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The Satisfaction and the euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned our efforts with success. We consider at our privilege to express our gratitude to the following people for their help, encouragement and intellectual influence during the course of the semester. We are grateful to our institution Jawaharlal Nehru National College of Engineering. With its very ideals and inspirations for having provided us with the facilities, which has made our work a great success. We would like to express our gratitude to Prof. Dr. Srinivasa Rao Kunte, principal J.N.N.C.E for providing us a congenial environment and surrounding to work in. We sincerely regard our thanks to Mr H.K Harisha, Head of the Department, Electronics and communication Engineering, J.N.N.C.E, whose support and guidance was invaluable. And finally our heartfelt gratitude to project coordinators Dr.S.V. Sathyanarayana, Professor, Dept of Electronics and Communication Engineering, J.N.N.C.E, for their support, advice and continuous encouragement through out the period of our research.
Abstract……………………………………………………4 1. Chapter 1-Introduction……...…………………………...5
1.1 Zigbee alliance………...………………………………………...6
2. Chapter 2-802.15.4/ZigBee……………………………...….8 2.1Phy and MAC layers……………………………………………9 2.2CSMA…………………………………………………………...9
3. Chapter 3- ZigBee……………………………………………10 3.1IEE 802.15.4 standard…………………………………………..11 3.2ZigBee standard…………………………………………………13 3.2.1Power consumption…………………………………………...13 3.2.2Applications profiles……………………………………….....14 3.3Suitable areas for ZigBee…………………………………….....14
4. Chapter 4-Technical Specifications………………….....17
4.1IEEE 802.15.4 Specification…………………………………....17 4.1.1PHY Layer..………………………………………………….17 4.1.2 MAC Layer………………………………………………......18
4.1.3 Network Topologies…………………………………………18 4.1.4IEE 802.15.4 Performance……………………………...........20 4.2ZigBee Specification……………………………………….......21 4.2.1Network Layer……………………………………………….21 4.2.2Application Layer……………………………………………22
5. Chapter 5-Applications of ZigBee………………………..24
6. Chapter 6-Zigbee vs. other wireless standards…….........29
6.1Zigbee vs. BlueeTooth……………………………………........29
7. Chapter 7- Advantages of Zigbee…………………….......30
8. Chapter 8-Conclusion………………………………….......31
The ZigBee Alliance has been set up as “an association of companies working together to enable reliable.e. WPAN Low Rate or ZigBee provides specifications for devices that have low data rates. WPAN Low Rate/ZigBee is the newest and provides specifications for devices that have low data rates. wirelessly networked. consume very low power and are thus characterized by long battery life. ZigBee makes possible completely networked environment where all devices are able to communicate and be controlled by a single unit. consume very low power and are thus characterized by long battery life.ABSTRACT ZigBee-Wireless Technology and its Applications Preface ZigBee is one of the newest technologies enabling Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN). digital radio connections between computers and related devices. low-power. See how the specification characterized by low data rates and very low power consumption is revolutionizing networking of different environment. The fourth in the series. video and LAN communications.15 working group. ZigBee is one of the global standards of communication protocol formulated by the relevant task force under the IEEE 802. i. ZigBee is an established set of specifications for wireless personal area networking (WPAN). monitoring and control products based on an open global standard 4 . Other standards like Bluetooth and IrDA address high data rate applications such as voice. cost-effective.
4 Wireless Networking Standards.15. ZigBee is one of the global standards of communication protocol formulated by the relevant task force under the IEEE 802.4 radio standard (Figure 1)..e. In a home security system. ZigBee is such a standard for embedded application software and has been ratified in late 2004 under IEEE 802. and wireless sensors simply haven't looked very appealing. sensors and controls located within a few meters of each other. for example. consume very low 5 . i. The fourth in the seriesWPAN Low Rate/ZigBee is the newest and provides specifications for devices that have low data rates. This kind of network eliminates use of physical data buses like USB and Ethernet cables. The devices could include telephones. is that most wireless sensors use too much power. ZigBee is an established set of specifications for wireless personal area networking (WPAN). digital radio connections between computers and related devices. where wiring typically accounts for 80% of the cost of sensor installations. The same is true in industrial environments. ZigBee promises to put wireless sensors in everything from factory automation systems to home security systems to consumer electronics. And then there are applications for sensors where wiring isn't practical or even possible. wireless sensors would be much easier to install than sensors that need wiring. Add to that some skepticism about the reliability of sensor data that's sent through the air.15 working group. hand-held digital assistants. This means that the devices and the control unit would all need a common standard to enable intelligible communication. The problem.Chapter 1: Introduction to ZigBee Technologists have never had trouble coming up with potential applications for wireless sensors.15. which means that their batteries either have to be very large or get changed far too often. A low-power wireless technology called ZigBee is rewriting the wireless sensor equation. however. though. A secure network technology that rides on top of the recently ratified IEEE 802.
