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KINEMATICS*?

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan.

Ann Arbor, MI 48109, U.S.A.

and

Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

University of California. Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A.

Abstract -The paper describes a computer program that generates absolute motion variables of human gait

from predetermined relative motions. Relative displacements are measured over a range of step rates during

both free (self-determined step rate at different speeds) and forced (forced step rate at a constant speed)

walking, converted into harmonic coefficients and stored in an array as a function of step rate. Only six

variable identifiers need to be specified to compute any absolute variable or its derivatives at any desirabie

step rate. The paper displays some examples of measured relative motions and reconstituted absolute

variables.

accomplished by photography in its various forms.

Kinematic variables of gait are valuable to both Photographic techniques of motion measurements

dynamic synthesis and analysis in the studies ofhuman include interrupted light method, cinematography and

walking. In dynamic analysis, the measured kinematic optoelectronic recording.

data of body segments are used to predict forces and Marey (1895) invented the interrupted light mathod

moments applied to each isolated segment. Kinematic which, in its ever-improving form, has been used by

measurements are needed in synthesis problems for

authors in all of the classic studies on human gait

comparison to motions predicted by the synthesis (Carlet et al., University of California), as well as in

from a known or assumed set of moments and forces, more recent studies (Miiller and Hettinger, 1952b;

thus providing a means of evaluating the accuracy of Drillis, 1958 ; Murray et al., 1964; Milner et al., 1973).

the assumed model. The reader is referred to Glanville and Krewer’s (1937)

This paper describes a computer program which

comprehensive review of the literature on gait

generates absolute kinematic data from predetermined measurements prior to 1937.

relative motions. The relative displacements are mea-

Motion pictures, when Gk& &a moving body and

sured over a range of walking speeds, converted into

of a timer simultaneously, serve as a satisfactory record

harmonic coefficients and stored in an array as a

of absolute motions. This method is widely used

function of step rate. Only six variable identifiers need

because of the simplicity of the data gathering equip-

to be specified to compute any desired variable or its ment, ease of data collection and lack of encumbrance

derivatives at any desired step rate. The paper also to the test subject (University of California, 1947;

displays examples of the measured relative motions Levcns et al., 1948; Liberson, 1965; Sutherland and

an&reconstituted absolute variables. Hagy, 1972; Cappoao et al., 1975). During data

The number and variety of kinematic measurements

gathering mirrors are sometimes placed above the

of walking are endless, limited only by the facility and subject (Murray et al., 1967a) or below a glass walkway

ingenuity of the researcher. The choice of a particular

(Ryker, 1952) at a 45’ angle to obtain multiple views on

method of measurement, however, is dictated by the ‘the same photographs. Three dimensional displace-

purpose of the investigation which is reflected in such ments can also be recorded with stereophotography

considerations as the motions to be measured, a (Ayoub et ol., 1970). In a medical setting, motion

sampling rate sufficient to reproduce the desired picture photography with a stationary or a moving

degree of detail, accuracy of the measurements and camera is advantageous over other methods especially

ease of instrumentation and data reduction. when the data reduction is mechanized through the use

of a motion analyzer (Sutherland and Hagy, 1972).

* Recehed for publication 22 August 1978. Optoelectronic recording of motion, a relative,new-

t Research support through contract VAV 101 (134) with

the Veterans Administration. comer to gait studies, includes television recording and

$ Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering. photodetector plate methods. The first method is

9 Professor of Mechanical Engineering. closely related to cinematography, except that the

RM 12 ?--A

99

100 M. Y. ZARRUGH and C. W. RADCLIFFE

motions are recorded on Videotape instead of film and horizontal components (Liberson et al., 1962;

(Winter et al., 1947a and 1974b; Cheng, 1974). The Gage, 1%7), horizontal component (Waters et al.,

method becomes effective when sophisticated translat- 1973) and all three components including the lateral

ing equipment are used to reduce the data directly into (Cavagna et al., 1%3 ; Gersten et al., 1969) component

coordinates (Winter et al., 1972). The photodetector of the acceleration of a point on the trunk approximat-

plate method (Selspot), still in the test stage, converts ing the center of mass of the body to compute an

the images of points of interest directly into electrical estimate of the total force between the feet and the

signals indicating planar position (Lindholm, 1974; ground. Liberson (1965) measured angular accele

