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Fundamentals of Instructing______________________________________________

References: (Aviation Instructor's Handbook)

Objective To present the student with the knowledge of concepts related to FOI to include
the Learning Process, Human Behavior, Effective Communication, the Teaching
Process, Teaching Methods, the Instructor as a Critic, Evaluation, Instructional
Aids, Flight Instructor Characteristics & Responsibilities, Techniques of Flight
Instruction, and Planning Instructional Activity
Elements 1.Learning Theory
2.Characteristics of Learning
3.Effective Communication
4.Teaching Process
5.Teaching Methods
6.Instructor as a Critic
8.Instructional Aids
9.Flight Instructor Characteristics & Responsibilities
10.Techniques of Flight Instruction
11.Planning Instructional Activity.

Schedule 1.Discuss Lesson Objective 05

2.Present Lecture 30
3.Conclusion 05

Equipment 1.Markers
2.Aviation Instructors Handbook

IP’s Actions 1.Discuss Objective

2.Present Lecture
3.Answer Questions

SP’s Actions 1.Participate in discussion and planning

2.Take notes
3.Ask and respond to questions

Completion This lesson will be complete when the CFI student demonstrates an understanding of
Standards the elements related to FOI.

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Instructor’s Notes: Fundamentals of Instructing


What? - FOI is the basic principles designed to promote learning in the student through Instructor
application of those principles.

Why? - To develop skills of instruction and to enhance the efficiency of instruction

OVERVIEW - This lesson will cover the basic elements pertaining to FOI, including:
1.) Learning Theory
2.) Characteristics of Learning
3.) Principals of Learning
4.) Teaching Process
5.) Teaching Methods
6.) Instructor as a Critic
7.) Evaluation
8.) Instructional Aids
9.) Flight Instructor Characteristics & Responsibilities
10.) Techniques of Flight Instruction
11.) Planning Instructional Activity.
The Learning Process:
Learning Definition: "a change in behavior as a result of experience."

1.) Learning Theory: “a body of principles advocated by psychologists and educators to

explain how people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes.”
a. Behaviorism: “positive reinforcement of good behavior”
b. Cognitive Theory: “concerned with the mental events of the learner”
c. Perceptions: giving meaning to sensations.
Factors affecting:
a. Physical organism
b. Goals and values
c. Self-concept
d. Time and opportunity
e. Element of Threat

2.) Characteristics of Learning:

a. Purposeful
b. Result of Experience
c. Multifaceted
d. Active Process

3.) Principals of Learning (Prof. Thorndike)

a. Readiness: "student learns when ready"
b. Exercise: "most often repeated best remembered"
c. Effect: "pleasant experience is better"
d. Primacy: "right the first time"
e. Intensity: "exciting experience better remembered"
f. Recency: "most recently learned best remembered"

4.) Levels of Learning

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a. Rote
b. Understanding
c. Application
d. Correlation

5.) Learning Physical Skills:

a. Desire
b. Pattern Results
c. Know the Results
d. Duration (w/ in focused ability)
e. Organization
f. Evaluation and Critique
g. Application

6.) Memory: “vital link between the student learning/retaining information and the cognitive
process of applying what is learned.”
a. Sensory Memory
b. Short-Term Memory (STM)
c. Long-Term Memory (LTM)

Barriers to Memory:
a. Forgetting
b. Retrieval Failure
c. Fading
d. Interference
e. Repression or Suppression

7.) Transfer of Learning: “The ability to apply knowledge or procedures learned in one context
to new contexts.”
a. Plan for transfer as a primary objective.
b. Ensure that what is learned can be applied to other situations.
c. Maintain high-order learning standards.
d. Provide meaningful learning experiences that build student confidence in
their ability to transfer learning.
e. Use instructional material that helps form valid concepts and
a. Habit Formation: “correct habit patterns from the beginning”
b. Understanding Affects Learning: “elaborating on what is being learned”
c. Remembering During Training: “studying past as well as new material”
d. Remembering After Training: “continued practice of knowledge and skill”
e. Sources of Knowledge: “instructor, books, photos, videos, diagrams, and charts”

