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Section 11.1 and 11.2.

Homework #4 Masaya Sato

Section 11.1
4. Prove that the space of real-valued functions on the closed interval [a, b] is an infinite
dimensional vector space over R, where a < b.
Proof. First observe that the space F([a, b], R) of real-valued function on [a, b] is an abelian
group under the pointwise addition, i.e.

(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) ∀f, g ∈ F([a, b], R) ∀x ∈ [a, b].

Then for all f, g ∈ F([a, b], R) and r, s ∈ R


1. (rs)f = r(sf )

2. 1f = f

3. (r + s)f = rf + sf

4. r(f + g) = rf + rg ,
where the ring action is given by the pointwise multiplication rf (x) for all f ∈ F([a, b], R)
and all r ∈ R. Thus F([a, b], R) is a vector space over R.
Now we want to claim that F([a, b], R) is infinite dimensional. So suppose by contradiction
that F([a, b], R) is finite dimensional with a basis {fi , . . . , fn | fi ∈ F([a, b], R) ∀i = 1, . . . , n}.
Since each fi is chosen to be a basis element, fi is not a zero function. So each compact
support Ci of fi is not empty. Therefore for every f ∈ F([a, b], R) there are a1 , . . . an ∈ R
such that
f = a1 f1 + · · · + an fn ,
and the compact support of f is given by Ci1 ∪ · · · ∪ Cik , where 1 ≤ i1 ≤ · · · ≤ ik ≤ n.
However F([a, b], R) contains a real-valued function g whose compact support is distinct
from any of Ci1 ∪ · · · ∪ Cik . This contradicts that the space F([a, b], R) is finite dimensional.
Hence F([a, b], R) is infinite dimensional.
5. Prove that the space of continuous real-valued functions on the closed interval [a, b] is an
infinite dimensional vector space over R, where a < b.
Proof. The same argument above applies to this problem, and the space C([a, b], R) of con-
tinuous real-valued functions is a vector space over R. Now consider the space R[x] of
polynomials of one variable x defined over the closed interval [a, b]. [x] is a subspace of
C([a, b], R), and a basis is given by

{1, x, x2 , . . . }.

Thus R[x] is infinite dimensional and hence C([a, b], R) is infinite dimensional as well.
6. Let V be a vector space of finite dimension. If ϕ is any linear transformation from V to
V prove there is an integer m such that the intersection of the image of ϕm and the kernel
of ϕm is {0}.

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 1


Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

Proof. Observe first that ϕ(V ) ⊆ V . Then there exists some integer m ∈ Z>0 such that

· · · = ϕm+1 (V ) = ϕm (V ) ⊆ ϕm−1 (V ) ⊆ · · · ⊆ ϕ(V ) ⊆ V

because V is finite dimensional. Now let v ∈ im ϕm ∩ ker ϕm . Then there is some w ∈ V


such that
v = ϕm (w)
since v ∈ im ϕ. Moreover
ϕm (v) = 0
since v ∈ ker ϕ. Therefore

v = ϕm (w) = ϕ2m (w) = ϕm ◦ ϕm (w) = ϕm (v) = 0

and hence im ϕm ∩ ker ϕm = ∅.

Sec 11.2
9. If W is a subspace of the vector space V stable under the linear transformation ϕ (i.e.
ϕ(W ) ⊆ W ), show that ϕ induces linear transformations ϕ|W on W and ϕ on the quotient
vector space V /W . If ϕ|W and ϕ are nonsingular prove ϕ is nonsingular. Prove the converse
holds if V has finite dimension and give a counterexample with V infinite dimensional.
Proof. Since ϕ(W ) ⊆ W , ϕ|W is naturally induced by

ϕ|W (w) = ϕ(w) ∀w ∈ W .

It is immediate to show that ϕ|W is well-defined since ϕ is well-defined. Also ϕ is induced


by
ϕ(v) = ϕ(v) + W .
Then for all v1 = v2 ∈ V /W there exists some w ∈ W such that v1 = v2 + w, and

ϕ(v1 ) = ϕ(v2 + w) = ϕ(v2 + w) + W = ϕ(v2 ) + ϕ(w) + W = ϕ(v2 ) + W = ϕ(v2 )

since W is invariant under ϕ. So ϕ is well-defined.


Now suppose that both ϕ|W and ϕ are nonsingular. Then for all v ∈ ker ϕ if v ∈ W ⊆ V ,
then
0 = ϕ(v) = ϕ|W (v).
So v ∈ ker ϕ|W = 0 and thus v = 0. Otherwise if v ∈ (V − W ) ∪ {0} for v ∈ ker ϕ, then

ϕ(v) = 0 ⇒ ϕ(v) + W = 0 + W
⇒ ϕ(v) = 0.

Because ϕ is nonsingular, v = 0. Therefore v ∈ W implies that v = 0 since v ∈ (V −W )∪{0}.


Thus ϕ is nonsingular.

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 2


Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

Next suppose that V is finite dimensional and ϕ is nonsingular. Since ϕ is an isomorphism


with a subspace W stable under ϕ, its restriction ϕ|W is also an isomorphism on W . So
ker ϕ|W = 0 and ϕ is nonsingular. Similarly for a basis {b1 , . . . , bk } for W it extends to a
basis {b1 , . . . , bk , bk+1 , . . . , bn } for V . Then a basis for V /W is given by

{bk+1 + W, . . . , bn + W }.

