1ne ¯1ransV||en|o¨ 8k1 s,stem |n

8ogotá nas rece|«ed s|gn|hcant
attent|on jrom tne genera| pab||c and
nas a «er, pos|t|«e |mage among
tne peop|e. 1n|s nas generated
c|t|zen-|ed act|«|t|es. sacn as tne
¯1ransm|loto¨. an e«ent |n an|cn more
tnan S0 pnotograpners
(projess|ona| and amatear) gatnered
to ta|e p|ctares oj tne s,stem.
P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us
kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
- summary almed af declslon makers


















1n|s ga|de presents tne most re|e«ant aspects to ta|e |nto accoant anen
de«e|op|ng a 8as kap|d 1rans|t (8k1) pro¡ect |n c|t|es oj tne
de«e|op|ng aor|d. spec|hca||, concentrat|ng on Lat|n /mer|ca. an||e
pro«|d|ng e\amp|es oj se«era| oj tnese s,stems. 1ne docament descr|bes tne
d|jjerent steps one mast ta|e |nto accoant |n a 8k1 pro¡ect and tne
re|e«ant deta||s oj sacn a process. Spec|a| attent|on nas been g|«en
to tne cna||enges tnat dec|s|on ma|ers conjront anen de«e|op|ng a 8k1
s,stem and tne e|ements and too|s tnat are a«a||ab|e to tnem |n order
to mo«e joraard a|tn tne |mp|ementat|on oj a saccessja| s,stem.
4 5
P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us
kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
- summary almed af declslon makers
© 2010
£dition by jorge Rogat
(All pbofos ln fbe docuuenf are falen by Carlos lellpe Pardo, unless ofberwlse nofed)
Iebruary 2û!û
3 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
Preface ..................................................................................................... 5
! Introduction ................................................................................................................... 7
!.! Pub|ic transport and sustainab|e deve|opment ........................................................ 8
!.2 Pub|ic transport options ........................................................................................!!
!.3 why ßus Rapid Transit Systems? ............................................................................ !7
2 Ieatures of a ßus Rapid Transit System ................................................................................. !9
2.! Infrastructure ....................................................................................................... 2û
2.!.! Dedicated |anes ......................................................................................... 2û
2.!.2 Stations ..................................................................................................... 2!
2.!.3 Termina|s and depots ................................................................................ 22
2.!.4 Contro| center ........................................................................................... 23
2.2 Operations ...............................................................................................................
2.3 ßusiness Structure - rearrangement of the pub|ic transport sector ....................... 27
2.4 Techno|ogy ........................................................................................................... 28
2.4.! vehic|es ..................................................................................................... 28
2.4.2 Iare co||ection ........................................................................................... 3û
2.4.3 Tracking systems ........................................................................................ 3û
2.4.4 Users information ...................................................................................... 3û
2.5 Integration ........................................................................................................... 32
2.5.! Integration with pedestrians ...................................................................... 32
2.5.2 Integration with bicyc|es ............................................................................ 33
2.5.3 Integration with other means of transportation - buses, train systems ........ 35
2.5.4 Integration with taxis and bicyc|e taxis ....................................................... 36
2.5.5 Integration with cars .................................................................................. 36
2.6 Marketing and Customer Service .......................................................................... 37
2.6.! Marketing e|ements ................................................................................... 37
2.6.2 Customer service ....................................................................................... 39
3 Imp|ementation of a ßRT System ......................................................................................... 42
3.! Po|itica| wi|| ......................................................................................................... 42
3.2 P|anning and Imp|ementation ............................................................................... 43
3.2.! Project team and time |ine ......................................................................... 43
3.2.2 System hnancing ........................................................................................ 43
3.2.3 Contracting ............................................................................................... 45
3.2.4 Construction and maintenance .................................................................. 45
3.2.5 System eva|uation and impact .................................................................... 45
4 Additiona| Resources ........................................................................................................... 47
4 5 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca:
Thc urban fransporf sccfor has ucvclopcu signifcanfly in fhc pasf 1u ycars. Sincc fhc
implcmcnfafion of a susfainablc fransporf policy in Bogofa, bcfwccn 199× anu 2uuu,
fhaf incluucu fhc massivc ucvclopmcnf of infrasfrucfurcs for pcucsfrians, bicyclcs
anu public fransporf, various cifics in fhc worlu (anu parficularly in Lafin Amcrica
anu fhc Caribbcan) havc ucvclopcu fhcir own policics wifh similar guiuclincs anu
objccfivcs. This has shown fhaf fhc subjccf of fransporfafion is nof only onc of fhc
ccnfral componcnfs for fhc rcuucfion of pollufing gas cmissions in fhc cnvironmcnf,
buf also of grccnhousc gascs.
Of all fhc susfainablc fransporf projccfs implcmcnfcu, fhc onc fhaf has hau fhc grca-
fcsf impacf is fhc Bus Rapiu Transif sysfcm (BRT). Howcvcr, ifs implcmcnfafion in-
volvcs onc of fhc biggcsf challcngcs for a local auminisfrafion, nof only uuc fo fhc
ucuicafion anu invcsfmcnf if cnfails, buf also for fhc lcvcl of ucfail in ifs planning
anu implcmcnfafion, anu fhc imporfancc of fhc polifical will of fhc pcoplc who lcau
fhcsc kinus of projccfs.
This bricf planning guiuc has bccn wriffcn for fhaf rcason. Thc purposc is fo prcscnf
fhc characfcrisfics, componcnfs anu sfcps nccucu fo implcmcnf a BRT sysfcm by
giving cxamplcs of ofhcr sysfcms of ifs kinu in fhc rcgion. This uocumcnf is infcnucu
fo infrouucc fhc mosf rclcvanf fopics involvcu in fhcsc fypcs of projccfs fo infcrcsfcu
pcoplc, fhcrcby mofivafing fhcm fo crcafc a similar sysfcm in fhcir own cifics.
This guiuc is bascu on fhc cxpcricncc of fhc ¯Promofing Susfainablc Transporf in
Lafin Amcrica projccf, funucu by fhc Global Environmcnf Facilify (GEF), implc-
mcnfcu by fhc Unifcu Nafions Environmcnf Program (UNEP), anu cxccufcu by fhc
UNEP Riso Ccnfrc. If is originally prouuccu in fhc Spanish languagc anu has bccn
franslafcu fo fhc English vcrsion wifh fhc aim of sharing fhc Lafin Amcrican cxpcri-
cnccs anu lcssons lcarncu wifh ofhcr rcgions.
|orgc Rogat
UNEP Risø Ccntrc
Fcbruary 2u1u
6 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 7 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
! Introduction
In any cify fhroughouf fhc worlu, fransporf is onc
of fhc mosf uiffculf fopics fo managc. In con-
frasf fo all fhc ofhcr componcnfs a cify has, fhcsc
complcxifics can bc sccn by fhc facf fhaf frans-
porf uocsn'f improvc alongsiuc cconomic growfh
anu ucvclopmcnf - if gcfs worsc. Thc growfh
of GDP in a cify is normally accompanicu by a
grcafcr lcvcl of fraffc anu all ifs cxfcrnalifics (po-
llufion, acciucnfs, incoualify, anu many ofhcrs).
Furfhcrmorc, if is imporfanf fo fakc info accounf
fhaf Lafin Amcrican cifics (as wcll as ofhcr parfs
of fhc worlu) havc hau an incrcasing consfruc-
fion rafc in rcccnf uccaucs, anu conscoucnfly a
grcafcr fransporf ucmanu by cifizcns. Cifics havc
bccomc a funuamcnfal corc of a counfry's cco-
nomic ucvclopmcnf, anu fhcir fransporf sysfcms
arc onc of fhc mosf imporfanf componcnfs of
fhis ucvclopmcnf.
Ncvcrfhclcss, fhcrc is cxisfing cxpcricncc in
fransporf planning, which varics from fhc vcry
posifivc fo ofhcrs, whosc cffccfs arc ouifc nc-
gafivc, in fcrms of prcparafion, implcmcnfafion,
anu cvcnfual impacfs. As a gcncral rulc, proposcu
fransporf plans anu policics whcrc privafc frans-
porf (cars, as fhc csscnfial mcans of fransporf
anu fhc consfrucfion of ways favouring fhcm)
prcvails, havc sccmingly hau posifivc shorf fcrm
cffccfs. Ycf affcr a fcw monfhs, such projccfs havc
provcn fo bc an inaucouafc opfion in fcrms of
invcsfmcnf cffcicncy, as wcll as cnvironmcnfal,
cconomic anu social cxfcrnalifics.
On fhc ofhcr hanu, fhcrc havc bccn fransporf
policics favouring fhc movcmcnf of pcoplc (nof
vchiclcs) which givc morc imporfancc fo fhc non-
moforizcu mcans of fransporfafion anu fo public
fransporf. Thcsc fypcs of cxpcricnccs, which
havc bccn wcll implcmcnfcu anu ucvclopcu as
parf of a comprchcnsivc susfainablc fransporf
policy, havc hau bofh posifivc anu long fcrm im-
pacfs in cifics arounu fhc worlu. Somc cifics havc
ucvclopcu public fransporf sysfcms fhaf havcn'f
bccn implcmcnfcu wifh all fhc ncccssary compo-
ncnfs, or complcmcnfcu by aucouafc susfainablc
fransporf policics, havc gcncrally hau minimum
or almosf non-pcrccivablc impacfs. Howcvcr, fhc
implcmcnfafion of fhcsc fypcs of sysfcms has
clcar posifivc cffccfs on a cify, cspccially in com-
parison wifh projccfs fhaf arc gcarcu fowarus
supplying infrasfrucfurc cxclusivcly for privafc
Iigure !. A typica| prob|em in deve|oping cities is traf-
hc congestion, usua||y caused by the excessive use of
private cars.
Iigure 2. Some transport po|icies |ike those in ßogota {Co|om-
bia), have given greater priority to the human being rather than
the private vehic|e. The "cic|ovía dominica|" is an examp|e: a c|o-
sure of !2û km of streets around the city on every Sunday for
pedestrians and bicyc|e riders.
8 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 9 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
Duc fo fhc complcxify of fhcsc sysfcms,anu fhc
grcaf imporfancc of a comprchcnsivc plan fo im-
plcmcnf a public fransporf sysfcm, if is impor-
fanf fo analyzc in ucfail all fhc opfions anu cha-
racfcrisfics rcouircu fo solvc fransporf problcms
in a cify. In fhis proccss fhcrc arc fccnical, cn-
vironmcnfal, social anu polifical consiucrafions
fhaf musf bc fakcn info accounf. Thc goal of fhis
uocumcnf is fo prcscnf a bricf guiuc of fhc kcy
aspccfs in fhc ucvclopmcnf of a BRT sysfcm in a
Lafin Amcrican cify. Thc main objccfivc of fhis
uocumcnf is fo ucscribc in ucfail fhc rcason for
sclccfing fhc BRT sysfcm, rafhcr fhan focusing
on ofhcr public fransporf sysfcms. This is uuc
fo fhc facf fhaf Bus Rapiu Transif has provcn fo
promofc grcafcr couify, havc much lowcr cosfs,
anu havc morc opcrafional cffcicncy fhan fhc
majorify of public fransporf sysfcms fhroughouf
fhc worlu.
This uocumcnf is mainly uirccfcu af uccision
makcrs who arc looking for opfions anu solu-
fions fo improvc fhc public fransporf sifuafion in
a ccrfain cify. If is nof focuscu on giving ucfailcu
ucscripfions of spccifc aspccfs wifhin a sysfcm
(fhcrc arc ucvclopcu uocumcnfs likc fhc Bus Ra-
piu Transif Sysfcms Planning Guiuc by ITDP anu
ofhcrs, ×3u pagcs long). This is in cffccf a ouick
guiuc fo prcscnf fhc mosf imporfanf aspccfs fhaf
shoulu bc fakcn info accounf whcn ucvcloping a
sysfcm of fhis kinu.
!.! Pub|ic transport and
sustainab|e deve|opment
As mcnfioncu bcforc, a cify's public fransporf
sysfcm is a funuamcnfal componcnf of a
susfainablc fransporf policy gcarcu fowarus
bcncffing ifs uscrs whilc consiucring fhc
long-fcrm bcncffs for a fhc cify. Somc aspccfs
fhaf arc incrcasingly fakcn info accounf whcn
making uccisions abouf a fransporf sysfcm
arc fhc implicafions, in fcrms of susfainablc
ucvclopmcnf, anu fhc rclafionship fhaf cxisfs
bcfwccn fhis anu ofhcr fransporf projccfs.
Susfainablc ucvclopmcnf is a conccpf fhaf has
alrcauy bccn ucvclopcu for a fcw uccaucs now. Ifs
main componcnfs arc cconomic, cnvironmcnfal
anu social issucs. Thc following is fhc analysis
of cach of fhcsc componcnfs wifh spccifc
characfcrisfics rclafcu fo public (anu ofhcr fypcs
of) fransporf.
£conomic Aspects: Thc cffcicncy of a cify rclics
on fhc casc of moving fhroughouf if. Thc fravcl
fimc of a cifizcn can bc rclafcu fo wclfarc anu
pcrformancc af work. if a cifizcn fravcls for only
3u minufcs fo gcf fo work, his/hcr fravcl fimc (in
mosf sifuafions) is an hour a uay. This woulu bc
an aucouafc sifuafion, anu any fravcl fimc lcss
fhan an hour woulu bc auvanfagcous. Ncvcrfhc-
lcss, fhcrc arc many pcoplc in Lafin Amcrican ci-
fics whosc fravcl fimcs fo work far cxcccu an hour
a uay. In facf, fhcsc can bc up fo 2 hours pcr
frip. This is nof only rcßccfcu in lcss pofcnfial
hours of work buf also in a consiucrablc rcuuc-
fion in fhc oualify of lifc. Auuifionally, fhc lack
of fransporf opfions (or inaucouafc public frans-
porf sysfcm covcragc) for a cifizcn who livcs far
from work rcuuccs his/hcr acccss work, hcalfh-
carc, cuucafion anu basic scrviccs, all of which
worscn fhc cconomic sifuafion of fhc cifizcn anu
fhc cify.
Thcrcforc, if a cify ucsigns a public fransporf sys-
fcm wifh aucouafc covcragc anu wifh fhc mcans
of giving grcafcr acccss fo cifizcns, fhcrc is a pos-
sibilify fhaf fhc cify will havc grcafcr cconomic
£nvironmenta| aspects: Taking info accounf fhc
rcccnf uiscussion abouf fhc vasf cffccfs of cli-
mafc changc, uirccfly associafcu fo cmissions of
carbon uioxiuc (CO2), fhc global cnvironmcnfal
problcm is onc of fhc mosf uiscusscu fhcmcs,
whcrc fransporf has bccomc a ucfcrmining fac-
for in improving or worscning fhc currcnf sifu-
Transporf confribufcs consiucrably fo CO2
cmissions (anu ofhcr pollufanfs). Thcrcforc, fhc
improvcmcnf of cifics' fransporf sysfcms will im-
provc fhis cffccf. Two principal solufions havc
bccn proposcu rcccnfly. Thc frsf is sfricfly cco-
nomical (i.c. improvcmcnf of fucls, ucvclopmcnf
of low cmission vchiclcs, cfc). Thc scconu is fhc
ucvclopmcnf of grcafcr covcragc of public frans-
porf sysfcms anu non-moforcu vchiclcs. Thc
uiscussions surrounuing fhcsc problcms sccm
fo show fhaf fhc fcchnological opfions, ucspifc
fhcir cxisfcncc anu possibilify of bcing implc-
Iigure 3. Pub|ic transport systems {inc|uding ßRT) are projects
that improve urban transport and the socia|, economic and en-
vironmenta| prob|ems of a city. The ßRT system in Mexico DI is a
very successfu| system in the Mexican capita|.
Iigure 4. Congestion in a city
generates very high economic
|osses due to |ack of efhciency,
up to 9% of GDP in cities |ike
ßangkok, Thai|and.
10 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 11 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
mcnfcu, musf bc a complcmcnf fo fhc implcmcn-
fafion of a goou oualify public fransporf sysfcm.
Thaf is fo say, a cify fhaf only promofcs fhc usc
of hybriu fucl vchiclcs won'f gcncrafc as goou of
a long fcrm solufion as onc fhaf implcmcnfs a
public fransporf sysfcm wifh low cmission vchi-
clcs, complcmcnfcu by fhc rcinforccmcnf of a
low cmission policy for vchiclcs. Thc main argu-
mcnf is fhaf a sysfcm of fhis kinu has lcsscr cmis-
sions fhan privafc fransporf. This givcs grcafcr
imporfancc fo fhc ucvclopmcnf of public frans-
porfafion, which fransporfs a grcafcr numbcr of
pcoplc fhan privafc vchiclcs.
Socia| aspects: Thc social aspccfs consfifufc
onc of fhc componcnfs usually lcff fo lasf in a
fransporf policy. Transporf projccfs incluuc so-
cial aspccfs in a vcry rcsfricfcu unucrsfanuing.
