FSB 33303

Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Introduction

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Artificial Intelligence: A Guide to Intelligent Systems
By Michael Negnevittsky
Dr Michael Negnevitsky is a Professor in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Tasmania, Australia. The book has developed from lectures to undergraduates. Its material has also been extensively tested through short courses introduced at Otto-von-GuerickeUniversit™t Magdeburg, Institut Elektroantriebstechnik, Magdeburg, Germany, Hiroshima University, Japan and Boston University and Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

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Subject Assessments
Mid-Sem Test – 20% Lab Tests – 20% AI Case Study – 20% Final Exam – 40% Total : 100%

Subject Overview
Introduction to AI Knowledge-based Intelligent System Rule-based Expert Systems: Clips programming Uncertainty management Fuzzy Expert Systems Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) Evolutionary Computation: Genetic Algorithms AI Case study

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Outline
Overview of Artificial Intelligence What is Artificial Intelligence? AI Techniques Artificial Intelligence in Industry Examples of AI Application

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

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What is Intelligence?

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According to the Oxford and Penguin English Dictionaries the word “intelligence” can be defined as follows: ability to understand reason perceive quickness in learning mental alertness ability to grasp relationships clever information news One way to understand “intelligence” is by looking at our own capabilities. which means that humans are able to: think understand recognize perceive generalize adapt learn make decisions solve daily problems 5 .

Luger (1999).branch of CS that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour 6 . it deals with representing these processes via machines.concerned with two basic ideas. firstly involves studying the thought process of humans and second.Outline Overview of Artificial Intelligence What is Artificial Intelligence? AI Techniques Artificial Intelligence in Industry Examples of AI Application Definition of AI Turban & Aronson (2001).

1992) System that think rationally " The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people" (Kurzweil. reason. and act" (Winston. 7 .. 1990 System that act rationally "The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior" (Luger and Stubblefield.) Norvig and Russel (1995) defines in 4 ways System that think like human "[The automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking." (Bellman.. The ultimate objective is to develop a system that can think and act rationally like humans. problem solving. 1993) Artificial Intelligence (AI) ? AI is a study about inventing machines/computers that capable of mimicking human/animal intelligent behavior. activities such as decision-making. learning.Definition of AI (cont.. 1978) System that act like human "The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive.

AI Tree (Turban & Aronson. 2001) Artificial eye Artificial brain Artificial ear Artificial tongue Artificial nose Artificial senses Artificial Emotion 8 .

Meaning of intelligent behaviour Learning or understanding from experiences Making sense out of ambiguous or contradictory messages Responding quickly and succesfully to a new situation (different responses->flexibility) Using reasoning in solving problems and directing conduct effectively Dealing with perplexing situations Understanding and inferring in ordinary rational ways Applying knowledge to manipulate the environment Thinking and reasoning Recognizing the relative importance of different elements in a situation.What is Artificial Intelligence? AI is a “tool” that has been developed to imitate human intelligence and decisionmaking functions. providing basic reasoning and other human characteristics. 9 .

An Intelligent pH sensor What the Intelligent Microprocessor-based pH Transmitter can do? It can tell the user if its glass electrode is damaged or clogged It can determine if a sensor cable is disconnected It can determine if the liquid level is too low 10 .

Is there really an Intelligent Machine/System? From this point of view it appears that an intelligent system (or device) contains a collection of simple features that jointly make the system easy to use Can machines be developed to have “intelligence”? Perhaps one way to do this is to develop algorithms based on human or animal intelligence 11 .

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURES The Motherboard: from single layer to multilayer Copying from Biological Systems 12 .

the design of the optimal length of robotic manipulators should follow that of the human arm Copying from Biological Systems From Thumb Print Bar Code 13 .Copying from Biological Systems In a study by T. Yoshikawa (Kyoto University).

Examples and Aspects Biological Intelligence Self-repair Self-guidance Reproduction Making decisions Reasoning capability Predicting/forecasting Understanding noisy or fuzzy information Capability to Learn Capability to Generalize/Classify Capability to Survive Gathering of Information Recognizing Patterns Common Sense Logical Thinking What is the implication of adding “intelligence” in machines? • If artificial systems can be made more robust. costly redesigns can be reduced or eliminated • If higher level of adaptation can be achieved. existing systems can perform their functions longer and better • If machines can be made to be self-organized then less operations are needed by humans 14 .

DNA. observing. etc. genetic. Robotics. predicting. How do we design Intelligence? Study from biological models (brain.Intelligence that can be designed Self learning machines Autonomous / Self-organizing systems Self-optimization Path planning Pattern recognition Decision making Prediction …………………. Study from human phenomena (common sense. GA. …. expert systems. DNA Computing.) neural nets. etc. reasoning. Molecular biology. search techniques. …) fuzzy logic. inference. Need to develop mathematical/logical algorithms based on the above biological models or phenomena 15 . life. Quantum Computing. Artificial Life.

