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0 corresponds to a low degree of separation power. For example, if SP 10,000 and SRi 1/SRj, then, from (1-5), SRi 100 and SRj 0.01, corresponding to a sharp separation. However, if SP 9 and SRi 1/SRj, then SRi 3 and SRj = 13 , corresponding to a nonsharp separation. For the hydrocarbon recovery process of Figure 1.9, the values of SP in Table 1.8 are computed from the data in Tables 1.5 or 1.6 for the main split in each of the three separators. The separation factor in Column C1 is relatively small because the split for the heavy key, iC5H12, is not sharp. The largest separation factor occurs in column C2, where the separation is relatively easy because of the fairly large volatility difference between the two keys. Much more difficult is the butane-isomer split in Column C3, where only a moderately sharp split is achieved. When applying the conservation of mass principle to separation operations using (1-1), component specifications in terms of component recoveries are easily applied, while those in terms of split ratios and, particularly, purities are more difficult, as shown in the following example. A feed, F, of 100 kmol/h of air containing 21 mol% O2 and 79 mol% N2 is to be partially separated by a membrane unit according to each of the following four sets of specifications. For each case, compute the amounts, in kmol/h, and compositions, in mol%, of the two products (retentate, R, and permeate, P). The membrane is more permeable to the oxygen. Case 1: 50% recovery of O2 to the permeate and 87.5% recovery of N2 to the retentate. Case 2: 50% recovery of O2 to the permeate and 50 mol% purity of O2 in the permeate. Case 3: 85 mol% purity of N2 in the retentate and 50 mol% purity of O2 in the permeate. Case 4: 85 mol% purity of N2 in the retentate and a split ratio of O2 in the permeate to the retentate equal to 1.1. SOLUTION The feed is n(F) O2 = 0.21(100) = 21 kmol/h n(F) N2 = 0.79(100) = 79 kmol/h EXAMPLE 1.1 Case 1: This is the simplest case to calculate because two recoveries are given: n(P) O2 = 0.50(21) = 10.5 kmol/h n(R) N2 = 0.875(79) = 69.1 kmol/h n(R) O2 = 21 - 10.5 = 10.5 kmol/h n(P) N2 = 79 - 69.1 = 9.9 kmol/h

Case 2: With the recovery for O2 given, calculate its distribution into the two products: n(P) O2 = 0.50(21) = 10.5 kmol/h n(R) O2 = 21 - 10.5 = 10.5 kmol/h Using the purity of O2 in the permeate, the total permeate is n(P) = 10.5/0.5 = 21 kmol/h By a total permeate material balance, n(P) N2 = 21 - 10.5 = 10.5 kmol/h By an overall N2 material balance, n(R) N2 = 79 - 10.5 = 68.5 kmol/h Case 3: With two purities given, write two simultaneous materialbalance equations, one for each component, in terms of the total retentate and total permeate. For nitrogen, with a fractional purity of 1.00 - 0.50 = 0.50 in the permeate, nN2 = 0.85n(R) + 0.50n(P) = 79 kmol/h (1) For oxygen, with a fractional purity of 1.00 - 0.85 = 0.15 in the retentate, nO2 = 0.50n(P) + 0.15n(R) = 21 kmol/h (2) Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously for the total products gives n(P) = 17.1 kmol/h n(R) = 82.9 kmol/h Therefore, the component flow rates are n(R) N2 = 0.85(82.9) = 70.5 kmol/h n(R) O2 = 82.9 - 70.5 = 12.4 kmol/h n(P) O2 = 0.50(17.1) = 8.6 kmol/h n(P) N2 = 17.1 - 8.6 = 8.5 kmol/h Case 4: First compute the O2 flow rates using the split ratio and an overall O2 material balance, n(P) O2 n(R) O2 = 1.1 21= n(P) O2 + n(R) O2 Solving these two equations simultaneously gives n(R) O2 = 10 kmol/h n(P) O2 = 21 - 10 = 11 kmol/h

Since the retentate contains 85 mol% N2 and, therefore, 15 mol% O2, the flow rates for the N2 are n(R) N2 = 85 15 (10) = 56.7 kmol/h n(P) N2 = 79 - 56.7 = 22.3 kmol/h Table 1.8 Main Separation Factors for Hydrocarbon Recovery Process Key-Component Separation Split Column Factor, SP nC4H10/iC5H12 C1 137.1 C3H8/iC4H10 C2 7103 iC4H10/nC4H10 C3 377.6

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