&erg, 1974). ration of the shank for correlation with phasic acti-

String transducers are a simple and direct means of vities of major hip joint muscles. Accelerometry studies

measuring absolute displacements on the treadmill. emphasize the frequency spectra of acceleration to

The data are obtained in finished form requiring a distinguish between normal and pathological gait

minimum of further reduction. The main disadvantage (Gage, 1967; Smidt et al., 1977). Morris (1973) pre-

is that as many strings as displacements must be sented a technique using a specially built strain gauge

attached to the subject. The type of motion measured accelerometer to describe the total motion of the

depends on what instrument is linked to the other end shank.

of the string. Linear displacements (Ralston and

Lukin, 1%9; Lamoreux, 1971; Waters et al., 1973), MODElJNC OF THE WAIJUNG MECHANISM

measured. Structure

The body accomplishes its essentially forward dis- Analysis in this paper is based on a model of the

placement by means of a highly coordinated series of human skeleton consisting of seven articulated seg-

rotations of lower limb segments. There are two ments as suggested by Elftman (1967). It includes three

common methods of measuring body rotations in fundamental divisions: right and left lower limb linked

walking, goniometry and pin studies. A goniometer is together by a composite segment, the HAT

a device to measure relative angular rotation between (head-arms-trunk). Each lower limb is divided into a

two body segments. To obtain accurate measurement thigh, shank and foot-shoe combination. In all, the

of rotation about a joint, it is necessary to align model consists of 12 links, six of which comprise the

precisely the measurement axis with the anatomical HAT: pelvic girdle, thorax and head, right arm, right

axis and to insure that the goniometer does not restrict forearm, left arm and left forearm. Figure 1 shows a

the range of joint rotation. Lamoreux (1974) de- schematic representation of this model in which each

veloped the self-aligning goniometer in which a paral- segment is identified with a number starting at the

lelogram linkage spans a joint allowing rotations to be pelvis and proceeding distally on the right side and

measured without interference with the joint motion then the left. The assumption of symmetry between

and without the need for axis alignment. He used the right and left sides permits the determination of gait

method extensively in his complete and systematic variables of the left side from those of the right side by

kinematic study of gait (1970, 1971). Other studies appropriate shift along the time axis.

presented segmented goniometric measurements of a

Mass and Geometric Parameters

few joints with little attention to the effect of speed or

axis alignment (Karpovitch et ol., 1959 ; Gollnick et al., Despite voluminous published anthropometric

1964; Wright et al., 1964; Finley et al., 1969; Johnston data, those of Braune and Fischer (1889) remain the

and Smidt, 1969; Chao et al., 1970; Kettelkamp et ol., most useful and complete. They expressed anthropo-

1970; Smidt 1971; James and &erg, 1973 ; Milner and metric parameters as ratios or coefficients, so that

Dali, 1973). Townsend et a/. (1977) described a six-

degree of freedom goniometer to measure the total

motion of the knee. n

When it is very difficult to attach a measuring

instrument onto a segment (e.g. the vertebral column),

or more accuracy is needed, pins are inserted directly

into the bone, mechanically linking it to a measuring

device (Close and Inman, j953 ; Kinzel et al., 1972b) or

to prominent targets for photography (Levens et al.,

1948).

Measurements of velocity and acceleration are

useful for comparison to derivatives computed from

measured displacements. Numerical differentiation,

without smoothing or filtering, preferentially mag-

nifies high frequency noise, but careful filtering (Winter

et al., 1974a ; Pezzack et al., 1977) overcomes the

problem. Many investigators measured the vertical Fig. 1. Schematic representation of body structure.

Computer generation of human gait kinematics 101

Table 1. Approximate coordinates of the centers of mass and joints in the reference

position

Segment No. ratio x ! .’

