15 views

Uploaded by shiva_18

- Help the Genetic Algorithm to Minimize the Urban Traffic on Intersections
- Safety-based Process Plant Layout Using Genetic Algoritm
- Techniques for Aircraft Configuration Optimization
- a285dbb2aafa821207268ed8d5c932340901
- Ga Knapsack
- DamageIdentification_OSP_inSHM_GA.pdf
- Cost Optimization Using GA for Structural Beams With Different and Conditions
- 00538609
- J3 - Elsevier JOCS - a New Population Seeding Technique for Permutation-Coded Genetic Algorithm
- Designing safe, proﬁtable automated stock trading agents
- rotory edm optimization
- A Proposed Genetic Algorithm Selection Method
- 93-90-1-PB
- Genetic Algorithm
- A Genetic Algorithm Example
- 01338520
- Rutgers Lib 24283 PDF 1
- The Power of CLV-Managing Customer Lifetime Value at IBM
- 18_references .pdf
- Optimal Sizing for a Solar Water Heating System based on Life Cycle Cost using Genetic Algorithm.pdf

You are on page 1of 4

Algorithm

M. T. A. P. Wickramarathna, Member, IEEE, and Dr. Nalin Wickramaarachchi

Abstract - This paper describes the application of Genetic [6]

Algorithm (GA) to deal the Transmission Planning (TNP)

problem to obtain the minimum cost solution while meeting the II. INTRODUCTION OF TRANSMISSION NETWORK

other constraints such as thermal, reliability criteria. The non- PLANNING

convexity that has been observed in the TNP cannot be solved

effectively by conventional mathematical methods. GA has the Main Objectives of TNP are finding out the transmission

ability to find the global optimal point in such a non-convex network required to ensure reliable and stable power system

function. As there are no fractional transmission lines, TNP while utilizing the maximum capacity of the network and

becomes a very complex mixed integer non-linear programming estimating the minimum investment cost for the transmission

problem. GA can be used to select the optimal new transmission network. In this project mainly focused on two transmission

lines network with the least investment cost, while meeting the planning criteria named thermal criteria and minimum cost

total load demands without any load curtailment. criteria.

Index Terms-Transmission Network Planning, Genetic n

Algorithm, minimum cost. Pp = ∑ {ep(epGpq + fqBpq ) + fp ( fpGpq − epBpq )} → (1)

q =1

n

I. INTRODUCTION Qp = ∑{ fp (epGpq + fpBpq) − ep( fpGpq − epBpq)} → (2 )

q =1

Vp = ep2 + f p2 → (3)

2

new facilities (mainly transmission lines) so that the resulting

power system may be able to meet the forecasted demand at

the lowest cost, while satisfying prescribed technical, financial Where Pp and Qp are active power component and

and reliability criteria. Although the conventional methods are

somewhat successful in TNP, some problems still exit; reactive power component of the load bus bar and Vp voltage

at generator bus bar. These three sets of equations (1), (2) and

Non-convexity: Due to non-convexity of TNP problem the (3) are the load flow equations and it can be seen that they are

success of the search largely depends on the starting point. non-linear equations in terms of the real and imaginary

Therefore, the optimization process sometimes stops at non- components of nodal voltages. Here the left hand quantities

optimal solutions. i.e. Pp, Qp (for a load bus) and Pp and |Vp| for generator bus

are specified and ep and fp are unknown quantities. For an n-

Non-linearity: increases the iterations of the optimization bus system, the numbers of unknowns are 2(n-1) because the

algorithm and sometimes causes divergence. voltage at the slack bus is known and is kept fixed both in

magnitude and phase. Therefore, if bus 1 is taken as the slack,

There are lot of researches has done using conventional the unknown variables are (e2, e3…, en-1, en, f2, f3… fn-1, fn).

mathematical methods to solve the TNP problem. Some of Thus to solve the problem for 2(n-1) variables we need to

those methods are; solve 2(n-1) set of equations.