. •Logic Prog. Bio.. Micro. Models •ANN •GA •A. Proc. •Nat. L. Outline Overview of Artificial Intelligence What is Artificial Intelligence? AI Techniques Artificial Intelligence in Industry Examples of AI Application 16 . Life •…….•Mathematics •Control Theory •Computer Science •Physics •Operational Research •…………… •Neuroscience •Psychology •Philosophy •Biological Science •Physiology •…………… Symbolic AI •KBS •Symbolic M. •Search techniques •…………… New AI •Fuzzy •Rough Sets •Chaos •………. Lang.

DNA Computing Many AI techniques have been developed based on biological systems/behavior The AI Field Expert System Natural language processing Speech (voice) understanding Robotic & Sensor system Computer vision and scene recognition Intelligent computer aided instruction Neural computing Language translation Fuzzy logic Genetic algorithms Intelligent agent 17 . etc.Some Examples of Available Artificial Intelligence Techniques Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic Neural Networks Genetic Algorithms Chaos Theory Rough Sets Artificial Life.

AI Application Area Game playing Automated reasoning & Theorem Proving Expert System Natural language understanding & semantic modelling Modelling human performance Planning & robotic Language & Environment for AI Machine Learning Parallel Distribution Processing (PDP) & Emergent Computation AI Field: An Overview Expert System Fuzzy Logic Neural Network Genetic Algorithm 18 .

19 .What is an Expert System (ES)? Expert System (ES) is a branch of Artificial Intelligence that attempt to mimic human experts. called the antecedent (premise or condition) and the THEN part called the consequent (conclusion or action). Expert systems can either support decision makers or completely replace them.THEN Rules as a knowledge representation technique in Expert system A rule provides some description of how to solve a problem. Any rule consists of two parts: the IF part. Expert systems are the most widely applied & commercially successful AI technology. Consists of rule IF…. Rules are relatively easy to create and understand.

especially linguistic labels Clustering and Classification 20 .Basic structure of a rule-based expert system Knowledge Base Rule: IF-THEN Database Fact Inference Engine Explanation Facilities User Interface User How Does Fuzzy Logic resembles Human Intelligence? Rule Base System (reflects some forms of the Human Reasoning Process) Handling certain levels of Imprecision and Uncertainty.

of Rule-based System without Fuzzy Logic -------------------------If Temperature is 30oC Then Switch ON Condenser to 80% If Traffic has more than 20 Cars Then Extend Green Light by 20 secs Eg. With Fuzzy Logic. of Rule-based System with Fuzzy Logic -------------------------If Temperature is HIGH Then Switch ON Condenser HIGH If Traffic is HEAVY Then Green Should be Extended LONGER 21 .Fuzzy logic can handle linguistic imprecision where other techniques have difficulty in handling When you are at 10 metres from the junction start braking at 50% pedal level. When you are near the junction. start braking slowly. Rules Can be Written in a More Natural Way Eg.

. Weights Wij are “learned” to fit any function.+ W1 xN N f() Σ W1jxj O 1 xN Neural Networks Biological Network Artificial Neural Network An artificial neural network is a universal function approximator..Artificial Neural Networks – Supervised Learning Biological Neuron Artificial Neuron x1 x2 x3 • • • W11 W12 W13 W1 N sum = W11x1+ W12x2 +. 1 x1 x2 • • • n O1 O2 a1 a2 xj 1 Wji ak • • • Wkj n Om 22 .

Genetic Algorithms have been derived from human reproduction process GA Operators Population Fitness Reproduction Reproduction Crossover Crossover Mutation Generation Generation proceed Chromosomes (Carrier of Hereditary Information) Genes 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Features. Tall The Genetic Algorithm Directed search algorithms based on the mechanics of biological evolution Developed by John Holland. Brown Eyes. Characters: Eg. Dark Hair. University of Michigan (1970’s) To understand the adaptive processes of natural systems To design artificial systems software that retains the robustness of natural systems 23 .

effective techniques for optimization and machine learning applications Widely-used today in business.. scientific and engineering circles Components of a GA A problem to solve. chromosome) Initialization procedure (creation) Evaluation function (environment) Selection of parents (reproduction) Genetic operators (mutation.) Provide efficient.The Genetic Algorithm (cont. and . recombination) Parameter settings (practice and art) 24 .. Encoding technique (gene.

Simple Genetic Algorithm { initialize population. } } The GA Cycle of Reproduction reproduction parents children modification modified children population deleted members evaluated children evaluation discard 25 . evaluate population. perform recombination and mutation. evaluate population. while TerminationCriteriaNotSatisfied { select parents for reproduction.

