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Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 1 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Homework #5, Sec 11.3
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #3, Sec 10.3
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
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- Homework #7, Sec 12.2
- Homework #1, Sec 10.1
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- Homework #2, Sec 10.2
- Homework #8, Sec 12.3 and 13.1
- Homework #9, Sec 13.2 and Sec 13.3
- Dummit and Foote Soln
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- Algebra Homework Set 8 Hung Tran. 9.4.2.c Reducing Mod 2
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- Dummit Solutions

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Section 11.1

4. Prove that the space of real-valued functions on the closed interval [a, b] is an infinite

dimensional vector space over R, where a < b.

Proof. First observe that the space F([a, b], R) of real-valued function on [a, b] is an abelian

group under the pointwise addition, i.e.

1. (rs)f = r(sf )

2. 1f = f

3. (r + s)f = rf + sf

4. r(f + g) = rf + rg ,

where the ring action is given by the pointwise multiplication rf (x) for all f ∈ F([a, b], R)

and all r ∈ R. Thus F([a, b], R) is a vector space over R.

Now we want to claim that F([a, b], R) is infinite dimensional. So suppose by contradiction

that F([a, b], R) is finite dimensional with a basis {fi , . . . , fn | fi ∈ F([a, b], R) ∀i = 1, . . . , n}.

Since each fi is chosen to be a basis element, fi is not a zero function. So each compact

support Ci of fi is not empty. Therefore for every f ∈ F([a, b], R) there are a1 , . . . an ∈ R

such that

f = a1 f1 + · · · + an fn ,

and the compact support of f is given by Ci1 ∪ · · · ∪ Cik , where 1 ≤ i1 ≤ · · · ≤ ik ≤ n.

However F([a, b], R) contains a real-valued function g whose compact support is distinct

from any of Ci1 ∪ · · · ∪ Cik . This contradicts that the space F([a, b], R) is finite dimensional.

Hence F([a, b], R) is infinite dimensional.

5. Prove that the space of continuous real-valued functions on the closed interval [a, b] is an

infinite dimensional vector space over R, where a < b.

Proof. The same argument above applies to this problem, and the space C([a, b], R) of con-

tinuous real-valued functions is a vector space over R. Now consider the space R[x] of

polynomials of one variable x defined over the closed interval [a, b]. [x] is a subspace of

C([a, b], R), and a basis is given by

{1, x, x2 , . . . }.

Thus R[x] is infinite dimensional and hence C([a, b], R) is infinite dimensional as well.

6. Let V be a vector space of finite dimension. If ϕ is any linear transformation from V to

V prove there is an integer m such that the intersection of the image of ϕm and the kernel

of ϕm is {0}.

Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

Proof. Observe first that ϕ(V ) ⊆ V . Then there exists some integer m ∈ Z>0 such that

such that

v = ϕm (w)

since v ∈ im ϕ. Moreover

ϕm (v) = 0

since v ∈ ker ϕ. Therefore

Sec 11.2

9. If W is a subspace of the vector space V stable under the linear transformation ϕ (i.e.

ϕ(W ) ⊆ W ), show that ϕ induces linear transformations ϕ|W on W and ϕ on the quotient

vector space V /W . If ϕ|W and ϕ are nonsingular prove ϕ is nonsingular. Prove the converse

holds if V has finite dimension and give a counterexample with V infinite dimensional.

Proof. Since ϕ(W ) ⊆ W , ϕ|W is naturally induced by

by

ϕ(v) = ϕ(v) + W .

Then for all v1 = v2 ∈ V /W there exists some w ∈ W such that v1 = v2 + w, and

Now suppose that both ϕ|W and ϕ are nonsingular. Then for all v ∈ ker ϕ if v ∈ W ⊆ V ,

then

0 = ϕ(v) = ϕ|W (v).

So v ∈ ker ϕ|W = 0 and thus v = 0. Otherwise if v ∈ (V − W ) ∪ {0} for v ∈ ker ϕ, then

ϕ(v) = 0 ⇒ ϕ(v) + W = 0 + W

⇒ ϕ(v) = 0.

Thus ϕ is nonsingular.

Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

with a subspace W stable under ϕ, its restriction ϕ|W is also an isomorphism on W . So

ker ϕ|W = 0 and ϕ is nonsingular. Similarly for a basis {b1 , . . . , bk } for W it extends to a

basis {b1 , . . . , bk , bk+1 , . . . , bn } for V . Then a basis for V /W is given by

{bk+1 + W, . . . , bn + W }.