Ncvcrfhclcss, fhc couify, acccssibilify, hcalfh anu
gcncral wcllbcing of a populafion will also havc
cffccfs ovcr fhc cconomy anu cnvironmcnf of a
cify. Thc social aspccfs incluuc fhc rcuucfion of
povcrfy (by improving acccss fo work, cuucafion,
hcalfhcarc, anu goous anu scrviccs), fhc rcuuc-
fion of acciucnfs (by rcuucing high-risk sifua-
fions for pcucsfrians anu ofhcr roau uscrs, in fhis
casc by implcmcnfing a safc anu cffcicnf public
fransporf sysfcm), improvcmcnf of fhc hcalfh of a
populafion (bofh fhrough incrcascu physical ac-
fivify anu lcss cxposurc fo pollufanfs by rcuuc-
ing cmissions in fransporf) anu fhc improvcmcnf
of gcncral oualify of lifc wifhin a cify. Thc implc-
mcnfafion of a public fransporf sysfcm, as parf of
a comprchcnsivc susfainablc fransporf policy in
a cify, safisfcs fhcsc conuifions abovc any ofhcr
mcans of moforiscu fransporfafion, anu complc-
mcnfs ofhcr mcans of fransporfafion such as fhc
bicyclc anu walking.
In gcncral, projccfs fhaf givc morc imporfancc
fo public fransporf, bicyclcs anu walking will
havc morc posifivc cffccfs for a populafion, fhan
fhosc focusing on fhc ¯improvcmcnf' of vchiclc
congcsfion, for which fhc solufion lics in fhc
consfrucfion of morc roaus anu parking arcas. A
common misfakc in fransporf projccfs is fhc as-
sumpfion fhaf roau ucvclopmcnfs aufomafically
improvc fhc oualify of lifc of fhc populafion, as
fravcl fimc woulu bc rcuuccu anu acccss fo plac-
cs woulu improvc. Howcvcr, if has bccn provcn
fhaf fhcsc arc simply shorf-fcrm bcncffs (maxi-
mum 6 monfhs). In fhc long run, fhcsc projccfs
acfually gcncrafc urban sprawl, alicnafion of fhc
populafion, acciucnfs anu all subscoucnf cffccfs
rcgaruing cncrgy, cnvironmcnfal, social anu cco-
nomic anu congcsfion issucs. Thc main mcasurc
fo bc implcmcnfcu, for privafc fransporf, is rc-
sfricfing circulafion anu csfablishing aucouafc
(gcncrally mcaning highcr) priccs for fhc usc of
infrasfrucfurc (roaus anu parking arcas) anu fu-
cls. Thcsc mcasurcs nof only balancc a fransporf
sysfcm fnancially anu cconomically, buf fhcy
also gcncrafc morc aucouafc conuifions for fhc
usc of public fransporf, bicyclcs anu walking.
!.2 Pub|ic transport options
Taking info accounf fhaf public fransporf is onc
of fhc susfainablc opfions fo fhaf can bc implc-
mcnfcu in a cify, if is ncccssary fo answcr fhc
following oucsfion. ¯Whaf fypc of public frans-
porf is bcffcr?' This oucsfion cannof bc answc-
rcu immcuiafcly by uirccfly choosing onc fypc or
anofhcr, nor can a morc cxpcnsivc or incffcicnf
Iigure 6. Socia| aspects re|ated to transport inc|ude various oth-
ers from citizens' we||being, to hea|th and accidents in a popu|a-
tion, inc|uding important issues |ike socia| eguity.
Iigure 5. Inadeguate state po|icies
and enforcements on fue|s and pub-
|ic transport vehic|es affect a city's
environmenta| prob|ems. The exces-
sive use of private vehic|es is one of
the |argest contributors to atmos-
pheric po||ution.
12 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 13 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
public fransporf opfion bc ncccssarily sccn as a
bau opfion. As a gcncral rulc, fhc sclccfion of a
¯bcffcr' public fransporf sysfcm is nof mauc ba-
scu on onc or fwo aspccfs, if involvcs a varicfy
of uiffcrcnf consiucrafions. In gcncral fcrms, fhc
public fransporf sysfcm opfions availablc in fhc
markcf can bc cafcgorizcu as follows.
This uocumcnf ucscribcs fhc ucvclopmcnf of Bus
Rapiu Transif sysfcm in ucfail, hcncc fhc prcfc-
rcncc for fhis fypc of sysfcm unucr mosf con-
uifions. Ncvcrfhclcss, a lisf of frcoucnfly askcu
oucsfions fhaf can guiuc fhc sclccfion of onc pu-
blic fransporf sysfcm ovcr anofhcr is prcscnfcu
in fhc following uiscussion.
Bcforc prcscnfing fhc lisf of oucsfions, fhc frsf
rccommcnuafion for uccision making musf bc
prcscnfcu, fhc uccision abouf fhc fcchnology fo
bc implcmcnfcu (mcfro, lighf rail, BRT, cfc) musf
nof bc mauc wifhouf full knowlcugc of fhc cir-
cumsfanccs in which if will bc implcmcnfcu. As
sccn in many cifics arounu fhc worlu, uccisions
mauc wifhouf knowing fhc confcxf havc usually
hau uisasfrous conscoucnccs.
what is the |eve| of demand of a city, and -
what are the genera| characteristics of its
Thc frsf facfor fhaf musf bc consiucrcu bcforc
sclccfing onc fypc of public fransporf sysfcm
ovcr anofhcr is fhc nafurc of fhc journcy wifhin
fhc cify. Thaf is fo say, fhc amounf, anu kinu of,
Hcavv rai| svstcms (unucrgrounu or clcvafcu).
a rail sysfcm which incluucs mulfiplc anu high
capacify lancs, wifh clccfric propulsion sysfcms
anu high pcrformancc lcvcl.
Improvcd bus svstcms: Sysfcms in which a fraui-
fional opcrafion of buscs is uscu, wifh improvcu
vchiclcs anu busincss plan. Thcsc arc gcncrally
of low capacify,
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): a bus bascu sysfcm (so-
mcfimcs wifh arficulafcu buscs) wifh rail-likc
componcnfs such as sfafions, off-boaru farc co-
llccfion anu a sophisficafcu opcrafional schcmc
which proviucs high lcvcl pcrformancc anu scr-
vicc oualify,
Iignt rai|: an clcvafcu or af lcvcl rail sysfcm wifh
an clccfric propulsion sysfcm wifh a mcuium mo-
bilizafion pcrformancc,
Iigure 9. The monorai| in kua|a lumpur is a
|ight rai| system of medium capacity.
Iigure !û. The metro in ßeijing {China) is a system with
e|evated and underground sections.
Iigure 8. The ßus Rapid Transit system "Metrovía" in
Guatema|a city.
Iigure 7. An improved bus system in the city of Pune,
frips fakcn in fhc cify, fhc origins anu ucsfina-
fions fhaf cxisf in fhc cify, anu how fhcy arc uis-
fribufcu. Many cifics ucvclop a gcncral fransporf
sfuuy cvcry fvc fo 1u ycars fhaf incluuc fhosc
characfcrisfics. If woulu bc grcafly uscful fo up-
uafc anu/or analyzc fhc lafcsf rcporf of such a
sfuuy bcforc any uccision is mauc. This is parfi-
cularly imporfanf bccausc in many cascs a mass
fransporf sysfcm of grcaf ucmanu is choscn for
cifics fhaf uon'f rcally mccf fhosc crifcria.
Many uiscussions havc cmcrgcu arounu fhc uc-
manu fhaf cach fransporf sysfcm can hanulc,
mainly bccausc basic agrccmcnfs ovcr fhc pcr-
formancc of cach fcchnology havc nof bccn rca-
chcu. Bascu on fhc rcal ucmanu fgurcs of cach
fcchnology, frauifional bus bascu sysfcms havc
a pcrformancc lcvcl of up fo ×,uuu passcngcrs/
hour/uirccfion (pphpu), whilc ¯full' Bus Rapiu
Transif sysfcms havc bccn ablc fo mccf lcvcls of
ucmanu of up fo 45,uuu pphpu. Lighf rail sys-
fcms havc ucmanu lcvcls from 6,uuu fo 12,uuu
pphpu, whilc hcavy rail (normally unucrgrounu)
havc an avcragc ucmanu lcvcl of 2u,uuu pphpu.
In somc cxccpfional cascs (as in Hong Kong),
fhc lcvcl of ucmanu has rcachcu 6u,uuu pphpu.
Mosf Lafin Amcrican cifics havc ucmanu lcvcls
fhaf can bc safisfcu fhrough fhc mcans of any
onc of fhcsc fcchnologics. Ncvcrfhclcss, fhc fwo
highcsf ucmanu lcvcl sysfcms on fhc confincnf
arc fhc hcavywcighf frain sysfcms in Mcxico DF
anu Sao Paulo. On fhc ofhcr hanu, fhc Bus Ra-
piu Transif sysfcm ¯Transmilcnio' in Bogofa has
a rccoru ucmanu lcvcl rcaching 45,uuu pphpu.
what budget is free|y avai|ab|e for the -
deve|opment of a pub|ic transport system?
Onc of fhc main conccrns, whcn making ucci-
sions abouf onc public fransporf sysfcm or ano-
fhcr, is rclafcu fo fhc associafcu cxpcnscs for
14 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 15 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
cach opfion. Thcrc arc many uiscussions abouf
fhis fopic, wifh no agrccmcnf abouf fhc rcal
cosfs of fhc fcchnologics involvcu. Rcgarulcss,
fhcrc arc various aspccfs fhaf hclp clarify fhcsc
kinus of uccisions. Firsf, fhc comparison of fhcsc
cxpcnscs shoulu incluuc fhc samc componcnfs
in cvcry casc. Basically, changcs in fhc cosfs of
a public fransporf sysfcm lic in fhc inclusion of
vchiclcs (rolling mafcrial), parallcl roufcs, auja-
ccnf infrasfrucfurc, anu cxpropriafion of lanu fo
ucvclop such sysfcms. A fcchnology comparison
(mcfro vs. BRT or ofhcrs) musf always incluuc fhc
samc componcnfs in cvcry opfion, fhus avoiuing
any confusion whcn making uccisions.
Thc mosf imporfanf fopic, in rclafion fo fhis
oucsfion, is fhc buugcf a cify has availablc af fhc
fimc fhc uccision has fo bc mauc, anu fhc pos-
sibilify (convcnicncc) of assigning fufurc rcsour-
ccs for fhc ucvclopmcnf of a mass fransif sysfcm.
This can ovcrlap wifh fhc priorify givcn fo fhc
invcsfmcnf in public fransporf ovcr ofhcr sccfors
in a cify (cuucafion, hcalfh, cfc). An cxccssivc
ucbf for fhc consfrucfion for a public fransporf
sysfcm is nof rccommcnucu. Invcsfing in a public
fransporf sysfcm musf nof affccf fhc invcsfmcnf
of rcsourccs in ofhcr sccfors (parficularly hcalfh
anu cuucafion). Thc nofion of fransporf as a uni-
ouc cnginc of ucvclopmcnf shoulu bc changcu
fo onc whcrc fhc fransporf sccfor is of coual im-
porfancc as ofhcr sccfors, anu fhus rcßccfcu in
fhc invcsfmcnfs.
Spccifc cosfs associafcu wifh onc fcchnology or
anofhcr arc ouifc uiffculf fo ucfcrminc, fhc main
rcason bcing fhc uivcrsify of cosfs fhaf fhcsc sys-
fcms havc hau in cifics arounu fhc worlu. Ncvcr-
fhclcss, fhc cosf of builf kilomcfrc of a Bus Rapiu
Transif sysfcm has rangcu from S 5uu,uuu USD
fo S 15m USD, whilc a mcfro sysfcm rangcs from
S 5um USD fo S 32um USD. Expropriafion of
lanu, consfrucfion uclays, anu uiffculfics whcn
uigging (in unucrgrounu sysfcms) arc fhc main
facfors associafcu wifh fhcsc variafions. Thc sys-
fcms' cosfs can also bc comparcu whcn faking
info accounf fhcir capacify.
How much time is needed to p|an an ade- -
guate pub|ic transport system?
In almosf all cascs, fhc implcmcnfafion of a pu-
blic fransporf sysfcm of consiucrablc impacf is
uirccfly rclafcu fo fhc probabilify of if acfually
bcing implcmcnfcu by fhc samc mayor or govcr-
nor who proposcu if. This is uuc fo fhc uiffcrcn-
ccs of opinion among polifical parfics anu fhc
program changcs affcr clccfions. In an iucal si-
fuafion, whcrc fhcrc is confinuify in programs
anu projccfs of onc govcrnmcnf, if can bc cx-
pccfcu fhaf long-fcrm projccfs will confinuc bc-
ing implcmcnfcu whcn a govcrnor cnus his/hcr
Public fransporf sysfcms gcncrally havc fwo pha-
scs. fhc ucsign anu planning, anu fhc implcmcn-
fafion. A shorf ucsign anu planning phasc af
fhc sfarf of a projccf, whilc common pracficc, is
bofh unforfunafc anu incffccfual. This is linkcu
fo whaf was ucscribcu prcviously abouf polifical
manuafcs, sincc fhc govcrnor who ¯cufs fhc rib-
bon' is sccn as fhc onc who ucvclops fhc ucsign
anu planning of such projccfs. Ycf, fhis pracfi-
cc is of lifflc or no bcncff fo cifhcr fhc cify or
fhc govcrnor. Shorf ucsign anu planning phascs
rcsulf in an implcmcnfafion phasc full of pro-
blcms, miscalculafions anu cifizcn unrcsf anu
ucmonsfrafions (which can bc rclafcu fo ccrfain
aspccfs nof fakcn info accounf whilc planning
fhc projccf). Thc TranSanfiago sysfcm, whcrc fhc
planning anu implcmcnfafion of fhc sysfcm was
inifially uonc as an infcrnal proccss of wifh limi-
fcu cifizcn parficipafion, can bc comparcu fo fhc
proccss uonc for fhc TransMcfro in Guafcmala,
which involvcu many parficipafivc componcnfs.
Dcspifc fhc implicafions broughf on by fhc lon-
gcr uurafion of a projccf, rcsulfs arc vcry posifivc
in fcrms of uscr safisfacfion, whcn uiffcrcnf scc-
fors in a socicfy havc fhc chancc fo parficipafc.
In vicw of fhcsc problcms, fhc uisciplinc anu uc-
uicafion nccucu in an aucouafc ucsign anu plan-
ning phasc is an aspccf of grcaf rclcvancc. A uc-
sign anu planning proccss in a public fransporf
sysfcm fakcs no lcss fhan 1× monfhs (or longcr),
ucpcnuing on fhc cify.
Thc implcmcnfafion proccss is gcncrally fhc lon-
gcsf onc. Thcrc arc consulfanfs who affrm a pro-
jccf will havc a ¯frsf frunk linc' or ¯frsf phasc'
implcmcnfcu in a shorf fimc, buf if isn'f rcally
clcar whaf is mcanf by a frsf frunk linc or pha-
sc, or how fhis will gcncrally bcncff fhc popu-
A public fransporf sysfcm is uscful as long as if
is intcgratcd anu is parf of an cxtcnsivc nctwor|,
insfcau of bcing builf as an isolafcu sysfcm, sc-
grcgafcu from fhc rcsf of fhc fransporf sysfcm.
Thc implcmcnfafion proccss of a BRT sysfcm is
gcncrally fasfcr fhan fhaf of ofhcr mass fransif
sysfcms, cspccially whcn faking info accounf fhc
consfrucfion fimc of an cxfcnsivc ncfwork, which
woulu covcr a signifcanf sharc of frips wifhin a
cify. This is uuc fo fhc rclafivc simplicify of cons-
frucfing a sysfcm bascu on buscs, comparcu fo a
rail sysfcm, cspccially unucrgrounu, whcrc fhc un-
ccrfainfy of fhc consfrucfion fimc is grcafcr uuc
fo fhc lack of informafion abouf uigging problcms
fhaf may arisc uuring fhc consfrucfion proccss.
Iigure !!. The con-
struction of ßRT sys-
tem can |ast as |itt|e as
!8 months fro a sing|e
trunk |ine, whi|e the
construction of a more
comp|ex system, such
as a metro system, can
|ast !û years covering
the same distance.
16 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 17 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
what is the po|itica|, socia|, and cu|tura| -
context in which the decision for the pub|ic
transport option is made?
Social anu polifical facfors in fhc uccision ma-
king proccss of a public fransporf sysfcm arc nof
frcoucnfly fakcn info accounf. Thc frauifional
proccss is fhaf fhc purcly fcchnical crifcria arc
consiucrcu, ignoring fhc conccrns of fhc uiffc-
rcnf pcoplc involvcu, bofh uirccfly anu inuirccfly,
in fhc fransformafion proccss of a public frans-
porf sysfcm. Thcsc pcoplc incluuc bofh fhc uscrs
anu fhc opcrafors of cxisfing public franspor-
fafion, who coulu bccomc fhc fufurc opcrafors
of somc componcnfs of fhc ncw sysfcm. Ofhcr
consiucrafions arc fhosc rclafcu fo ¯whaf fhc ci-
fizcns wanf in fhcir cify', fhough fhcsc musf bc
sfuuicu carcfully. In many cascs fhc cifizcns only
wanf morc roaus anu a car wifh air conuifioning.