The genetic algorithm cycle C rossover Generation i X1i X2i X3i X4i X5i X6i 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 f = 36 f = 44 f = 14 f = 14 f = 56 f = 54 X2i 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 X5i X1i 1 0 11 00 0 0 0 11 11 11 X5i X6i 1 0 00 1 0 1 00 00 X2i Generation (i + 1) X1i+1 1 0 0 0 X2i+1 0 1 0 1 X3i+1 1 0 1 1 X4i+1 0 1 0 0 X5i+1 0 1 1 0 X6i+1 0 1 1 1 f = 56 f = 50 f = 44 f = 44 f = 54 f = 56 X1'i 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 X1"i X5'i 0 1 1 1 0 0 X2i X5i 0 1 0 0 1 0 X2"i Mutation X6'i 1 0 0 0 X2'i 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Outline Overview of Artificial Intelligence What is Artificial Intelligence? AI Techniques Artificial Intelligence in Industry Examples of AI Application 26 .

Why Industries need AI/new technology? • • • • • • • Improved performance Reduced operations by humans Better reliability Cost reduction Easier maintenance Simpler to design Able to design complex tasks Made in Japan (based on a video on innovations and the need for change) 1980s Excellent Quality Expensive Leadership Balance of Payments High Technology Innovations 1960s Junk Cheap Poor Quality Copies Low Technology Imitation 27 .

Is there really a need for AI? Manufacturers need to improve on their products Need to satisfy customers Need to improve products’ reliability Need to improve products’ performance Need to improve products’ features Need to distinguish their products away from their competitors AI Applications Consumer Products (IT) Decision Support Systems AI Industrial Products Medical Applications 28 .

Intelligent Man-Machine Interface Algorithms. (Algorithms) computations Execution Intelligent machine Perception (sensors) Example of Products with AI Genie Fuzzy Logic Jar Cookers TASKS Cognition 29 . EE Expert systems Fuzzy logic Neural networks GA ………….Intelligent Systems Design CS Expert systems Fuzzy logic Neural networks GA ………….

This Refrigerator has a Neuro-Fuzzy Control System (For Door Cooling and Super-Cooling and Freezing) 30 .It also has a Neuro-Fuzzy Logic System. low cool or defrosting.a smart system that “knows”your lifestyle and learns your pattern of use(like what time the doors are most frequently opened or closed) and controls the refrigerator accordingly either through quick cooling.

the i fuzzy logic rice cooker can steam. Fuzzy Rice Cookers 31 . slow cook and with functions for preparing brown rice as well as porridge.With an advanced microprocessor.

Example of fuzzy rules in washing machines If transmittance is low and load is heavy then extend washing cycle medium Photo sensor Load Sensor Light Drained out water If transmittance is high and load is heavy then extend washing cycle longer Receptor 32 .In 1990s. extremely high sales were recorded! This prompted many other consumer product manufacturers to start using fuzzy logic in their products. with the introduction of Fuzzy Logic Washing Machines.

Fuzzy Logic Automatic Gear Shift Control in Vehicles Sensor 1: Road Winding Conditions Fuzzy Logic Output: Gear Shift Pattern Sensor 2: Frequency of Braking Fuzzy logic is used to determine the best gear position in difficult conditions 9 point AiAF: Artificial Intelligence Autofocus 33 .

Why the need to develop “Intelligent Systems” and Why Now? More challenging problems More complex systems More powerful computers/hardware Better/powerful algorithms Better software tools Human desire Advantages of Adding Intelligence in Products/ Systems Better performance Longer Life Reliability Simpler operation Cost effective Higher efficiency Self-organizing / self-optimization Simpler design 34 .

Technology Example of an Application Fuzzy Traffic Lights Control Objective: To control traffic lights that can respond to density of vehicles in an efficient manner.Example of an Application How would you design an intelligent traffic lights system? Features/Advantages . A traffic lights control simulator has been developed which can use: a fuzzy logic controller conventional preset timer 35 .

