0 INTRODUCTION This term paper examines the background to building maintenance management, emphasizing its importance due to new developments in building design. Suggests that, owing to the use of less-durable materials in construction, the need for maintenance to be profitable is importance. Relatively few systems are designed to operate without maintenance of any kind, and for the most part they must operate in environments where access is very difficult or where replacement is more economical than maintenance. Maintaining a building is expensive; it cost many times more to run a building over its lifetime than to build it, yet maintenance is often not accorded the priority it warrants. A poorly maintained building will be a drain on resource and will impair building use, whereas a well maintained building will function smoothly and represent an appreciating asset of its owners. The maintenance of buildings is not the priority of many Nigerians. Nigerians do a great exquisite mansions without consideration for the mode and cost of home maintenance. Some years down the road, the lovely buildings don¶t look anywhere near lovely anymore.


2.0 MAINTENANCE: ITS CONCPETS Maintenance according to the dictionary, means to keep in existence or keep in proper or good condition. In building technology, Maintenance can be defined as the act of keeping a building in good and stable condition. It includes keeping the building clean, restoring every part of a building, every facility or machinery to an acceptable standard. The concept of maintenance is an act of taking appropriate steps and precautions to ensure that a given piece of capital asset, equipment or infrastructure attains its maximum possible life span.

2.1 TYPES OF MAINTENANCE 1. Breakdown maintenance It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost. Breakdown maintenance implies that repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it cannot perform its normal function any longer, e.g., an electric motor of a machine tool will not start, a belt is broken, etc. Under such conditions, production department calls on the maintenance department to rectify the defect. The maintenance department checks into the fault and makes the necessary repairs. After removing the fault, maintenance engineers do not attend the equipment again until another failure or breakdown occurs. This type of maintenance may be quite justified in small factories which: i. ii. iii. Are indifferent to the benefits of scheduling; Do not feel a financial justification for scheduling techniques; and Get seldom (temporary or permanent) demand in excess of normal operating capacity. In many factories make-and-mend is the rule rather than the exception. Breakdown maintenance practice is economical for those (non-critical) equipments whose downtime and repair costs are less this way than with any other type of maintenance.


There is no planned interference with production programmes. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) To make machine tools always available and ready for use. inspection. Preventive maintenance It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning. To maintain the operational accuracy of the machine tools. To maintain the optimum productive efficiency of the machine tools. servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems. to measure deterioration. To maintain value of machine tools (by periodic inspections. To ensure safety of life and limb of the machine tool operators. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine. To reduce the work content of maintenance jobs. This type of maintenance has many different variations and is subject of various researches to determine best and most efficient way to maintain equipment. periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis. To achieve maximum production at minimum repair cost. Objectives of Preventive Maintenance 1) To minimize the possibility of unanticipated production interruption or major breakdown by locating or uncovering any condition which may lead to it. This is where equipment is maintained before break down occurs. Periodic maintenance ( Time based maintenance . 2. 3|Page . repairs. the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance. few records and a comparative small staff.Breakdown type of maintenance involves little administrative work. overhauls etc 2a. oiling and re-tightening ). design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration.TBM) Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance.

As equipment cannot be maintained at all times. lifts. This leads to poor. etc. Increased chances of accidents and less safety to both workers and machines.Predictive maintenance extends the service life of equipment without fear of failure. hurried maintenance and excessive delays in production. y y y Audio gauges. temperature and resistance strain gauges. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Reduction of output and faster plant deterioration. More spoilt material and direct loss of profit. in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance. designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system. Amplitude meters. Simple hand touch can point out many unusual (equipment) conditions and thus predict a trouble. Disadvantages of Preventive Maintenance (i) Breakdowns generally occur at importunate times.. It manages trend values. Unusual sounds coming out of rotating equipment predict a (coming) trouble. some way is needed to decide when it is proper to perform maintenance. Preventive maintenance is the maintenance performed in an attempt to avoid failures. Pressure. 4|Page . hoists and pressure vessels. for example. an electric cable excessively hot at one point predicts a trouble. to predict troubles before the equipment fails. unnecessary production loss and HSE violation. Vibration analyzers. It makes use of human senses or other sensitive instruments such as. by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system. Breakdown maintenance practice cannot be employed for those plant items which are regulated by statutory provisions. cranes. Moreover. Predictive maintenance This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis. predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance.2b.