Pelvis 1 0.278 0.0 0.560 0.0

Thigh 2 0.100 - 0.0024 0.420 0.047

Shank 3 0.045 -0.0016 0.178 0.043

Foot 4 0.015 0.0100 0.018 0.05 1

Hip - - 0.0 0.527 0.049

Knee - - 0.0 0.300 0.045

Ankle - - -0.1070 0.042 0.041

the subject of this study are tabulated in Table 2.

The system of measurements (Fig. 3) as designed by

Lamoreux (1970), is used to locate the pelvic girdle in

space via its six degrees of freedom and then to

measure the rotations of each lower limb segment

relative to the one proximal to it, starting with

measurements of thigh rotations relative to the pelvic

girdle. Locating the pelvis in space is accomplished by

three pairs of parallel strings connecting the pelvic

girdle to spring-loaded instrumented arms (Fig. 2)

above, behind and to the right of the subject. For the

sake of simplicity, only the rear arm, measuring the

Fig. 2. Definition of the coordinate system. forward displacement of the pelvis and its rotation

about a vertical axis, is shown in Fig. 2. Joint rotations

are measured by potentiometers (Cummings and

Lamoreux, 1972) attached to segments by means of

differences between individuals were taken into ac-

count. Their data on center of mass and approximate

joint locations are used in this study. As tabulated in

Table 1, these three dimensional coordinates (see Fig. 2

for a definition of the coordinate system) are expressed

as ratios of height without shoes. Only parameters of

the right limb are shown, because left to right sym

metry is assumed. Parameters expressing the distri-

bution of mass in the body are obtained from Braune

an.d Fischer’s data or computed from geometrical

approximations of segments as truncated ellipsoidal

cones, using Dempster’s data (1955) for establishing

the major and minor axes of the conical cross-sections.

Table 1 lists the ratio of segment masses relative to

Age, yr 54

Body mass, barefoot, no instruments, kg 70.1

Body mass with shoes and instruments, kg 72.2

Shoes mass, kg 1.5

Height above floor without shoes, cm 176.8

Shoe heel height. cm 2.5

Shoe length, cm 30.0

Fig. 3. System of motion measuremem.

102 M. Y. ZARRUGHand C. W. RADCLIFFE

self-aligning linkages (Lamoreux, 1974). In addition to

the six displacements of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle Step length and step rate

flexion angles are measured. Hip adduction is in- This basic gait pattern has been shown (Zarrugh et

terpolated from Lamoreux’s (1970) data to match the al., 1974) to .be highly related to metabolic energy

current set of measurements. Data during sixteen full expenditure. Its influence on the kinematic aspects of

walking cycles measured from right heel contact to the gait are discussed elsewhere by Lamoreux and Todd

next right heel contact, are sampled at a rate of 200 (1974). They showed that kinematic measurements on

samples per set and stored in digital form. The heel the same subject are highly repeatable if they were

contact marks are generated by microswitches at- made under the same conditions of step length and

tached to the heels of both right and left shoes. The heel frequency. However, varying the speed, step rate (n) or

events data as well as the treadmill displacement in step length (s) had a profound effect on the measured

millimeters are also recorded. motions. Therefore, it is necessary to accompany any

Kinematic data during both free (self-selected step measured kinematic data by the associated data on

rate) and forced (forced step rate) walking are col- average walking velocity, step rate and step length.

lected. The free pattern data are gathered over a range The s-n pattern data for our subject are displayed in

of treadmill speeds corresponding to a step range of Fig. 4 in which the solid line depicts the constant s to n

8%130steps/min at 5 steps/min intervals. In the forced ratio fit and the interrupted line displays the constant

pattern experiment, the step rate was forced on the slope relationship (s = c, + cln). A comparison be-

subject via an electronic metronome within a step rate tween these two forms in terms of the sum of squared

range of 90-140 steps/min at a constant speed of 90 errors shows a slightly smaller sum (38.5cm’) or

m/mitt. To overcome subject dependent random vari- slightly better fit, for the constant s-n ratio form than

ations, all gathered data are averaged over sixteen the constant slope relationship which has an error sum

cycles after reviewing for consistent features. Data of 50.3 cm2.