and applicationservices layers to the PHY and MAC layers of the IEEE 811. But ZigBee won't be sending email and large documents.4 nodes and chipsets will increase from essentially some millions today to 165 million units by 2010. cost-effective. as Wi-Fi does. monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.” Figure 1: ZigBee adds network. Technology research firm In-Stat/MDR. wirelessly networked.4 radio Although no formal specification for ZigBee yet exists (approval by the ZigBee Alliance. ZigBee's bright future is largely due to its low data rates—20 kbps to 250 kbps. in what it calls a "cautious aggressive" forecast. but most probably will be.11g technology. with 77% of them being ZigBee-related. Research firm ON World predicts shipments of 465 million wireless sensor RF modules by 2010. video and LAN communications. The ZigBee Alliance has been set up as “an association of companies working together to enable reliable. should come late this year). For sending sensor 6 . depending on the frequency band used (Figure 2)—compared to a nominal 1 Mbps for Bluetooth and 54 Mbps for Wi-Fi's 802. Not all of these units will be coupled with ZigBee. security. Other standards like Bluetooth and IrDA address high data rate applications such as voice. a trade group.power and are thus characterized by long battery life. the outlook for ZigBee appears bright.15. low-power.15. In a sense. as Bluetooth does. or documents and audio. predicts that sales of 802.
and ZigBee's low bandwidth helps it fulfill its goals of low power.15. high bandwidth isn't necessary. because the alternative FHSS (frequency-hopping spread spectrum) would have used too much power just in keeping its frequency hops synchronized. thus saving battery power. Figure 2: ZigBee's data rates range from 20 kbps to 250 kbps.4 communications option is the beacon mode. ZigBee nodes. send data quickly. and some ways use more power than others. using 802. if it tries to keep its transmissions from overlapping with other nodes' transmissions or with transmissions from other radio sources.15. however. 802. can communicate in any of several different ways.15.4. and go back to sleep. in which normally sleeping network slave nodes wake up periodically to receive a synchronizing "beacon" from the network's control node. But listening for a beacon wastes power. and then wake up. low cost. A big part of ZigBee's power savings come from the radio technology of 802. particularly because timing uncertainties force nodes to turn on early to avoid missing a beacon. too. A ZigBee network node can consume extra power. and robustness. which are typically a few tens of bytes. for example.readings. The 802. depending on the frequency used Because of ZigBee applications' low bandwidth requirements. a ZigBee node can sleep most of the time. Another ZigBee and 802.15. for example.4 uses DSSS (direct-sequence spread spectrum) technology.15.4. which itself was designed for low power. and a ZigBee node that uses CSMA/CA is essentially taking a listen-before-talk approach to see if any radio traffic is already underway.4 radio used by ZigBee implements CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance) technology. 7 .