functional systems and facilities and facilities that meet the design intent. This maintenance is often most expensive because worn equipment can damage other parts and cause multiple damage. In most cases this is costly business. but it is easy to see its limitations. if the equipment needs to be replaced. the cost of replacing it alone can be substantial. 4.  Realize life-cycle cost savings. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of this maintenance is not greater than preventive maintenance. 5|Page . Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention. Corrective maintenance Corrective maintenance can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out.3. When equipment fails. easier maintenance and prevents of defects. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability. safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment. Also. The goals of a comprehensive maintenance program include the following. Maintenance prevention It indicates the design of a new equipment. Corrective maintenance is probably the most commonly used approach. and  Provide safe.  Reduce capital repairs  Reduce unscheduled shutdowns and repairs  Extend equipment life. it often leads to downtime in production. thereby extending facility life. to bring it back to working order. It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably.

Although the time and cost scales will vary from machine to machine and company to company. The key to this lies in its preventive maintenance schedules and corrective maintenance records. Further. namely that the average annual direct cost of buying and maintaining a machine levels out after comparatively few years and eventually shows an upward trend.There is little factual information available on the cost of machine tool maintenance. particularly in relation to types of machines. and reconditioning costs. the very wide variety of machines that are available within a particular type. Consequently. the nature of repairs becomes more serious and the cost increases. the same basic pattern will emerge.2 COST OF MAINTENANCE Cost of Maintenance . but it does provide an opportune point in time to compare the capability of the machine with more recent models and processes which have become available since its purchase and thereby to take advantage of those developments which will improve the product performance or reduce its cost. Each company should assess the cost of maintenance within its own system of operation. since the total cost of maintenance is made up of the preventive and corrective maintenance. unexpected machine failures result in disruption to the production programme.2. 6|Page . When there is no planned system of preventive maintenance then indirectly the cost of maintenance is increased. since there can be no scheme for corrective maintenance. and the variations in maintenance policy. As the average annual cost shows an upturn after ten years. This is not to say that the machine must be replaced. resulting in loss of capacity. the differing production demands made on a type of machine from company to company. Further. increased costs and possible failure to meet delivery dates. would make it extremely difficult to summarize such information other than in the most generalized form.

An equally balanced approach to solutions is generally the best path to achieving the desired goals. manufacturing facility or plant.3. ecological concerns. Maintenance managers often are involved in regular reviews and discussions of ecological and environmental topics regulated by governing agencies. quality assurance and outsourcing options. inventory control. Maintaining a safe. it is generally more profitable to be prepared for what the next level of rules will likely require for compliance. 7|Page .0 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT Maintenance management is a business concept that describes the successful and efficient management of maintenance issues involved in the upkeep. Production operations can frequently be improved and become more profitable if they are outsourced. clean and healthy work environment normally facilitates the implementation of environmental improvement. A maintenance manager's goal is to increase productivity and profits through improved operations. All aspects of maintenance management should concentrate on efficiency. A facility¶s success depends on its principals¶ abilities to objectively identify problem areas. Determining if labor can be more efficiently allocated to different departments can often eliminate the need for increased staffing. operation and productivity of a factory. production operations. Maintaining a company¶s vehicles on a prescribed schedule is important. Fair and careful review of material and labor costs can be advantageous. quality and profitability. Adhering to these schedules can save a company money in repair costs and improve the overall safety of the fleet crew. A plant¶s overall efficiency is commonly improved when its inventory is professionally maintained. Following preventive maintenance guidelines and keeping warranties up to date are generally good practices. Outstanding inventory management is usually necessary to operate a profitable business. The major areas of maintenance management focus include fleet or vehicle maintenance. An up-to-date and properly stocked supply of parts and goods reduces overhead and frees up physical space that could likely be better utilized. As guidelines change.