This consiucrafion cannof bc mauc for fhc po-
pulafion, whcn faking info accounf fhc susfaina-
bilify crifcria prcviously ucscribcu.
Public fransporf sysfcms, such as fhc Bus Ra-
piu Transif, gcncrally arc simplcr anu can usc
fhc local workforcc, which is morc uiffculf in
rail sysfcms. This has fwo implicafions. Firsf, fhc
possibilify of using local fcchnologics for vchi-
clc consfrucfion is much morc likcly fo happcn
whcn implcmcnfing a BRT sysfcm. Scconu, cxis-
fing jobs arc morc likcly fo confinuc in a Bus
Rapiu Transif sysfcm fhan in a rail sysfcm. Cons-
frucfion is fhc only casc whcrc job bcncffs bc-
fwccn rail fcchnologics anu bus sysfcms arc com-
parablc. A BRT sysfcm has a much shorfcr cons-
frucfion fimc fhan fhc sysfcm's fofal opcrafion.
what are the existing fue| and e|ectric genera- -
tor sources in a city / country?
Anofhcr maffcr of grcaf imporfancc whcn making
uccisions rcgaruing public fransporf sysfcms is
fo consiucr cncrgy. Rail sysfcms gcncrally rcly on
clccfric cncrgy fo opcrafc, whilc Bus Rapiu Transif
vchiclcs usually run on Dicscl fucl or nafural gas
(cvcn fhough fhcrc arc ofhcr opfions likc hybriu
anu clccfric). Thc proffabilify of onc fcchnology
ovcr anofhcr rclafcs uirccfly fo fhc availabilify anu
clcanlincss of fhaf fypc of cncrgy whcn in largc
ouanfifics. If a govcrnmcnf is consiucring buil-
uing a rail sysfcm fhaf runs on clccfric cncrgy, fhc
possibilify of using cxisfing cncrgy rcsourccs, fhc
mcans for prouucing fhis cncrgy (hyuroclccfric,
winu, coal, cfc) anu fhc cnvironmcnfal consc-
oucnccs fhaf woulu bc broughf abouf, musf all bc
carcfully analyzcu.
On fhc ofhcr hanu, if fhc govcrnmcnf is analyzing
fhc opfion of a Bus Rapiu Transif sysfcm, fhc
availabilify of goou oualify fucls (Dicscl, Nafu-
ral Comprcsscu Gas, anu ofhcrs) musf bc sfu-
uicu fhoroughly, as wcll fhc counfry's capacify
fo proviuc such fucls. Thc posifivc aspccf of a
BRT is fhc ßcxibilify in fcrms of availablc fucl,
cvcn fhough clccfric cncrgy is fhc clcancsf
opfion, alfhough only whcn uscu in vchiclcs
fhaf havc a consiucrablc ucgrcc of occupancy.
what is the idea| type of city? -
Thc lasf, anu pcrhaps mosf imporfanf oucsfion,
rcfcrs fo fhc cify fhaf is ¯visualizcu' whcn buil-
uing a public fransporf sysfcm. This is gcncrally
applicu fo fhc ucvclopmcnf of fhc cify, anu shoulu
always rclafc fhc choscn fransporf sysfcm fo ofhcr
urban componcnfs (such as housing, lanu, ucnsi-
fy, cfc). In gcncral, choosing public fransporf as
fhc main mouc of fransporfafion is alrcauy a vcry
goou choicc, rcgarulcss of fhc spccifc fypc of
public fransporf sysfcm fo bc ucvclopcu.
Diffcrcnccs arisc whcn ucfning fhc spccifc fypc
of sysfcm (clcvafcu, unucrgrounu, af lcvcl) anu
fhc uisfancc bcfwccn sfafions. Elcvafcu sysfcms
arc usually unacsfhcfic anu havc safcfy issucs for
fhcir surrounuing arcas (uuc fo shauows bcing
gcncrafcu anu fhc uiffculfy in acccssing fhc sfa-
fions), whilc unucrgrounu sysfcms (having fhc
auvanfagcs of highcr capacify anu frccuom of
circulafion) prcscnf problcms in acccssing fhc
sfafions. This gcncrally rclafcs an associafion of
passcngcrs wifh ¯roucnfs', sincc fhcy musf go un-
ucrgrounu fo fransporf fhcmsclvcs arounu a cify,
whilc cars arc allowcu on fhc sfrccfs.
Bcyonu fcchnical spccifcafions of a sysfcm,
fhc cify fhaf is ucsircu shoulu bc clcar, as wcll
as fhc long fcrm impacfs fhaf woulu wanf fo
bc gcncrafcu for fhc inhabifanfs, anu fhc way
in which fhc uiffcrcnf public fransporf fcch-
nologics woulu rclafc fo fhis vision of fhc cify.
!.3 why ßus Rapid
Transit Systems?
Evcn fhough fhc Bus Rapiu Transif has bccn prc-
scnfcu as a viablc opfion for public fransporfa-
fion, anu has bccn argucu as onc, among various
ofhcr mass fransif fcchnologics, if's imporfanf
fo rcifcrafc fhaf fhis uocumcnf focuscs on fhc
BRT sysfcm bccausc if is sccn prcuominanfly as
a morc appropriafc opfion for cifics arounu fhc
worlu. In fhc casc of Lafin Amcrica, if is a highly
rccommcnucu opfion.
Whilc uccision makcrs arc wclcomc fo carry ouf
a comprchcnsivc analysis of fhc cxisfing opfions
fo ucvclop a public fransporf sysfcm for fhcir ci-
fics, fhcy shoulu makc fhcir uccisions bascu on
fhc crifcria ucscribcu prcviously, using fhorough
anu unbiascu sfuuics of fhc conuifions in which
onc sysfcm is morc convcnicnf fhan anofhcr in
fhcir cifics.
Iigure !2. The "Transmi|enio"
system in ßogota, Co|ombia was
deve|oped as part of a compre-
hensive transport po|icy, which
emphasizing the importance of
peop|e over vehic|es. Photo by:
Diego ve|azguez.
18 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 19 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
Bascu on whaf was ucscribcu in fhc prcvious scc-
fion, Bus Rapiu Transif is prcscnfcu as a highly
rccommcnucu opfion of mass fransif sysfcms for
cifics in Lafin Amcrica for fhc following rcasons.
- Consfrucfion cosfs / cxpcnscs arc much
lowcr fhan fhosc of ofhcr mass fransporfs
(anu havc lowcr ovcrhcau, if any),
- Pcrformancc, in fcrms of fransporfcu
passcngcrs, is comparablc fo fhaf of rail
- Durafion of consfrucfion is much lcss fhan
fhaf of ofhcr opfions,
- Grcafcr opcrafional ßcxibilify is possiblc
fhan wifh rail sysfcms (i.c. a roau can bc
abanuoncu in casc of an cmcrgcncy),
- Opcrafional subsiuics arc nof rcouircu,
whcrcas fhcy arc for all rail sysfcms arounu
fhc worlu (cxcluuing Hong Kong),
- Bcffcr infcgrafion cxisfs as parf of an urban
susfainablc ucvclopmcnf policy.
Evcn fhough fhis bricf lisf of argumcnfs looks so-
mcwhaf prcsumpfuous, fhc rcsf of fhc uocumcnf
(anu fhc cifcu uocumcnfs in fhc rcsourcc scc-
fion) will hclp clarify fhcsc sfafcmcnfs in ucfail.
This uocumcnf bricßy prcscnfs fhc characfcris-
fics of a Bus Rapiu Transif sysfcm anu ucscribcs
fhc sfcps fo carry ouf a projccf of fhis kinu in
a Lafin Amcrican cify. Thc lasf chapfcr prcscnfs
ucfails conccrning ofhcr uocumcnfs fhaf can bc
consulfcu in orucr fo cxfcnu knowlcugc abouf
fhis fopic.
2 Ieatures of ßus Rapid Transit
complcfc sysfcm. If is rafhcr infcnucu fo rccom-
mcnu fhc implcmcnfafion of a BRT sysfcm wifh
all fhc characfcrisfics ucscribcu in fhis chap-
fcr. Thc following ucscripfions prcscnf a clcarcr
cmphasis of ifs applicafion. In gcncral, a BRT sys-
fcm shoulu incluuc fhc crcafion of infrasfrucfurc
anu fhc opcrafions, busincss anu scrvicc plans
fhaf complcmcnf if.
In prcvious uccaucs, bus improvcmcnf projccfs
wcrc ucvclopcu wifhouf any succcss. Thc rcason
for fhis is mainly bccausc if was fhc crcafion of
an cxclusivc bus lanc. This lanc uiun'f incluuc any
mouifcu opcrafing conuifions of fhc vchiclcs,
nor wcrc fhcrc clcar sfaff hiring schcmcs or scr-
vicc proviucrs incluucu. This rcsulfcu in rapiuly
ucfcriorafing sysfcms anu loss of confucncc anu
frusf in bus bascu sysfcms. Thc BRT is a much
morc ucvclopcu anu comprchcnsivc conccpf, as
can bc sccn in fhc following sccfions.
If is worfh cxplaining fhaf whaf is unucrsfoou
hcrc as a Bus Rapiu Transif sysfcm, is ¯a public
fransporf sysfcm bascu on buscs which proviuc
fasf, comforfablc anu cosf cffccfivc urban mobi-
lify' (Wrighf, 2uu4). An imporfanf issuc is fhaf
fhc ucvclopmcnf of BRT sysfcms havc bccn ¯ins-
pircu' by rail sysfcms anu fhcir high capacify,
fhus auopfing fhc mosf imporfanf characfcris-
fics (such as usc of cxclusivc sfafions, off boaru
farc collccfion, cfc) fo opcrafions in buscs (which
also havc oualifics likc opcrafional ßcxibilify, low
cosf vchiclcs anu fhc auapfabilify of fhc vchiclcs
fo various scrvicc conuifions, cfc). Diffcrcnf ¯lc-
vcls' of BRT havc bccn ucscribcu in fhc public
fransporf fclu, from fhc simplcsf oncs fo fhc so-
callcu ¯full BRT' or ¯complcfc BRT', which inclu-
ucs all fhc propcr characfcrisfics of fhis fypc of
This uocumcnf will nof proviuc an cxhausfivc
cafcgorizafion of whaf is a simplcr or morc
Iigure !3. A dedicated |ane a||ows
efhcient operations for a pub|ic
transport system when there is an
adeguate service and p|anning.
20 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 21 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
2.! Infrastructure
Infrasfrucfurc is a componcnf fhaf is common
in all BRT sysfcms. If rcfcrs fo sfafions, ucuica-
fcu lancs, ucpofs anu confrol ccnfrcs. In shorf,
fhis infrasfrucfurc allows a BRT sysfcm fo havc
an cxclusivc lanc wifh rcspccf fo ofhcr mo-
ucs of fransporf. This hclps in complying wifh
high capacify opcrafions anu makcs possiblc
fhc cxisfcncc of sfafions. Dcuicafcu ucpofs arc
csscnfial for fhc mainfcnancc of fhcsc vchi-
clcs anu for opcrafors fo run aucouafc moni-
foring of fhc sysfcm. Thc confrol ccnfrc is fhc
placc whcrc fhc fracking of sysfcm opcrafions
is uonc, wifh fhc hclp of auvanccu commu-
nicafions sysfcms (cxplaincu furfhcr bclow).
2.!.! Dedicated |anes
Thc fypical imagc of a BRT is a bus running in
a ucuicafcu lanc. Evcn fhough fhis is nof fhc
only componcnf making BRT a high capacify
sysfcm, if is inuccu onc of ifs main rcouircmcnfs.
Scgrcgafing fhc BRT vchiclcs from fhc rcsf
of fhc fraffc is funuamcnfal for ifs succcssful
funcfioning. As ouflincu in fhc following sccfion,
fhc BRT sysfcm has a ucfncu, ucfailcu, wcckly
schcuulc fhaf is chcckcu on a uaily basis, whcrcby
an aucouafc anu fcmporarily appropriafc scrvicc
is proviucu for uscrs.
In orucr fo achicvc fhis, if is ncccssary fo gcnc-
rafc somc form of physical uivision bcfwccn fhc
BRT lancs anu fhc rcsf of fhc fraffc, having a
colourcu lanc is nof cnough. Cifics likc Lonuon
havc bus lancs painfcu in rcu painf which pcoplc
rcspccf. This is only possiblc bccausc fhc colo-
urcu lancs arc complcmcnfcu by a complcx viuco
camcra (CCT\) sysfcm fhaf cnforccs compliancc.
Thc simplcsf way fo uo fhis is by builuing phy-
sical barricrs bcfwccn fhc lancs. A funuamcnfal
aspccf of fhcsc barricrs, ucspifc fhcir uivisivc
characfcr, is fo allow fhc vchiclcs fo abanuon fhc
lanc in casc of an cmcrgcncy or in any casc whc-
rc fhc normal opcrafions arc mouifcu.
An auuifional aspccf fo fakc info accounf is fhc
mafcrial fo usc whcn builuing fhc ucuicafcu
lanc. Buscs in a BRT sysfcm arc arficulafcu, anu
fhc wcighf fhcy cxcrf ovcr fhc surfacc is much
grcafcr fhan fhc onc of smallcr vchiclcs. An auc-
ouafc mafcrial musf bc uscu fo mccf fhc pcr-
mancnf fraffc nccus of fhcsc buscs. Gcncrally,
fhc mosf rccommcnucu opfion is using concrcfc
af fhc sfafions anu asphalf on fhc lancs. Thcn
again, if is ncccssary fo makc an aucouafc sfu-
uy of fhc opcrafional conuifions of fhc sysfcm
fo bc ucsigncu. In cascs whcrc a BRT sysfcm is
consfrucfcu, anu cxisfing lancs arc kcpf, if is ab-
solufcly ncccssary fo rcinforcc fhcm. This is onc
of fhc aspccfs fhaf if nof frcafcu wifh carc will
mosf likcly havc signifcanf conscoucnccs on fhc
pcrformancc of fhc sysfcm, fhc lifc of fhc vchi-
clcs anu fhc scrviccs proviucu. If is highly rccom-
mcnucu fo rcconsfrucf all lancs fo bc uscu by fhc
BRT vchiclcs.
A commonly uscu opfion in somc cascs is fhc usc
of grass in bcfwccn fhc BRT lanc anu fhc ofhcr
lancs. Whilc fhis has a posifivc cffccf on fhc rc-
uucfion of vchiclc noisc lcvcls, if may havc opc-
rafional problcms in ovcrfaking lancs, anu somc
mainfcnancc inconvcnicnccs.
In somc cascs, whcrc a high pcrformancc lcvcl of
BRT is rcouircu, passing lancs arc ucvclopcu anu
a grcaf parf of fhc sysfcm can havc fwo lancs in
bofh uirccfions. This is consfrucfcu fo improvc
fhc combinafion of roufcs in fhc sysfcm, anu fo
incrcasc fhc possibilify of having morc ¯cxprcss'
roufcs (fhis will bc uiscusscu furfhcr in fhc opc-
rafions sccfion). Thc BRT sysfcm is normally
consfrucfcu wifh passing lancs af fhc sfafions,
ucpcnuing on fhc opcrafional moucl uscu.
An auuifional opfion is whcn fhc lancs arc fully
scgrcgafcu (physically). This gcncrally happcns in
ovcrgrounu or unucrgrounu sccfions. Ncvcrfhc-
lcss, fhis is uscu as a lasf rcsorf, usually whcn fhc con-
fcxf uocsn'f allow an aucouafc opcrafion af-grauc.
2.!.2 Stations
Anofhcr vcry imporfanf characfcrisfic of a BRT
sysfcm is ifs sfafions. Thcsc arc uiffcrcnf from fhc
frauifional bus sfops. In many aspccfs fhcsc arc
ouifc uiffcrcnf, cspccially whcn fhc BRT sysfcm is
complcfc. Thc sfafions in a BRT sysfcm havc fhc
following characfcrisfics.
- Insfcau of having fhc sfafions locafcu on
fhc siucs of fhc lancs, fhcsc arc locafcu
af fhc mcuians (in bcfwccn fhc fwo BRT
lancs). Affcr obscrving many sysfcms of
fhis kinu in various cifics fhroughouf
fhc worlu, if can bc concluucu fhaf fhis
opfion is far morc cffcicnf in fcrms of
opcrafion anu usagc of spacc.
- Sfafions arc clcvafcu. fhis mcans fhaf
fhc vchiclcs also havc clcvafcu plafforms,
which in furn makcs fhc buscs lcss
cxpcnsivc. Elcvafcu sfafions arc uscu fo
cnforcc fhc usc of sfafions (anu nof ofhcr
parfs of fhc corriuors) for boaruing anu
cxifing fhc buscs. Auuifionally, acccss
fo fhc buscs is far casicr anu bcffcr for
fhc uisablcu populafion, who usually
sfrugglc wifh problcms in ofhcr fypcs of
sfafions whcrc fhcrc arc sfaircascs, sfcps
anu curbs.
