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Homework #4

Masaya Sato

Section 11.1 4. Prove that the space of real-valued functions on the closed interval [a, b] is an inﬁnite dimensional vector space over R, where a < b. Proof. First observe that the space F([a, b], R) of real-valued function on [a, b] is an abelian group under the pointwise addition, i.e. (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) ∀f, g ∈ F([a, b], R) ∀x ∈ [a, b]. Then for all f, g ∈ F([a, b], R) and r, s ∈ R 1. (rs)f = r(sf ) 2. 1f = f 3. (r + s)f = rf + sf 4. r(f + g) = rf + rg , where the ring action is given by the pointwise multiplication rf (x) for all f ∈ F([a, b], R) and all r ∈ R. Thus F([a, b], R) is a vector space over R. Now we want to claim that F([a, b], R) is inﬁnite dimensional. So suppose by contradiction that F([a, b], R) is ﬁnite dimensional with a basis {fi , . . . , fn | fi ∈ F([a, b], R) ∀i = 1, . . . , n}. Since each fi is chosen to be a basis element, fi is not a zero function. So each compact support Ci of fi is not empty. Therefore for every f ∈ F([a, b], R) there are a1 , . . . an ∈ R such that f = a1 f1 + · · · + an fn , and the compact support of f is given by Ci1 ∪ · · · ∪ Cik , where 1 ≤ i1 ≤ · · · ≤ ik ≤ n. However F([a, b], R) contains a real-valued function g whose compact support is distinct from any of Ci1 ∪ · · · ∪ Cik . This contradicts that the space F([a, b], R) is ﬁnite dimensional. Hence F([a, b], R) is inﬁnite dimensional. 5. Prove that the space of continuous real-valued functions on the closed interval [a, b] is an inﬁnite dimensional vector space over R, where a < b. Proof. The same argument above applies to this problem, and the space C([a, b], R) of continuous real-valued functions is a vector space over R. Now consider the space R[x] of polynomials of one variable x deﬁned over the closed interval [a, b]. [x] is a subspace of C([a, b], R), and a basis is given by {1, x, x2 , . . . }. Thus R[x] is inﬁnite dimensional and hence C([a, b], R) is inﬁnite dimensional as well. 6. Let V be a vector space of ﬁnite dimension. If ϕ is any linear transformation from V to V prove there is an integer m such that the intersection of the image of ϕm and the kernel of ϕm is {0}. Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 1

Section 11.1 and 11.2.

Homework #4

Masaya Sato

Proof. Observe ﬁrst that ϕ(V ) ⊆ V . Then there exists some integer m ∈ Z>0 such that · · · = ϕm+1 (V ) = ϕm (V ) ⊆ ϕm−1 (V ) ⊆ · · · ⊆ ϕ(V ) ⊆ V because V is ﬁnite dimensional. Now let v ∈ im ϕm ∩ ker ϕm . Then there is some w ∈ V such that v = ϕm (w) since v ∈ im ϕ. Moreover ϕm (v) = 0 since v ∈ ker ϕ. Therefore v = ϕm (w) = ϕ2m (w) = ϕm ◦ ϕm (w) = ϕm (v) = 0 and hence im ϕm ∩ ker ϕm = ∅. Sec 11.2 9. If W is a subspace of the vector space V stable under the linear transformation ϕ (i.e. ϕ(W ) ⊆ W ), show that ϕ induces linear transformations ϕ|W on W and ϕ on the quotient vector space V /W . If ϕ|W and ϕ are nonsingular prove ϕ is nonsingular. Prove the converse holds if V has ﬁnite dimension and give a counterexample with V inﬁnite dimensional. Proof. Since ϕ(W ) ⊆ W , ϕ|W is naturally induced by ϕ|W (w) = ϕ(w) ∀w ∈ W . It is immediate to show that ϕ|W is well-deﬁned since ϕ is well-deﬁned. Also ϕ is induced by ϕ(v) = ϕ(v) + W . Then for all v1 = v2 ∈ V /W there exists some w ∈ W such that v1 = v2 + w, and ϕ(v1 ) = ϕ(v2 + w) = ϕ(v2 + w) + W = ϕ(v2 ) + ϕ(w) + W = ϕ(v2 ) + W = ϕ(v2 ) since W is invariant under ϕ. So ϕ is well-deﬁned. Now suppose that both ϕ|W and ϕ are nonsingular. Then for all v ∈ ker ϕ if v ∈ W ⊆ V , then 0 = ϕ(v) = ϕ|W (v). So v ∈ ker ϕ|W = 0 and thus v = 0. Otherwise if v ∈ (V − W ) ∪ {0} for v ∈ ker ϕ, then ϕ(v) = 0 ⇒ ϕ(v) + W = 0 + W ⇒ ϕ(v) = 0. Because ϕ is nonsingular, v = 0. Therefore v ∈ W implies that v = 0 since v ∈ (V −W )∪{0}. Thus ϕ is nonsingular. Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 2

Section 11.1 and 11.2.