organizations must implement functional and effective maintenance procedures to keep operating resources in good condition. Adjusting business approaches and philosophies can significantly reduce these maintenance management costs. Correlation 3. For example. tools and strategies that an organization puts into place to prevent occupational accidents and other workplace incidents such as hazardous material contamination.The maintenance department is often where a company spends the bulk of its overhead budget. Safety Management 1.2 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT An effective maintenance system includes the following elements. Safety management consists of policies. Recent breakthroughs in maintenance technology can also help improve profit margins. 3.1 SAFETY & MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT In a business world with increasing tangible asset prices. Also central in corporate operating activities are safety procedures that workers must follow when completing tasks. according to the International Civil Aviation Organization. even though both concepts are distinct. y y y y y y Maintenance Policy Control of materials Preventive Maintenance Condition Monitoring Work Order Job planning 8|Page . 3. Safety management and maintenance management often interrelate in a company's operating activities. mechanical acumen and regulatory knowledge. Maintenance management procedures help keep corporate assets--such as equipment and machinery--in good condition in the short and long terms. Maintenance Management 2. a corporate plant supervisor or manufacturing department manager may oversee the safety activities and maintenance work in a company's factories. Maintenance management requires attention to detail.

The performance over a period of time will show if it is improving.y y y Priority and backlog control Data recording system Performance measurement measures or indices Maintenance performance for a plant or an organization can be accessed through analysis of Reliability. Relevant parameters. Availability and Maintainability (RAM) plant data. y y y y y y y y Maintenance of installed equipment and facilities Installations of new equipment and facilities PM tasks ± Inspection and lubrication of existing equipment CM tasks ± monitoring of faults and failures using appropriate techniques Modifications of already installed equipment and facilities Management of inventory Supervision of manpower Keeping records 9|Page . 3. going down or being sustained.3 FUNTIONS OF A MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT The following are the major functions of a maintenance department. measures or indices for specific plants can be identified.

which review shop practices related to efficiency. staffing levels. The first competency concentrates on vehicle maintenance. and the decision to outsource a shop operation. Maintenance Management addresses several competencies and areas of expertise. inventory management section. benchmarking section and finally. preventive maintenance program implementation and effective administration of warranty programs. shop operations. Generally. The third competency. This process appraises operation to determine optimum staffing levels and advantageous outsourcing opportunities. This potentially affects all aspects of fleet management including the financial and safe operation of a fleet and the end user¶s productivity. it incorporates labor and materials and may include the management of maintenance stores. including specific maintenance functions.4. It is an important contributing element to the progress of maintenance facility. environmental issues. the benchmarking section offers valuable principles for an in-house fleet maintenance operation. The second competency is shop operations. After that.0 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT: DEFINITION AND COMPETENCIES Maintenance management encompasses and supplies solutions for the planning and control of activities associated with maintenance activities of a plant or facility. comparison. The inventory management section identifies the importance of effective materials management. It is a key function to retain productivity and effectively maintain operations. provides greater comprehension and addresses environmental regulatory affairs and environmentally-responsible fleet/shop operations. Its requirements guarantee not only a clean and healthy environment. These are vehicle maintenance. Benchmarking involves proper data collection. outsource maintenance activities. environmental issues. and analysis to determine performance status and standards 10 | P a g e . but also employee safety. It makes use of professionally managed parts to operate at peak efficiency.

Its purpose is. unscheduled or casualty maintenance). And this may be done through the process of setting up. MRO may be defined as. to train and educate the organization in best practices for reliability and maintenance. and the proper calculation. This comprises educational maintenance audit and benchmarking tools. and to conduct a maintenance audit of the company's reliability and maintenance performance. and operations (MRO) or Maintenance. which is outsourcing. executed and tracked. It also includes performing routine actions which keep the device in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). "All actions which have the objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can 11 | P a g e . technical database such as bill of materials. 4. and standard job plans. REPAIR. In order for it to work. Root Cause Analysis and Materials Management. reviews and understands factors and elements influencing settlements on outsource fleet maintenance activities. AND OPERATIONS Maintenance. It is inclusive of Preventive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring.1 MAINTENANCE. Preventive maintenance and condition monitoring starts out by creating the implementation plan²identifies measurable success indicators for the condition monitoring and preventive maintenance program. Maintenance Planning and Scheduling. Its conclusion depends on a wide array of factors but its ultimate goal is efficiency.And the last competency. To complete the maintenance management processes is materials management. repair. Another element making up maintenance management is its processes. work order history. Maintenance Planning and scheduling is an important element in developing a well functioning maintenance organization. executing and measuring an effective program. Repair and Overhaul involves fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it become out of order or broken (known as repair. assembly and conduction of each of its processes. Efficiency and effectiveness of maintenance management relies heavily on total comprehension and the ability to address the competencies or areas of expertise involved. The goal is to achieve a condition monitoring and preventive maintenance program that is documented. the organization should do equipment inspections through preventive maintenance.