This basis is mapped to another basis

{ϕ(b1 ) + W, . . . , ϕ(bn ) + W }

via the map ϕ since ϕ is nonsingular. Therefore ϕ is an isomorphism and hence ϕ is non-
singular.
However for an infinite dimensional vector space V = C(R), which is the set of all continuous
functions defined over R, consider a linear map Ψ : V → V defined by

Ψ(f ) = 2f .

Observe that Ψ is injective, i.e. ker Ψ = o, where o : R → R denotes the zero function. So Ψ
is nonsingular. Now let W 0 ⊆ V be the set of all continuous functions g defined over R, whose
support is [0, 1]. Then let W be the set of all continuous functions in W 0 ∪ {o} restricted
to [0, 1]. Then W is a subspace of V and moreover it is stable under Ψ|W . Therefore
ker Ψ|W = W and Ψ|W is singular.
11. Let ϕ be a linear transformation form the finite dimensional vector space V to itself
such that ϕ2 = ϕ.

(a) Prove that im ϕ ∩ ker ϕ = 0.

(b) Prove that V = im ϕ ⊕ ker ϕ.

(c) Prove that there is a basis of V such that the matrix of ϕ with respect to this basis is a
diagonal matrix whose entries are all 0 or 1.

Proof. (a) Let v ∈ im ϕ∩ker ϕ be taken arbitrarily. Since v ∈ im ϕ, there exists some w ∈ V
so that v = ϕ(w). Moreover ϕ(v) = 0 since v ∈ ker ϕ. Then ϕ2 = ϕ implies that

v = ϕ(w) = ϕ2 (w) = ϕ(v) = 0

and thus v = 0.
(b) It is sufficient to show that V ⊆ im ϕ ⊕ ker ϕ. For every v ∈ V

v = ϕ(v) + (v − ϕ(v))

and observe that ϕ(v) ∈ im ϕ and

ϕ(v − ϕ(v)) = ϕ(v) − ϕ2 (v) = ϕ(v) − ϕ(v) = 0.

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 3


Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

Therefore v − ϕ(v) ∈ ker ϕ and hence v ∈ im ϕ + ker ϕ. Thus V ⊂ im ϕ ⊕ ker ϕ since


im ϕ ∩ ker ϕ = 0 by (a).
(c) Let V be n dimensional and {b1 , . . . , bn } a basis for V . Also let A = [a1 , . . . , an ] be a
representation matrix of ϕ with respect to {b1 , . . . , bn }, where each ai is an n-dimensional
column vector for i = 1, . . . , n. Since ϕ2 = ϕ, A2 = A. If ϕ is nonsingular, then A = I with
respect to the standard basis {e1 , . . . , en }, where I is the identity matrix. Otherwise if ϕ is
singular, say ker ϕ is k dimensional, then
 
1 0 ··· 0
0 1 · · · 0
A =  .. .. . . ..  ,
 
. . . .
0 0 ··· 0

where aj = (0, . . . , 0)T for j = k, k + 1, . . . , n. Then


    
1 0 ··· 0 1 0 ··· 0 1 0 ··· 0
0 1 · · · 0 0 1 · · ·
 0 0 1 · · · 0
A2 = AA =  .. ..  =  .. .. . . ..  = A
   
.. . . ..   .. .. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 ··· 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 0 ··· 0

with respect to the standard basis.


12. Let V = R2 , v1 = (1, 0), v2 = (0, 1), so that v1 , v2 are a basis for
 V . Let ϕ be the linear
2 1
transformation of V to itself whose matrix respect to this basis is . Prove that if W
0 2
is the subspace generated by v1 then W is stable under the action of ϕ. Prove that there is
no subspace W 0 invariant under ϕ so that V = W ⊕ W 0 .
 
2 1
Proof. Let M = . Since W = {v ∈ V |v = kv1 ∀k ∈ R}, for all v ∈ W
0 2

M v = M (kv1 ) = kM v1 = 2kv1 ∈ W .

So W is stable under the action of ϕ. Now suppose by contradiction that there exists W 0
such that
V = W ⊕ W0
and W 0 is invariant under ϕ. Since

dim V + dim W ∩ W 0 = dim W + dim W 0 ,

where V and W are 2- and 1-dimensional space, respectively,

dim W 0 = dim V + dim W ∩ W 0 − dim W = 2 + 0 − 1 = 1.

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 4


Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato

For a basis element v3 = (a, b) ∈ V with b 6= 0

W 0 = {v ∈ V |v = kv3 ∀k ∈ R}
= {(x, y) ∈ R2 |bx − ay = 0}.

So
W 0 3 M v3 = (2a + 1, 2b)T .
However
b(2a + b) − a(2b) = b2 6= 0
and this contradicts that (2a + 1, 2b)T is in W 0 . Therefore W 0 is not invariant under ϕ and
hence there is no subspace of V that is stable under ϕ.
38. Let A and B be square matrices. Prove that the trace of their Kronecker product is the
product of their traces: tr(A ⊗ B) = tr(A)tr(B). (Recall the the trace of a square matrix is
the sum of its diagonal entries.)
Proof. Let A and B be an n × n and m × m matrices, respectively. Then
 
a11 B · · · a1n B
A ⊗ B =  ... ..  .

. 
an1 B · · · ann B

Therefore

tr(A ⊗ B) = a11 tr(B) + · · · + ann tr(B)


= (a11 + · · · + ann )tr(B)
= tr(A)tr(B).

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 5