CONCRETE: QUALITY CONTROL

CONCRETE IS

No more three component system. Is a multi-component and multi-variant system. Concrete includescement, coarse and fine aggregates, water , mineral and chemical admixtures, additives, performance improvers etc. As some materials are natural and others are processed, site conditions variation in quality is expected. Consistent quality with a minimum variation in the material is the target and to be maintained.

TYPES OF CEMENTS: Ordinary Portland Cement(33 Grade) IS 269 Ordinary Portland Cement(43 Grade) IS 8112 Ordinary Portland Cement(53 Grade) IS 12269 Rapid Hardening Cement- IS 8041 Sulphate Resisting Cement-IS 12230 Portland Pozzolana Cement (part 1)-IS 1489 (fly-ash based) Portland Pozzolana Cement (part 11)-IS 1489 (calcined based) Portland Slag Cement-IS 455 Oil Well Cement- IS 8299 High Alumina Cement-IS 6452 etc

Type of cement to be used for intended use.

APPLICATIONS OF OPC: OPC 33 grade can be used in all general construction works where high strength is not required. OPC 43 shall be used in pre-cast products, multistoried buildings, water tanks, canals etc.

The common pozzolanic material are.OPC 53 shall be used in structures where high strength is required elements of high rise buildings. WHAT IS POZZOLANA ? A pozzolanic material is essentially a siliceous/ siliceous aluminous material which does not possess cementations property. when finely ground react with calcium hydroxide in the presence of water at ordinary temp. foundations in aggressive soils. In such cases. SRC has sulphate resisting property. concrete pipes in marshy soils etc IS:12230 PORTLAND POZZOLANA CEMENT (PPC): Portland Pozzolana Cement (Fly ash based) IS 1489 Part I Portland Pozzolana Cement ( Calcined clay based) IS 1489 Part II PPC is manufactured by the intergrinding of OPC clinker and pozzolanic material. SRC is recommended to use in marine structures. PORTLAND SLAG CEMENT (PSC): PSC is obtained by mixing OPC clinker+ gypsum+ finely ground granulated blast furnace slag in suitable proportions or intergrinding OPC+ slag + gypsum Granulated blast furnace slag is by-product from steel industry IS 455: 1989 Specification of Portland Slag Cement PSC and PPC are called as Blended cements because they are manufactured by blending with the OPC and gypsum.fly-ash. railway sleepers etc . but. SULPHATE RESISTING CEMENT: If sulphates are more in soils/ water OPC is susceptible to attack. STRENGTH GAIN IN BLENDED CEMENTS: . a special type of cement SRC to be used. and forms compounds possessing cementations properties. clay powder etc.

OPC : CS+OH CSH +Ca(OH)2 PPC& PSC: CS+OH CSH+ Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2+ S CSH more dense Advantages of Blended Cements: Low heat of hydration Less permeability Greater resistance to aggressive environments Higher degree of durability & performance Other advantages. Mass concrete works and in hydraulic structures QUALITY REQUIREMENT S OF CEMENT . and year of manufacturing 3. 1.Check the presence of lumps 5. APPLICATIONS OF BLENDED CEMENTS: 1. 2.Risk reduced due to ASR.Check for BIS mark and type of cement on cement bags 2.Check randomly the weight of cement bag 6.Store cement in water tight sheds and on wooden planks or covered by water proof materials . easy workability etc. continuous strength gain.OPC43 are being used.Check whether the company s original packing is intact 4. Most suitable in marine and aggressive environment constructions.Check week no.. Can be used in all constructions where OPC 33. 3.

to provide concrete with a rigid skeletal structure and reduce void space Coarse aggregates: > 4. Frequency and no. chemical and mineralogical properties 10.75 mm Natural river/ marine sand. Vermiculate etc material can be used as LWA Can also be manufactured by sintering fly ash/ GGBS nodules Successfully used in high rise structures. abrasion value . impact value. Use cement as soon as possible and in order of arrival 8. Manufactured Both shall comply with IS :383 Sources to be identified and aggregates to be evaluated for their suitability PROPERTIES OF COARSE AGGREGATES: Shall comply mechanical & mineralogical properties : Crushing value. light weight panels etc. Fine aggregates: -4. of samples to be sent for testing depends on the project.75 mm . . Scoria.7. Test certificate to be collected from the manufacturer 9. Send samples to recognized laboratories for testing for physical. Natural or artificial or recycled Properties of coarse aggregates depend on nature of rock & texture. soundness etc Grading is a must & is described in terms of cumulative % by mass of aggregate passing particular IS sieves Light weight aggregates: That produce concrete having unit weight around 1100 kg/m3 Pumice. AGGREGATES: Aggregates play two important roles.

free from dust / organic matter Use angular/ rounded aggregates.durable. marine sand. Bulk age.QUALITY CHECKING OF COARSE AGGREGATES. deleterious constituents. If zone II is not available correction in the quantity of sand can be made Sand having fineness modules >3. silt content.: Coarse aggregates must be hard. Fine aggregates shall be free from clays.manufactured sand Fine aggregates shall comply with IS: 383-1970 Grading.. salts and dry Shall comply with IS 383 and zone grade II are preferred. organic impurities.. organic impurities are the controlling parameters Zone II sand is preferable QUALITY CHECKING OF FINE AGGREGATES.2 is unsuitable for making concrete . Particle shape influences workability Elongated and flaky aggregates should be avoided as they reduce workability. moisture content. Zone I sand is coarsest while Zone IV is finest. Fly ash Artificial. Should neither be oversize ( not more than 5%) nor undersize (not more than 10%) Higher size aggregates 40/ 80/100 mm can be used in road / foundations etc. dirt. preferable 20 mm for normal building construction Water absorption should be less than 5% Aggregates to be stored properly FINE AGGREGATES: Natural River sand. They increase void & water demand Grading to be carried out.clean.