ground facility. and reclamation. adjustments and repairs ² intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. The actions include the combination of all technical and corresponding administrative. repair. Any activity ± such as tests. or other real property) in such condition that it may be continuously used. rebuilding.2 MACHINE TOOL MAINTENANCE Need For Machine Tool Maintenance (i) Machine tools are properly maintained so that they remain in working condition at all the times. at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. 2. testing. For material ² all action taken to retain material in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. structure. For this. machine tools are inspected periodically against (i) Use of wrong or inadequate lubrication 12 | P a g e . For material ² all supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission. replacements. servicing.perform its required function. where MRO refers to any maintenance and repair activity to keep a manufacturing plant running. OEM includes any activity related to the direct manufacture of goods. (iii) They manufacture the components most economically. classification as to serviceability. 3. and supervision actions The term maintenance has the following meanings: 1. Manufacturers and Industrial Supply Companies often refer to MRO as opposed to Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). building. It includes inspection. 4. utility system. managerial. (ii) Their accuracy does not deteriorate. 4. measurements. For material ² the routine recurring work required to keep a facility (plant.

Bearing in mind the objectives of preventive maintenance.and rebuilding of a machine. then it becomes apparent that two aspects are of vital importance to a successful system: cleanliness and strict adherence to the routine lay down. heat and humidity (vi) Vibration and Chatter Reasons For Machine Tool Maintenance (i) The objective of machine tool maintenance is to achieve minimum breakdown and to keep them in good working condition at the lowest possible cost. If wear is to be reduced to a minimum. (iii) Maintenance division of the factory ensures the availability of the machines and services required by other sections of the factory for the performance of their functions at optimum return on investment whether this investment be in material. as explained above. machinery or personnel. Corrective maintenance is concerned with the replacement of worn parts brought to light by preventive maintenance and the carrying out of repairs. The need to recondition can be determined by the frequency of corrective maintenance. Procedure and Schedule of Preventive Maintenance For Machine Tools The object of preventive maintenance. Reconditioning can be defined as the stripping down . then the need for 13 | P a g e . to bring it back to a condition which is at least as good as the maker's original specification.(ii) Change in level of the machine tools (iii) Wrong use and overloading of the machine tools (iv) Wear of slide ways. bearings and other components (v) Dust. is to reduce wear and tear and to prevent disruption to production by the planned withdrawal of machines for corrective repairs before failure occurs. this necessitates routine lubrication and inspection of machine elements. (ii) Machine tools should be kept in such a condition which permits them to be used at their optimum (profit making) capacity without any interruption or hindrance.

shows a typical oiling diagram included in the manual supplied by the manufacturer of a capstan lathe. so that both the operator and supervisor can refer to it.Head Stock Drain B . containing well illustrated servicing instructions. the necessity for cleanliness.cleanliness is obvious. a record card of the type shown should be maintained to show that servicing has been carried out. From a control point of view. 14 | P a g e . cannot be over emphasized and this aspect is becoming increasingly important with the introduction of more sophisticated machines. however. That aspect of preventive maintenance concerned with inspection involves two distinct but related activities: inspection of specified elements of the machine itself and inspection of the piece parts being produced. Machine tool makers provide excellent manuals.Head Stock Oil Level The success of preventive maintenance is entirely dependent on the system laid down and the quality of the people who operate it and therefore it must be strictly controlled by supervision. Oiling Diagram A . Fig.Sight Circulation for Checking Oil C . It is regularity of servicing rather than spring cleaning which will ensure that the machine operates efficiently. with the minimum of disruption to production. this should preferably be kept at the machine. and these provide the basis for a preventive maintenance schedule.