Least-effort criterion [1], Linear Programming [2], Zero-

One Implicit Enumeration Method [3], Optimization and Since the TNP problem is nonlinear, iterative methods

Heuristic Techniques [4], Hierarchical Decomposition should be used to solve the problem. In this project have been

used the Newton-Raphson method to solve the power flow

This work was supported in part by the Asian Development Bank problem. Newton-Raphson method is an iterative method

which approximates the set of non-linear simultaneous

M. T. A. P. Wickramarathna is with Ceylon Electricity Board, equations to a set of linear simultaneous equations using

Transmission Planning Branch, 5th Floor, Sir Chittampalam A Gardiner

Mawatha, Colombo 02. Tele:0940112324842, eetrp1@ceb.lk Taylor’s series expansion and the terms are limited to first

N. Wickramaarachchi is with Department of Electrical Engineering, approximation.

Electrical Engineering Department, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa,

Tele:0940112650301, wick@elect.mrt.ac.lk

III. THE GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE GA’S THEORY

Start

the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics. [8] Initialize a Population

They combine survival of the fittest among string structures

with a structured yet randomized information exchange to

form a search algorithm with some of the innovative flair of Load Flow Calculation & Save the Results

human search. In every generation, a new set of artificial

creatures (strings) is created using bits and pieces of the fittest

of the old; an occasional new part is tried for good measure.

IF TF of previous

generation >TF of new

GA combines selection, crossover, and mutation operators generation

with the goal of finding the best solution to a problem. GA

search for this optimal solution until a specified termination

criterion is met. Replace the population

Backup the previous & Fitness value with

A proto-typical GA consists of the following steps; generation & Fitness value new value

a mating pool, 4. Mutate randomly selected member of the

mating pool, 5. Pair the members of the mating pool and Selection

Delete all chromosomes that Crossover

perform crossover to obtain a new generation, 6. Return to 2.,

does not have six BBs and Mutation

until some stopping condition is satisfied. [7], [9] replace with new random one

IF all six BBs

THE TP PROBLEM (IMPLEMENTATION) present in the

solution

The flow chart (Fig.1) describes the steps of the

implementation of the project “Transmission Network

Planning using Genetic Algorithm.”

IF No. of

Initialize the Population generation < max

represent the chromosomes. Each chromosome has 15 values Display the N/W solution

to represent the all-possible transmission lines among 6

numbers of bus bars. The 6 bus bar network (Fig. 2) has been

Stop

used for this paper work.

D=240MW

D (Demand)=240MW

G=150MW

G (Generation)=150MW The program has used 10 different types of transmission cable

3 types, i.e. 1xZebra, 2xZebra, 1xGoat, Lynx, Bear, Lynx_54,

Tiger, Coyote, Oriole, 1xZebra_54. To represent those line

types 1 to 10 integers are used and to represent o-line

D=240MW condition 0 integer is used in the program. The properties of

D=40MW 1

G=360MW

the line types are given in Table II gives. [10]

4 5

One possible chromosome ≡ 1 0 0 3 0 5 6 0 0 0 10 0 6 0

2-4 Branch: 350 Oil Filled, 3-5 Branch: 1xZebra, 4-6 Branch:

G=600MW D=160MW

350 Oil Filled and all other branches are not connected by a

Fig.2 Six bus bar network which is used for the study transmission lines.

TABLE II Increase the performance of the network: If the power flow

THE PROPERTIES OF THE LINE TYPES

through the transmission line is lower percentage of its

capacity or higher percentage of its capacity, it is an adverse

Line Capacity Cost / km R X feature of the network. Best thing is, keep the line

Type (MVA) MLK Rs pu/km pu/km performance between 70% ~ 90% of its capacity.

1xZebra 165 6 .0003 0.002

Line Fitness: Here line fitness means the number of lines in

2xZebra 330 8 .0002 0.002

the network. The aim of inclusion of this parameter is to

1xGoat 150 7 0.143 0.406 develop medium number of lines in the network while

Lynx 105 5 0.001 0.002 achieving the minimum cost.