Application of FL to Diagnostic Systems H y d r o g e n S t a t iis t iic s H y d r o g e n S ta t s t c s 2 00 1 80 1 60 Test Value 19 9 1 40 1 20 1 00 80 60 40 45 69 65 95 82 1 23 15 0 0 1 /0 1 /1 9 9 7 0 6 /0 6 /1 9 9 7 0 1 /0 9 /1 9 9 7 2 5 /1 2 /1 9 9 7 0 1 /0 1 /1 9 9 8 0 1 / 0 6 /1 9 9 8 1 1 / 0 9 /1 9 9 8 1 1 /1 1 / 1 9 9 8 M e t h a n e S t a t is t ic s M e t h a n e S t a t is t ic s S a m p li n g D a t e 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 22 37 21 33 54 34 41 Test Va lue 436 0 1 /0 1 /1 9 9 7 0 6 / 0 6 /1 9 9 7 0 1 /0 9 /1 9 9 7 2 5 /1 2 / 1 9 9 7 0 1 / 0 1 /1 9 9 8 0 1 /0 6 /1 9 9 8 1 1 /0 9 /1 9 9 8 1 1 / 1 1 /1 9 9 8 E t h y lle n e S t a t iis t iic s E th y e n e S ta t s t c s S a m p l in g D a t e 6 51 7 00 Report & Graphs for Analysis 6 00 5 00 4 00 3 00 2 00 1 00 0 12 32 3 322 500 Test Value 465 145 14 0 1 /0 1 /1 9 9 7 0 6 /0 6 /1 9 9 7 0 1 /0 9 /1 9 9 7 2 5 / 1 2 /1 9 9 7 0 1 /0 1 /1 9 9 8 0 1 /0 6 /1 9 9 8 1 1 /0 9 /1 9 9 8 1 1 / 1 1 /1 9 9 8 S a m p l in g D a t e Automatic Interpretation using Fuzzy Logic Transformer Condition ☺ Good Normal Bad FUZZY INTERPRETATION Where AI can/should be applied? Data is overwhelming/abundance Too many manual operations/procedures Optimization is possible Parallel/Distributed procedures/architectures are needed Decision making is required When current techniques are too complicated to be used/designed 36 .

. Cont’d Mathematical models are too complex/impossible To increase efficiency To reduce cost To improve performance and reliability Where AI should not be applied? Lack of Data Simpler techniques are available / sufficient Further optimization is not possible 37 .Where AI can/should be applied? .

AI is not the only solution AI is only one part of technology AI is just a tool for improvement You must know your domain/target application 38 . Some Important Facts..Some Pre-requisites in understanding AI Some mathematical background HLL Programming Discrete-time systems Some aspects of biological systems as well as philosophy and psychology ………. you need to know….

Outline Overview of Artificial Intelligence What is Artificial Intelligence? AI Techniques Artificial Intelligence in Industry Examples of AI Application The Future – Humanoids 39 .

Honda’s Humanoid Robots The P2 Humanoid 40 .

Further. Ltd.Honda Motor Co. and even recognize their faces and address them by name. ASIMO's ability to interact with humans has advanced significantly --. utilizing networks such as the Internet. Honda plans to commence rental of this new version of ASIMO to public institutions and companies.P3 Humanoid Introducing a New ASIMO Featuring Intelligence Technology Tokyo.it can greet approaching people. follow them. move in the direction they indicate. has released a new model of its intelligent humanoid robot ASIMO which is capable of interpreting the postures and gestures of humans and moving independently in response. 2002 --. Starting from January of next year. 41 . December 5. ASIMO can provide information while executing tasks such as reception duties. ASIMO is the world's first humanoid robot to exhibit such a broad range of intelligent capabilities..

Sound recognition 2. Face recognition 3. Environment recognition 42 . Recognition of moving objects 4.ASIMO Advanced Step in Innovative MObility Camera Eyes [AI] Antenna Battery (Fuel Cell) Gyro Sensor Measuring Body Angle Actuators and Other Peripheral Systems Controlling leg movements [AI] Load Sensors In Leg Intelligent Real-time Flexible Walking [AI] The New ASIMO The key features of the new ASIMO include: Advanced communication ability thanks to pattern recognition technology 1. Posture/gesture recognition 5.

Annanova Sony’s AIBO 43 .Mitsubishi’s.

Fujitsu’s – HOAP (Miniature Human Robot) PINO ROBOTS Sony’s SDR (Sony Dream Robots) SDR-4X II Introducing 4 new technologies • Small robot actuators (ISA-4) • Real-time Integrated Adaptive Motion Control • Motion creation software • Real-time Real World Space perception • Multi-modal Human-Robot Perception 44 .

SDR .specifications Intelligent Servo Actuators (ISA-4) 45 .

Other Features Multi-face Detection Emotional Expression Some Postures of SDR 46 .

Future Research in Humanoids ROBOT Speed (Fast) Not tired-Can do repetitive job (Fuel Cell) Not imaginative/Not creative Better speech and pattern recognition Some emotion Entertainment Personal Friend HUMAN Slow Intelligent Easily tired Imaginative/Creative Emotional Etc. …… Issues in AI Are Robots More Intelligent Than Humans? Can Robots Replace Humans? Human vs Machine 47 .

Intelligent Robots & Systems Now……… New Intelligent Species? Future……… 48 .

The End Thank you 49 .

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