etc. A decentralized structure would probably experience a lower utilization than centralized one but would be able to respond quickly to breakdowns and would achieve higher plant availability. such as bearings and slide ways. equipment getting too much heated up. unusual sounds coming out of the rotating machinery. The two organization structures that are common are: Centralized and Decentralized. 4. Neglected cooling system. spares and tools 2. Resources: men. For a particular class of machine.In addition to inspecting the obvious elements where wear takes place. wrong fuel. A maintenance organization can be considered as being made up three necessary and interdependent components. examination of the corrective maintenance record will highlight other aspects which need regular inspection. 1. Indifference towards minor faults. when and how work should be carried out. Lack of lubrication.) Indifference towards equipment vibrations. External factors (such as too low or too high line voltage.3 MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION It concerns in achieving an optimum balance between plant availability and maintenance resource utilization. etc. Causes of Equipment Breakdown (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Failure to replace worn out parts. one may have a mix of these two. the need for such inspection could vary quite considerably from company to company. Work Planning and Control System: a mechanism for planning and scheduling the work and feeding back the information that is needed for correctly directing the maintenance effort towards defined objective. 15 | P a g e . 3. according to the nature of its products and the preventive maintenance policy which is operated. In practice. Administration: a hierarchy of authority and responsibility for deciding what.

Steam 2. In any company. (3) To work satisfactorily. Buildings 2. building etc. it is required to match the resources to workload. Performance Reports 1.. Repair 3. This requires coordination amongst the involved personnel so that these are timely undertaken.It may be mentioned that maintenance / production system is a continuously evolving organism in which the maintenance organization will need continuous modifications in response to changing requirements. Engineering 3.men and materials including documents. Power 3. Work planning and control system under maintenance management in the plant ensures this and provides planning and control of activities associated with maintenance. Fire Protection 4. it is therefore essential that some part of the main organization should be responsible for maintaining these important assets. Construction 1. Waste Disposal 16 | P a g e . Maintenance activities ± be it preventive or condition monitoring. Scheduling 2. is called maintenance department. Maintenance 2. Water 4. Planning and Estimating 1. Yards 3. plant and services are called by the accountant as fixed assets and in many companies they form at least 50% of the money invested. Organization Structure of Maintenance Department (1) The buildings. involve use of resources. Moreover. the maintenance department has an organization structure. small or big. Design 4. Air 1. Work order System 2. Backlog control 5. Maintenance Superintendent Engineering Assistant Facilities Foreman Foreman Shop Maintenance Foreman Planning & Scheduling Foreman Engineering Field Foreman 1. (2) The section or department which preserves and looks after the upkeep of equipments. Lubrication 4.

y y To ensure engineering is focused on business objectives. y y Improve communication between engineering and other business functions. Enable engineering to take a lead in business development. y y Control engineering spending and ensure adherence to budgets. Completion of a benchmarking exercise.5. 5. The purpose of a maintenance audit is to derive a maintenance strategy. Ensure engineering compliance to all company and statutory standards and requirements. Writing of a Maintenance Audit review document. Consistently provide parts for planned maintenance and breakdowns with the lowest spares holding value. which aims to deliver improvements to the general maintenance function. reduce breakdowns and improve productivity. Utilize all available information to develop a relevant and effective Maintenance Strategy. 17 | P a g e . provide clearer communications and to develop a set of Best Practices for the maintenance function.1 THE MAINTENANCE AUDIT Strategic Maintenance Planning has developed a unique maintenance audit and review process for management to analyze the maintenance function from within the overall organization taking into account all the various functions within the organization. The Maintenance Strategy is developed by the following process: y y y y Completion of a Maintenance Audit.e.0 MAINTENANCE STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT A Maintenance Strategy brings all current maintenance practices and operations together with current industry best practice in order to provide a strategic and coherent 'road map' for engineering to follow in order to achieve the following goals: y Improve service provision to operations i.

