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Transmission Expansion Planning With Genetic

M. T. A. P. Wickramarathna, Member, IEEE, and Dr. Nalin Wickramaarachchi

Approach [5], Hybrid Mathematical and Rule-based system

Abstract - This paper describes the application of Genetic [6]
Algorithm (GA) to deal the Transmission Planning (TNP)
problem to obtain the minimum cost solution while meeting the II. INTRODUCTION OF TRANSMISSION NETWORK
other constraints such as thermal, reliability criteria. The non- PLANNING
convexity that has been observed in the TNP cannot be solved
effectively by conventional mathematical methods. GA has the Main Objectives of TNP are finding out the transmission
ability to find the global optimal point in such a non-convex network required to ensure reliable and stable power system
function. As there are no fractional transmission lines, TNP while utilizing the maximum capacity of the network and
becomes a very complex mixed integer non-linear programming estimating the minimum investment cost for the transmission
problem. GA can be used to select the optimal new transmission network. In this project mainly focused on two transmission
lines network with the least investment cost, while meeting the planning criteria named thermal criteria and minimum cost
total load demands without any load curtailment. criteria.
Index Terms-Transmission Network Planning, Genetic n
Algorithm, minimum cost. Pp = ∑ {ep(epGpq + fqBpq ) + fp ( fpGpq − epBpq )} → (1)
q =1
I. INTRODUCTION Qp = ∑{ fp (epGpq + fpBpq) − ep( fpGpq − epBpq)} → (2 )
q =1

The objective of TNP is to determine the installation plans of

Vp = ep2 + f p2 → (3)
new facilities (mainly transmission lines) so that the resulting
power system may be able to meet the forecasted demand at
the lowest cost, while satisfying prescribed technical, financial Where Pp and Qp are active power component and
and reliability criteria. Although the conventional methods are
somewhat successful in TNP, some problems still exit; reactive power component of the load bus bar and Vp voltage
at generator bus bar. These three sets of equations (1), (2) and
Non-convexity: Due to non-convexity of TNP problem the (3) are the load flow equations and it can be seen that they are
success of the search largely depends on the starting point. non-linear equations in terms of the real and imaginary
Therefore, the optimization process sometimes stops at non- components of nodal voltages. Here the left hand quantities
optimal solutions. i.e. Pp, Qp (for a load bus) and Pp and |Vp| for generator bus
are specified and ep and fp are unknown quantities. For an n-
Non-linearity: increases the iterations of the optimization bus system, the numbers of unknowns are 2(n-1) because the
algorithm and sometimes causes divergence. voltage at the slack bus is known and is kept fixed both in
magnitude and phase. Therefore, if bus 1 is taken as the slack,
There are lot of researches has done using conventional the unknown variables are (e2, e3…, en-1, en, f2, f3… fn-1, fn).
mathematical methods to solve the TNP problem. Some of Thus to solve the problem for 2(n-1) variables we need to
those methods are; solve 2(n-1) set of equations.
Least-effort criterion [1], Linear Programming [2], Zero-
One Implicit Enumeration Method [3], Optimization and Since the TNP problem is nonlinear, iterative methods
Heuristic Techniques [4], Hierarchical Decomposition should be used to solve the problem. In this project have been
used the Newton-Raphson method to solve the power flow
This work was supported in part by the Asian Development Bank problem. Newton-Raphson method is an iterative method
which approximates the set of non-linear simultaneous
M. T. A. P. Wickramarathna is with Ceylon Electricity Board, equations to a set of linear simultaneous equations using
Transmission Planning Branch, 5th Floor, Sir Chittampalam A Gardiner
Mawatha, Colombo 02. Tele:0940112324842, Taylor’s series expansion and the terms are limited to first
N. Wickramaarachchi is with Department of Electrical Engineering, approximation.
Electrical Engineering Department, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa,

Genetic Algorithms (GA) are search algorithms based on

the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics. [8] Initialize a Population
They combine survival of the fittest among string structures
with a structured yet randomized information exchange to
form a search algorithm with some of the innovative flair of Load Flow Calculation & Save the Results
human search. In every generation, a new set of artificial
creatures (strings) is created using bits and pieces of the fittest
of the old; an occasional new part is tried for good measure.
IF TF of previous
generation >TF of new
GA combines selection, crossover, and mutation operators generation
with the goal of finding the best solution to a problem. GA
search for this optimal solution until a specified termination
criterion is met. Replace the population
Backup the previous & Fitness value with
A proto-typical GA consists of the following steps; generation & Fitness value new value

1. Generate initial generation, 2. Measure fitness, 3. Select

a mating pool, 4. Mutate randomly selected member of the
mating pool, 5. Pair the members of the mating pool and Selection
Delete all chromosomes that Crossover
perform crossover to obtain a new generation, 6. Return to 2.,
does not have six BBs and Mutation
until some stopping condition is satisfied. [7], [9] replace with new random one


IF all six BBs
The flow chart (Fig.1) describes the steps of the
implementation of the project “Transmission Network
Planning using Genetic Algorithm.”
IF No. of
Initialize the Population generation < max

Representation: The value encoding method is used to

represent the chromosomes. Each chromosome has 15 values Display the N/W solution
to represent the all-possible transmission lines among 6
numbers of bus bars. The 6 bus bar network (Fig. 2) has been
used for this paper work.

