Bus Standards Bus is a pathway which data can travel within a computer for communication & established between 2 or more

computer elements, it also transfer data between CPU & the main system bus, or CPU and external memory cache Process Bus The function of process bus is to get information to & from CPU so has to work very fast in the system, it communicate pathway between CPU & chipset. Memory Bus It has dedicated chipset that is responsible for transferring information between CPU & RAM, & it has a memory controller chipset to control the interface between bus processor & memory bus. Address Bus Subset of the processor & memory bus, to indicate which address memory & system bus used for data transfer operation & next bus transfer & memory transfer will occur, vh utaos 7ii7s546 8u6 7size of memory & control amount of memory that CPU can access directly. I/O Bus I/O bus & expansion slot enable CPU to communicate with peripheral device & enable device to expand its capabilities, examples (sound card, video card) Master & Slave For device to communicate with one another there send address to distinguish it form ,& each device has a unique address ,it also send read write signal to indicate its intention, there communicate with each other thought address ,data & control bus. the master device is the one that start & control the communication while the slave device respond. Example 80* 86 based PC the CPU is the master & memory is the slave Arbitrated expansion bus No bus can serve 2 master at the same time .so for a master to access the buses ,it must ask permission from the central bus arbitrator which is first come first serve basis. Bus Master To speed up the system, without the support of CPU it can execute operations independently, because it’s a adapter with own processor, it rely on arbitration unit ,an integrated system peripheral(ISP)chip that enable bus master board to temporarily take exclusive control of the system . Bus Bandwidth Bus Bandwidth= bus transfer data from master to slave is measure in megabytes per seconds, bus bandwidth depends on the bus speed ,width & protocol Processor bus transfer rate or bandwidth =data width & CPU then divided 8 Asynchronous Transfer data bit by bit also called start-stop transmission. For slow device Synchronous Governed by microprocessor clock, for fast device 8 bit ISA bus & 16 bit Bus 8 bit is the obsolete & 16 bit is in AT 286 processor in1984 from IBM MCA (Micro Channel Architecture)bus Is a 32 bit data bus ,32 bit address bus ability to transfer data to add-in card with 16 bit or 32bit data path. but is incompatible with ISA cards ,speed limit 10MHZ VESA Local Bus

Video Electronics Standards Association is a local bus, it direct access to the system memory at the speed of the processor, can move 32 bit at a time between the CPU & a compatible video subsystem or hard –drive at the full 32 biut data width of the 486 chip ,at a maximum frequency of 33MHZ with 3 expansion slots PCI BUS Peripheral Component Interconnect bus is also call mezzanine bus because PCI controller sits between CPU & external bus connection ,it bypasses the I/O bus by using the system bus to increase the bus clock speed & take full advantage of the CPU’s data path AGP AGP is a port because it used only 2 device process & video card, it used for Implement port, increase AGP speed & enhancements video. it advantage is it isolates the video subsystem from the rest of the PC, so it won’t cost contention over I/O bandwidth with PCI.AGP bus is 32 wide ,bandwidth 266MB/s it runs double speed than PCI or 66MHZ,it has 2X mode for signal to sent data over the Port at the same clock speed. Firewire(IEEEE-1394) New technology for fast transfer large data especially multimedia device, speed 400M/sec signaling rates 100Msec, 200M/sec & 400M/sec,maximum of 63 device connected to single IEEE-1394 adapter cards by daisy chaining, cables GameBoy – derived connectors & consist of 6 conductors 4 wire for data transmission ,2 conductor power ,connector to motherboard is either IEEE-1394 interface or PCI adapter card. Universal Serial Bus(USB) USB cable allow connection up to 127 devices thought the use of daisy chaining, speed is 12M/sec which is slower than Fire wire ,it a hotplug & unplug device meaning you don’t have to turn off the computer when connect or disconnected the device.