{ϕ(b1 ) + W, . . . , ϕ(bn ) + W }

via the map ϕ since ϕ is nonsingular. Therefore ϕ is an isomorphism and hence ϕ is non-

singular.

However for an infinite dimensional vector space V = C(R), which is the set of all continuous

functions defined over R, consider a linear map Ψ : V → V defined by

Ψ(f ) = 2f .

Observe that Ψ is injective, i.e. ker Ψ = o, where o : R → R denotes the zero function. So Ψ

is nonsingular. Now let W 0 ⊆ V be the set of all continuous functions g defined over R, whose

support is [0, 1]. Then let W be the set of all continuous functions in W 0 ∪ {o} restricted

to [0, 1]. Then W is a subspace of V and moreover it is stable under Ψ|W . Therefore

ker Ψ|W = W and Ψ|W is singular.

11. Let ϕ be a linear transformation form the finite dimensional vector space V to itself

such that ϕ2 = ϕ.

(c) Prove that there is a basis of V such that the matrix of ϕ with respect to this basis is a

diagonal matrix whose entries are all 0 or 1.

Proof. (a) Let v ∈ im ϕ∩ker ϕ be taken arbitrarily. Since v ∈ im ϕ, there exists some w ∈ V

so that v = ϕ(w). Moreover ϕ(v) = 0 since v ∈ ker ϕ. Then ϕ2 = ϕ implies that

and thus v = 0.

(b) It is sufficient to show that V ⊆ im ϕ ⊕ ker ϕ. For every v ∈ V

v = ϕ(v) + (v − ϕ(v))

Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

im ϕ ∩ ker ϕ = 0 by (a).

(c) Let V be n dimensional and {b1 , . . . , bn } a basis for V . Also let A = [a1 , . . . , an ] be a

representation matrix of ϕ with respect to {b1 , . . . , bn }, where each ai is an n-dimensional

column vector for i = 1, . . . , n. Since ϕ2 = ϕ, A2 = A. If ϕ is nonsingular, then A = I with

respect to the standard basis {e1 , . . . , en }, where I is the identity matrix. Otherwise if ϕ is

singular, say ker ϕ is k dimensional, then

1 0 ··· 0

0 1 · · · 0

A = .. .. . . .. ,

. . . .

0 0 ··· 0

1 0 ··· 0 1 0 ··· 0 1 0 ··· 0

0 1 · · · 0 0 1 · · ·

0 0 1 · · · 0

A2 = AA = .. .. = .. .. . . .. = A

.. . . .. .. .. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

0 0 ··· 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 0 ··· 0

12. Let V = R2 , v1 = (1, 0), v2 = (0, 1), so that v1 , v2 are a basis for

V . Let ϕ be the linear

2 1

transformation of V to itself whose matrix respect to this basis is . Prove that if W

0 2

is the subspace generated by v1 then W is stable under the action of ϕ. Prove that there is

no subspace W 0 invariant under ϕ so that V = W ⊕ W 0 .

2 1

Proof. Let M = . Since W = {v ∈ V |v = kv1 ∀k ∈ R}, for all v ∈ W

0 2

M v = M (kv1 ) = kM v1 = 2kv1 ∈ W .

So W is stable under the action of ϕ. Now suppose by contradiction that there exists W 0

such that

V = W ⊕ W0

and W 0 is invariant under ϕ. Since

Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

W 0 = {v ∈ V |v = kv3 ∀k ∈ R}

= {(x, y) ∈ R2 |bx − ay = 0}.

So

W 0 3 M v3 = (2a + 1, 2b)T .

However

b(2a + b) − a(2b) = b2 6= 0

and this contradicts that (2a + 1, 2b)T is in W 0 . Therefore W 0 is not invariant under ϕ and

hence there is no subspace of V that is stable under ϕ.

38. Let A and B be square matrices. Prove that the trace of their Kronecker product is the

product of their traces: tr(A ⊗ B) = tr(A)tr(B). (Recall the the trace of a square matrix is

the sum of its diagonal entries.)

Proof. Let A and B be an n × n and m × m matrices, respectively. Then

a11 B · · · a1n B

A ⊗ B = ... .. .

.

an1 B · · · ann B

Therefore

= (a11 + · · · + ann )tr(B)

= tr(A)tr(B).

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