though the exact parameters differ from spectrum to spectrum.0Mchips/s and a data rate of 250 kbps. whereas the 900 MHz channels have a signal rate of 600 kchips/s and a data rate of 40 kbps. Ten channels are available from 902 MHz to 928 MHz.15. unlike Bluetooth. and must maintain a BER of less than 1%.4 devices can be divided into two categories.4 radios are required to transmit at aminimum of 1 mW. This standard is intended for deployment on long-lived systems with low data rate requirements.802.4/ZigBee Although Bluetooth's power requirements are much lower than that of 802.4 offers a range of approximately 1m to 100m. 2.15. 802. Direct-sequence spread spectrum modulation is used to minimize data loss due to noise and interference.4 GHz to 2.4835GHz.4 PHY and MAC Layers 802. Full-function devices (FFDs) can communicate directly with any other devices in the network. devices do not hop across frequencies during the network's lifetime. which is comparable to Bluetooth. where devices must be able to operate autonomously for months or even years without recharging the battery. these channels have a signal rate of 2. The other channels use BPSK modulation with 15-chip codes.15. it is still assumed that Bluetooth-enabled devices will be recharged every few days. Sixteen channels are available from 2.4 standard defines the PHY and MAC for very low-power. 802. Depending on the power output. reduced-function devices (RFDs) can only communicate with FFDs. The IEEE 802. In contrast. The802. Like Bluetooth.with a separation of 2 MHz between channels. which determine the topology and media access used by the network. However.4 offers uses twenty-seven channels spread across three different areas of license-exempt spectrum.Chapter 2: 802. The868 MHz channel has a signal rate of 300 kchips/sec and a data rate of 20 kbps. these channels are used to avoid interference with neighboring PANs: each PAN uses a single unique channel. One channel is available at 868 MHz. with a channel separation of 5 MHz.11b.4 standard allows networks to form either a one-hop star 8 .15.15. low-duty network links [IEEE802. The channels in the 2.15.1 802.15.4].15.15.4 GHz spectrum use a combination of 32-chip codes and QPSK modulation.
Figure 2: Example 802. Members of the PAN may request guaranteed time slots (GTSs) in the contention free period at the end of the superframe. Though 802. which regulates media access. CSMA/CA is used in 802. Since the coordinator node must be relatively powerful. or a multi-hop peer-to-peer topology.2 : Carrier Sense Multiple Access CSMA/CA is a modification of pure Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA).15.38 ms may separate these beacons. All other slots form the contention access period. therefore collision detection is not possible. This node periodically sends beacons that identify the PAN it is coordinating.4 Superframe 2.11 based wireless LANs. 9 . the former is most appropriate in networks with few FFDs. One FFD can optionally act as a coordinator node. all media access is regulated using a CSMA/CA scheme. up to 252s.4 defines the allowed topologies.topology. and the media isalways subject to contention.15. Two beacons forma superframe that is partitioned into 16 equally-sized timeslots. The interval between these beacons is constant but user-selectable: any multiple of 15. which is accessed using a CSMA-CA scheme. One of the problems of wireless LANs is that it is not possible to listen while sending. as shown in Figure 2. whereas the latter is more resilient to node failure when many FFDs are available. If the channel is sensed busy before transmission then the transmission is deferred for a "random" interval. CSMA/CA is used where CSMA/CD cannot be implemented due to the nature of the channel. This reduces the probability of collisions on the channel. it does not define the layers that actually support them: routing within these topologies is the responsibility of layers above those defined by IEEE. it may not be practical to deploy one inall networks. Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of CSMA by attempting to be "less greedy" on the channel. in this case.
ZigBee intends to be a complement to existing wireless standards and not a competitor. security systems. heating and ventilation control. ZigBee aims to be used in segments where most existing wireless standards are not suitable. ZigBee is primarily intended to be used for home automation.Chapter 3 : ZigBee ZigBee is aimed at applications where low power consumption is desired and low data rates are acceptable. remote sensing and data collection. ZigBee is primarily intended to be used for home automation. ZigBee devices can use inexpensive transceivers and microcontrollers. The standard is primarily focused on self organizing mesh networks. 10 . Cost and battery consumption is problem for WLAN while Bluetooth’s main drawback is the small network size. The low power consumption allows battery powered devices to run for a year or more on a regular alkaline battery. By using a simple communications protocol.1 gives a brief introduction to ZigBee by comparing it to other wireless technologies. ZigBee’s technological weakness is the low data rate. Cost and battery consumption is a problem for WLAN while Bluetooth’s main drawback is the small network size. By using a simple communications protocol. remote sensing and data collection. Table 3. ZigBee’s technological weakness is the low data rate. ZigBee intends to be a complement to existing wireless standards and not a competitor. In many of these applications the price of each device is a very important concern. ZigBee devices can use inexpensive transceivers and microcontrollers. ZigBee is aimed at applications where low power consumption is desired and low data rates are acceptable. The low power consumption allows battery powered devices to run for a year or more on a regular alkaline battery. In many of these applications the price of each device is a very important concern. heating and ventilation control. The standard is primarily focused on self organizing mesh networks. ZigBee aims to be used in segments where most existing wireless standards are not suitable. security systems. However the typical ZigBee application only require simple status messages and control commands.