processing and storage are facilitated by compressing

the data into harmonic coefficients form. A fast Free pattern kinematic data

Fourier transform program converted all measured Each of the measured kinematic displacements is

variables into harmonic coefficients. Seven to twelve presented as a family of curves, one for each tested step

harmonics are used to reconstruct all gait variables, rate (or speed), as a function of time in percent of cycle

except ankle flexion which required at least 20 har- to facilitate visualization ofspeed effect (Fig. Sa-i). The

monics for proper reconstitution. corresponding harmonic coefficients are available

PELVIS POSITION PELVIS ROTATIONS FLEXION ANGLES

* 1

I . , , . I * , J . , f

50 1 T-- 100 1

50

Time. “/- Of cycle Tirne59/. of cycle Time. % of cycle

PELVIS POSITION PELVIS ROTATION’ FLEXION ANGLES

I

I * I I I I I , I I I , ,

0 50 100

Time. % of cycle Time, cycle Time, ‘/a of cycle

Computer generation of human gait kinematics 105

from the authors. The hip adduction angle data were Forced pattern data

interpolated from Lamoreux (1970).

One of the remarkable features displayed in this In order to investigate the conditions under which

data is the abrupt change in the flexion patterns of the the body minimizes total work done during loco-

hip, knee and ankle joints occurring at about 105 motion, it is necessary to force combinations of step

steps/min. Below this transitional step rate, in the length and step rate which are not adopted normally in

range of 85-100 steps/min, the flexion patterns for gait. This is accomplished by keeping the speed

each joint are almost identical showing almost no constant at 90 m/min, while imposing a set of varying

effect due to increased step rate. Within the same step step rates between 90 and 140 steps/min. Figures 6a-c

rate range, the knee remains almost fully extended display the measured kinematic variabbs for this

(Fig. 5h) during most of stance phase ((r-40”/,). Maxi- pattern of walking. The harmonic coefficients for the

mum ankle extension which normally occurs shortly same data are available from the authors.

(less than 1% cycle) before toe-off is observed in Fig. 5i Despite constant speed, an observable effect is

to take place essentially at the same time (66% cycle). shown of the changing step length on each measured

Increased step rates above the transitional one result in variable. This dramatically illustrates how the basic

increased knee flexion during stance phase (Fig. 5h), gait parameters, speed, step length and step rate,

earlier and earlier toe-ofTpoints (Fig. 5i) and increased influence the kinematic variables of walking. Lower

maximum hip flexion (Fig. Sg). limb flexion angles (Figs. 6a-i) are not greatly affected

.VARIABLE (IVAR)

DATA AS k FWCTIIIN OF

. STEP RATE (CADW) 7

1

CURRENT SEGMENT = 1

STDRLDHaRIow1c

CDEFFICIEWS~

I

CuRRfNT SEGNENT

Fig. 7. Simplified flow chart of the method of solution for absolute motions from measured displacements.

106 M. Y. ZARRUGH

and C. W. RADCLIFFE

by change in step length. In contrast, the step length measured successively at the current orientation of the

has the largest influence on pelvic displacements, instrument axes (Fig. 12). The final configuration of

especially on the three linear displacements (Figs. any line on the link is determined in terms of a rotation

6a-c) and the rotation about a vertical axis (Fig. 6e) matrix that takes into account all successive relative

which are observed to increase in amplitude with rotations (Appendix A). The velocity and acceleration

increased step length. analyses of the two-link chain are developed in terms

of the first and second derivatives computed from the

ABSOLUTE COORDINATES DaERMINATION relative measured joint rotations as shown in Appen-

dix A.