Bear 130 7.5 0.075 0.190

350 Oil Fil. 60 4.5 0.060 0.099 Total Fitness of population: For one generation the

500 Oil Fil. 120 4 0.051 0.095

program runs for ‘20’ number of chromosomes. Total fitness

(TF) gives the cumulative sum of all 20 chromosomes

300 XLPE 130 5 0.078 0.198

fitnesses.

500 XLPE 160 4 0.048 0.182

800 XLPE 225 4.5 0.031 0.165 Selection: For the selection, Roulette wheel selection

method is used. The better the chromosomes are, the more

Population Size: This parameter specifies the number of chances to be selected they have. The reason for selecting

individuals in each generation of the GA. There are 20 Roulette wheel method is, TNP being a generational GA type.

chromosomes in a single population. So initial population is In a generational GA, selection is applied many times to

2D matrix. The initial population is selected randomly. Size of produce a mating pool or new population. The most

the population doesn’t change over time. commonly used method is roulette wheel method, which

ensures that the members of the population are drawn with the

Load Flow Calculation: To perform the load flow correct probability.

calculations a Matlab power system simulation package,

MATPOWER have been used.[11] It is intended as a Crossover: To implement the crossover operator, the single

simulation tool for researchers and educators, which will be point crossover has been used; which prevents any genetic

easy to use and modify. MATHPOWER is designed to give drift and provides very slow mixing which leads to small

the best performance possible while keeping the code simple disruption than the other methods. In implement process of

to understand and modify. single point crossover, selecting two parent chromosomes and

selecting the crossover point are done in random manner. All

Fitness Evaluation: The objective of the project is to use the chromosomes in the population are subjected to crossover.

GA to obtain the optimized solution for TNP problem while So the crossover probability is 100%.

achieving the minimum cost.

Mutation: One population contains 20 chromosomes, and

So when mapping this objective to a fitness function, one chromosome contains 15 possible lines between Bus Bars

mainly four facts are considered; 1. To minimized the cost, 2. (BBs). As the value encoding has used to represent the

To reduce the number of over loaded lines, 3. To increase the chromosome, in mutation randomly 3 lines (values) are

number of which has line performance between 70% to 90%, selected and changed with randomly chosen number between

4. To increase the line fitness of the network. The fitness 0 to 10. So the mutation probability is given by equation

function must reflect both the desired and the unwanted (4); Pc ; P c =

3*100

20 *15

= 1% → ( 4 )

properties of a solution.

lines of the network. Transmission line types are varying

basically according to its capacity & cost. So using GA,

minimum cost transmission line can be selected, which suits

to transfer required power between bus bars.

line whose power flow exceeds the capacity of it, called over

loaded line. Over loaded transmission line is an adverse

feature of a network. That means for the optimum network

solution, we have to minimize or diminish the number of over

loaded lines.

VII. REFERENCES

From To Line Type

[1] Interactive Transmission Network Planning Using a Least-Effort

1 2 Lynx_54 Criterion – IEEE Transaction on power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.

2 3 Coyote PAS-101, No.10, October 1982.

2 5 Tiger [2] Transmission Network Planning Using Linear Programming – IEEE

4 6 1xZebra Transaction on power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No.2,

5 6 Coyote February 1985.

[3] A Zero-One Implicit Enumeration Method for Optimizing Investments

Total cost (in millions) = 1330 in Transmission Expansion Planning - IEEE Transaction on Power

Total number of lines = 5 Systems, Vol. 9, No 3, August 1994.

Total Line length (in km) = 300 [4] Large Scale Transmission Network Planning Using Optimization and

Heuristic Techniques - IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 10,

Newton's method power flow converged in 5 iterations. No 4, August 1995.

Converged in 0.04 seconds [5] A Hierarchical Decomposition Approach for Transmission Network

Expansion Planning - IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No

System Summary 1, February 1994.

[6] Hybrid Mathematical and Rule-based System for Transmission network

Bus Data Planning in Open Access Schemes – IEE Proceedings online no.

20010432.