as illustrated in Figure 3. 3. IEEE 802.4 is an open communication standard suitable for low data rate.However the typical ZigBee application only require simple status messages and control commands.1. The MAC layer is part of the Open Standards Interconnect (OSI)1 link layer.4 standard.15. Table 3.1 The IEEE 802.4 standard defines the Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) network layers. wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN). The lower layers are defined by the IEEE 802. Part of the link layer is also the service specific convergence sublayer (SSCS) which provides a common interface between the logical link layer (LLC) and the lower layers. 11 .15.4 standard The ZigBee standard only defines high level network behavior. Devices that operate in such networks are often battery powered and have the following properties: • Low power consumption • Low data rate • Low hardware costs • Low sensitivity of interference • Short to medium range communications The 802.1 gives a brief introduction to ZigBee by comparing it to other wireless technologies.15.15.
12 . network. presentation and application. each layer can be improved individually without affecting the others. data link. transport.The PHY layer supports the frequencies and1The OSI model has 7 layers: physical. session. The interface between each layer is predefined. as long as this does not change.
2 The ZigBee standard The ZigBee portion of the standard defines the Network (NWK) and Application(APL) layers . cluster tree and mesh are illustrated in Figure 3. In the mesh topology there are many possible routes for end to end communication. making the network less vulnerable to effects of individual nodes failing. In this configuration.1 Power consumption Although ZigBee supports several network topologies. The most important function in the NWK layer is routing.3. coordinator and routers have their transceivers constantly on. end devices can set their own duty cycle. waking up from power down mode only when they transmit or request data. By allowing other set up than star topology. Realistically non-beaconed mesh networks need mains powered routers and coordinators to function properly.2. ZigBee permits the network to spread beyond the range of the coordinator. but this comes at the expense of higher power consumption for routers and coordinators.The Application layer contains support subsystems that simplifies application 13 . Since there are no beacons to listen for. 3.2. this is one thing that makes it possible to create very large networks. non-beaconed mesh networks are expected to be the most common in larger installations. Routing means that ZigBee devices can communicate indirectly. The advantage of this configuration is very low power consumption for end devices. The supported topologies: star.
The Application Framework (AF) provides an interface for generating standardized application level messages. The Application layer defines the data and message types used to create a ZigBee profile. the current temperature.g. A capability in this context is the ability to perform a certain task or provide a specific type of information. such as the Home Control Lighting profile. profiles in security systems and sensor networks. Some possible future applications in these areas are described in below and Table 3.g.2 Application profiles To support device and service discovery. The ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) is a built in helper application that reduces the need to deal with the details of device and service discovery.g. E. or states. light switches. controlling an air conditioning unit or reading the temperature are both examples of capabilities. To allow interoperability between devices produced by different manufacturers. at least according to rumors.3 Suitable areas for ZigBee The ZigBee alliance predicts several areas as suitable for ZigBee. occupancy sensors etc. Attributes can be read or written by remote devices using key value pair (KVP) packets.development. attributes. if the air conditioner is on or off.3 summaries 14 . A cluster usually contains a group of similar attributes. There are currently plans for. e. 3. Capabilities are described by Clusters of Attributes. valid ranges and a set of numeric constants. the ZigBee Alliances intends to define several application profiles. Profiles define: clusters. Attributes are basically variables. Each profile covers a specific class of devices. data types. 3. ZigBee has standardized a way of describing Device capabilities. e. which define basic behavior and capabilities of dimmers.2.
The nodes in the light fixtures could be mains powered allowing them to work 15 . instantly lighting up the entire home in case of a fire. There are also the potential of integrating systems. e.their requirements. Wireless temperature sensors would allow intelligent heating and ventilation systems. like ZigBee compliant smoke detectors that could communicate with the lights.3. turning on the coffee machine from the bedroom or heating the basement sauna from the living room. The ZigBee alliance projects the following application areas for ZigBee: • Home control • Building automation • Personal health care • Industrial control and monitoring • Consumers electronics • PC peripherals 3. Controlling other electrical devices in a similar manner is also possible.g. creating an even temperature in the entire house.1 Home control The simplest home control application is to remotely control the lights. The objective is to show that a certain ZigBee application is possible to develop by implementing its requirements in the demonstrator.