4.) How people learn

a. Perceptions: giving meaning to sensations
1. Factors affecting:
a. Physical organism
b. Basic need
c. Goals and values
d. Self-concept
e. Time and opportunity
f. Element of threat
b. Insights: grouping perceptions into meaningful wholes
c. Motivation:
1. Positive: provided by promise of reward
2. Negative: fear or insecurity
Human Behavior
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1.) Pyramid of human needs:


2.) Defense Mechanisms:

a. Rationalization
b. Flight (physical/mental)
c. Aggression
d. Resignation
3.) The Flight Instructor as a Practical Psycologist

Effective Communication
1.) Basic Elements of Communication
a. Source (sender, speaker, writer, encoder, transmitter, or instructor)
b. Symbols (model/prop)
c. Receiver ( listener, reader, decoder, or student)
2.) Barriers to effective communication
a. Lack of common core experience
b. Confusion between the symbol and the symbolized object
c. Overuse of abstractions
d. Interference

3.) Developing communication skills

a. Role Playing
b. Instructional Communication
c. Listening
d. Questioning
e. Instructional Enhancement

The Teaching Process

1.) Steps:
a. Preparation
b. Presentation Methods
c. Application by the Student
d. Review & Evaluation
2.) Suitable Language
Teaching Methods
1.) Organizing Material
a. Introduction
b. Development
c. Conclusion
2.) Lecture Method
a. Illustrated talk
b. Briefing
c. Formal speech
d. Teaching Lecture (past to present/simple to complex/known to unknown)
3.) Cooperative of Group Discussion
4.) Guided Discussion Method
5.) Demonstration-Performance Method
6. Computer-Based Training

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1.) Objective
2.) Flexible
3.) Acceptable
4.) Comprehensive
5.) Constructive
6.) Thoughtful
7.) Specific
1.) Oral quizzing
2.) Written tests
a. Characteristics of a good test
1. Reliable
2. Valid
3. Comprehensive
4. Discriminating
3.) Performance tests (PTS)
Instructional Aids
1.) Purpose: Get and hold student interest and show relationships
2.) Types:
a. Chalkboard
b. Models
c. Charts
d. Projected Material
Flight Instructor Characteristics and Responsibilities
1.) Providing Adequate Instruction
a. Orient new learners to the scenario-based training approach.
b. Help the learner become a confident planner and a critical evaluator of his or her
own performance
c. Help the learner understand the knowledge requirements present in real world
d. Diagnose learning difficulties and help the individual overcome them.
e. Evaluate student progress and maintain appropriate records.
f. Provide continuous review of student learning.

2.) Establishing Standards of Performance

a. Description of the skill or behavior (desired outcome)
b. Conditions (determine difficulty)
c. Criteria (list very specific standards)
d. Use of the PTS
e. Decision based objectives (develop pilot judgment and ADM skills)
3.) Emphasizing the positive
4.) Providing student pilot evaluation and supervision.
5.) Preparing practical test recommendations and endorsements.
6.) Determining requirements for conducting additional training and endorsement requirements.

4.) Professionalism
a. Sincere
b. Service is performed
c. Training and preparation
d. Study and research
e. Reason logically and accurately
f. Make good judgmental decisions
g. Code of ethics
h. Professional image
Techniques of Flight Instruction
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1.) Telling and Doing
a. Instructor Tells - Instructor Does
b. Student Tells - Instructor Does
c. Student Tells - Student Does
e. Student Does - Instructor Evaluates
2.) Integrated Technique: Use of outside references and reference to flight
3.) Obstacles to Learning during Flight Instruction
a. Feeling of unfair treatment
b. Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations.
c. Worry, or lack of interest
d. Physical discomfort, illness, or fatigue
e. Apathy, fostered by poor instruction
f. Anxiety
Planning Instructional Activity
1) Developing objectives and standards for a course of training
2.) Identification of Blocks of Learning
3.) Requirements for developing a training syllabus (Lesson plans)
4.) Purpose and characteristics of a lesson plan

Discuss Elements, to include:
1.) Learning Process
2.) Human Behavior
3.) Effective Communication
4.) Teaching Process
5.) Teaching Methods
6.) Instructor as a Critic
7.) Evaluation
8.) Instructional Aids
9.) Flight Instructor Characteristics & Responsibilities
10.) Techniques of Flight Instruction
11.) Planning Instructional Activity.

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