- Sfafions havc furnsfilcs fo ¯chcck in'
anu ¯chcck ouf' of fhc sysfcm. fhis allows
uscrs fo vcrify fhcir farc off boaru (which
incrcascs spccu in fhc sysfcm) anu also
allows uscrs fo changc roufcs wifhouf
paying for auuifional fickcfs.
- Sfafions arc ¯closcu'. fhc sfafions havc
¯walls anu cciling', which proviucs uscrs
wifh profccfion from climafc conuifions
Iigure !4. Comp|ete ßus
Rapid Transit systems,
such as the "Megabus"
in Pereira, Co|ombia),
have stations that deter-
mine the specihc |oca-
tion where passengers
can enter and |eave the
system, and provide the
faci|ity of paying tick-
ets before boarding the
22 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 23 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
anu makcs sfopping casicr for vchiclcs
af spccifc placcs fo pick up anu urop
off passcngcrs. Howcvcr, fhis makcs fhc
sfafions morc cxpcnsivc.
Sfafions arc parficularly uscful placcs fo gcncrafc
an imagc of fhc sysfcm, anu for uscrs fo acouainf
fhcmsclvcs wifh fhc sysfcm anu scc if as an ar-
chifccfural confribufion fo fhc cify, rafhcr fhan a
funcfional fransporf sfrucfurc. If is an opporfu-
nify fhaf musf bc fakcn info accounf in orucr fo
improvc fhc physical appcarancc of fhc cify. This
cnablcs fhc possibilify of hiring archifccfs fo
spccifcally ucsign fhc sysfcm's sfafions, oncc fhc
fcchnical crifcria arc wcll ucfncu (uimcnsions,
hcighfs, furnsfilc placcmcnf, cfc). Auuifionally,
sfafions mcan incomc opporfunifics fhrough
publicify (auvcrfiscmcnfs).
Briugcs fo acccss fhc sfafions arc an auuifional
clcmcnf rclafcu fo fhc sfafions. Evcn fhough if is
prcfcrablc fo proviuc crossings af fraffc lighfs for
pcucsfrians, somcfimcs if is ncccssary fo consfrucf
supporfing infrasfrucfurc, such as pcucsfrian
briugcs, fo casc acccss fo sfafions. Thc imporfanf
fhing abouf fhcsc briugcs is fhaf fhcy musf proviuc
ramps anu clcvafors for fhc uisablcu populafion.
2.!.3 Termina|s and depots
Tcrminal sfafions anu ucpofs arc an auuifional
clcmcnf fhaf can bc cxploifcu for fhc ucvclopmcnf
of fhc sysfcm's imagc. Thc principal funcfion
of fhc fcrminal sfafion is fo supporf as many
passcngcrs as possiblc anu fo guiuc fhcm fo fhcir
ucsfinafions as casily as possiblc. Thcsc also
work as infcrchangc ccnfrcs wifh ofhcr moucs
of fransporfafion (local, rcgional, cfc). Builuing
fhcsc fcrminal sfafions fogcfhcr wifh a privafc
consfrucfor is a goou opfion whcn ucvcloping
fhcm. In fhcsc cascs, fhc consfrucfor proviucs
fhc infrasfrucfurc for fhc fcrminal anu infcgrafcs
if wifh commcrcial ucvclopmcnf, proviuing
fufurc commcrcial carnings. Whcn fhc fcrms in
of fhc confracf wcrc wcll ucfncu, agrccmcnfs
bcfwccn public anu privafc cnfifics havc bccn
proffablc. Givcn fhaf fcrminal sfafions bccomc
placcs of largc ßows of pcoplc, fhcy can bc uscu
as ¯auminisfrafivc ccnfrcs' whcrc pcoplc can run
crranus anu pay bills rclafcu fo public scrviccs.
This is vcry convcnicnf for bofh fhc public sccfor
anu fhc sysfcm uscrs.
Dcpofs arc placcs uscu for parking anu mainfc-
nancc of vchiclcs. In many cascs, fhc offccs of fhc
sysfcm opcrafors arc builf af fhc ucpofs. This can
also bc uscu as an opporfunify fo ucvclop fhc uc-
pof in associafion wifh fhc opcrafors. fhc public
sccfor proviucs fhc spacc fo ucvclop fhc ucpof anu
offccs, whilc fhc opcrafor is in chargc of cons-
frucfing fhc ncccssary infrasfrucfurc for mainfc-
nancc, parking anu managcmcnf opcrafing nccus.
2.!.4 Contro| centre
Thc confrol ccnfrc is fhc placc from whcrc
pcrmancnf moniforing of fhc complcfc sysfcm
opcrafion is uonc. An cxclusivc cnfify is usually in
chargc of managing anu confrolling fhc sysfcm. A
follow up of fhc wcckly scrvicc planning is uonc
from fhis confrol ccnfrc. Incoming anu oufgoing
mcssagcs bcfwccn bus urivcrs anu confrol ccnfrc
sfaff arc scnf in rcal fimc. Dccisions arc mauc anu
insfrucfions arc givcn from fhc confrol ccnfrc in
casc of cmcrgcncics, opcrafing problcms, or in
casc an auuifional vchiclc is nccucu fo covcr a
roufc. Hcncc, if is clcar fhaf fhc funuamcnfal
componcnf of fhis confrol ccnfrc is fhc pcrmancnf
communicafions sysfcm wifh fhc vchiclcs
(gcncrally by mcans of GPS fcchnology), wifh
pcrsonncl on fhc sysfcm ifsclf, anu wifh spccializcu
soffwarc fo frack all vchiclcs. If is also normal
fo havc a scrics of monifors fhaf pcrmancnfly
rccoru acfivifics af sfafions, anu on somc
occasions, whaf is happcning insiuc fhc vchiclcs.
2.2 Operations
A scconu funuamcnfal componcnf rclafcu fo fhc
cffcicncy of a complcfc BRT sysfcm is a wcll-uc-
fncu plan of opcrafions. This will ucfcrminc fhc
uaily funcfioning of fhc sysfcm, fhc way fhc co-
rriuors arc confgurcu, anu fhc sfrafcgics fo com-
ply wifh fhc cxpccfcu capacify. This is a highly
complcx job fhaf rcouircs vcry claborafc opcra-
fions fo ucfcrminc fhc amounf of vchiclcs ncc-
Iigure !5. The ßus Rapid System Metrovía in Guayagui|
bui|t high capacity termina| stations where there is the
possibi|ity of integrating the system with other |oca|
Iigure !7. The contro| centre of a ßRT system enab|es
an easier fo||ow up on the operations of a|| vehic|es
throughout the ßRT network.
Iigure !6. One of the depots of the Transmetro sys-
tem in Guatema|a City, where maintenance is done to
24 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 25 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
ucu on spccifc uays anu hours. This is an aspccf
fhaf will ucfcrminc fhc oualify of a BRT sysfcm
anu, cvcnfually, uscr safisfacfion.
Thc frsf aspccf fo bc fakcn info accounf is whc-
fhcr fhc sysfcm shoulu bc opcn or closcu. An
opcn sysfcm rcfcrs fo fhaf in which any opcrafor
can parficipafc in fhc sysfcm, anu whcrc fhcrc is
a minimum or null confrol ovcr fhc sysfcm. A clo-
scu sysfcm is onc whcrc vchiclcs anu cnfcrpriscs
can opcrafc in fhc sysfcm oncc fhcy arc clccfcu
fhrough a confcsf (gcncrally fhough a biuuing
proccss), anu whcrc fhcrc is sfricf confrol ovcr
fhc sysfcm's opcrafion conuifions wifh rcgarus
fo vchiclcs in fhc lancs anu offcrcu scrviccs anu
schcuulcs. This shoulu bc ccnfralizcu by a spcci-
fc cnfify fhaf managcs fhc sysfcm.
Evcn fhough fhc opcn sysfcm sccms fo bc morc
ucmocrafic, if is acfually fhc ¯closcu' sysfcm fhaf
has ucmonsfrafcu ifsclf fo bc fhc faircsf. This is
uuc fo fhc facf fhaf spccifc opcrafion crifcria
arc ucfcrmincu in a sysfcm fhaf aims af provi-
uing high oualify scrvicc fo ifs clicnfclc, anu
whcrc fhc provision of scrviccs is ucfncu in ac-
coruancc fo fcchnical crifcria, anu fo fhc mcrif-
bascu appoinfmcnf of opcrafors. Opcn sysfcms
gcncrally havc congcsfion problcms bccausc of
fhc mulfiplc ouanfify of vchiclcs on fhc roaus.
Anofhcr problcm is fhc ¯ccnf war,' which will bc
uiscusscu in ucpfh in fhc busincss plan sccfion.
Thc scrviccs proviucu in a closcu sysfcm can bc
dircct or trun|-[ccdcr. In a uirccf scrvicc, fhc vchi-
clcs havc a ucfncu roufc wifhin scgrcgafcu lancs
anu offcr a similar scrvicc fo fhc onc givcn by a
frauifional bus (many sfops in mixcu fraffc, low
plafform sfafions, cfc) oufsiuc fhc scgrcgafcu la-
ncs. In fhc trun|-[ccdcr scrvicc, fhcrc arc vchiclcs
cxclusivcly insiuc scgrcgafcu lancs anu also vchi-
clcs for fhc [ccdcrs of fhc sysfcm. Thosc fccucrs
arc fhc buscs fhaf havc roufcs from fhc fcrminal
sfafions fo fhc oufcr arcas (oufskirfs), whcrc fhc-
rc may bc uscrs in nccu of long uisfancc fravcl
(morc fhan 5uu mcfcrs fo rcach fhc fcrminal sfa-
fion). Thc main uisauvanfagc of fhc trun|-[ccdcr
scrvicc is fhaf if rcouircs fransfcrs. Thcrc arc ui-
ffcrcnf opinions among cxpcrfs of fhc dircct anu
fhc trun|-[ccdcr moucls conccrning fhc cffcicncy
of onc moucl vcrsus fhc ofhcr. This is bofh nc-
ccssary anu hclpful in analyzing fhc sifuafion in
cvcry cify, anu making a uccision abouf fhc mosf
aucouafc form of scrvicc.
Anofhcr aspccf of grcaf imporfancc fo fhc cff-
cicncy of fhc sysfcm is fhc fypc of scrviccs. cxprcss
or |oca|. In local scrviccs, vchiclcs makc sfops af
all sfafions in fhc roufc, proviuing a simplc anu
comprchcnsivc scrvicc af a normal spccu. Exprcss
scrviccs arc fhosc in which vchiclcs sfop only
af ccrfain spccifcu sfafions, which run signif-
canfly fasfcr buf also imply morc complcx opcra-
fions. Thcsc also imply ucvcloping a passing lanc,
plus fwo lancs pcr uirccfion in somc parfs of fhc
sysfcm, in orucr fo makc fhis opfion possiblc. In
gcncral, cxprcss scrviccs incrcasc fhc spccu anu
fhc pcrformancc of fhc sysfcm, making fhc BRT
sysfcm comparablc fo rail sysfcms. Ncvcrfhclcss,
cxprcss scrvicc opcrafions musf bc complcmcn-
fcu by a wcll-ucsigncu signagc sysfcm, proviuing
clcar informafion fo uscrs abouf which bus fo
fakc in uiffcrcnf cascs. If's worfh mcnfioning fhaf
cxprcss scrviccs musf work simulfancously wifh
all ofhcr local scrviccs.
Onc of fhc characfcrisfics of a BRT is fhaf if's
bccn ucfncu as a mass fransif sysfcm. Auuifio-
nally, if's bccn ucfncu as a sysfcm fhaf maximizcs
fhc usc of spacc insiuc fhc vchiclcs. To bc morc
spccifc, fhc movcmcnf of pcoplc insiuc fhc BRT
buscs shoulu bc similar fo fhaf of onc in a mc-
fro sysfcm. four pcoplc pcr souarc mcfcr in con-
vcnfional vchiclcs, whilc in somc cxfrcmc cascs
fhc sysfcm is planncu for six pcoplc pcr souarc
mcfcr. This vchiclc occupancy inuicafor will bc
crucial af fhc fimc of ucfning ucfails of fhc opc-
rafional anu fnancial plan. \chiclc frcoucncy,
fhc uimcnsions, anu ouanfify of vchiclcs fhaf arc
rcouircu af a spccifc momcnf, musf bc ucfncu
in rclafion fo fhc amounf of pcoplc fo bc frans-
porfcu pcr souarc mcfcr. This aspccf will also uc-
fcrminc fhc sysfcm's rcvcnuc (wifh a grcafcr oc-
cupancy lcvcl insiuc fhc vchiclcs, fhc opcrafional
cosfs arc rcuuccu), for bofh opcrafors anu for fhc
public sccfor. Onc musf bc vcry caufious whcn
ucfcrmining a high lcvcl of occupancy bccausc,
ucspifc fhc apparcnf cffccfivcncss in rcuucing
cosfs, fhis coulu rcuucc fhc sysfcm's ucmanu in
fhc long fcrm bccausc uscrs look for lcss crow-
ucu opfions.
Thc fypc of vchiclcs fhaf arc nccucu will also
bc incluucu in fhc ucfnifion of fhc opcrafional
moucls fo bc uscu in a sysfcm. Thc sizc of fhc
vchiclcs is infimafcly rclafcu fo fhc passcngcr
Iigure !8. The adeguate operation
of a ßRT system of great coverage
as TransMi|enio imp|ies a comp|ex
scheme that took many months
to be designed. This scheme must
specify detai|s of bus freguency and
others. Photo by Diego ve|azguez.
Iigure !9. The adeguate occupation |eve| inside a vehic|e must be
studied carefu||y, because user satisfaction re|ies on this in the
|ong run. Neverthe|ess, a hnancia||y sustainab|e operation without
any subsidies imp|ies a reasonab|e |eve| of agg|omeration inside
the buses.
26 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 27 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
ucmanu in fhc corriuors, fhc mosf aucouafc frc-
oucncics in a spccifc corriuor, anu fhc amounf
of sfops in a sfafion. Thc sizc anu characfcrisfics
of fhc vchiclcs fo bc uscu in a spccifc sysfcm
shoulu nof bc ucfcrmincu a priori, likc a sysfcm
fhaf has arficulafcu or sfanuaru buscs, bccausc
fhis will affccf fhc rcsulf anu aucouafc opcrafio-
nal sysfcm. If a sysfcm is ucsigncu a priori wifh
arficulafcu vchiclcs anu fhc ucmanu is rcally low,
fhc bus frcoucncics musf bc rcuuccu anu fhis
mcans also rcuucing scrvicc oualify anu rcvcnuc
losscs uuc fo bau planning.
Evcn fhough ucfning opcrafions for cxclusivc la-
ncs sccms fo bc fhc only aspccf for fhc provision
of an aucouafc BRT sysfcm, if is ncccssary fo fakc
info accounf fhc infcracfion wifh ofhcr moucs of
fransporfafion af crossing poinfs, as wcll as fhc
ucfnifion of fraffc lighf phasing along fhc corri-
uors of fhc sysfcm. This is an aspccf fhaf is rarcly
fakcn info accounf whcn planning, ycf has a con-
siucrablc impacf on fhc opcrafions of fhc sysfcm.
In many insfanccs, fhc ccnfral problcm wifh fhis
aspccf is fhaf fhcrc is a scparafc agcncy in chargc
of fhc fraffc lighf opcrafions, so programming is
nof synchronizcu wifh fhc BRT sysfcm, buf wifh
fhc gcncral fraffc. In somc cxfrcmc sifuafions,
fraffc policc offccrs havc sfoppcu BRT bus ßow
in orucr fo makc way for privafc cars af infcr-
sccfions, giving fhc imprcssion fhaf privafc cars
wcrc of grcafcr imporfancc fhan public frans-
porf. Thus fhc infcr-insfifufional cooruinafion of
fraffc lighfs is parficularly crifical.
Thc cooruinafion anu follow up of all fhcsc opc-
rafional aspccfs arc uonc from fhc confrol ccn-
frc, which has a moniforing sysfcm ucsigncu fo
confrol planning anu communicafions wifh vchi-
clcs, anu fo solvc problcms in fhc sysfcm.
Thc fnal aspccf of fhc BRT sysfcm opcrafions
is cusfomcr scrvicc. Frcoucnfly, public frans-
porf sysfcms arc planncu wifh grcaf ucuicafion
fo fhc fcchnical aspccfs of vchiclc frcoucncy,
fhc ucfnifion anu moniforing of fhc opcrafion.
Ncvcrfhclcss, fhc uscrs arc who will rcally kccp
fhc sysfcm running, hcncc wifhouf fhcm fhcrc
arc ncifhcr clicnfs nor ucmanu! Thc provision
of scrvicc musf always bc planncu bascu on fhc
uscrs' nccus. This is fhc rcason for ucfning a
clcar plan for fhc clcaning of fhc vchiclcs anu
infrasfrucfurc, fhc comprchcnsivc signal ucsign,
fhc consfanf scarch for fccuback from uscrs of
fhc sysfcm, anu fhc provision of supporf infras-
frucfurc (foilcfs, rcsfing arcas, acsfhcfic facfors
of fhc sysfcm, cfc). This also rclafcs uirccfly fo
fhc cxccssivc agglomcrafion of fhc vchiclcs anu
fo fhc aucouafc frcoucncy of fhc scrviccs. Uscrs
musf fakc parf in fhc sysfcm anu musf bc inclu-
ucu, from fhc sfarf, in fhc implcmcnfafion pro-
ccss of fhc sysfcm. Ncglccfing fhis aspccf may
rcsulf in a sysfcm's complcfc failurc.