indefinitely as coordinators or routers.4 Industrial control and monitoring Consider the case where corrosion due to humidity causes problem in a factory. If the humidity at some sensor reaches unacceptable levels the needed counter measurements can be activated. forming a mesh network over the entire factory. The system that lowers humidity could possibly also be controlled with ZigBee. A possible extension to this is to place a ZigBee transceiver in a mobile phone or a PDA. 16 .3. a mesh topology is required.3. 3. sharing the same wireless infrastructure. Another advantage is very simple extension of an existing system. The terminal could be connected to a PC or a GPRS2 terminal so it can send an alarm when an intrusion is detected. Wireless sensors can be placed throughout the factory. Using wireless technology to connect the security system would significantly lower installation costs since wiring is very costly and cumbersome. Other systems like fire alarm system could be integrated and use this functionality as well. communicating with a control center via routers placed at strategic locations. allowing for flexible interior decoration.3 Security system Security system with ZigBee means a network of sensors that communicate with a security terminal. The light switches could be battery powered and thus movable. All of these could be controlled by a single ZigBee remote.3. For consumer electronics a star network is sufficient since ranges are short.2 Consumer electronics Consumer electronics refers to devices like DVD-players and televisions. 3. 3. The large number of nodes means that the cost of each node is an important parameter. For such large networks. possibly transmitting it for analysis via the Internet or GPRS. The control center could log humidity values in a database. just add more sensors and they will be used automatically.
the carrier frequency does not change with DSSS.15.15.1 The IEEE 802. 17 . and link quality indication. 915 MHz (USA) and 2.1.4 uses Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). To minimize the effects of interference.4 GHz (Worldwide1).4 air interface. making sure the channel can be used. The 868 and 915 MHz band uses the same PHY. Neither of these bands require broadcasting licenses. Unlike Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). used in for example Bluetooth. controlling the transceiver itself. making it possible for transceivers to support both bands. 868 MHz (Europe). but can be subject to output power restrictions. a spread spectrum technique that is simple to implement in 1The 2. 802. since the actual width of the band varies and is quite small in some countries integrated circuits.4 GHz band is not truly worldwide. It defines the channels available and physical modulation used to transmit data over the IEEE 802. The standard defines two PHY layers suitable for three different frequency bands. instead the signal energy is constantly spread over a wider band.4 standard defines the following communication layers: • Physical (PHY) • Medium access control (MAC) 4. It also provides for clear channel assessment.1 Physical layer The physical (PHY) layer handles the low level data communication.15.Chapter 4 : Technical specifications 4.4 specification The IEEE 802.15.
4.3 Network topologies 18 .2 Medium Access Control layer The medium access control layer handles how a node get access to the network and how the network is set up.1. 4.1. including topology and beacons.
1. All 802. processor and power requirements are lower for reduced function devices.In 802. Allowing multiple nodes to transmit beacons introduces difficult synchronization 19 . which are both illustrated in Figure A. In peer-to-peer topology any FFD node within range can communicate.1.15. topology. A FFD implements the entire protocol stack and can act as a network coordinator or router while a RFD implements only a subset of the protocol and can only act as an end device. A 16-bit short address is assigned by the PAN coordinator when a device joins a network. because it is essential that nodes spend most of their time in power down mode to conserve power. The memory. the coordinator is responsible for translating between short and extended during routing. The MAC sub layer defines multiple frame types: beacon frame. The short address is used for end to end communication. see Section A. The extended address is used for single hop communication. This allows networks with over 64k (216) devices.4 compliant devices have a unique 64-bit address. this allows for routing and more complex topologies like mesh and cluster tree. the PAN coordinators beacon might not reach all nodes.4 standard itself. command frame and acknowledgment frame.g.2.15. The MAC layer supports two different network topologies: the star topology and the peer to peer topology. This address type is often referred to as the extended address of the device.15. however it is part of the ZigBee Network (NWK) layer. The behavior of a mesh topology are not part of the 802. The beacon frame is used to synchronize node duty cycles. data frame. If the network uses peer-to-peer. assigned in a manner defined by the IEEE Registration Authority. e. In the star topology all communication is routed through the central node called the PAN coordinator. non-star.4 there are two device types: the Full Function Device (FFD) and the Reduced Function Device (RFD).
