others,v would hav no sense of identity.some stories suggest each of us enters the
worle with r no sense of identity.v gain an idea of who v r frm d way others define us.
3..Social needs:-besides helping defin who v r,some social scientst hav argued that comm is d principal way
relationships r created.sometimes v deal with social needs directly by discusng our relationships with ithers.but
more often ,comm satisfies a variety of socail needs without our ever addressing them overtly.Rebecca Rubin
has identified 6 catagories of social needs we satisfy by commtng:pleasure(b/c it is fun,to hav a good
time),affection(to help others,to let others know I care),inclusion(b/c i need someone to talk to r b with,b/c it
makes me less lonely),escape(to put off somthing i should b doing).ralaxation(bib it allows me to unwind),&
control(b/c i want someone to do somthing 4 me,to get something i don`t hav).imagin how impossible life would b
without comm.b/c relationships with others r so vital,som theorists hav gon so far as to argue that comm is d
primary goal of human existence.
4..Practical needs:-v should not overkook d everyday,imp functions comm serves.comm is the that let us till d
hairstylist to take just a little off d sides,direct d doctor to where it hurts.a wealth of research demonstrates that
comm is an essential part of effectiveness n a variety of everyday settings.a survey over 90% of d personnel
officials at 500 U.S.businesses stated tha increased comm skills r needed 4 sucess n 21st century.a recent 1
founded that employers & businesspersons agreeing that IP skills r d most imp 1 sougth n a job applicant.
functions of non-verbal communication Functions of Silence
• impression mgt(body size,skin color,dress etc) 1. Time to Think
• forming & defining relations(1.communicate closeness 2.signal dominance) 2. Hurt Others 3.
Nothing to Say
• structuring conversation & social interaction(turn-taking cues) 4 . Response to Anxiety
• influence(signals truth r deception) 5. Prevent
Communication
• emotional expression(revealing emotions through nonverbals) 6. Communicate
Emotional Responses
7. Achieve Specific Effects
The Importance of Interpersonal Skills Challenges and Opportunities for OB
• Understanding OB helps determine manager effectiveness 1. Responding to Globalization 2. Managing Workforce
Diversity
– Technical and quantitative skills important 3. Improving Quality and Productivity 4. Improving
Customer Service
– But leadership and communication skills are CRITICAL 5. Improving People Skills 6. Coping with
“Temporariness”
• Organizational benefits of skilled managers 8. Working in Networked Organizations
– Lower turnover of quality employees 9. Helping Employees Balance Work-Life Conflicts
– Higher quality applications for recruitment 10. Creating a Positive Work Environment
– Better financial performance 7. Stimulating Innovation and Change 11. Improving
Ethical Behavior
• Responding to Globalization •Profiling
– Increased foreign assignments. – A form of stereotyping in which members of
a

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– Working with people from different cultures group are singled out for intense scrutiny
based
– Coping with anti-capitalism backlash on a single, often racial, trait.
– Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor
– Managing people during the war on terror
Shaping: A Managerial Tool:=Systematically reinforcing each Causes of Job Satisfaction
successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response • Pay influences job satisfaction only to a
point. •Four Methods of Shaping Behavior: – After about $40,000 a year (in the
U. S.), there is no
– Positive reinforcement relationship between amount of pay and job
satisfaction.
• Providing a reward for a desired behavior (learning) – Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job
satisfaction.
– Negative reinforcement • Personality can influence job
satisfaction.
• Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior – Negative people are usually not satisfied with
their jobs.
occurs (learning)= – Those with positive core self-evaluation are more satisfied
with their jobs .
– Punishment Types of Employee Involvement Programs
• Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable • Participative Management
behavior (“unlearning”) – Subordinates share a significant degree of decision-
making
– Extinction = power with their immediate superiors
• Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation = • Representative Participation
(“unlearning”)= – Works Councils
• Groups of nominated or elected employees who must be
consulted
What Are the Major Job Attitudes? = for any personnel decisions
• Job Satisfaction – Board Representative
• Job Involvement • An employee sits on a company’s board of directors
and represents
• Psychological Empowerment the interests of the firm’s employees.
– Belief in the degree of influence over the job, • Quality Circle
competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy. – A work group of employees who meet regularly to
discuss their
• Organizational Commitment quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take
corrective actions
– Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, = Group Decision Making vs. Individual Choice
while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. = • Group Strengths:
– Three dimensions: = – Generate more complete information and
knowledge
• Affective – emotional attachment to organization = – Offer increased diversity of views and greater
creativity
• Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying = – Increased acceptance of decisions
• Normative – moral or ethical obligations = – Generally more accurate (but not as accurate as the
most
– Has some relation to performance, especially for new = accurate group member)
Employees. = • Group Weaknesses:
– Less important now than in past – now perhaps more of = – Time-consuming activity
occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather = – Conformity pressures in the group
than to a given employer.= – Discussions can be dominated by a few members
• Perceived Organizational Support (POS) – A situation of ambiguous responsibility
– Degree to which employees believe the organization = Why Have Teams Become So Popular?
values their contribution and cares about their well-being.= • Great way to use employee talents
– Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in = • Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the
environment
decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. = • Can quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband
– High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. = • Facilitate employee involvement
• Employee Engagement • Increases employee participation in decision making
– The degree of involvement, satisfaction with, and = • Democratize an organization and increase motivation
enthusiasm for the job. = • Note: teams are not ALWAYS effective