Bus Voltage Generation Load [7] Making Genetic Algorithms Work in the Real World: Guidelines from

# Mag(pu) Ang(deg) P (MW) Q (MVAR) P (MW) Q (MVAR) Competent GA Theory – Patrik Reed and Barbara Minsker.

--- ------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- [8] The Practitioner’s Role in Competent Search and Optimization Using

1 1.000 0.000 70.00 40.69 90.00 0.00 Genetic Algorithms – Patrick M. Reed, Barbara S. Minsker and David E.

2 0.944 1.675 - - 240.00 0.00 Goldberg.

3 1.000 21.137 300.00 90.66 40.00 0.00 [9] Designing a Competent Simple genetic Algorithm for Search and

4 0.984 26.875 - - 160.00 0.00 Optimization – Patrick Reed, Barbara Minsker and David E. Goldberg.

5 0.898 1.675 - - 240.00 0.00 [10] Ceylon Electricity Board – Long Term Transmission Development

6 1.000 37.277 400.00 153.31 - - Studies 2001 – 2010.

[11] Matpower, A Matlab Power System Simulation Package. User’s Manual,

Version 2.0

Branch Data

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES

From To From Bus Injection To Bus Injection

Bus Bus P (MW) Q (MVAR) P (MW) Q (MVAR)

----- ----- -------- -------- -------- -------- M. T. A. P. Wickramarathna (Member

1 2 -20.00 40.69 20.00 -37.85 No:80369785) was born in Sri Lanka, on 15th April

2 3 -260.00 1.08 260.00 90.66 1975. She is graduated from University of

2 5 -0.00 36.78 0.00 -34.97 Moratuwa, specialized in Electrical Engineering in

4 6 -160.00 -0.00 160.00 29.37 2001.

5 6 -240.00 34.97 240.00 123.94 Her Employment included Arthur C. Clarke

Institute for Modern Technology, Merbok Lanka

MDF (Pvt.) Ltd., Department of Electrical

Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Export

Development Board, and Ceylon Electricity Board.

VI. CONCLUSION Her special fields of interest included Areas of Artificial Intelligence for

Electrical Engineering applications.

Wickramarathna received her Master Degree in Computer Science and

The research reported in this paper clearly demonstrates Engineering from Univercity of Moratuwa in 2003. She has presented a paper

that a GA approach to a TNP problem is both feasible and on Design and implementation of an Interface for a remote access to energy

advantageous. It provides to optimize several parameters in meters in Annual IEE Sri Lanka Conference 2001.

the same time.

Nalin Wickramarachchi, PhD (Brit. Col.), DIC,

Furthermore, it allows the representation of non-linearities, MSc(London), BSc. Eng. (Moratuwa) is a Senior

which are hard to include in pure mathematical programming Lecturer in Electrical Engineering, University of

methods; in fact, the existence of non-linearities enhances the Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.

advantages of using GA against pure mathematical His research interests are mostly focused in the

programming. area of Artificial intelligence. More specifically,

The results of a GA are a generation of solutions filtered "Use of Fuzzy Logic for Control Applications" is

what he do most of the time. Other areas of interests

through the struggle for survival. Therefore, many interesting are control applications in electrical machines, image

and valuable exercises on comparisons and trade offs may be processing and industrial automation.

executed, helping the planner to gain insight on the problem

he is faced with and allowing field for better decisions to be

taken.

Since GA problem starts with randomly generated solutions

and all other operations randomly, we can obtained several

different results for the same problem. So can select the best

among them.