low permeability. corrosion protection etc. Metakaolin. Rice husk ash etc Chemical admixtures many types depending upon what property to be modified FLY-ASH: Fly-ash is a by-product of thermal plant Fly-ash can be used in cement . THE SUITABILITY OF WATER SHALL BE ASCERTAINED BY TESTS FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AND INITIAL SETING TIME OF CEMENT 28 DAYS STRENGTH 90 PERCENT OF CONTROLED MIX INITIAL SETTING TIME NOT LESS THAN 30 MINUTES AND SHALL NOT DIFFER BY MORE THAN + 30 MINUTES FROM CONTROL ADMIXTURES: To improve specific property of concrete in fresh and/ or hardened states like workability. as a additive in concrete.early strength. reduction in water demand etc high strength. self compaction. special concretes and other building materials . Silica fume. ADMIXTURES TYPES: Mineral admixtures Fly-ash.TESTING OF WATER: INCASE OF DOUBT REGARDING DEVELOPMENT OF STRENGTH.

10 µm and a bulk density of 150-250 kg/m3 Acts both as pozzolona and filler Requires high range water reducing/ super plasticizer ASTM C-1240 RICE HUSK ASH: Obtained by burning rice husks under controlled conditions Can be used as additive or pozzolona NCB has developed technology for manufacture of RHAM (Rice Husk Ash Masonry Cement) Compressive strength 175-180 kg/cm2 CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES: 1.0.CaO content >10% and produced from lignite and sub-bituminous coals (ASTM 618 C class SILICA FUME: By-product from Ferro-silicon industry Essentially composed of amorphous silica with a very high surface area (20000 m2/kg) Particles with an average dia. CaO content is <10% and produced from anthracite and bituminous coals (equal to ASTM 618 F class) High lime fly-ash : Possess both pozzolanic and cementitious properties.Accelerators 2.Water reducers .It is collected from ESP's from thermal plants Shall comply with IS :3812 (Pts 1&2) Low lime fly-ash : Possess pozzolanic property.Retarders 3.

dry material content in liquid/solid admixtures.5 1. it is very very essential to go for batch mixing Each material used should be of minimum variation in quality and quantity FACTS OF RMC: .4. The yield of concrete per bag of cement will also be less.5% by wt. If silt content is more than 7% by volume either the sand to be rejected or it should be washed . QUALITY CHECKING OF FINE AGGREGATES. Of cement IS: 456 limits retarders (0. Excess silt effects the strength of concrete FM shall range from 2. concrete will be under sanded.High range water reducing 5.6% for concrete. plasticizers(1. If correction of bulk age of sand is not done. of ingredients being used in concrete in different proportions .0%) & super plasticizers(2. % by wt.5%). It will be harsh and of low workability and more porous. Chloride content to be checked for every batch For high workability flow in mm to be checked Generally dosage of naphthalene-based super plasticizers is 0..gravity for liquid admixtures.6% for plastering and up to 3% for masonry NEED OF MIX PROPORTIONING: Because of large no. up to 1.0%).High range water reducing and retarding QUALITY CHECKING OF ADMIXTURES: Shall comply with IS: 9103 Compatibility test with cement Optimum dosage Sp.6 to 3. Of cementitious materials.

0 Cum The central plants are equipped with laser sensors to sense moisture in sand. Highlights of Batching Plant: Capacity ranges from 30 to 240 Cubic Meters The latest generation plants can store as many as 10.Silo bins Transit Mixer: The capacity ranges from 3 to 12 cubic meter. Batching plants have either pan type or twin shaft type mixers with manual control mode . RMC started in India in 1980 and presently has 450 plants compare to 3700 in USA 60% of concrete in Japan is RMC .Semiautomatic or fully automatic control .000 different concrete mix designs.Elevated bins .Star bins . The storage bins are generally used of 3 types viz . The batch capacity ranges from 0.All over world 40% of total cement produced is used in RMC while in India it has reached 8% now. .5 to 3.

8%) and nickel (0. The mixing drum and spirals are made of highly wear resistant steel with a high percentage of chromium(0.The agitating speed is between 2 and 6 revolutions per minute with the mixing speed of 4 to 16 revolutions/minute.6%). Concrete Pump: Concrete pumps used in RMC plants are usually with German technology Pumps are available in different sizes and capacities Trailer mounted and placer boom pumps are used for pumping concrete It facilitates smooth pumping of concrete without segregation Advantages of RMC: Uniform and consistent quality of concrete Fast delivery of concrete to speed up construction Relieves consumer from sourcing and storage of raw materials Prevents wastage & theft of raw materials at site Environmental friendly product .

use of coloured concrete is permanent alternative to painting or tile fixing abroad. Self Compacting Concrete: Technology evolves to give better services to the customer. These concrete blocks have equal strength as that of conventional concrete. Coloured Concrete: Though not very popular in India. It is made by adding desired colour pigments in the batch of RMC itself. We can produce various special concretes like SCC. It is prepared by using considerable amount of Glass Fiber in the mix design. Various grades of concrete with consistency.Ready to serve concrete irrespective of time. .LWC and color concrete etc New Technology in RMC: Transparent Concrete : New innovations like Transparent Concrete are bound to rule the concrete manufacturing.

Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is one such boom to retail/micro customer who doesn t have concrete compacting facility at site SCC is type of concrete that itself flows through the steel reinforcement & gets sufficient compaction at its own. It is achieved by the use of refined aggregates & special admixtures. .

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