critical "Hard" (systems and processes) and "Soft"(human resources and organization structure) issues within the engineering function are rated and tabled against our experience in wider industry. Benchmarking exercise In order to provide a wider industry perspective to the results of the Engineering Review and to provide additional groundwork for the development of the Maintenance Strategy. All information from the maintenance audit is organized into a document that provides a distillation of the perceptions and thoughts of the respondents. Essentially engineering. allowing the current situation to be benchmarked y An accurate assessment of other company functional perceptions of engineering performance y To identify areas of functional weakness to allow improvement strategies to be planned and executed y To provide a ground work of information for the development of a Maintenance Strategy The audit is completed with departmental functions outside the engineering function to ensure that a balanced and wide-ranging result is achieved. 18 | P a g e . To complete this exercise.Maintenance Audit Review The maintenance audit has been designed to determine thoughts of individuals and groups and ensure the following objectives are reached: y A snapshot of the current engineering function. a bench marking exercise is carried out. production and administration responses are investigated in isolation and then general perceptions and themes identified within the conclusions.

the key elements of the Maintenance Strategy will be distilled into a prioritized plan for implementation. y y Provision of an overall Maintenance Strategy. providing a basis for development to working methods Implementation of the Maintenance Strategy will deliver y y y y y y y y y y The Maintenance Strategy will dictate direction There will be an Engineering Charter to set service levels to operations There will be the use of appropriate Maintenance Methods Engineering Resource Organization will reflect the needs of the business There will be appropriate levels of Human Resource There will be use of Best Industry Practice Project Engineering will adopt a life cycle asset management approach There will be compliance with all company systems and standards There will be auditing of performance There will be Continuous Improvement Finally.5. a Maintenance Strategy is developed for the engineering function.2 MAINTENANCE STRATEGY Utilizing all information generated. Detailing current best practice. 19 | P a g e . The strategy has three main sections: y Detail of how the implementation of a Maintenance Strategy integrates with and facilitates the organization Business Plans and goals.

Large organizations---particularly manufacturing and production companies---will use maintenance programs to ensure their production processes continue to produce high-quality products with as little waste as possible. Good maintainability principles. Human error during maintenance. risk-based. and Poor communication between maintenance and production staff. Poorly skilled work force. General principles The following aspects should be considered with respect to Maintenance Procedures: y y y y y y Human factors. Static or spark discharge during maintenance in an intrinsically safe zone. Unconscious and conscious incompetence. This refers to the maintenance procedures that are necessary to mitigate a major accident or hazard. Contributory factors for an assessor to consider concerning maintenance procedures The Safety Report should address the following points: y Whether the company maintenance regimes (planned. and Clear criteria for recognition of faults and marginal performance. The following issues may contribute towards a major accident or hazard: y y y y y Failure of safety critical equipment due to lack of maintenance. reliability centered. 20 | P a g e . condition based or breakdown maintenance) are adequate for each plant item which has a safety function.0 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES Maintenance management procedures is a business function typically responsible for reviewing. Incompetence of maintenance staff. repairing and correcting equipment or facilities in a company. Knowledge of failure rate and maintainability.6. which can create a significant drain on company resources. Maintenance can also help companies prevent major capital expenditures to replace broken equipment.

zones 0. y Whether the company Safety Management System includes adequate consideration of maintenance of plant. y Whether maintenance staff have been sufficiently trained to recognize plant or equipment failing during maintenance inspections. y Whether sufficient reporting systems are in place so that corrective maintenance can be applied to mitigate a major accident or hazard. communication. flameproof. Major hazards Major hazards could arise from the following: y The lack of control of spares such that incorrect materials or items outside specification (e. fatigue. y Whether maintenance staff have been sufficiently informed. corrosive. servicing.g. intrinsically safe. shift work. permits to work. 21 | P a g e . Whether sufficient precautions are taken prior to maintenance of hazardous plant and equipment (isolation. y Whether the procedures to ensure quoted proof check periods for safety critical items are adhered to. fire or explosion. environmental monitoring. running of plant. y Whether the maintenance staff are aware of the type of environment they are working in (flammable. PPE/RPE). instrumentation and electrical systems. y Whether procedures are in place to provide detailed operating instructions for recommission plant after maintenance. risk assessments. attitude) are addressed. trained and supervised to minimize a potential human failing during maintenance. explosive. replacement and re-commissioning (static free. plant shutdown and plant breakdown. draining. y y y Whether maintenance schedules are managed and regularly inspected and reviewed. instructed. which have been subjected to risk assessments (see Technical Measures Document on Plant Modification / Change Procedures).y Whether proof check periods quoted for safety critical items are adequate to ensure risks are within acceptable limits. time allotted for the work). y Whether the maintenance staff use the correct equipment in the workplace during reconditioning. y Whether sufficient maintenance systems are in place during productive assistance . Whether Human factors (stress. flushing. 1 & 2). non-flameproof equipment) are used in replacement of plant items leading to increased risk of loss of containment.