The transmitter activates its receiver a short while after transmitting and will automatically resend each frame 3 times if no acknowledgment frame is received. where it is stored until the destination node sends a command frame of data request type. which can be seen in Figure A.4 IEEE 802.1. 802. Since there is no way to signal inactive periods without the use of beacons. Indicating only that the packet has reached the nearest router or coordinator. Unlicensed frequency bands can contain 20 . This is only a single hop acknowledgment.4 air interface is primarily designed to be: resistant to interference. collision will cause a random back off period since there are no time slots. 4. which is illustrated in Figure A. Without beacons. The data frame can contain a maximum payload of 102 bytes. The solution is to run such networks in non-beaconed mode. End to end acknowledgment is handled at the application level. not the addressed device.problems.2. The MAC layer supports single hop acknowledgment through the use of special acknowledgment frames. Data transfer is done using the data frame. using unslotted CSMA-CA.15. require low transmitter power and have low hardware complexity. This increases its power usage significantly and makes it impractical to use battery powered coordinators or routers in non-beaconed networks.15.15.4 performance The IEEE 802. the coordinator must be active constantly. Instead of transmitting data directly between nodes.3. Data is first sent to the PAN coordinator.4 uses a polling mechanism. nodes are allowed to transmit at any time. This allows nodes to control their own duty cycles by lowering the frequency of data requests.
large numbers of transmitters.15.4 MAC layer (see Figure A.15. retrieving the original information. It also defines three device types: 21 . The processing gain for the . route discovery and message reflection. DSSS spreads the signal over a wider band by multiplying the outgoing signal with a pseudo noise (PN) sequence.2. 4. the same PN sequence is used to despread the signal. Additionally it provides for packet routing.4 design favors interference suppression over high data rate. By using a 32 chip PN sequence. making resistance to interference the most important design goal. At the receiver. This interference rejection capability is referred to as the processing gain and is illustrated in Figure A.5). This is achieved with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). beacons. causing the signal energy to spread into a wider band. spreads out the interference.Higher processing gain means better ability to suppress interference. The downside is that the bandwidth (in Hz) is increased significantly. The NWK layer automatically manage MAC layer functions like network creation. suppressing narrow band interference. The processing gain (PG) is defined as PG =Ts/Tc Where Ts is symbol duration. 4. The advantage of this technique is that despreading the signal. The number of chips per second is higher than the symbol rate. Each pulse in a PN sequence is called a chip and can be either +1 or -1. association and disassociation requests. and Tc the chip duration.2 The ZigBee specification The ZigBee standard defines the following communication layers: • Network (NWK) • Application (APL) Additionally it defines the Security Service Provider (SSP) that handles encryption and access control lists (ACL) to ensure secure communication. the 802.1 Network layer The network (NWK) layer lies directly above the IEEE 802.4. which can be considered long.
Coordinators are responsible for creating and maintaining the network.2. If the active coordinator becomes disconnected. 4. while end devices typically are Reduced Function Devices (RFD). There can only be one active coordinator per network. It consists of three components: • Application support layer (APS) • Application framework (AF) • ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) 22 . Router nodes provide a subset of coordinator functionality and are primarily responsible for routing packets. so additional coordinators will be passive and assume the role of routers.• Coordinator • Router • End device Coordinators and routers must be Full Function Devices (FFD). a passive coordinator should automatically take its place in the network. The use of dedicated coordinators or routers can be useful in certain circumstances but all three devices types are are meant to run applications.2 Application layer The application layer (APL) is the highest layer in ZigBee standard and exist to simplify application development.
read and write data. floats and a special time stamp type. containing a key. KVP supports data types such as: signed/unsigned integers. The APDUs header contains: destination endpoint. The payload to a APDU can contain the following AF defined data formats: • Key value pair (KVP) • Message (MSG) A KVP formatted packet contains: • Command type • Attribute id • Attribute data • Data type • Data length • Error code (only in responses) Data exchange is most commonly done using the key value pair data format. 4. analogous to the TCP/IP concept of ports. referred to as the attribute id and the value. cluster id and profile id. This makes it easy to run multiple applications on a single device.2.2. A device that both supports reading of temperature and light level would contain two application objects with separate endpoints. KVP packets can be used to both trigger remote events. 23 . using the event.2. get and set command types respectively.2 Application Framework The application framework (AF) aims to simplify data exchange between Zig-Bee devices. called attribute data.2. since they can be uniquely addressed by their endpoints. An endpoint is an internal address.1 Application support layer The application support layer (APS) provides the following functionality to the higher layers: • Creation of application protocol data units (APDU) • Discovery • Binding Application protocol data units (APDU) are regular MAC data frames with a formated payload.4.