Homework #4

Masaya Sato

Next suppose that V is ﬁnite dimensional and ϕ is nonsingular. Since ϕ is an isomorphism with a subspace W stable under ϕ, its restriction ϕ|W is also an isomorphism on W . So ker ϕ|W = 0 and ϕ is nonsingular. Similarly for a basis {b1 , . . . , bk } for W it extends to a basis {b1 , . . . , bk , bk+1 , . . . , bn } for V . Then a basis for V /W is given by {bk+1 + W, . . . , bn + W }. This basis is mapped to another basis {ϕ(b1 ) + W, . . . , ϕ(bn ) + W } via the map ϕ since ϕ is nonsingular. Therefore ϕ is an isomorphism and hence ϕ is nonsingular. However for an inﬁnite dimensional vector space V = C(R), which is the set of all continuous functions deﬁned over R, consider a linear map Ψ : V → V deﬁned by Ψ(f ) = 2f . Observe that Ψ is injective, i.e. ker Ψ = o, where o : R → R denotes the zero function. So Ψ is nonsingular. Now let W ⊆ V be the set of all continuous functions g deﬁned over R, whose support is [0, 1]. Then let W be the set of all continuous functions in W ∪ {o} restricted to [0, 1]. Then W is a subspace of V and moreover it is stable under Ψ|W . Therefore ker Ψ|W = W and Ψ|W is singular. 11. Let ϕ be a linear transformation form the ﬁnite dimensional vector space V to itself such that ϕ2 = ϕ. (a) Prove that im ϕ ∩ ker ϕ = 0. (b) Prove that V = im ϕ ⊕ ker ϕ. (c) Prove that there is a basis of V such that the matrix of ϕ with respect to this basis is a diagonal matrix whose entries are all 0 or 1. Proof. (a) Let v ∈ im ϕ∩ker ϕ be taken arbitrarily. Since v ∈ im ϕ, there exists some w ∈ V so that v = ϕ(w). Moreover ϕ(v) = 0 since v ∈ ker ϕ. Then ϕ2 = ϕ implies that v = ϕ(w) = ϕ2 (w) = ϕ(v) = 0 and thus v = 0. (b) It is suﬃcient to show that V ⊆ im ϕ ⊕ ker ϕ. For every v ∈ V v = ϕ(v) + (v − ϕ(v)) and observe that ϕ(v) ∈ im ϕ and ϕ(v − ϕ(v)) = ϕ(v) − ϕ2 (v) = ϕ(v) − ϕ(v) = 0. Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 3

Section 11.1 and 11.2.

Homework #4

Masaya Sato

Therefore v − ϕ(v) ∈ ker ϕ and hence v ∈ im ϕ + ker ϕ. Thus V ⊂ im ϕ ⊕ ker ϕ since im ϕ ∩ ker ϕ = 0 by (a). (c) Let V be n dimensional and {b1 , . . . , bn } a basis for V . Also let A = [a1 , . . . , an ] be a representation matrix of ϕ with respect to {b1 , . . . , bn }, where each ai is an n-dimensional column vector for i = 1, . . . , n. Since ϕ2 = ϕ, A2 = A. If ϕ is nonsingular, then A = I with respect to the standard basis {e1 , . . . , en }, where I is the identity matrix. Otherwise if ϕ is singular, say ker ϕ is k dimensional, then 1 0 ··· 0 0 1 · · · 0 A = . . .. . , . . . . . . . 0 0 ··· 0 where aj = (0, . . . , 0)T for j 1 0 A2 = AA = . . . 0 = k, k + 1, . . . , n. Then 0 ··· 0 1 0 ··· 1 · · · 0 0 1 · · · . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 0 ··· 0 0 0 ···

0 1 0 0 . = . . . . . 0 0

0 ··· 0 1 · · · 0 . .. . = A . . . . . 0 ··· 0

with respect to the standard basis. 12. Let V = R2 , v1 = (1, 0), v2 = (0, 1), so that v1 , v2 are a basis for V . Let ϕ be the linear 2 1 transformation of V to itself whose matrix respect to this basis is . Prove that if W 0 2 is the subspace generated by v1 then W is stable under the action of ϕ. Prove that there is no subspace W invariant under ϕ so that V = W ⊕ W . Proof. Let M = 2 1 . Since W = {v ∈ V |v = kv1 ∀k ∈ R}, for all v ∈ W 0 2 M v = M (kv1 ) = kM v1 = 2kv1 ∈ W . So W is stable under the action of ϕ. Now suppose by contradiction that there exists W such that V =W ⊕W and W is invariant under ϕ. Since dim V + dim W ∩ W = dim W + dim W , where V and W are 2- and 1-dimensional space, respectively, dim W = dim V + dim W ∩ W − dim W = 2 + 0 − 1 = 1.

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 4

Section 11.1 and 11.2.

Homework #4

Masaya Sato

For a basis element v3 = (a, b) ∈ V with b = 0 W = {v ∈ V |v = kv3 ∀k ∈ R} = {(x, y) ∈ R2 |bx − ay = 0}. So W However b(2a + b) − a(2b) = b2 = 0 and this contradicts that (2a + 1, 2b)T is in W . Therefore W is not invariant under ϕ and hence there is no subspace of V that is stable under ϕ. 38. Let A and B be square matrices. Prove that the trace of their Kronecker product is the product of their traces: tr(A ⊗ B) = tr(A)tr(B). (Recall the the trace of a square matrix is the sum of its diagonal entries.) Proof. Let A and B be an n × n and m × m matrices, respectively. Then a11 B · · · a1n B . . . . A⊗B = . . . an1 B · · · ann B Therefore tr(A ⊗ B) = a11 tr(B) + · · · + ann tr(B) = (a11 + · · · + ann )tr(B) = tr(A)tr(B). M v3 = (2a + 1, 2b)T .

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