Kinematic analysis

For the purpose of dynamic analysis of gait, the Method of solution

human body can be treated as a chain of rigid links The kinematic analyses of the previous section,

interconnected at joints which allow the links to rotate developed for a general link, can be applied suc-

relative to each other. The system of successive relative cessively to the entire system of twelve links. For this

measurements starts with defining the position of the purpose a program is written in FORTRAN IV that

trunk relative to the chosen fixed coordinate system computes absolute motions of these links from in-

(Fig. 2) and proceeds to express the rotation of each ternally stored harmonic coefficients. To simplify use,

lower limb segment relative to the one proximal to it. the user need supply only six parameters identifying

The computation of the absolute motions takes a the desired gait variability. The first four parameters

similar course; it begins with computing the absolute define the variable. The fifth parameter is a multiple

position of the trunk as a reference member and segment flag designed to save processing time if data of

continues distally to describe the absolute motion of many interconnected segments are needed. The sixth

all segments. defines the step rate.

An analytical method of computing absolute mo- The method of computation in a simplified form is

tions from relative measurements is developed in displayed in Fig. 7. On the basis of the user’s six

Appendix A for a simple chain with two links rotating identifiers, the program interpolates the harmonic

relative to each other about three axes. Figure 12 data of the necessary measured variables to the

depicts such a general linkage consisting of a proximal specified step frequency, generates derivative

link (i - 1). the motion of which is assumed to be coefficients if necessary and reconstitutes the harmonic

known completely and a distal link (i) the motion of data into equivalent time functions. If only measured

which is to be found. The relative rotations are variables are requested, no further processing is done;

$p*ad I 110.5 cm0SOC

limo. =- 30

#C

Computer generation of human gait kinematics 107

1

Harmonic

Measured: all I

I\ 12

Computed’ 12

,- ,.

\ ,

I \

1 -\ ’

0 ,

#‘_ J \ 8’

