Fluid & Electrolytes

homeostasis- state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival.

Water content of the body
Water accounts for 50-60% of body weight in the adult.
The percentage of body weight is greater in men than women because men have more lean body mass. body fluid compartments:
intracellular space- inside the cell
2/3 of body water located inside cells is called intracellular fluid

extracellular space- outside the cells Extracellular fluid- interstitial fluid (fluid in the interstitium, lymph, plasma, and small amounts of CSF, GI fluid, and pleural, synovial, peritoneal, intraocular, and pericardial fluid. Transcellular fluid- fluid in specialized cavities.

electrolytes- substances whose molecules disassociate, or split into ions, when placed in water. ions- electrically charged particles
cations- positively charged ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+. anions- negatively charged ions HCO3-, Cl-, PO43-. proteins have a negative charge and are thus anions.

Valence- the degree of combining power of an ion.

liquids. gasses. Facilitated Diffusion.movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration requires no energy other than the concentration gradient. with small amounts of Mg2+ and Na+.Main anion is PO4. Glucose into a cell. Active Transport.Measurement of electrolytes mEq is how we measure electrolytes. Ca2+. ECF-Main anions are Cl-. simple diffusion requires no external energy. ICF. Mechanisms controlling fluid and electrolyte movement Diffusion.Main cation is K+.movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration. small amounts of HCO3. Electrolytes are active chemicals that unite in carying combinations. ICF. SO4-.Molecules move against the concentration gradient. small amounts of K+. ECF-Main cation is Na+. . with some protein and a small amount of HCO3-. solids. PO4-. Iy is more practical to express their concentration as a measure of chemical activity rather than a measure of weight. and Mg2+. Electrolyte Composition of Fluid Compartments Electrolyte composition varies between ICF & ECF.

Na+. Hypertonic. Osmolarity. Oncotic Pressure.External energy is required. Isotonic.the amount of pressure that is required to stop the osmotic flow of water.Solutions with solutes less concentrated than the cells. Osmolality. Osmosis.Osmotic pressure exerted by colloids in solution.Fluids with the same osmolality. K+ pump is an example. Fluid movement in capillaries direction of movement is determined by capillary hydrostatic pressure plasma oncotic pressure interstitial hydrostatic pressure interstitial oncotic pressure . Hypotonic. Hydrostatic Pressure.Solutions with solutes more concentrated than the cells. Osmotic Pressure.Movement of water between two compartments separated by a semipermeable membrane where water moves from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration.for within a fluid compartment.A measure of the total solute concentration per kg of solvent.A measure of the total solute concentration per liter of solution.

nicotine. ADH can also be released by stress.abnormal fluid accumulation if interstitial fluid (edema) third spacing.describes more distribution of fluid in the ICF and ECF compartments.occurs when fluid accumulates in a portion of the body (transcellular fluid) from which it is not easily exchanged with the rest of the ECF. or interstitial oncotic pressure rises. second spacing. This fluid is not available for functional use. . plasma oncotic pressure decreases.capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial oncotic pressure move water out of the capillaries plasma oncotic pressure and interstitial hydrostatic pressure move fluid into the capillaries Edema occurs when venous hydrostatic pressure rises. which regulates water retention by the kidneys. Pituitary Regulation The posterior pituitary releases ADH. and morphine. Fluid spacing first spacing. nausea. Regulation of Water Balance Hypothalamic Regulation Fluid deficit or increase in plasma osmolality is sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus which stimulate thirst and antidiuretic hormone release.

Gastrointestinal Regulation Daily H2O intake is between 2000-3000mL. or a shift of fluid from plasma into interstitial .Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) causes. adjust urine volume Cardiac Regulation ANP and BNP natural antagonist of RAAS.abnormal ADH production in CNS disorders. Extracellular fluid imbalances ECF volume deficit (hypovolemia) and ECF volume excess (hypervolemia) typically accompanied by one or more electrolyte imbalances. Fluid volume deficit occurs with abnormal loss of body fluids. produced in response to increased arterial pressure and high sodium levels. particularly changes in serum Na+. Adrenal Cortical Regulation Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex help regulate both water and electrolytes. Renal Regulation primary organ for water and electrolyte balance is the kidneys. Insensible water loss vaporization from the lungs and skin assists in regulating body temperature. inadequate intake.

. deficit replace both water and any needed electrolytes.Treatment of fluid vol. treatment for fluid vol. renal failure). excess removal of fluid without producing abnormal changes in the electrolyte composition or osmolality of ECF. Fluid volume Excess Results from excessive intake of fluids. abnormal retention of fluids (CHF. Result in changes to intravascular volume. Diuretics and fluid restriction primary therapy Restricted Na+ intake. or shift of fluid from interstitial fluid into plasma.

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