D=240MW 2 Fig.1 Main steps of the Implementation of the project

D (Demand)=240MW
G (Generation)=150MW The program has used 10 different types of transmission cable
3 types, i.e. 1xZebra, 2xZebra, 1xGoat, Lynx, Bear, Lynx_54,
Tiger, Coyote, Oriole, 1xZebra_54. To represent those line
types 1 to 10 integers are used and to represent o-line
D=240MW condition 0 integer is used in the program. The properties of
D=40MW 1
the line types are given in Table II gives. [10]
4 5
One possible chromosome ≡ 1 0 0 3 0 5 6 0 0 0 10 0 6 0

6 1-2 Branch: 1xZebra, 1-5 Branch: 1xGoat, 2-3 Branch: Bear,

2-4 Branch: 350 Oil Filled, 3-5 Branch: 1xZebra, 4-6 Branch:
G=600MW D=160MW
350 Oil Filled and all other branches are not connected by a
Fig.2 Six bus bar network which is used for the study transmission lines.
TABLE II Increase the performance of the network: If the power flow
through the transmission line is lower percentage of its
capacity or higher percentage of its capacity, it is an adverse
Line Capacity Cost / km R X feature of the network. Best thing is, keep the line
Type (MVA) MLK Rs pu/km pu/km performance between 70% ~ 90% of its capacity.
1xZebra 165 6 .0003 0.002
Line Fitness: Here line fitness means the number of lines in
2xZebra 330 8 .0002 0.002
the network. The aim of inclusion of this parameter is to
1xGoat 150 7 0.143 0.406 develop medium number of lines in the network while
Lynx 105 5 0.001 0.002 achieving the minimum cost.
Bear 130 7.5 0.075 0.190
350 Oil Fil. 60 4.5 0.060 0.099 Total Fitness of population: For one generation the
500 Oil Fil. 120 4 0.051 0.095
program runs for ‘20’ number of chromosomes. Total fitness
(TF) gives the cumulative sum of all 20 chromosomes
300 XLPE 130 5 0.078 0.198
500 XLPE 160 4 0.048 0.182
800 XLPE 225 4.5 0.031 0.165 Selection: For the selection, Roulette wheel selection
method is used. The better the chromosomes are, the more
Population Size: This parameter specifies the number of chances to be selected they have. The reason for selecting
individuals in each generation of the GA. There are 20 Roulette wheel method is, TNP being a generational GA type.
chromosomes in a single population. So initial population is In a generational GA, selection is applied many times to
2D matrix. The initial population is selected randomly. Size of produce a mating pool or new population. The most
the population doesn’t change over time. commonly used method is roulette wheel method, which
ensures that the members of the population are drawn with the
Load Flow Calculation: To perform the load flow correct probability.
calculations a Matlab power system simulation package,
MATPOWER have been used.[11] It is intended as a Crossover: To implement the crossover operator, the single
simulation tool for researchers and educators, which will be point crossover has been used; which prevents any genetic
easy to use and modify. MATHPOWER is designed to give drift and provides very slow mixing which leads to small
the best performance possible while keeping the code simple disruption than the other methods. In implement process of
to understand and modify. single point crossover, selecting two parent chromosomes and
selecting the crossover point are done in random manner. All
Fitness Evaluation: The objective of the project is to use the chromosomes in the population are subjected to crossover.
GA to obtain the optimized solution for TNP problem while So the crossover probability is 100%.
achieving the minimum cost.
Mutation: One population contains 20 chromosomes, and
So when mapping this objective to a fitness function, one chromosome contains 15 possible lines between Bus Bars
mainly four facts are considered; 1. To minimized the cost, 2. (BBs). As the value encoding has used to represent the
To reduce the number of over loaded lines, 3. To increase the chromosome, in mutation randomly 3 lines (values) are
number of which has line performance between 70% to 90%, selected and changed with randomly chosen number between
4. To increase the line fitness of the network. The fitness 0 to 10. So the mutation probability is given by equation
function must reflect both the desired and the unwanted (4); Pc ; P c =
20 *15
= 1% → ( 4 )
properties of a solution.

Minimize the cost: Here consider the cost of transmission V. RESULTS

lines of the network. Transmission line types are varying
basically according to its capacity & cost. So using GA,
minimum cost transmission line can be selected, which suits
to transfer required power between bus bars.