relief valve springs over tightened. Paragraph 51 refers to BS 5345 (Code of Practice for the selection. y y Unauthorized staff performing maintenance functions. contamination. method statements. Not in current HSE lists. Paragraph 52 refers to a routine checklist that should regularly be applied to any electrical 22 | P a g e . motors running in wrong direction. warning signs.g. heat transfer rate changes. nonreturn valves orientation incorrect. heat sources such as cigarettes or welding. and Failure to re-commission plant correctly after maintenance to ensure that operations are not adversely affected in terms of safety considerations (e. y Maintenance being performed incompetently (particularly alarm/action set points on instruments incorrectly set. emergency procedures). pipeline spades/orifice plates left in/removed. alignment of couplings on pumps and agitators causing overheating. HSE.1 GUIDANCE AND CODES OF PRACTICE RELATING TO MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES The following publications can be used as guidance material relating to maintenance procedures: y HS(G)22 Electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. leading to unrevealed failures of safety critical items. 6.y Failure to drain and/or isolate plant prior to dismantling causing release of flammable or toxic substances. y Lack of knowledge by maintenance staff of the working environment where maintenance is being carried out (i. bolts torque incorrectly or bolts missing. static and electrical discharge. pipe work/flexible incorrectly connected/installed. flow rate changes. leading to ignition of flammable substances (e. safety features left disconnected/dismantled. mass transfer rate changes). use of non spark-resistant tools) or injury/fatality from incorrect personal protective equipment (e. gaskets left out. lack of risk assessments.g. installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (in 8 parts)) which lists the typical maintenance schedules for each type of electrical apparatus.g. y Scheduled maintenance not being undertaken as required or breakdown maintenance inadequate. bursting discs orientation incorrect/left out). y Paragraph 49 refers to the importance of good engineering practice and a knowledge of the maintenance history for any electrical apparatus with explosive protection capabilities.e. respirators) being worn.

2 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES: OVERVIEW Computer Use Companies can use computers to monitor production processes and to send issues to managers. 6. Overall. Computers can streamline the number of preventive maintenance measures and ensure corrections occur at low production output periods. If not. HSE. in the open air. on an impervious base. Paragraph 54 refers to the importance of contractor competence to mitigate hazards that may be created during maintenance and repair. Planning and Scheduling Many companies still use standards planning and scheduling procedures for maintenance. HSE. 1996. Paragraph 48 refers to the need to implement a permit to work in areas where flammable liquids are stored.equipment used in potentially explosive atmospheres. HSE. Large organizations may conduct initial operational audits to determine if current maintenance procedures are effective. y HS(G)176 The storage of flammable liquids in tanks. the maintenance department can adjust its planning and scheduling process for maintenance. HSE. y HS(G)140 Safe use and handling of flammable liquids. this process will typically involve reviewing a specific number of production processes or activities and scheduling 23 | P a g e . Paragraph 48 refers to the need for maintenance to prevent electrostatic build up within flammable environments by regularly checking the earth continuity of all metal services in contact with flammable atmospheres. Paragraph 55 refers to the need to recognize the correct explosive markings on a piece of electrical equipment so that the correct type of maintenance can be applied. This will avoid damage from fires or spillages in the bund and facilitate access for maintenance. Paragraphs 104 refers to pumps being potential ignition sources and that they should be located outside a bounded area. 1998. This information allows maintenance managers to focus on specific areas without spending too much time looking for errors. 1998. y HS(G)71 Chemical warehousing: the storage of packaged dangerous substances. 1998. y HS(G)51 Storage of flammable liquids in containers.

Rather than just focusing on the failures in a company's systems. maintenance personnel typically need to find the root problem and solve the issue to prevent future maintenance issues.maintenance accordingly. which can result in higher operating expenses. 24 | P a g e . This procedure also allows maintenance personnel to see how employees work in the company and to find actions where these individuals are causing repair issues. The maintenance department may work in conjunction wit the h quality management department to improve business operations. Observations Maintenance personnel may observe firsthand the company's equipment and facilities to determine how well they are operating.