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– Engaged employees are passionate about their work and = Differences between Groups and Teams
Company. = • Work Group – A group that interacts primarily to share
information
Defining Motivation and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of
responsibility
The result of the interaction between the individual and = – No joint effort required
the situation. = • Work Team – Generates positive synergy through
coordinated
•The processes that account for an individual’s = effort. The individual efforts result in a
performance
intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward = that is greater than the sum of the individual
inputs
attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal.= Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer
•Three key elements: = Teams take more time and resources than does
individual work.
– Intensity – how hard a person tries. = • Three tests to see if a team fits the situation:
– Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent = 1. Is the work complex and is there a need for
different
with, organizational goals. = perspectives: will it be better with the insights of more than
one person?
– Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort.= 2. Does the work create a common purpose or set of
goals
Reasons For and Against Telecommuting for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for
individuals?
Advantages Disadvantages 3. Are members of the group involved in
interdependent tasks?
– Larger labor pool • Employer What Employers Expect
– Higher productivity – Less direct supervision of employees = • Communicating with
diverse groups
– Less turnover – Difficult to coordinate teamwork= • Obeying regulations and
guidelines
– Improved morale – Difficult to evaluate non-quantitative performance= • Using time
productively
– Reduced office-space costs • Writing and
speaking effectively
•Employee – May not be as noticed for his or her efforts

Interpersonal Communication Creating a Positive


Organizational Culture
• Oral Communication = • Positive Organizational
Culture
– Advantages: Speed and feedback = – A culture that:
– Disadvantage: Distortion of the message= • Builds on employee strengths
• Written Communication = – Focus is on discovering, sharing, and building
on the strengths of
– Advantages: Tangible and verifiable= individual employees
– Disadvantages: Time-consuming and lacks feedback = • Rewards more than it punishes
• Nonverbal Communication = – Articulating praise and “catching employees
doing something right”
– Advantages: Supports other communications and provides= • Emphasizes individual
vitality and growth
observable expression of emotions and feelings = – Helping employees learn and grow in their
jobs and careers
– Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures= • Limits of Positive Culture:
can influence receiver’s interpretation of message = – May not work for all
organizations or
• Blogs: websites about a single person (or entity) that = everyone within them
are typically updated daily = Etiquette in the
Workplace
– A popular but potentially dangerous activity:= • Three principles
• Employees may post harmful information = – Respect
• Such comments may be cause for dismissal= – Courtesy