i:

~~~~

7-o 50 100

Time. ‘1. of cycle

HARMONIC ORDER

Computsd Accslcration

Spsctrs

ion % = 223 cm/s*cl

IIAAMONIC ORDEd

I08 M. Y. ZARRUGH and C. W. RADCLIFIX

i

L

\

-\

en

Fig. Il. Effects of harmonic content on the reconstitution of ankle tlexion as a time function.

otherwise the program performs kinematic analyses as pares ankle flexioh curves obtained by direct measure

necessary until all requests are satisfied. ment, harmonic synthesis with 20 harmonics and

synthesis with seven harmonics. Some degree of detail

Samples of computed variables is lost when fewer harmonics are used.

Although mass center and joint coordinates of all

segments can be displayed, a “stick” diagram is chosen REFERENCES

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Sot. Prosthetics and Orthotics), 8-12 Oct. Montreux, Waters, R. L., Morris, J. and Perry, J. (1973) Translational

Switzerland. motion of the head and trunk during normal walking. J.

Lamoreux, L. W. and Todd, F. N. (1974) The importance of Biomechanics 6, 167- 172.

time and distance measurements for analysis of human Winter, D. A., Greenlaw, R. K. and Hobson, D. A. (1972~

walking. Proc. World Congr. UP0 (Int. Sot. Prosthetics Television-Computer analysis of kinematics of human

and Orthotics), 8-12 Oct. Montreux, Switzerland. Gait. Comp. Biomed. Res. 5, 498-504.

Levens, A. S.. Inman, V. T. and Blosser, H. A. (1948) Winter, D. A., Sidwali, H. G. and Hobson, D. A. (1974a)

Transverse rotation of the segments of the lower extremity Measurement and reduction of noise in kinematics of

in locomotion. J. Bone Jr Surg. (A)30, 859-972. locomotion. J. Biomechanics 7, 157-159.

Liberson, W. T., Holmquest, H. J. and Halls, A. (1962) Winter, D. A., Quanbury, A. O., Hobson, D. A., Sidwall. H.

Accelerographic study ofgait. Arch. phps. Med. Rehabil. 43, G., Reimer, G., Trenholm, B. G., Steinke, T. and Shl6sser.

547-554. H. (1974) Kinematics of normal locomotion-A statistical

Liberson, W. R. (1965) Biomechanics of gait: A method of study based on T.V. data. J. Biomechanics 7, 479-486.

study. Arch. phys. Med. Rehabil. 46, 37-48. Wright, D. G., Desai, S. M. and Henderson, W. H. (1964~

Lindholm, L. E. (1974) An optoelectronic instrument for Action of the subtalar and ankle-joint complex during the

remote on-line movement monitoring. In Biomechanics IV stance phase of walking. J..Bone Jr Surg. (A)46, 361-382.

(Edited by R. C. Nelson and C. A. Morehouse), pp. Zarrugh, M. Y., Todd, F. N. and Ralston, H. J. (19741

510-512. University Park Press, Baltimore. Optimization of energy expenditure during level walking.

Marey. E. J. (18951 Mocemenr. Appleton, New York. (Orig- Eur. J. appl. Physiol. 33, 293-306.

1 IO M. Y. ZARRUGHand C. W. RADCLIFFE

APPENDIX A where

Spatial Kinematic Analysis [RI_ I1 = absohtte rotation matrix of member i - 1

The rotation matrix (Suh and Radcliffe, 1967a and 1967b) b, = initial orientation of measurement axis q.

approach is used to determine absolute displacements from The relative rotation matrix [RJ can now be const+al to

relative rotation measurements. The method is developed for account for measured relative rotation 4. of member i about

a simple two-link chain with a joint a( that allows three u:

successive rotations I$, I& and 4, about nonparalkl axes.

u:v+c U$IV - u,s u,u,v + u,s

This simple chain is represented in Fig. 12. The absolute

motion of proximal link i - 1 is assumed to be completely CRJ= u,u,v+ u,s u:v + c u2u,v- u,s ,

known from previous kinematic analyses which start at the

[ u,u,v- u,s u,u,vf u,s u:v + c 3

rdercncc link having a known absolute motion. The purpose

ofthis analysis is to determine the motion of thedistal link i in W)

terms of the known absolute motion of the proximal link i where

- 1 and the relative rotations in the joint which are measured

about instrument axes 0, v, and w,. c = cos(f#J.)

Having determined the absolute rotation matrix [R,_ II for S= sin(&)

member i - 1. a similar matrix [Rl] can be computed for V= cos(&)

member i by locating the current orientation of the mcasun- uI, IQ and uj = direction cosines a

mcnt axes. The initial orientations of these axes are repre- Because axis v, is distal to nt, its final orientation is found in

sented by II,,,,vu1and wU1and are estimated from photographs terms of rotations of axis u, and member i - 1:

of the subject wearing the measurement apparatus while

standing in relaxed position. Table 3 lists the direction vt= [&- 11C&h. (A3)

&sines of these vectors for all joints relative to the reference A similar rotation matrix to [RJ can be written for relative

coordinate system. The axis II, is rigidly attached to the rotation 4, about axis v, by replacing 4” with 4, in equation

proximal member i - I (Fig. 12). so when this member (A2). The current direction of third measurement axis w, can

execute a rotation [R,_ ,] from the reference position, the now be computed in terms of absolute rotation of member i

vector II,,, rotates with the member to assume its final - 1 and relative rotations about u, and vi:

orientation u,:

wi = ER,- 11CJWWo~ . (A4)