Reduce the number of over loaded lines: A transmission

line whose power flow exceeds the capacity of it, called over
loaded line. Over loaded transmission line is an adverse
feature of a network. That means for the optimum network
solution, we have to minimize or diminish the number of over
loaded lines.
From To Line Type
[1] Interactive Transmission Network Planning Using a Least-Effort
1 2 Lynx_54 Criterion – IEEE Transaction on power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.
2 3 Coyote PAS-101, No.10, October 1982.
2 5 Tiger [2] Transmission Network Planning Using Linear Programming – IEEE
4 6 1xZebra Transaction on power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No.2,
5 6 Coyote February 1985.
[3] A Zero-One Implicit Enumeration Method for Optimizing Investments
Total cost (in millions) = 1330 in Transmission Expansion Planning - IEEE Transaction on Power
Total number of lines = 5 Systems, Vol. 9, No 3, August 1994.
Total Line length (in km) = 300 [4] Large Scale Transmission Network Planning Using Optimization and
Heuristic Techniques - IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 10,
Newton's method power flow converged in 5 iterations. No 4, August 1995.
Converged in 0.04 seconds [5] A Hierarchical Decomposition Approach for Transmission Network
Expansion Planning - IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No
System Summary 1, February 1994.
[6] Hybrid Mathematical and Rule-based System for Transmission network
Bus Data Planning in Open Access Schemes – IEE Proceedings online no.
Bus Voltage Generation Load [7] Making Genetic Algorithms Work in the Real World: Guidelines from
# Mag(pu) Ang(deg) P (MW) Q (MVAR) P (MW) Q (MVAR) Competent GA Theory – Patrik Reed and Barbara Minsker.
--- ------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- [8] The Practitioner’s Role in Competent Search and Optimization Using
1 1.000 0.000 70.00 40.69 90.00 0.00 Genetic Algorithms – Patrick M. Reed, Barbara S. Minsker and David E.
2 0.944 1.675 - - 240.00 0.00 Goldberg.
3 1.000 21.137 300.00 90.66 40.00 0.00 [9] Designing a Competent Simple genetic Algorithm for Search and
4 0.984 26.875 - - 160.00 0.00 Optimization – Patrick Reed, Barbara Minsker and David E. Goldberg.
5 0.898 1.675 - - 240.00 0.00 [10] Ceylon Electricity Board – Long Term Transmission Development
6 1.000 37.277 400.00 153.31 - - Studies 2001 – 2010.
[11] Matpower, A Matlab Power System Simulation Package. User’s Manual,
Version 2.0
Branch Data
From To From Bus Injection To Bus Injection
Bus Bus P (MW) Q (MVAR) P (MW) Q (MVAR)
----- ----- -------- -------- -------- -------- M. T. A. P. Wickramarathna (Member
1 2 -20.00 40.69 20.00 -37.85 No:80369785) was born in Sri Lanka, on 15th April
2 3 -260.00 1.08 260.00 90.66 1975. She is graduated from University of
2 5 -0.00 36.78 0.00 -34.97 Moratuwa, specialized in Electrical Engineering in
4 6 -160.00 -0.00 160.00 29.37 2001.
5 6 -240.00 34.97 240.00 123.94 Her Employment included Arthur C. Clarke
Institute for Modern Technology, Merbok Lanka
MDF (Pvt.) Ltd., Department of Electrical
Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Export
Development Board, and Ceylon Electricity Board.
VI. CONCLUSION Her special fields of interest included Areas of Artificial Intelligence for
Electrical Engineering applications.
Wickramarathna received her Master Degree in Computer Science and
The research reported in this paper clearly demonstrates Engineering from Univercity of Moratuwa in 2003. She has presented a paper
that a GA approach to a TNP problem is both feasible and on Design and implementation of an Interface for a remote access to energy
advantageous. It provides to optimize several parameters in meters in Annual IEE Sri Lanka Conference 2001.
the same time.
Nalin Wickramarachchi, PhD (Brit. Col.), DIC,
Furthermore, it allows the representation of non-linearities, MSc(London), BSc. Eng. (Moratuwa) is a Senior
which are hard to include in pure mathematical programming Lecturer in Electrical Engineering, University of
methods; in fact, the existence of non-linearities enhances the Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
advantages of using GA against pure mathematical His research interests are mostly focused in the
programming. area of Artificial intelligence. More specifically,
The results of a GA are a generation of solutions filtered "Use of Fuzzy Logic for Control Applications" is
what he do most of the time. Other areas of interests
through the struggle for survival. Therefore, many interesting are control applications in electrical machines, image
and valuable exercises on comparisons and trade offs may be processing and industrial automation.
executed, helping the planner to gain insight on the problem
he is faced with and allowing field for better decisions to be
Since GA problem starts with randomly generated solutions
and all other operations randomly, we can obtained several
different results for the same problem. So can select the best
among them.