2.3 ßusiness Structure
- reorganization of
the pub|ic transport sector
Thc ¯busincss' of a BRT sysfcm rcfcrs fo fhc orga-
nizafion of fhc opcrafors who will fakc parf in if,
fhcir rcsponsibilifics anu righfs, anu fhc way fhcy
infcracf wifh onc anofhcr. Trauifional collccfivc
fransporf sysfcms arc known for proviuing a scr-
vicc whcrc fhc urivcrs ¯fghf' wifh cach ofhcr fo
gcf morc passcngcrs info fhcir vchiclcs. This is
rcfcrrcu fo as fhc ¯fhc ccnf war' phcnomcnon.
Drivcrs arc paiu on fhc basis of fhc numbcr of
fransporfcu passcngcrs. Thc lack of organiza-
fion in fhc sccfor, as wcll as various cxfcrnalifics
gcncrafc an urgcnf nccu for changc wifhin fhc
Thc funuamcnfal changc of fhis schcmc is from
compcfifion in fhc markcf (fhc war bcfwccn au-
fhorizcu vchiclcs on fhc sfrccfs) fo compcfifion
for fhc markcf (fhc confcsf bcfwccn companics
fhaf woulu proviuc a fransparcnf public frans-
porf sysfcm bascu on fhcir aucouafc managcrial
anu opcrafional capacifics, wifhin fhc prc csfa-
blishcu funcfioning rulcs). Having a compcfifi-
vc schcmc for fhc markcf canccls ¯fhc ccnf war'.
Thc carnings wifhin a sysfcm will bc ucfcrmincu
by fhc oualify of fhc scrvicc proviucu anu by
fhc way fhcy follow fhc rulcs (complying wifh a
fimcfablc anu csfablishcu bus sfops af spccifc
sfafions). Anofhcr characfcrisfic fhaf makcs fhc
fracking of rulcs casicr is paying opcrafors in
accoruancc wifh workcu uisfanccs rafhcr fhan
fransporfcu passcngcrs.
Dcsigning clcar anu spccifc conuifions in which
fhc scrvicc will bc proviucu is a funuamcnfal as-
pccf of cnsuring fhis rcgulafion. Thc opcrafors
musf bc clcar abouf fhc rcsponsibilifics fhcy
havc (vchiclc mainfcnancc wifh spccifc para-
mcfcrs, fimcfablc compliancc cfc). Appoinfing
opcrafions fo companics fhrough confcsfs (bius)
anu spccifying fhc uurafion of confracfs guaran-
fcc fhc goou oualify of fhc scrvicc.
Thc opcrafors incluuc nof only pcoplc in char-
gc of vchiclcs (gcncrally many insiuc fhc samc
sysfcm, working unucr fhc samc opcrafing ru-
lcs), buf also an auuifional opcrafor in chargc
of collccfing fhc farc anu mainfaining fhis com-
poncnf of fhc sysfcm. Thcsc arc organizafions
(scparafc from fhc vchiclc opcrafors) fhaf frack
fhc amounf of passcngcrs fransporfcu anu fhc
collccfcu fransif farc. Auuifionally, fhis moncy is
givcn fo a frusf funu fhaf confrols anu monifors
farc collccfion on a uaily basis.
A hicrarchical rclafionship wifh ofhcr organi-
zafions wifhin fhc sysfcm ucfncs fhc confrol of
fhis scrvicc provision. fhc sysfcm managcr, anu
fhc confrol organism (somcfimcs fhc samc ma-
nagcr). Thcsc pcoplc ucfnc anu frack fhc ucvc-
lopmcnf of fhc opcrafors (bofh of vchiclcs anu
of farc collccfion), anu confrol anu ucfcrminc
Iigure 2û. ßus freguency is another important factor to be de-
termined in the operationa| p|an and this wi|| affect the |eve| of
service provision and user satisfaction.
Iigure 2!. This is a typica| situation in lima {Perú), an examp|e
of "the cent war" between many vehic|e drivers, who hght for the
same passengers.
28 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 29 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
fhc opcrafion of spccifc uays anu wccks, bascu
on pcrformancc anu ucmanu inuicafors fhroug-
houf fimc. In mosf cascs, fhis managcrial anu/or
confrol bouy fakcs parf in fhc public sccfor whilc
opcrafors arc privafc anu /or public cvcn fhough
fhcy work unucr fhc samc rulcs (as in fhc casc in
Mcxico Cify's Mcfrobus sysfcm).
In orucr fo confrol fhc aucouafc provision of fhc
scrvicc, fhcrc arc inccnfivcs anu pcnalfics for
opcrafors fhaf arc ucfcrmincu accoruing fo fhc
aucouafc provision of fhc scrvicc, anu by com-
pliancc wifh fhc spccifcu obligafions wifhin fhc
confracf. Thcrc arc cconomic pcnalfics for fai-
ling fo mccf fhc goals (in fhc casc of vchiclc opc-
rafors - fhc uisfancc covcrcu is rcuuccu whcn
calculafing paymcnf). Mccfing goals abovc ccr-
fain sfanuarus is rcwarucu in fhc samc way.
Thc ucfnifion of fhc farc anu ifs uisfribufion
also makcs up parf of fhis busincss sfrucfurc. A
BRT sysfcm uocs nof nccu subsiuics bccausc fhc
farc is ucfcrmincu on fhc basis of fhc rcvcnuc gc-
ncrafcu by fhc sysfcm anu on fhc ucmanu nccus
anu opcrafion possibilifics of fhc sysfcm. Thcsc
arc gcncrally ucfcrmincu accoruing fo a complcx
mafhcmafical formula wifh variablcs fhaf inclu-
uc bus mainfcnancc inpufs, anu a ucfncu formu-
la fhaf rcaujusfs fhc farc in accoruancc wifh fhc
cconomic anu fnancial conuifions of fhc sysfcm,
fucl cosfs, cxisfing ucmanus anu ofhcr facfors. A
uccision fhaf musf bc mauc is whcfhcr or nof fhc
farc will bc fxcu (fhc samc farc for any journcy),
or if if will bc aujusfcu accoruing fo fhc uisfan-
cc fravcllcu (longcr journcys havc a highcr cosf).
This musf bc analyzcu anu shoulu favour all uscrs
coually, parficularly fhosc wifh lowcr incomcs.
Thc uisfribufion of fhc farc is anofhcr aspccf fo
bc ucfncu in a fcchnical way, accoruing fo fhc
rcsourcc calculafions invcsfcu by cach parfy wi-
fhin fhc sysfcm, anu musf bc also ucfncu anu
spccifcu in all confracfs wifh fhc opcrafors. In
a sysfcm uonc in phascs, fhc uisfribufion of fhc
farc can bc rc-ucfncu in cach phasc anu in fhc
confracfs wifh cvcry ncw scrics of opcrafors, un-
fil an opfimum lcvcl of rcsourcc uisfribufion is
2.4 Techno|ogy
In fhc infrouucfion of fhis uocumcnf if was ucs-
cribcu how various mass fransif sysfcms arc uc-
fncu inifially by fhc fcchnology fhaf a mayor or
fransporf minisfcr woulu prcfcr. Ycf, fhc fcch-
nology, fhaf is fo bc choscn in fcrms of vchiclcs,
fracking insfrumcnfs anu farc collccfion, is onc
of fhc lasf sfcps in fhc ucsign of a BRT sysfcm.
Oncc fhc opcrafing conuifions, vchiclc ncccssi-
fics, confgurafion of fhc sfafions anu cxclusivc
lancs of fhc sysfcm arc clcar, fhc fcchnological
aspccfs of fhc sysfcm can bc ucfcrmincu.
2.4.! vehic|es
\chiclcs in a BRT sysfcm can bc of various fypcs.
Onc of fhc inifial conccrns abouf fhc vchiclcs
choscn for fhc sysfcm is fhc fucl fo bc uscu. In
somc insfanccs if is assumcu fhaf Comprcsscu
Nafural Gas is fhc clcancsf anu mosf auvanccu
fcchnology. Howcvcr, fhc lowcr aufonomy of fhc
vchiclc (nccuing fo bc ¯fllcu up' morc offcn,
fhus subfracfing cffcicncy of uscful kilomcfrcs
in opcrafion) is offcn nof fakcn info accounf.
Nor arc fhc cxisfing uiffculfics in vchiclcs in
1uu° occupancy, or fhosc opcrafing af grcaf
alfifuuc ovcr sca lcvcl consiucrcu. This kinu of
fucl is choscn anu uscu in many counfrics whcrc
obfaining if is fairly casy.
Dicscl fucl is frcoucnfly uscu. If has a low con-
ccnfrafion of sulphur parficlcs (5uu ppm or
lcss), mainly bccausc if is a high pcrformancc
fucl, anu is fhc mosf common anu bcsf known in
fhc public fransporf sccfor. Whcn Dicscl fucl has
a low sulphur conccnfrafion lcvcl, gas cmissions
arc coual fo (anu in somc cascs cvcn lowcr fhan)
cmissions by vchiclcs running on Comprcsscu
Nafural Gas. Ncvcrfhclcss, fhc CO
cmissions arc
fairly signifcanf, buf ncvcr comparablc fo privafc
vchiclc cmissions.
In somc occasions (likc in Ouifo) clccfric powc-
rcu vchiclcs havc bccn uscu. Thcsc vchiclcs, bc-
siucs bcing vcry cxpcnsivc, nccu auuifional in-
frasfrucfurc of ovcrhcau confacf lincs for cncrgy
provision. This can havc visual conscoucnccs anu
noforious opcrafional problcms. Thc cxccssivc
cosf of fhc vchiclcs fhaf run on fhis fcchnology
is fhc sfrongcsf facfor in fhc sclccfion proccss.
Thcrc arc ofhcr lcss confaminafing fucls fhaf
havc bcffcr pcrformancc inuicafors fhan fhc oncs
prcviously ucscribcu, likc fucl cclls anu hyurogcn
. Evcn fhough fhcy woulu bc low cmission, fhcsc
vchiclcs arc cxccssivcly cxpcnsivc, as fhcrc isn'f a
signifcanf markcf fo rcuucc fhcir consfrucfion
cosfs. Ncvcrfhclcss, fhcy arc an opfion.
Wifh rcspccf fo fucl sclccfion, somcfimcs if is
prcfcrablc fo givc gcncralizcu guiuclincs fo fhc
opcrafors so fhaf fhcy sclccf fhc fcchnology fhcy
prcfcr anu which bcsf ffs fhcir fnancial moucls.
Morcovcr, if fhc opcrafors sclccf uiffcrcnf fucl
opfions, fhis can havc opcrafional rcpcrcussions
(somc vchiclcs musf rcmain af ucpofs fhaf bclong
fo uiffcrcnf opcrafors ovcr nighf in somc cascs).
An auuifional consiucrafion wifh rcspccf fo fhc
vchiclcs is fhc sclccfion of low or high plafform
vchiclcs. Low plafform vchiclcs havc hau ouifc a
lof of publicify for bcing vcry ßcxiblc anu having
a ¯bcffcr' imagc, buf fhcir capifal cosfs, mainfc-
nancc anu fhc vasf cffcicncy uiffcrcnccs rcgar-
uing fhc provision of fhc scrvicc, havc mauc fhc
high plafform vchiclcs morc ucsirablc in BRT sys-
fcms. High plafform vchiclcs havc a bcffcr lcvcl
of pcrformancc anu lowcr opcrafion cosfs. Thcy
also havc casicr confrol ovcr fhc bus fickcf salcs,
fhc usc of fhc ucsignafcu sfafion, anu havc morc
scafing capacify (fhc whccls of fhc bus uo nof
infcrfcrc wifh fhc scaf arrangcmcnfs likc low pla-
fform vchiclcs uo).
Iigure 22. ßus Rapid Transit vehic|es don't have to be articu|ated.
In fact, on very few occasions it is worth having biarticu|ated vehi-
c|es, |ike the one shown in picture above {used as tria| for Trans-
Mi|enio). Courtesy of TransMi|enio SA.
30 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 31 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
2.4.2 Iare co||ection
Farc collccfion mcfhous musf bc vcrsafilc cnough
fo proviuc an aucouafc anu cffcicnf scrvicc. havc
fhc capacify for many fickcfs, havc low cosfs,
casc of usc anu rcchargc, anu fhc possibilify of
uisfancc bascu farcs. Thc cxisfing farc collccfion
opfions for a BRT sysfcm arc. papcr fickcfs, coins
or fokcns, magncfic banu carus or smarf carus.
Thc frsf fwo arc nof normally uscu bccausc
fhcy arcn'f vcrsafilc cnough nor uo fhcy havc
auvanccu fracking funcfions.
Magncfic banu carus anu smarf carus arc bcffcr
anu morc aucouafc opfions for a BRT sysfcm. Thc
infclligcnf carus havc bccn fhc mosf uscu in fhc-
sc sysfcms uuc fo fhc grcaf amounf of uafa fhaf
can bc sforcu in fhcm (journcys, moncy chargcu,
uay, hour anu placc of fransacfions, caru iucnfi-
fcafion numbcrs, cfc). Auuifionally, fhc pricc of
fhcsc carus has uroppcu consiucrably in rcccnf
ycars rcsulfing in fhc uccision making proccss
bccoming inucpcnucnf of pricc consiucrafions.
Thc complcfc pofcnfial of a BRT sysfcm is rca-
chcu whcn if is implcmcnfcu wifh off boaru vc-
hiclc vcrifcafion, in ofhcr worus whcn fhc uscr
valiuafcs fhc caru upon cnfcring fhc sfafion,
rafhcr fhan insiuc fhc vchiclc. This makcs fhc
pcrformancc of fhc sysfcm incrcasc signifcanfly,
(as morc pcoplc can go in anu ouf of fhc bus af
fhc sfops) whilc avoiuing farc cvasion problcms.
Auuifionally, fhis allows fhc complcfc fracking of
fhc sysfcm's uscrs origins anu ucsfinafions fo bc
ucfcrmincu accoruing fo fhc sfafions (anu nof
2.4.3 Tracking systems
As ucscribcu prcviously, fhc vchiclc fracking
sysfcms arc a crucial componcnf in fhc ucvclo-
pmcnf of a BRT sysfcm. Locafing fhc cxacf po-
sifion of a vchiclc in rcal fimc (fhrough a global
posifioning sysfcm - GPS), anu communicafing
wifh fhc urivcr cnablcs fhc moniforing anu au-
jusfing of fhc scrvicc proviucu in accoruancc
wifh fhc prcviously csfablishcu paramcfcrs. Each
vchiclc musf fhcn havc a communicafions ucvi-
cc in connccfion wifh fhc confrol ccnfrc, as wcll
as a safcllifc communicafion clcmcnf fo locafc if
wifh fhc GPS sysfcm uscu af fhc confrol ccnfrc
for moniforing ifs locafion in compliancc wifh
fhc csfablishcu fimcfablc. This is complcmcnfcu
wifh soffwarc ucsigncu spccifcally for fhis pur-
2.4.4 User information
Thc ucvclopmcnf of fhc Infcrncf has subsfanfially
incrcascu fhc possibilify of having acccss fo
a spccifc public fransporf planning scrvicc.
Making usc of a wcbpagc fhaf has a uafabasc
confaining informafion abouf fhc programming
of fhc sysfcm allows uscrs fo plan a journcy
in auvancc, wifhouf fhc nccu for a ucfailcu
fimcfablc or spccifc maps. Thc only problcm
conccrning an cxclusivc informafion applicafion
via fhc Infcrncf is fhaf many uscrs of fhc sysfcm
(cspccially in Lafin Amcrica) havc limifcu infcrncf
acccss, if any, making fhis scrvicc usclcss.
Thcrc is also fhc possibilify of obfaining infor-
mafion abouf fransporf scrvicc via fcxf mcssagc
(SMS) fo a uscr's mobilc phonc. Af fhc sfafions,
fhis can bc complcmcnfcu wifh scrccns confai-
ning rcal fimc informafion abouf fhc buscs fhaf
arc arriving af fhc sfafion anu fhc fimc rcmai-
ning for fhc ncxf bus fo arrivc af a parficular sfa-
fion. This improvcs fhc scrvicc subsfanfially anu
hclps fo rcuucc fhc pcrccpfion of waifing fimc
for fhc uscrs.
Somcfhing fhaf is uirccfly rclafcu fo goou infor-
mafion for a uscr is fhc simplicify of a sysfcm.
Thc opcrafions sccfion ucscribcu fhc nccu for
programming scrviccs fhaf arc simplc cnough
so uscrs uon'f havc problcms unucrsfanuing fhc
sysfcm anu lcarning how fo usc if. Thc informa-
fion sysfcms fo fhc uscrs arc fhc mosf uscful fool
fo solvc fhis problcm, as fhcy can signifcanfly
simplify complcx informafion sysfcms. Whcn
fhcrc is a compufcrizcu informafion sysfcm af a
sfafion, fhc uscr only has fo inuicafc fhc sfafion
whcrc hc/shc is going fo anu fhc sysfcm will pro-
viuc fhc spccifcu informafion rcgaruing which
bus fo fakc, anu fhc roufcs anu changcs (if any)
fo rcach fhc fnal ucsfinafion. Wifhouf fhis kinu
of sysfcm, fhc uscr musf rcly on maps.