25 | P a g e . beams. ensure proper sealing and installations of new tiles or shingles.1 BUILDING MAINTENANCE WORK The general responsibility of a building maintenance worker can vary from building to building. Attentions needs to paid to these aspects. plumbing. structural walls and floors. structural walls. ORGANIZATION The organizational structure of a maintenance program should clearly define duties and responsibilities and should vary with the complexity of the building. floors and roof structure.  Function at its designed level at all times. they are no cause for concern. such as electricity. floors and roof structure and its stability. lawn maintenance and garbage disposal. beams.  Function during the normal life span of the building. 1. 7. floods and earthquakes. Others may have a superintendent like function. Over time. structural walls.  Warping in columns.  Resist the effects of an extreme natural event like hurricanes. A maintenance program comprises of three basic components: Organization. then repairing certainly is a big concern. Roof replacements means to replace the old roof. check the roof deck.7.0 BUILDING MAINTENANCE Building maintenance is a very significant factor to ensure long life of the building. which means that they can be responsible for hiring skilled workers when there are problem in the building. A roof gets leak problem when it is at least ten to fifteen years old. beams. So in this wise it is necessary to replace the roof rather than repairing it.  Rotting in wood structural components. The structure of a building is the group of columns. Many buildings have small cracks in concrete columns. Inspection and Maintenance plan. Some workers may be responsible for everything in the building. Roof replacements is a key part of building maintenance and particularly in an apartment project consisting of multiple building having more complex roofing.  Rusting of metal structural components. A maintenance program should ensure that the building can. In some cases. the building settles and moves creating minute stresses at joints in materials that can cause small cracks to appear.

septic system]. plant materials to avoid them penetrating walls and foundation]. 3. wind. 26 | P a g e . circuits. MAINTENANCE PROGRAM It involves simple observations of the inside and outside of the school. sun. circuit breakers]. free of debris. Areas of the building includes. plastering. simply around the interior and the exterior. wall plates. service entry lines. The preliminary inspection is intended to assist in the evaluation of the overall condition of the building. INSPECTION Inspection needs to be conducted in order to prepare a maintenance plan. Building interior [windows. The inspection should not be based only on observations of visible and apparent condition of the building and its components at the time of inspection. when a hazardous event impacts the building. The information gathered during the building inspection is the basis for the maintenance program. ceiling sagging. water supply. such as. looking at it carefully. It is recommended that a new inspection be performed if a major change occurs to the building. Plumbing [major parts include. Grounds or foundation. water storage. doors and frame. pre-engineered trusses].        Structure [wooden and metal structural components]. rafters. Roofing [includes purling.2. waste collection. The inspection should be conducted by technical personnel capable of identifying major deficiencies which may affect the normal activities in the building. It should be continuous in order to update the building maintenance program. fixtures. Electrical system [panel box. Building exterior [protection from water. A building analysis report should be prepared in order to summarize the inspection. masonry wall cracks].

7. The down time cost for such systems is expected to be very high..0 CONCLUSION The above term paper has briefly focused on the various aspects of maintenance management. To meet these challenges. as industries worldwide are going through an increasing and stiff competition and increased automation of plants. Maintenance is expected to play even much bigger role in years to follow. maintenance has to use latest technology and management skills in all spheres of activities to perform its effective role in profitability of the construction company. 27 | P a g e .

Explains the different types of maintenance regimes and gives data on accidents that have occurred. 28 | P a g e .. HSE Contract Research Report No. Butterworth-Heinemann. G.. 1992. ³Managing maintenance resources´. Male.0 REFERENCES HSE. ISBN 0 7176 1254 6. 2006. HSE Books. Anthony. 'Dangerous Maintenance .J.E. 1997.A Study of Maintenance Accidents and how to prevent them'. HSE Specialist Inspector Report SIR52. Levitt Joel. 120/1997. Bright. ISBN 0 11 886347 9. ³Handbook of maintenance management´. A Survey of Maintenance Accidents Attributed to Technological Failings'. Czachur. 'Safety of Transport and Machinery. 1998. and Beic-Kharasani.8. Kelly. C.K. K.. 'Condition Monitoring to Enhance Safety'. Industrial Press. R.

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