Motorola and Intel. With even light controls and thermostat producers joining the ZigBeeAlliance. This means that more and more products and even later. but also to individualised office automation applications. Unwired applications are highly sought after in many networks that are characterized by numerous nodes consuming minimum power and enjoying long battery lives. and rapid ROI. ZigBee is here to stay. industrial and government markets worldwide". Since Wireless personal Area Networking applies not only to household devices. very fast market adoption. "See. Airbee Wireless Inc has tied up with Radiocrafts AS to deliver "out-of-the-box" ZigBee-ready solutions. ZigBee technology is designed to best suit these applications. for the reason that it enables reduced costs of development. Futurists are sure to hold ZigBee up and say. the list is growing healthily and includes big OEM names like HP. I told you so".Chapter 5: Application of ZigBee The ZigBee Alliance targets applications "across consumer. the former supplying the software and the latter making the module platforms. but also feed it to a computer system for data analysis. all devices and their controls will be based on this standard. commercial. With ZigBee designed to enable two-way communications. 24 . not only will the consumer be able to monitor and keep track of domestic utilities usage. It is more than likely the basis of future home-networking solutions. Philips. with more OEM's signing up. The ZigBee Alliance is nearly 200 strong and growing.
1: Some of the Application of ZigBee 25 .5.1.
4 Commercial Lighting Control 26 .1.3 In Home Patient Monitoring 5.1.2 Home Awareness 5.1.5.
6 Mobile Handset As Zigbee Gateway 27 .1.5.5 HVAC Energy Management 5.1.
>65. secondary battery lasts same as master. guaranteed latency. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. with low latency available. Some of the key differentiators are: o ZigBee: Very low duty cycle. o Bluetooth: Moderate duty cycle. Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network.Chapter 6: Comparison of ZigBee with other Wireless Standards 6.1 Comparison to Blue Tooth ZigBee was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimizations in power consumption. Very high QoS and very low. very long primary battery life. 29 . Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.000 nodes.
members have access to. Instead of having to invest resources to create a new proprietary solution from scratch every time. Members gain early access to ZigBee design information. and are able to influence. ZigBee Alliance member companies can enjoy accelerated development cycles and enhanced product and industry competitiveness. WUSB is based on a hub and spoke topology. vendor independence. In addition to helping define the specification. ZigBee members are defining and creating new markets for interoperable wireless networks. interoperability specifications and other companies with complementary skills and capabilities. Customers can expect increased product innovation as a result of the industry standardization of the physical radio and logical networking layers. Chapter 7: Advantages of ZigBee The main advantages include product interoperability. By actively participating in the ZigBee Alliance. development details. companies will now be able to leverage these industry standards to instead focus their energies on finding and serving customers. This specification maintains the same usage and architecture as wired USB devices with a highspeed host-to-device connection and connects to a maximum of 127 devices. and accessibility to broader markets. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. members enjoy networking with other market leading companies committed to providing interoperable wireless products and networks 30 . the emerging ZigBee specification. the United States.
The main reason is that development is easy and fast. the next nonlinear shift. The chances seem highest in the industry since ZigBee is currently the only option for such standardized wireless networks. The areas that ZigBee is likely to be used in is building automation and industrial networks. PC peripherals and consumers electronics are two areas that ZigBee is very unlikely to be used in. and the symbol of the '90s is the World Wide Web. “Just as the personal computer was a symbol of the '80s. but it the disadvantage that it longer development time and there will be limitations. is going to be the advent of cheap sensors.” -Paul Saffo Institute for the Future 31 . Even though there are some competition. access to the source code should be demanded is possible since the documentation can not be expected to be complete. due to better performance. The Master’s thesis project has shown that developing an application with a beta version of the network stack is possible. yes. In such a cases. ZigBee is likely to dominate the home automation market as well. ZigBee also meets the promised technical requirements. price and compliance.Chapter 8: CONCLUSION The main conclusion of this Master’s thesis project is that. ZigBee is a suitable base for embedded wireless development. because it offers very little over the competition.
org Teleca.http://www.com www.tutorial-reports.teleca.se Some of the websites referred by us: www.com We also consulted some IEEE papers for reference works.com www.google.http://www.Chapter 9: REFERENCES ZigBee Alliance.wikipedia. 32 .zigbee.