Iigure 23. A freguent|y used fare system is the smart-
card. It is ßexib|e, versati|e and has a |ow cost. The
card of the Megabús system in Pereira is part|y paid
through pub|icity.
Iigure 24. A map with an interactive guide to |ocate a service or route in the system is a
good too| for a ßRT system. Source: www.surumbo.com
32 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 33 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
2.5 Integration
BRT sysfcms arc parf of a grcafcr urban frans-
porf sysfcm. This incluucs all ofhcr moucs of
fransporfafion. pcucsfrians, bicyclcs, ofhcr mass
public fransporf sysfcms, faxis, anu cars. Thc
propcr working capacify of a BRT sysfcm rclics
on how casily if infcgrafcs wifh ofhcr fransporf
sysfcms. Whcn planning a BRT sysfcm, onc musf
havc an opcn minu in orucr fo conccivc various
ways fo infcgrafc fhc sfafions wifh bicyclcs, fhc
fcrminal sfafions wifh ofhcr long uisfancc moucs
of fransporfafion, cars anu faxis. An infclligcnf
way of infcgrafing fhc sysfcm wifh fhc rcsf of fhc
urban fransporf is fo makc fhc BRT an csscnfial
componcnf in a cify's mobilify so fhaf ifs impacf
will bc much grcafcr (ifs lcvcl of ucmanu will also
bc much highcr fhan a sysfcm fhaf is nof infcgra-
fcu). Ofhcr infcgrafion opfions wifh ofhcr moucs
arc prcscnfcu in fhc following.
2.5.! Integration with pedestrians
Thc sifuafion for pcucsfrians in many cifics is
unforfunafc. Thcy musf go fhrough consfanf
obsfaclcs whcn walking fo work. Whcn fhcy com-
mufc fo anu from work, fhcrc isn'f always fhc pro-
pcr infrasfrucfurc fo rcach fhc sfafions. This has
sfarfcu fo changc in somc cifics in Lafin Amc-
rica, whcrc fhc planning of public fransporf is
uonc wifh pcucsfrians in minu.
Thcsc pcucsfrians arc fhc main uscrs of public
fransporf. As such, fhcy shoulu bc givcn ¯fhc
rcu carpcf' frcafmcnf. Thc infrasfrucfurc of a
BRT sysfcm musf incluuc nof only sfafions anu
cxclusivc lancs buf also propcr siucwalks for pc-
ucsfrians fo movc frccly anu comforfably, anu
fo rcach fhc sfafions safcly. Thc crossing arcas
musf also bc aucouafc anu havc fraffc lighfs af
cvcry possiblc infcrsccfion. In cascs whcrc fhis
isn'f possiblc, pcucsfrian briugcs musf bc builf
wifh acccss ramps for fhc uisablcu. If fhis is nof
fakcn info accounf (as somcfimcs happcns in fhc
planning of public fransporf sysfcms), if is vcry
likcly fhaf fhc BRT sysfcm won'f rcach fhc ucsi-
rcu ucmanu lcvcl. Long walks bcfwccn bus frans-
fcr pafhs, lcvcl changcs (an cxccss of sfaircascs
fo rcach sfafions or changing poinfs) musf bc
avoiucu as much as possiblc. A high sccurify lcvcl
along fhc roufc lcauing fo fhc sfafions musf also
bc proviucu. This rcfcrs fo bofh fhc lighfing con-
uifions in fhc sfafions anu on fhc siucwalks, anu
wiucns fhc vicw of public fransporf as somcfhing
purcly funcfional, anu fowarus fhc provision of a
crucial scrvicc for all cifizcns
2.5.2 Integration with bicyc|es
Bicyclisfs suffcr many of fhc problcms fhaf wcrc
ucscribcu for pcucsfrians, buf in somc cascs fhcy
cncounfcr cvcn morc problcms whcn moving on
fhc sfrccfs, as fhcrc is no clarify of fhcir righfs
anu rolc. Auuifionally, parking a bicyclc is somc-
fimcs impossiblc. Furfhcrmorc, prohibifing fhc
parking of bicyclcs af public fransporf sfafions
anu sfops is a parauox. Proviuing clarify fo fhc
rolc of fhc bicyclc, as an infcgrafcu facfor wifh
public fransporf, is vifal.
- Thc bicyclc has a cafchmcnf arca of much
largcr proporfions fhan pcucsfrians uo,
making a 3 km journcy possiblc wifh fhc
samc or cvcn lcss cfforf fhan a 5uu mcfcr
journcy by foof,
- Thc bicyclc fakcs up vcry lifflc spacc (up fo
2u bicyclcs can bc parkcu on a singlc car
parking spacc), making parking cosfs mini-
- Thc bicyclc can parfially rcplacc fhc func-
fion of a fccucr sysfcm,
Iigure 25. The c|arity of maps inßuences
users' satisfaction direct|y when using the
Iigure 26. The easiness to wa|k into and through the stations is one of the hrst aspects that must be
taken into account in the design of the system. The users are the c|ients of the system and they must
fee| comfortab|e when using it.
34 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 35 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
- Thc bicyclc is a vchiclc fhaf uocs nof cmif
any foxic gascs info fhc afmosphcrc whcn
bcing uscu, making if a complcfcly susfai-
nablc fransporf opfion.
Thc fhrcc basic ways of infcgrafing fhc bicyclc
info a BRT sysfcm arc.
1. Proviuing casy bicyclc acccss onfo vchiclcs.
a possibilify is ucsignafing a spccifc spacc
in vchiclcs for bicyclcs, or schcuuling a
spccifc scrvicc (i.c. cvcry 3u minufcs) fhaf
fransporfs bicyclcs only (fhis coulu bc a
vchiclc wifhouf any scafs). This opfion
uocsn'f havc a vcry high associafcu cosf
(in somc cascs no cosf af all), fhough if
may rcprcscnf somc inconvcnicncc or
uiscomforf for fhc ofhcr passcngcrs af
pcak hours. This is sccn in many Noruic
counfrics likc Dcnmark, anu in somc
ucvcloping counfrics likc Argcnfina, anu
morc rcccnfly Chilc,
2. Using racks for bicyclcs af fhc fronf or back
of fhc vchiclc. fhis opfion implics fhc usagc
of racks locafcu on fhc oufcr parf of fhc vc-
hiclcs whcrc fhc bicyclcs can bc affachcu.
Though fhis sccms vcry uscful, if has a
big urawback in fcrms of fhc fimc spcnf
mounfing anu uismounfing bicyclcs on fhc
sysfcm, cspccially in a sysfcm of high plaf-
form sfafions anu vchiclcs, anu coulu rcsulf
in schcuulc uclays for a BRT sysfcm, ofhcr-
wisc known for ifs fasf lcvcl of scrvicc,
3. Builuing bicyclc parking arcas af fhc sfa-
fions whcrc fhcrc is a high lcvcl of bicyclc
usc. iucally, all BRT sfafions shoulu havc a
safc infrasfrucfurc fo park bicyclcs. How-
cvcr, in somc cascs fhis is only possiblc af
fcrminal sfafions anu af ccrfain infcrmcui-
afc sfafions wifh high ucmanu lcvcls. Thc
mosf imporfanf consiucrafion for a bicy-
clc parking arca fo bc succcssful wifhin a
BRT sysfcm is fhaf if musf bc frcc (associ-
afcu cosfs musf bc infcgrafcu fo fhc farc or
farcs). Morcovcr, if musf bc shclfcrcu anu
musf proviuc a high lcvcl of survcillancc, as
fhc uscrs woulu lcavc fhcir bicyclcs af fhc
sfafions for many hours anu woulu rcfurn
lafcr or af nighf fo collccf fhcm.
In auuifion fo using onc or morc of fhcsc opfions
in a BRT sysfcm, infcgrafing fhc consfrucfion of
bicyclc infrasfrucfurc (cyclc pafhs) shoulu bc
uonc so fhc uscrs nof only havc a safc placc insi-
uc fhc sfafions buf also upon fhcir arrival af fhc
sfafion. Noncfhclcss, if is clcar fhaf fhis compo-
ncnf is nof casy fo mccf as parf of fhc BRT pro-
jccf plan, ucspifc fhc facf fhaf if coulu bc parf
of fhc consfrucfion of fhc sysfcm's infrasfrucfurc
uuring fhc consfrucfion phasc.
2.5.3 Integration with other means
of transport - buses, train systems
Mosf of fhc cifics in Lafin Amcrica (anu arounu
fhc worlu) uon'f havc a singular public fransporf
sysfcm. In facf, in many cifics fhcrc is an cxccss
of public fransporf sysfcms running af fhc samc
fimc. Thc BRT rcmcuics a parf of fhis cxccssivc
supply of public fransporf sysfcms, buf if is nof
logical for if fo complcfcly rcplacc fhc rcsf of
public fransporf sysfcms, nof cvcn in fhc shorf
or mcuium fcrm. Thus fhc BRT sysfcm musf bc
gcncrafcu as a sysfcm fhaf is nof parallcl buf
complcmcnfary fo fhc rcsf of fhc public frans-
porf sysfcms. Thc making of a BRT sysfcm musf
also bc complcmcnfcu by improvcmcnfs of fhc
ofhcr componcnfs of fhc public fransporf sysfcm
in gcncral.
This mcans fhaf fhc infcgrafion wifh ofhcr sys-
fcms (rail or bus bascu sysfcms) is a high priorify
acfivify fhaf shoulu bc mauc parf of fhc planning
of fhc sysfcm. Thc fwo mosf imporfanf aspccfs
conccrning fhc infcgrafion of fhc sysfcms arc
fhc farc, or farc-infcgrafion, anu fhc physical in-
&ARE INTEGRATION This infcgrafion rcfcrs
fo fhc facf fhaf all public fransporf sys-
fcms havc fhc samc fickcfing sysfcm anu,
if possiblc, havc fhc possibilify of using all
fhc componcnfs of fhc fransporf sysfcm
wifh onc fxcu farc. For cxamplc, a fwo-
hour journcy farc can bc fxcu, rcgarulcss
of fhc spccifc sysfcms uscu uuring fhosc
fwo hours. Onc of fhc mosf complcx maf-
fcrs of farc infcgrafion is fhc uisfribufion
of fhc farc among fhc uiffcrcnf subsysfcms.
Thc opcrafion cosfs, fhc covcragc anu fhc
rcsf of fhc aspccfs of cach sysfcm vary
cnormously, anu fhc crifcria for fhc farc
uisfribufion arc nof as clcar as fhcy woulu
bc wifhin cach sysfcm. Ncvcrfhclcss, a pub-
lic fransporf sysfcm wifh farc infcgrafion is
crucial for fhc provision of a rcal public
fransporf scrvicc in a cify.
0HYSICAL INTEGRATION Thc physical infc-
grafion rcfcrs fo fhc casc wifh which uscrs
of a sysfcm (i.c. BRT) can fransfcr fo ofhcr
Iigure 27. TransMi|enio is
one of the few ßRT systems
that provide an integration
service with the bicyc|es.
The fare inc|udes she|tered
bicyc|e parking areas with
an adeguate survei||ance
Iigure 28. An adeguate bicyc|e access to a bicyc|e
parking area of a ßRT system.
36 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 37 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
sysfcms (i.c. a mcfro). Howcvcr simplc if
woulu sccm fo bc, fhis rcouircs fhc ucsig-
nafion of spccifc sfafions for cach sysfcm,
anu in somc occasions fhc consfrucfion of
joinf sfafions for uiffcrcnf sysfcms. Nonc-
fhclcss, anu aucouafc physical infcgrafion
gcncrafcs mufual bcncffs for fhc sysfcms
involvcu, uuc fo journcy combinafions of
fhcir uscrs. A fcw aspccfs fhaf musf bc sfuu-
icu bcforc implcmcnfing a public fransporf
sysfcm arc fhc vcrfical uiffcrcnccs bcfwccn
sfafions. If a BRT sysfcm is consfrucfcu,
anu an clcvafcu mcfro is planncu fo bc
builf anu ¯infcgrafcu' wifh fhc prcvious, if
will bc vcry uiffculf for BRT uscrs fo makc
fransfcrs givcn fhc facf fhaf if will bc ncccs-
sary fo lcavc fhc sfafion, walk up a sfaircasc
anu cnfcr anofhcr sysfcm. An cvcn worsc
sifuafion is whcn an unucrgrounu sysfcm is
¯infcgrafcu' wifh an clcvafcu sysfcm. Thcsc
kinus of lcvcl problcms uo nof cxisf in BRT
sysfcms, or in ofhcr bus bascu sysfcms.
2.5.4 Integration with taxis and bicyc|e taxis
Evcn fhough faxis appcar as compcfifion fo mass
fransif sysfcms, fhcy arc in facf imporfanf allics
of a BRT scrvicc provision. This is uuc fo fhc
facf fhaf in somc sifuafions fhc arrival sfafion of
a uscr is locafcu af a signifcanf uisfancc from
fhcir fnal ucsfinafion. Whcn fhc possibilify of
using a bicyclc fo complcfc fhc journcy uocsn'f
cxisf, faxis arc a valiu opfion. Sincc farc infcgra-
fion cannof bc applicu hcrc (or af lcasf fhcrc
arcn'f any farc infcgrafion cxpcricnccs bcfwccn
faxis anu mass fransporf sysfcms), fhc uscrs who
havc a wcll-organizcu faxi sysfcm whcn arriving
af fhc ucsircu sfafion, havc a bcffcr lcvcl of scrvi-
cc fhan fhosc who uon'f havc fhis opfion. Auui-
fionally, fhc cxisfcncc of an aucouafc BRT-faxi in-
fcgrafion can uiscouragc fhc usc of privafc cars
for such journcys.
A scconu infcgrafion opfion is fhc onc uscu in somc
Europcan sysfcms wifh grcaf succcss. If has bccn
implcmcnfcu in somc cifics in Lafin Amcrica in an
informal manncr. fhc ¯bicyclc faxis'. Thc auvanfa-
gcs of fhis kinu of fransporf, likc fhosc of bicyclcs,
arc fhaf if uocs nof gcncrafc cmissions, anu fakcs
up vcry lifflc spacc. If is also a goou cmploymcnf
opfion. In auuifion, fhcy supply fhc nccus of uscrs
who usc faxis rcgularly, anu/or havc fhcir arrival
sfafion af a rclafivcly long-uisfancc from fhcir fnal
ucsfinafion. Thc ¯bicyclc faxis' havc a lowcr cafch-
mcnf arca fhan rcgular faxis, so fhc scrvicc woulu
bc supplicu fo a uiffcrcnf fargcf group.
Infrasfrucfurc anu lcgal facilifics shoulu bc gcnc-
rally proviucu, for fhc allowancc of journcy infc-
grafions bcfwccn BRT sysfcms anu faxis or ¯bicyclc
faxis'. Thc main problcm conccrning ¯bicyclc faxis'
is fhaf various populafion groups havc uccmcu
fhcm as uangcrous vchiclcs, which is an imprccisc
2.5.5 Integration with cars
Thc lasf form of infcgrafing fhc BRT sysfcm wifh
ofhcr fransporfafions is wifh cars. Evcn fhough fhis
sysfcm is nof susfainablc or rccommcnuablc for a
cify, if is a facf fhaf cifics will confinuc fo havc cars
in ycars fo comc, anu if is imporfanf fo consiucr
fhcir cxisfcncc anu nof cxpccf fhcm fo uisappcar
in fhc ncar fufurc. Insfcau, fhc solufion coulu bc fo
gcncrafc fhc infcgrafion of onc car riuc (normally
from fhc uscr's homc) fo fhc origin sfafion of fhc
journcy. This is commonly callcu ¯park anu riuc',
anu if consisfs of fhc provision of parking arcas af
fhc fcrminal sfafions of a BRT sysfcm. Thcrc is only
onc problcm. a grcaf ucal of spacc is nccucu for fhc
cars af fhc parking arca. If is rccommcnucu fhaf
fhis scrvicc bc of chargc. Rcgarulcss, using fhis sorf
of infcgrafion is possiblc whcn fhc fcrminal sfafion
is also a commcrcial ccnfrc or somcfhing similar fo
makc fhcm popular ucsfinafion poinfs.
Thc uscr can pay a public fransporf farc prior fo
cnfcring fhc parking arca anu havc somc kinu of
uiscounf ovcr fhc fofal pricc of fhc parking scrvi-
cc. This is mcanf fo rcuucc fhc amounf of car jo-
urncys fo fhc cify ccnfrc, whilc also rcuucing cx-
fcrnalifics conccrning fhc usagc of fhis vchiclc.