Through the known final configurations of all three measure-

ments axes, the absolute rotation matrix [RJ for link i is

found :

[&I = [JL,I[&lERvlC41. (A51

The matrix [Rn] has the same form as equation (AZ) except

4. is replaced by #,,. Although [R,] is derived for a general

joint having three degrees of freedom, only the hip and ankle

allow as many rotations while the knee allows only two

rotations. Because of small amplitude compared to flexion

angles, some of these rotations, such as ankle inversion, knee

and ankle axial rotations are ignored in theanalysis. With this

simplification, the rotations considered in the study are the

flexion angles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as hip

adduction.

Because point a, is treated as a joint on link i - 1, its

coordinates are determined in the previous stage of analysis

on member i - 1. Therefore, the coordinates of the distal joint

a, + 1and the center of mass c, on link i. are formulated in terms

of all known quantites :

c,= a1+ [&I(co1

- ad 646)

ai+,= ai+ CR&W+ I)- ad. (A7)

where

a, = distal joint on link i - 1

Fig. 12. Two body segments represented as an idealized two- co, = initial position of the center of mass of link i

link chain connected through a point a, by the linkage aO, = initial position of a,

measuring the relative rotations between them. ao,,+ 1, = initial position of a,+ ,.

Direction cosines

Measured

Joint Motion Axis x Y z

Hip Adduction v20 l.oooo 0 0

Knee Flexion “20 0 -0.1132 0.9936

Ankle Flexion u40 - 0.3420 0 0.9397

Computer generation of human gait kinematics III

Position analysis should begin at the reference member of from measured displacements. the velocity analysis starts

which absolute motion is defined in terms of absolute with the computation of this members center of mass and

measured angles and coordinates. angular velocities in terms of the computed derivatives.

A numerical harmonic differentiation is used to compute This analysis follows the general approach in the previous

the first and second derivatives of measured displacements. section. The absolute angular acceleration of members i’. i”

The velocity analysis is developed in similar fashion to that of and i are expressed as

position. Here the absolute angular velocity Bi of link i is

& = &_, + e,.., x e; + d;., (Al6)

expressed in terms of the known absolute angular velocity

fi,_, of member i- 1 and the derivatives of the relative &=&t&x&+& (A17)

rotations I$,, 9. and I$, measured along the instrument axes. and

Furthermore, the first and second derivatives rotations are

also known through differentiation. For convenience the 0; = & + &’ X Bi + d;,. (Al8)

intermediate links of the measuring device are introduced as Substituting from equation (A8) into (A16) for t?, gives

members i’ and i” (Fig. 12). For example, 4 refers to the

absolute angular velocity of link i’. This velocity is given by 4=8;_, +&-I x &+d;. (At9)

Successive substitutions form equations (Al7) and (A19) into

(A18) eliminates the intermediate quantities and results in an

where

expression for the absolute angular acceleration & in terms of

4-J = absolute angular velocity of number i - 1 measured or computed quantities :

9.s angular velocity of i relative to i - 1 which is = &.u. &=Bi-, +&+6,+diw+8i_, x tj,

Similar expressions are written for member i” and i’ as follows

+ cd,_, + 4.1 x $,

l+y= & + 6, (A9)

+ (&_, + 4. + 4,) x I$,.. (A20)

e, = I$, + 4,. (AtO)

Differentiation of equation (Al2) produces the

The substitution of equations (A8) and (A9) into (AlO) yields acceleration,

8,-B,_, +&+&+&. (All) ? = li x r + 6, x (& x r). (A21)

The velocity of a point c, on member i can be written in Again the vector cross product operations are replaced with

terms of the velocity of a point a, if the position vector r = ci matrix operations as follows :

- a, is differentiated as follows :

f= iC4 + [~Jl?,lh (A221

i = 8, x r. (A12) where

The vector cross product operation t$ x can be replaced with

a matrix product having the following form:

i = [W,]r, (A13)

where

and 01,II,, 8, = components of &

The matrix [A] is defined as,

[AI= [atI+ [WiI[ WJ. W3)

Ifthematrixoperationson theright sideofequation (A23)are

and 8,, da, 6, = components of the absolute angular velocity carried out, matrix [A] takes the following form :

8,. The matrix [WJ is called the angular velocity matrix of 4: + e:, e,e, - bi, ri,e, + II,

member i; it is a convenient equivalent to the cross product

operation 8, x (see Pipes, 1963, pp. 163-174). According to [Ai] =/ 8*8* + 8, -&+ei, &t&-U, ,

equation (A13), the velocity of the center of mass L, has the [ e,ci, - 612 e,ti + 0, -ce: + @,I

following form :

(A241

Ci = i* + [WJ(C,i - hi)- (A13

Making the use ofequations (A22)and (A23), the acceleration

form to equation (Al5) if c, is replaced by a,+, in this of the center of mass c, can be expressed in terms of the known

equation. Because the velocity of a point on the reference quantities as:

member and its absolute angular velocities are computed ci = iii + [Ai](cor - a& (A25)

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