- Help the Genetic Algorithm to Minimize the Urban Traffic on IntersectionsUploaded byWhite Globe Publications (IJORCS)
- Safety-based Process Plant Layout Using Genetic AlgoritmUploaded byNandarSiagian
- Techniques for Aircraft Configuration OptimizationUploaded byallanep
- a285dbb2aafa821207268ed8d5c932340901Uploaded bymuns
- Ga KnapsackUploaded bymingin2008
- DamageIdentification_OSP_inSHM_GA.pdfUploaded byMohamed Magdi Khalil
- Cost Optimization Using GA for Structural Beams With Different and ConditionsUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- 00538609Uploaded byRavindra Vankina
- J3 - Elsevier JOCS - a New Population Seeding Technique for Permutation-Coded Genetic AlgorithmUploaded byRajakumar Ramalingam
- Designing safe, proﬁtable automated stock trading agentsUploaded byhundredwaters7387
- rotory edm optimizationUploaded byAnand Kesarkar
- A Proposed Genetic Algorithm Selection MethodUploaded bykalanath
- 93-90-1-PBUploaded byNayar Cuitlahuac Gutierrez
- Genetic AlgorithmUploaded byGarima Singhal
- A Genetic Algorithm ExampleUploaded byVipula Rawte
- 01338520Uploaded byapi-3697505
- Rutgers Lib 24283 PDF 1Uploaded byrishanshawkat
- The Power of CLV-Managing Customer Lifetime Value at IBMUploaded by87bb
- 18_references .pdfUploaded bymhk665
- Optimal Sizing for a Solar Water Heating System based on Life Cycle Cost using Genetic Algorithm.pdfUploaded byLeandro Safra
- Static Dynamic PlanningUploaded byaucer
- Http Gio.uniovi.es Ant Ponencias Nacionales Fin en Ingles[1]Uploaded byParmeshwar Khendke
- l2 examplehow to comment on draft11Uploaded byapi-229102420
- CB717 Evolutionary.pdfUploaded byAhmed Sabry
- How to Analyse Evolutionary AlgorithmsUploaded byravigobi
- AI MSFLUploaded byVeluru Harsha Vardhan Reddy
- gaotv5Uploaded byHakan Boyacı
- 17 ConclusionUploaded bymhk665
- unasUploaded byMohsin Schehzad
- PAPER Subburaj Ramar Ganesa Venkatesh INDIAUploaded byFERDINAD

- Asynchronous Shaders White Paper (by AMD)Uploaded byatom tux
- Software Download ManualUploaded bycidcam
- Python for ProgrammersUploaded byThinh Doan
- hw2Uploaded byEverett Fortner
- 3 2 4 a beamanalysisshortcutstkUploaded byapi-272705534
- American University of Science and TechnologyUploaded byMichelle
- A Secure Client Side Deduplication Scheme in Cloud Storage EnvironmentsUploaded byJayaprabhu Prabhu
- 0 Name.doc 2013 2014 Initial Test for Grade 7.Doc Tvuia and Ezeris-1Uploaded byBarbu Sabina Giorgiana
- hackingUploaded byapi-379098611
- MPC 2013 07-web.pdfUploaded bycacamaca10062
- PPT on Marketing Strategy of HaldiramUploaded bysumit.avistar
- Hd63xz00lmb AUploaded byLê Minh
- IDQ LearningUploaded byPradeep Kothakota
- 83455482-707094E0-VDR-Users-Manual.pdfUploaded byBeneDict Ben D
- Digitalization in banking.pdfUploaded byShruthi
- accb1MMS 403Uploaded byAbhishek_mhptr
- upgrade_instructions_nt - Dengel ShareUploaded byapi-19810186
- Internal and External Commands Used in MS-DOS _ KullabsUploaded byJitendra Singh Rauthan
- RevisionsUploaded byCésar Alonso
- Challlengebrains Blogspot Com IMportantUploaded byAbid Saif
- EC Council BrochureUploaded byjayarajan
- Marketing+Team+Project+경영학부A.pdfUploaded by이주화
- Communicating the Museum Javier EspadasUploaded byJavier Espadas Bardón
- Sun SCSA 310-014 Solaris 9 Admin I Exam Q&A v6 0 CorrectExamsUploaded bysbashar36
- C++ Microsoft CourseUploaded byAndreiaVilela
- 1BO16CSE05.pptxUploaded byDinesh Gowda
- Full Report (Pbl1)Uploaded byNuHar Misran
- AdmissionBooklet CDAC-PG-DiplomaCourses Feb13 V1 NewUploaded byKumara Raja Jetti
- AutoCad 2012 Google Earth - ReadmeUploaded byMarcos Gómez Pérez
- Apply Local Policies to All Users Except AdministratorsUploaded byTony Twano Nakhoul