2.6 Marketing and
customer service
This sccfion will ucscribc fwo componcnfs of
fhc BRT fhaf conccrn fhc mosf imporfanf par-
ficipanfs. fhc uscrs. Bofh fhc sysfcm's markcfing
(unucrsfoou as fhc uiffusion of ifs characfcris-
fics anu fhc promofion of ifs usc) anu cusfomcr
scrvicc arc whaf will inform fhc uscr of whaf fhc
sysfcm consisfs of, anu how if shoulu bc uscu,
whilc making him/hcr fccl comforfablc anu wcll
affcnucu af fhc fimc of usc.
2.6.! Marketing e|ements
If can bc argucu fhaf a BRT sysfcm fhaf is implc-
mcnfcu wifhouf a markcfing plan will bc a failu-
rc. Evcn in cascs whcrc fhc sysfcm is pcrfccfly uc-
signcu, incluuing all fhc componcnfs ucscribcu
prcviously, such a sysfcm won'f havc any succcss
if if isn'f accompanicu by a complcfc anu scnsi-
blc markcfing plan abouf how fo approach fhc
populafion. In facf, fhc lack of a markcfing plan
may rcsulf in chaos in fhc sysfcm's opcrafion.
For fhcsc rcasons, a fhorough markcfing plan
musf bc ucsigncu fogcfhcr wifh fhc ofhcr compo-
ncnfs of fhc BRT sysfcm. This plan musf incluuc
bofh informafivc anu pcrsuasivc clcmcnfs abouf
fhc sysfcm in a simplc way fhaf woulu invifc uscrs
fo fry fhc sysfcm. Thcsc fwo componcnfs arc
parficularly imporfanf uuring fhc consfrucfion
of fhc sysfcm bccausc cifizcns will havc a grcaf
lcvcl of unccrfainfy wifh rcspccf fo whaf will bc
consfrucfcu in fhcir cify. Prcscnfing rcalisfic mo-
ucls of whaf has bccn ucsigncu anu how if will
bc implcmcnfcu is parficularly uscful. On somc
occasions, viucos showing fhc roufc covcragc of
fhc BRT sysfcm arc ucvclopcu. Dafa conccrning
cxpccfcu savings for wcll known roufcs, fhc ucs-
cripfion of bcncffs fhaf arc associafcu wifh fhc
projccf (cconomic, social anu cnvironmcnfal),
anu fhc prcscnfafion of succcssful cxpcricnccs
in ofhcr parfs of fhc worlu, arc vcry uscful for
informing anu mofivafing fhc pcoplc fo usc fhc
If is parficularly imporfanf fo gcncrafc an in-
formafion sfrafcgy abouf fhc way in which fhc
sysfcm will work. ifs roufcs, fhcir couing, fhc
cxisfing informafion sysfcms, fhc locafion of fhc
bus sfops, cfc. If is a goou iuca fo implcmcnf a
wcbsifc fhaf incluucs all fhc rclcvanf informa-
fion abouf fhc sysfcm. If is uscful fo cmphasizc
Iigure 29. The integration of a ßRT system with taxis has norma||y
been conceived by the taxi drivers themse|ves, but it may be and
integra| part of the system from their own p|anning.
38 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 39 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
fhaf fhc crcafion anu uiffusion of all fhcsc fools
musf bc uonc BEFORE fhc implcmcnfafion of
fhc sysfcm. This musf also bc complcmcnfcu by
prcscnfing pcrsonalizcu informafion fo compa-
nics, facforics, schools anu univcrsifics (anu any
fypc of insfifufion) fhaf arc locafcu ncar fhc sfa-
fions fhaf will bc implcmcnfcu. This normally in-
cluucs mccfings whcrc fhc communify is ablc fo
cnouirc abouf fhc sysfcm anu makc suggcsfions/
proposals (fhough fhis is usually uonc uuring fhc
ucvclopmcnf of fhc projccf's inifial conccpf).
An acfivify fhaf has parficular succcss in promo-
fing fhc sysfcm is giving frcc fravcl usc uuring
fhc frsf wcck of scrvicc. Bcsiucs informing fhc
pcoplc abouf fhc sysfcm, if also mofivafcs ifs usc.
Auuifionally, if fhc pcoplc fakc foo long fnuing
fhcir way or gcf losf on fhc way fo work, if will
havc bccn cosf frcc. This frcc fickcf sfrafcgy may
havc an clcvafcu cosf buf will bc oufwcighcu by
fhc bcncffs of having uscrs fhaf know how fo usc
fhc sysfcm in a vcry shorf pcriou of fimc affcr ifs
Thc fargcf group of fhis markcfing plan is almosf
cnfircly composcu of pofcnfial uscrs of fhc sys-
fcm. This may bc wiucncu fo fhosc pcoplc who
will havc an inuirccf rclafion wifh fhc sysfcm or
fo fhosc who will cvcnfually cnu up using if. Evcn
fhough chilurcn will nof usc fhc sysfcm in fhc
immcuiafc fufurc, fhcy uo work as a populafion
fhaf will fransfcr fhc informafion fo ofhcrs who
coulu fhcn usc fhc scrvicc (fhcir parcnfs, rcla-
fivcs, fricnus, cfc). Thcrcforc, fhc informafion
musf bc ucsigncu prcuominanfly favouring fhc
pcoplc who will mosf likcly usc fhc sysfcm, whilc
nof uisrcgaruing ofhcr parfs of fhc populafion.
On fhc ofhcr hanu, a long-fcrm markcfing plan
coulu incluuc fhosc pcoplc who woulu cvcnfua-
lly usc fhc sysfcm (likc car uscrs). An imporfanf
aspccf of markcfing fhc sysfcm is fhaf sfrafcgics
fo bc uscu musf, prcuominanfly bc composcu of
oufrcach wifhin communifics, rafhcr fhan using
mass mcuia. Tclcvision anu rauio arc nof parficu-
larly uscful for fhc uiffusion of a fransporf sysfcm
whcn uscu as commcrcial mcuia, buf fhcy can bc
vcry bcncfcial whcn fhc sysfcm is ¯in fhc ncws',
as fhis way if raiscs fhc public's awarcncss.
Oncc fhc sysfcm has bccn implcmcnfcu, fhcrc
musf bc a consfanf fracking of fhcsc markcfing
acfivifics. Auuifionally, opinion polls musf bc
uonc fo know fhc posifivc anu ncgafivc aspccfs
fhc uscrs pcrccivc rcgaruing fhc sysfcm, in or-
ucr fo improvc ifs pcrformancc anu uisscmina-
fc fhc mosf aucouafc informafion. Carrying ouf
auuifional markcfing acfivifics is somcfhing fhaf
musf bc uonc confinuously in orucr fo kccp fhc
sysfcm's imagc as posifivc, cffcicnf, fasf anu all
ofhcr characfcrisfics fhaf havc bccn promofcu
sincc fhc bcginning.
Thc subjccf of imagc also rclafcs fo fhc spccifc
visual componcnfs of fhc sysfcm, fhaf is ifs cor-
porafc imagc, ifs logo anu ifs slogan. This musf
bc ucvclopcu uuring fhc ucsign of fhc sysfcm,
anu musf incluuc a corporafc iucnfify manual
fhaf spccifcs fhc colours fo bc uscu on fhc vc-
hiclcs, fhc urivcr's urcss couc, as wcll as ofhcrs
who uclivcr a scrvicc wifhin fhc sysfcm, anu fhc
gcncral way fhc sysfcm musf bc prcscnfcu fo fhc
cifizcns. This is gcncrally ucvclopcu wifh fhc fcc-
uback from focus groups anu survcys spccifcally
ucsigncu for fhis purposc.
2.6.2 Customer service
Cusfomcr scrvicc, bcsiucs bcing an clcmcnf for
improving fhc pcrformancc of fhc sysfcm, will bc
anofhcr way fo promofc fhc BRT sysfcm for fhc
long fcrm. This incluucs aspccfs of fhc scrvicc
provision, in auuifion fo fhc scrvicc as such. An
aspccf ucscribcu prcviously is informafion for
fhc uscr. A uscr who knows whcrc hc/shc is, who
has casy acccss fo rcach his/hcr ucsfinafion, anu
who has simplc informafion abouf how fo rcach
if, will bc safisfcu wifh fhc scrvicc. If's nof ncccs-
sary fo rcpcaf whaf is incluucu in fhc informafion
fo fhc uscr, buf rafhcr fo sfrcss ifs imporfancc as
a cusfomcr scrvicc fool.
Ofhcr aspccfs fo bc fakcn info accounf arc fhc
scrviccs fhc sysfcm proviucs such as. fhc clca-
ning of fhc vchiclcs anu sfafions, fhc puncfual-
ify of fhc scrviccs, anu fhc gcncral conuifions of
scrvicc provision fhaf arc uirccfly rclafcu fo fhc
uscrs' safisfacfion. In orucr fo fulfl an aucouafc
scrvicc provision, if is also ncccssary fo spccify
how fhis will bc accomplishcu, anu havc if clcarly
ucscribcu in fhc cxisfing confracfs wifh fhc op-
crafors. For insfancc, fhc frcoucncy of washing
fhc vchiclcs musf bc csfablishcu in fhc confracf
along wifh fhc ofhcr rclafcu aspccfs.
Dclivcring auuifional scrviccs is funuamcnfal
anu convcys a morc posifivc imagc of fhc sys-
fcm. If also crcafcs morc cffcicncy in fcrms of
whaf fhc uscrs can uo uuring cach journcy. This
is why incluuing public scrvicc paymcnf ccnfrcs
anu cify council local offccs af fhc fcrminal sfa-
fions is an appropriafc clcmcnf for fhc sysfcm.
Proviuing rcsf rooms in somc sfafions is argua-
blc buf rccommcnucu in mosf cascs. Proviuing
auuifional anu unxcpccfcu scrviccs (likc lcnuing
books, arf af fhc sfafions, fcsfivals, conccrfs anu
such), will also auu posifivc poinfs fo fhc scrvicc
Onc aspccf fhaf was bricßy mcnfioncu in fhc
opcrafional sccfion was fhc comforf of fhc
sysfcm. As if was cxplaincu, fhc BRT sysfcm musf
bc planncu in a way fhaf makcs if bofh proffablc
anu sclf-susfainablc (in ofhcr worus, so fhaf if
uocsn'f nccu opcrafing subsiuics). Ncvcrfhclcss,
fhc planning of a vcry proffablc sysfcm may
gcncrafc uiscomforf for fhc uscrs, as mosf of
Iigure 3û. A park-n-ride system in a termina| station
of the rai| system in ßangkok. Courtesy of Thirayoot
Iigure 3!. ßesides deve|oping an exhaustive information cam-
paign, the provision of free service for the hrst coup|e of weeks
of an initia| operation is one of the strategies that have been im-
p|emented to introduce the system and to promote it as a better
mobi|ity option in the city.
40 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 41 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
fhaf proffabilify will bc rcßccfcu upon a minor
frcoucncy of vchiclcs anu a largcr agglomcrafion
of pcoplc af fhc sfafions anu in fhc buscs. In
many cascs fhis urawback is ovcrlookcu wifh
fhc argumcnf fhaf fhc sysfcm is fasf. For fhis
rcason fhc uscrs ¯unucrsfanu' fhc scrvicc is nof
comforfablc buf cffcicnf, anu givc grcafcr valuc
fo fhis cffcicncy fhan fo comforf. Evcn fhough
fhis can bc fruc for somc uscrs whosc journcys in
fhc sysfcm arc almosf manuafory (i.c. low incomc
uscrs who musf fravcl fo work in fhc BRT), if is nof
a goou scrvicc sfrafcgy for fhc rcsf of fhc uscrs,
in fhc long fcrm. If a sysfcm proviucs a fasf anu
uncomforfablc scrvicc, many uscrs will look af
alfcrnafivc opfions, such as buying a moforcyclc,
in orucr fo havc fasf mobilify, comforf anu
frccuom. In fhc long fcrm, fhis only gcncrafcs
grcafcr inuiviuual anu moforizcu mobilify, highcr
acciucnf rafcs, anu a low proff public fransporf
Thc clcmcnfs ucscribcu prcviously givc a goou
iuca of fhc basic componcnfs of a BRT sysfcm.
As if was ucscribcu af fhc sfarf of fhis chapfcr, a
complcfc BRT sysfcm has all fhcsc componcnfs
ucvclopcu in ucfail. Somc ofhcr BRT sysfcms havc
only ucuicafcu lancs, sfafions, vchiclcs, busincss
sfrucfurc anu an aucouafc opcrafional plan, fhcy
lack auuifional clcmcnfs, buf fhc scrvicc is goou
cnough fo supply cxisfing nccus. Thc mosf im-
porfanf aspccf of a BRT sysfcm is fhaf if proviucs
an aucouafc public fransporf sysfcm fhaf affracfs
fhc largcsf numbcr of possiblc uscrs anu offcrs
fhc possibilify of grcafcr acccss fo work, schools,
univcrsifics, goous anu scrviccs, as wcll as propcr
conuifions anu afforuablc farcs. A BRT sysfcm
fhaf managcs fo proviuc fhis is a succcssful BRT
sysfcm anu will guaranfcc ifs succcss ovcr fimc.
Iigure 32. The customer service is h-
na||y one of the services that guaran-
tee the sustainabi|ity of a ßRT system
in the |ong term. After a||, the provi-
sion of a service oriented towards the
users' satisfaction is what ensures the
permanence of the system.
Iigure 33. There are other existing services additiona|
to the transport service such as book |ending at the
stations. This service gives the user an image of the
service that goes beyond its most functiona| aspect.
42 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 43 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
3 Imp|ementation of a ßRT System
fhcsc affrmafions, if's bccn sccn fhaf fhcsc ucci-
sion makcrs havc improvcu fhc public fransporf
sifuafion in fhcir cifics. Thcy havc also opcncu
fhc uoors fo improving fhc living conuifions fo
fhcir cifizcns.
An auuifional componcnf fhaf has provcn fo bc
uscful in fhc crcafion of a BRT sysfcm is fhc vision
fhaf fhcsc govcrnors havc hau whcn ucvcloping
fhcsc sysfcms. Thc BRT has nof bccn conccivcu as
a pair of lancs fo bc implcmcnfcu in a shorf fcrm.
Rafhcr, if has bccn conccivcu as a sysfcm fhaf is
implcmcnfcu in phascs fhaf complcmcnf cach
ofhcr uuring fhc following uccaucs for fhc crca-
fion of an cvcnfual mass fransporfafion ncfwork
whcrc mosf of fhc populafion will havc acccss fo
fhc sysfcm. Thcsc sysfcms havc bccn prcscnfcu
as parf of a grcafcr fransformafion of a cify fhaf
incluucs public fransporf sysfcm improvcmcnfs,
fhc ucvclopmcnf of high oualify public spaccs,
anu gcncral policics of grcafcr habifabilify anu
long-fcrm susfainabilify.
Polifical will is an inuispcnsablc componcnf in
fhc crcafion of a high capacify public fransporf
sysfcm such as BRT. This polifical will implics
a commifmcnf fo ucvcloping fhc sysfcm anu a
long-fcrm vision. This is complcmcnfcu whcn
fhc ucvclopmcnf of fhc projccf is confinucu anu
complcfcu by fhc succccuing govcrnors of fhc
cify. In public fransporf projccfs, which norma-
lly havc a long-lasfing implcmcnfafion phasc of
morc fhan a mayor's pcriou of govcrning, if is
crucial fo havc fhc polifical will fo cnablc fhc
confinuify of fhcsc kinus of projccfs. For fhis, if
is also ncccssary fo avoiu any associafion of fhc
BRT sysfcm wifh a polifical parfy. Evcn fhough
fhis coulu sccm posifivc in fhc shorf-fcrm, if may
havc ncgafivc conscoucnccs in fhc long-fcrm, cs-
pccially for a cify.
In somc cascs, fhcrc cxisfs a wcll-ucsigncu anu
conccivcu BRT projccf, wifhouf any polifical will.
To changc fhc poinf of vicw of a polifician anu
ucmonsfrafc fhc bcncffs fhaf comc wifh fhc
ucvclopmcnf of a fransporf sysfcm likc fhc BRT,
somc sfrafcgics havc bccn uscu, such as faking
fhcm fo visif a BRT sysfcm in a similar cify.
Oncc fhcrc is polifical will anu a conccpfual uc-
sign of fhc sysfcm, fhc cify can fhcn sfarf wifh
an implcmcnfafion plan as fhc onc bricßy ucs-
cribcu bclow.
3.2 P|anning and Imp|ementation
Thc planning of a BRT sysfcm implics various
auuifional componcnfs fo fhosc fhaf wcrc ucs-
cribcu in fhc scconu chapfcr of fhis uocumcnf.
Thcsc incluuc. fnancial, sfaff, mainfcnancc anu
cvaluafion aspccfs fhaf arc ucscribcu in fhc fo-
llowing sccfion.