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• No First Amendment rights protection = – Common sense
• Can be against company policy to post in the blog during= Business IM Benefits
company time and on company equipment/connections= • Rapid response
• Transformational vs. Charismatic Leadership:= • Reduced
costs
– Similar concepts, but transformational leadership may be= • Conversational
aspects
considered a broader concept than charisma = • Wide availability
– Instrument-based testing shows the measures to be roughly= Business IM
Concerns
Equivalent= • Technical
issues
Contrasting Leadership and Power = – Security and
privacy
Leadership Power = – User
identification
– Focuses on goal – Used as a means for= – Message logging
achievement achieving goals = – Incompatible
systems
– Requires goal compatibility – Requires follower= Effective Workplace
IM
with followers dependency = Things to Avoid
Things to Do
– Focuses influence – Used to gain lateral and= Wasting time
Purposeful messages
downward upward influence = Personal messages
Scheduled messages
• Research Focus • Research Focus = Complex messages
Confidential messages
– Leadership styles and – Power tactics for gaining = Multiple conversations
“Spam” protection
relationships with followers compliance = Using Blogs in
Business
What About Ethics Training? = • Project
Management •Employee Recruiting
Argument against Argument for = •E-Mail Replacement
•Policies and Issues
– Personal values and value – Values can be learned and= •Company News •Crisis
Communication
systems are fixed at an changed = •Customer Support
•Market Research
early age – Training helps employees = •Public Relations
•Brainstorming
recognize ethical dilemmas and issues= •Employee Engagement
•Viral Marketing
– Training reaffirms the = Using Podcasts in
Business
organization’s expectation= • Audio-video •
Training sessions
that members will act Ethically= • Product brochures •
Virtual tours
• Types of Stress= The
Podcasting System
– Challenge Stressors = • Basic options ((PC microphone ,PC
sound card ,PC software ))
• Stress associated with workload, pressure to= • Advanced options(( Audio processor
,Mixer and complete tasks and time urgency=
microphone, Advanced software))
– Hindrance Stressors = Barriers to
Listening
• Stress that keeps you from reaching your goals, such as red tape = • Physical
reception
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• Cause greater harm than challenge stressors= • Selective
listening
Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining = •
Prejudgment
Bargaining Characteristic = Distributive Bargaining = Integrative Bargaining = • Selective
perception
Goal = Get all the pie you can Expand the pie = • Little
common ground
Motivation= Win-Lose Win-Win = • Memory
problems
Focus = Positions Interests = Resolving
Team Conflict
Information Sharing= Low High = • Seven
methods
Duration of Relationships =Short-Term Long-Term= 1. Proaction 2.
Communication 3. Openness
Teams ÷ 4. Research 5. Flexibility
6. Fair play 7. Alliance
Advantages Disadvantages = Technology for Reports and
Proposals
•More information •Groupthink = 1. Templates 2. Embedded and
linked documents
•Diversity of views •Hidden agendas= 3. Electronic forms 4. Electronic
documents
•Support for solutions •Free riders = 5. Multimedia documents 6..
Proposal-writing software
•Improved performance •High costs= Media for Brief Messages
1. Social networks 2. Text
messaging 3. User content sites
4. Blogs 5. Electronic mail
6. Podcasts
7. Instant messages
8. Online video

Matrix Structure
Advantages Disadvantages
• Facilitates the use of • Can cause uncertainty and
specialized personnel, lead to intense power
equipment and facilities struggles
• Provides professionals with a • Working relationships become
broader range of responsibility more complicated
and experience • Decisions may take longer
Pros and Cons of Barrier-Free Structures
Pros Cons
• Leverages the talents of all • Difficult to overcome political and
Employees authority boundaries inside and
• Enhances cooperation, outside the organization
coordination, and information • Lacks strong leadership and
sharing among functions, common vision, which can lead to
divisions, SBUs, and external coordination problems
Constituencies • Time-consuming and difficult-to-
• Enables a quicker response to manage democratic processes
market changes through a single– • Lacks high levels of trust, which
goal focus can impede performance
• Can lead to coordinated win-win
initiatives with key suppliers,
customers, and alliance partners
Pros and Cons of Modular Structures
Pros Cons
• Directs a firm’s managerial and • Inhibits common vision through
technical talent to the most critical reliance on outsiders
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Activities • Diminishes future competitive
• Maintains full strategic control over advantages if critical technologies
most critical activities—core or other competences are
Competencies outsourced
• Achieves “best in class” • Increases the difficulty of brining
performance at each link in the back into the firm activities that
value chain now add value due to market shifts
• Leverages core competencies by • May lead to an erosion of cross-
outsourcing with smaller capital functional skills
Commitment • Decreases operational control and
• Encourages information sharing potential loss of control over a
and accelerates organizational supplier
Learning
Pros and Cons of Virtual Structures
Pros Cons
• Enables the sharing of costs and • Harder to determine where one
Skills company ends and another
• Enhances access to global begins, due to close
Markets interdependencies among players
• Leads to potential loss of
• Increases market responsiveness operational control among partners
• Creates a “best of everything”
• Results in loss of strategic control
organization since each partner over emerging technology
brings core competencies to the
Alliance • Requires new and difficult-to-
acquire managerial skills
• Encourages both individual and
organizational knowledge sharing
and accelerates organizational
Learning

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