3.2.! Project team and time|ine
Dcspifc fhc various fcams ucuicafcu fo fhc uc-
vclopmcnf of spccifc componcnfs, fhc ucvclo-
pmcnf of a BRT sysfcm musf incluuc a spccifc
fcam of profcssionals wifh cxpcricncc in bofh
projccf managcmcnf anu in fcchnical franspor-
fafion planning. This fcam will havc fhc main rcs-
ponsibilify of fhc ucvclopmcnf of fhc sysfcm anu
fhc fracking of fhc implcmcnfafion plan. Thcy
will also bc in chargc of ucfning fhc fcrms of rc-
fcrcncc for fhc uiffcrcnf componcnfs in fhc sys-
fcm, confracfing uivcrsc sfuuics fo bc mauc, anu
in somc cascs uirccfing fhc managcmcnf of fhc
sysfcm. Wifh all fhcsc rcsponsibilifics, if is clcar
fhaf fhis fcam cannof bc composcu of pcoplc
who arc in chargc of ofhcr rcsponsibilifics in fhis
parficular projccf. Thc fcam musf bc complcfcly
anu cxclusivcly ucuicafcu fo fhc BRT sysfcm.
This fcam normally prcscnfs pcriouic rcporfs fo
fhc mayor anu fo ofhcr govcrnmcnf cnfifics. This
communicafion wifh fhc govcrnmcnfal bouics is
parficularly uscful, as fhcsc projccfs fcnu fo havc
clcvafcu cosfs anu can consfifufc a funuamcnfal
componcnf in fhc ucvclopmcnf of a cify. For fhis
rcason, fhc mcuia shoulu also know somc aspccfs
rclafing fo fhc ucvclopmcnf of fhc projccf.
Thc projccf fcam musf also ucvclop a spccifc
fimcframc for fhc ucvclopmcnf of cach compo-
ncnf, anu bascu on fhis fimclinc, fhcy musf prc-
scnf all progrcss. Esfablishing a rcalisfic fimclinc
is vcry imporfanf, as all managcrial cvaluafions
of fhc group will bc bascu on fhis frsf fimclinc.
An opfimisfic fimclinc mighf look vcry posifivc af
fhc bcginning, buf as fimc gocs by if will bc bofh
a ncgafivc anu unbcarablc barricr fhaf musf bc
avoiucu from fhc sfarf.
3.2.2 System hnancing
Bcforc ucfning fhc spccifc aspccfs conccrning
fhc susfainabilify of fhc sysfcm opcrafions, wc
musf ucfnc fhc way fo fnancc projccf implc-
As ucscribcu prcviously, fhc implcmcnfafion of a
BRT sysfcm implics a mcficulous planning of all
fhc ucfails fhaf will comprisc if. This planning
musf bc uirccfcu by a fcam anu lcu by a uccision
makcr (gcncrally a mayor or govcrnor), anu musf
fhcrcforc havc goals anu an aucouafc fimcfablc.
Thc following is a schcmc of whaf is nccucu fo
makc a BRT sysfcm a rcalify.
3.! Po|itica| wi||
A funuamcnfal clcmcnf for fhc making of a
BRT sysfcm is fhaf fhcrc cxisfs rcal polifical will
fowarus sysfcm implcmcnfafion. Evcn fhough a
wcll planncu anu ucfailcu BRT sysfcm cxisfs, fhc
lack of polifical will may rcsulf in posfponing fhc
acfual consfrucfion of fhc sysfcm.
Thc mosf succcssful BRT sysfcms in fhc worlu
(many of which arc in Lafin Amcrica) havc bcco-
mc a rcalify fhanks fo fhc commifmcnf of visio-
nary mayors who havc sccn fhc sysfcm as a rcal
solufion fo fhc growing congcsfion, pollufion
anu incoualify problcms causcu by non-cffcicnf
fransporf sysfcms. Thcy havc also sccn fhaf,
among fhc opfions fhcy hau, fhc BRT sysfcm was
mosf suifablc fo fhcir nccus. Thcy havc managcu
fo ovcrcomc all fhc obsfaclcs fhaf wcrc in fhc
way whcn fhcy commiffcu fo ucsigning anu im-
plcmcnfing fhc sysfcm. To somc, fhis may sccm
likc parf of fhc polifical agcnua of a mayor (in
ofhcr worus, fo scck an cvcnfual rc-clccfion or
clccfion for a morc imporfanf posifion), or fhaf
if has bccn uonc fo incrcasc fhcir cgo. Dcspifc
44 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 45 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
mcnfafion. Thc lcasf problcmafic ways fo fnancc
fhc sysfcm arc wifh cxisfing local anu sfafc govcr-
nmcnfal rcsourccs. In somc insfanccs, fhcrc arc
spccifc ifcms for fhc ucvclopmcnf of mass or pu-
blic fransporf sysfcms, alfhough fhis is nof always
fhc casc for cvcry cify, in which casc funus musf
bc rcoucsfcu. Thc argumcnfs prcscnfcu in fhc frsf
chapfcr of fhis uocumcnf can work as a guiuc for
fhis proccss. Onc issuc conccrning fhc frauifional
fransporf buugcfs is fhaf cxccssivc amounfs of fhc
buugcf arc posfcu for fhc consfrucfion of roaus
for aufomobilc usc. Oncc fhc bcncff from fhcsc
projccfs has bccn calculafcu in fcrms of journcys,
anu comparcu fo fhc bcncffs of a public frans-
porf sysfcm wifh a small invcsfmcnf, fhc rcuircc-
fing of funus for fhc crcafion of fhcsc sysfcms may
Sfafc rcsourccs (of fhc nafional govcrnmcnf) will
bc an imporfanf parf of fhc sysfcm's fnancc, buf
fhc infcrnal sourccs (of fhc local govcrnmcnfs)
will also play an imporfanf rolc in all of fhis. Onc
argumcnf fhaf can bc uscu is fhc poinf fhaf lanu
valucs of placcs aujaccnf fo fhc sysfcm will incrca-
sc, which can bc sccn as an opporfunify fo rccovcr
fhc invcsfmcnf fhrough auucu valuc lcgislafions
or similar cconomic insfrumcnfs. This bcncff may
also bc uscu fo gcf fhc approval of a buugcf for a
public fransporf sysfcm such as fhc BRT.
Rcgarulcss, if local anu nafional fnancing sourccs
arc nof suffcicnf fo covcr fhc capifal cosfs of fhc
projccf, fhcn if is ncccssary fo scck cxfcrnal fnan-
cing sourccs.
Thcsc incluuc coopcrafion agcncics such as ucvc-
lopmcnf banks, incluuing infcrnafional banking.
Thc conuifions unucr which fhcsc loans arc mauc
is an aspccf fhaf musf bc wcll sfuuicu, as fhcsc
ucbfs arc rcgularly cxfcnucu info fhc fufurc, anu
avoiuing long fcrm ucbfs is somcfhing fhaf musf
bc uonc.
Thcrc arc also cxfcrnal sourccs for public fnan-
cing anu cxfcrnal loans, which normally incluuc
a chargc for fhc usc of fhc roaus (normally callcu
congcsfion charging) or fucl surchargc, primarily
uirccfcu af privafc cars. Dcspifc fhc lack of popu-
larify for fhcsc mcasurcs, fhcy arc vcry cffccfivc
for rcuucing congcsfion anu incrcasing fhc usc
of public moucs of fransporfafion, whilc gcnc-
rafing rcsourccs for public fransporf. Thcsc arc
also mcasurcs fhaf gcncrafc couify bcfwccn uscrs
of public anu privafc fransporf. Ofhcr insfru-
mcnfs fhaf rcsiuc ouf of fhc fransporf sccfor arc
fhc publicify (in sfafions anu vchiclcs) anu fhc
infcgrafcu ucvclopmcnf of sfafions (somcfhing
ucscribcu in ucfail prcviously). Thcsc auuifional
mcasurcs can subsfanfially rcuucc fhc cosfs of a
sysfcm in bofh ifs implcmcnfafion anu in ifs pcr-
mancnf opcrafion.
A scrious fnancial plan for fhc sysfcm musf bc
uonc fo csfimafc fhc cosfs (anu possiblc ovcr-
hcaus) of fhc BRT. Bascu on infcrnafional cx-
pcricnccs of ofhcr BRT sysfcms, if is possiblc fo
csfimafc somc rcalisfic cosfs for fhc projccf. Thc
consulfanfs who ucvclop fhc sysfcm's conccpf
musf prcscnf a rcalisfic csfimafion of fhc cosfs.
If is rccommcnuablc fo comparc fhcsc cosfs wifh
fhosc of ofhcr sysfcms alrcauy implcmcnfcu.
This fnancial plan fypically incluucs fhc ucvclo-
pmcnf of ucfailcu sfuuics for fhc implcmcnfafion
of fhc sysfcm anu fhc consfrucfion anu mainfc-
nancc cosfs of fhc sysfcm's infrasfrucfurc. In a
fcw cascs fhc procurcmcnf of vchiclcs or fhc farc
collccfion couipmcnf arc incluucu. If is prcfcra-
blc whcn fhc opcrafors arc rcsponsiblc for fhosc
purchascs anu fhc managcrial bouy ucfcrmincs
fhc spccifc characfcrisfics of fhc vchiclcs. This
way, fhc opcrafors can ncgofiafc bcffcr priccs for
fhc vchiclcs, anu fhis will prcvcnf any misunucrs-
fanuings conccrning fhc mainfcnancc of fhc vc-
hiclcs or of supporf couipmcnf.
3.2.3 Contracting
Thc sysfcm's confracfing plan musf bc ucsigncu
in fhc mosf couifablc manncr possiblc anu wifh
fhc grcafcsf numbcr of cxisfing guaranfccs. In
gcncral, if is morc uscful fo pracficc a compc-
fifivc biuuing cxcrcisc fo awaru fhc opcrafion
of uiffcrcnf componcnfs of fhc sysfcm. This is
morc fransparcnf anu has bcffcr rcsulfs fhan
fhc frauifional confracf assigning proccuurc for
spccifc organizafions. Auuifionally, fhis cnablcs
rcal compcfifion in fhc markcf anu cvcnfually
rcuuccs fhc sysfcms opcrafion cosfs by gcncra-
fing compcfifion. Somc biuucrs may obfain morc
poinfs fo auu fo fhcir rccorus for having a public
fransporf opcrafion hisfory or for bcing local
opcrafors rafhcr fhan infcrnafional oncs. This is
in fhc infcrcsf of giving morc jusficc in fhc pro-
ccss of fransforming fhc fransporf sysfcm.
Thc confracfs arc gcncrally vcry ucfailcu wifh
rcspccf fo fhc acfivifics anu opcrafion conui-
fions cxpccfcu, anu fhcy havc a similar uurafion
fo fhaf of fhc vchiclcs (on avcragc 1u ycars or
×uu,uuu kilomcfrcs). This cnablcs fhc possibilify
of proviuing a highly profcssional scrvicc, givcn
fhc uurafion of fhc confracfs, anu avoius fhc risk
of confracfs wifh longcr uurafion fhaf havc fcwcr
oualify guaranfccs.
3.2.4 Construction and maintenance
Thc consfrucfion of fhc sysfcm's infrasfrucfurc is
fhc mosf visiblc parf of fhc BRT bcforc ifs implc-
mcnfafion. Thcrcforc, much affcnfion is nccucu
in ifs planning. Thc consfrucfion confracfs musf
bc coually spccifc fo fhc oncs csfablishcu wifh
fhc opcrafors, anu fhc confracfing proccss wifh
fhc infrasfrucfurc confracfors musf bc an coually
fransparcnf proccss uonc fhrough a compcfifivc
biuuing sysfcm.
To bc ablc fo guaranfcc high oualify in fhc cons-
frucfion of fhc infrasfrucfurc, oualify clauscs
musf bc incluucu in fhc confracf csfablishcu
wifh fhc confracfors. Thc uscful lifc of fhc in-
frasfrucfurc musf bc ucfcrmincu hcrc, as wcll as
fhc guaranfcc of fhc conuifions anu uurabilify
of fhc corriuors, sfafions, ucpofs anu ofhcr in-
frasfrucfurc fhaf arc fo bc consfrucfcu. On somc
occasions, confracf clauscs arc incluucu whcrc
fhc urivcr commifs fo rcpairing infrasfrucfurc
uamagcs uuring fhc uscful lifc fhaf fhcy havc
commiffcu fo.
Thc issuc of mainfcnancc musf also bc sfuuicu
fhoroughly. In somc cascs fhc consfrucfion con-
fracf may incluuc fhc infrasfrucfurc mainfc-
nancc for fhc frsf ycar affcr fhc lifccyclc of fhc
infrasfrucfurc is complcfcu. This can bc lcss of
a problcm in fcrms of confracfs. Thc mosf im-
porfanf fopic in rclafion fo fhc mainfcnancc of
fhis infrasfrucfurc is fhc pcrmancnf assignmcnf
of rcsourccs for fhis acfivify, somcfhing fhaf is
offcn forgoffcn.
This also implics fhc issuc of a possiblc rccons-
frucfion of fhc infrasfrucfurc anu musf fhcrcforc
bc planncu from fhc sfarf of fhc BRT sysfcm.
3.2.5 System eva|uation and impact
Thc BRT sysfcm will havc signifcanf impacfs on
fhc populafion. This will bc clcarly cviucnf fo fhc
uscrs, anu fo a ccrfain poinf, fhc gcncral public.
Conscoucnfly, if is csscnfial fo scf up an cvalua-
fion plan fo monifor fhc sysfcm anu ucmonsfrafc
ifs pcrformancc wifh spccifc fgurcs in orucr fo
corrccf any problcms.
To uo fhis, if is ncccssary fo fakc mcasurcs from
fhc bcginning. In ofhcr worus, mcasurcs musf
bc fakcn bcforc fhc sfarf of any consfrucfion
acfivify or ucfours in fhc locafions whcrc fhc
sysfcm will bc implcmcnfcu. This will makc fhc
ucmonsfrafion of spccifc bcncffs as a causc of
fhc implcmcnfafion of a BRT sysfcm casicr. Somc
46 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca 47 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca
of fhcsc inuicafors incluuc. fravcl fimc of uscrs
(pcrccivcu anu rcal), pollufion lcvcls insiuc fhc
sysfcm's corriuors, acciucnfs fhroughouf fhc sys-
fcm (bofh fafal anu non-fafal), fhc avcragc spccu
of fhc vchiclcs on fhc sysfcm's lancs (for public
anu privafc fransporf), fhc numbcr of journcys,
fhc populafion's pcrccpfion of fhc public frans-
porf, anu many ofhcr inuicafors fhaf can givc a
gcncral vision of a cify's public fransporf sifua-
fion bcforc fhc implcmcnfafion of a BRT sysfcm.
If is also infcrcsfing fo mcasurc fhcsc uuring fhc
consfrucfion phasc of fhc sysfcm.
Oncc fhc sysfcm has bccn implcmcnfcu anu is
in usc, if is ncccssary fo mainfain sysfcm pcrfor-
mancc. Mcasurcs may bc uscu for comparing fhc
sysfcm wifh valucs prior fo fhc implcmcnfafion,
anu for fracking fhc oualify of fhc scrvicc pro-
viucu. As fhc BRT sysfcm will bc morc complcx
anu complcfc fhan fhc prcvious oncs, if will bc
possiblc fo compilc much morc uafa abouf fhc
uynamics of journcys anu fhc opcrafion of fhc
4 Additiona| Resources
As cxplaincu af fhc bcginning, fhis guiuc uocs
nof havc an cxhausfivc ucscripfion of cach com-
poncnf in a BRT sysfcm for fwo main rcasons.
frsf, fhaf is nof fhc infcnfion of fhis uocumcnf,
anu scconu, bccausc fhcrc arc alrcauy many cxis-
fing uocumcnfs fhaf havc ucscribcu in ucfail fhc
implcmcnfafion of a BRT sysfcm.
Thc mosf rclcvanf oncs arc fhc following.
- Bus Rapiu Transif Planning Guiuc, wrif-
fcn by Lloyu Wrighf anu Walfcr Hook. This
uocumcnf is ×3u pagcs long. If is availablc
af www.sufp.org , www.ifup.org for English
vcrsion uownloaus (fhough a Spanish vcr-
sion will bc publishcu in miu 2uu9).
- TCRP - Rcporf 9u. Bus Rapiu Transif, \ol-
umc 1. Casc sfuuics in Bus Rapiu Transif.
Availablc af hffp.//www.frb.org/
- TCRP - Rcporf 9u. Bus Rapiu Transif, \ol-
umc 2. Implcmcnfafion Guiuclincs. Avail-
ablc af hffp.//www.frb.org/
- TCRP - Rcporf 11×. Bus Rapiu Transif Prac-
fifioncr's Guiuc. 2uu7. Availablc af hffp.//
- Iournal of Public Transporfafion. \olumc 9,
NO 3. Spccial Euifion BRT.
- Hiualgo, D, Cusfouio, P, Grafficaux, P. A
Crifical Look af Major Bus Improvcmcnfs
in Lafin Amcrica anu Asia. Casc Sfuu-
ics of Hifchcs, Hic-Ups anu Arcas for Im-
provcmcnf, Synfhcsis of Lcssons Lcarncu.
Availablc af www.cmbaro.wri.org/uocu-
- Dafabasc abouf fhc Bus Rapiu Transif Sys-
fcms, Brcakfhrough Tcchnologics Insfifufc
(BTI). Thc wcb pagc is www.gobrf.org
48 P|annlng and |mp|emenfaflon of a 8us kapld Translf Sysfem ln Lafln Amerlca

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