Research Paper

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Branding of services: Brand Building process across different sectors.
Submitted By: Abhinav Kishore Roll No: 28 PGDM-Marketing Submitted To: Prof.Bhagyalakshmi

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K.J.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research

Abstract:
Services sector is the major contributor to the GDP for all the major economies of the world. India and China, the two fastest growing economies of the world majorly depend upon their services sector to drive their growth engine. A major chunk of this comes from the IT and ITes, which are majorly reeling under the pressure of high attrition rates. Here comes in the role of branding for services. The paper serves to analyze the role of internal as well as external branding. The paper would serve to understand the brand building process for different kinds of industries in the services sector. Branding of service is thus is as important as is the branding of products across industries. Brands help people relate and connect with a product and with a booming sector like the services sector; it makes it much more important to understand the branding building process. Though clubbed under the same head but different services in the services sector are all different from each other and so is the brand building process for them. Thus understanding the process for each one of them is important from a managerial and a marketer s point of view.

Keywords:
Employer brand management; employer branding; internal branding; internal marketing; customer experience; organizational culture, retail financial services, services branding, brand architecture, brand portfolio

Literature Review:
A brand is a cluster of functional and emotional values that promises a unique and welcome experience for its stakeholders. The classical, FMCG branding model focuses upon finding market gaps, devising an offering characterized by a unique cluster of values, then a mechanistic production process gives rise to functional benefits which are enrobed with

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K.J.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research

emotional values through advertising. As developed economies have moved from a manufacturing to a services base, the classical brand building model needs revising for services brands due to the greater importance of staff as providers of the services brands benefits [Berry, 2000]. This paper is concerned with corporate brands. In many cases the terms services brand and corporate brand are interchangeable given that corporate branding strategies are frequently adopted in service industries such as telecommunications, air transport, financial services and leisure and tourism. Organizations are becoming more values-driven, encouraging their staff to capitalize on their role as key ambassadors in the brand building process. The functional and emotional values of services brands are highly dependent on the staffs who deliver the brand promise [Ind, 2001; Nguyen and Leblanc, 2002]. As such, in services brand building attention should be paid to both the values likely to be welcomed by customers and the values held and exhibited by individual employees in the execution of their roles. Whilst the focus has traditionally been upon the former, the latter is also important as the values collectively held by employees are at the core of organizational culture [Hofstede, 1994]. Organisational culture and employees values are likely to influence the cluster of values consumers perceive as constituting a services brand.

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built his fortune by creating a highly distinctive image for Sunlight Soap through advertising and packaging. In providing a robust mechanism for aligning employees brand experience with the desired customer brand experience.K. In the early 1900s retail pioneers like Gordon Selfridge were similarly clear about delivering a consistently distinctive customer experience. one of the first great brand pioneers. employer brand management represents a significant evolution in the quest for corporate brand integrity. as delighting them with an unrivalled shopping experience (which included such innovations as in-store coffee shops) and training his staff in the Selfridges Way to ensure a distinctively consistent level of customer service. sweeter smelling with an air of freshness and it lathered beautifully. The discipline of employer brand management takes a more holistic approach to shaping the culture of the organization. The ultimate aim of brand management has always been to deliver a consistent and distinctive customer experience. In the mid-1880s. and a common platform for marketing and HR. Delivering a consistent and distinctive customer brand experience has always been a central concern of brand management. Successful service companies stress the role of organizational culture in promoting on-brand customer service behaviours. but the mechanisms for shaping an on-brand culture (such as internal marketing and internal branding) have typically relied too heavily on communications-led approaches to sustain a lasting effect. William Lever. before the term was invented. by seeking to ensure that every people management touch-point is aligned with the brand ethos of the organization. Despite the evidence that personal interactions are generally more important in driving customer service satisfaction. there has been a tendency for service companies to focus more of their attention on the functional / operational factors involved in service delivery. Selfridges.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research Brand and Culture: To present a re-appraisal of the concept in terms of its potential contribution to brand-led culture change and customer experience management. The man who first coined the phrase the customer is always right 2 described his original vision for his new department Store.J. and delivering a consistently distinctive product experience. Research Paper Page 4 . but this task has been particularly difficult for service brands due to the greater complexity involved in managing service brand experience.

J. the notion of employer brand management simply completes a journey that began with a disciplined approach to managing the total product brand experience.K. but the practice of managing the link between these related domains has evolved significantly over recent years. more people Research Paper Page 5 . culture and customer experience is not new. In many respects. progressed through an application of the same principles to service brands (more complex.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research Making a link between brand.

Southwest Airlines adapted it to the airline sector. In the U.J. Disney started the trend.K. the physical Research Paper Page 6 . Howard Schultz of Starbucks applied it to selling coffee. employer brand management seeks to go the extra mile by embedding the brand ethos in the total employee experience. but sustainable brand-led culture change will only be effective when the brand ethos is deeply embedded in the everyday leadership and people management processes of the organization. While IM and internal branding have tended to focus on interventions designed to shape employees perceptions of the brand. Maslow believed that humans evolve through five stages of motivation: firstly. consistent. They are looking for what we call a Branded Customer Experience®. First Direct started a new concept in banking using it. and Amazon.K. All of these companies are creating loyal customers by delivering service experiences that create value for customers beyond the products or services the companies happen to sell. IM and branding programmes can play a role in raising awareness of the desired brand ethos. The rationale for this extra mile is that distinctive brand customer experiences tend to rely heavily on interpersonal interactions. Why is this? The American psychologist Abraham Maslow conceived his theory of motivation more than 50 years ago. Employer brand management provides just such a mechanism for translating the brand ethos into the everyday working experience of employees. a service experience that is intentional.. their employer brand. consumers are looking for suppliers who go beyond the basics to meet their unique needs. More natural (and authentic) service brand interactions depend on the strength of the organization s brand ethos and culture. Experiencing the Brand Branding the Experience: This trend is crossing over to the service sector.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research oriented) and arrives at the most complex and involving brand relationship most people ever experience. Ian Schrage s company is perfecting it in the hotel sector. From hotels to restaurants to airlines.com is applying it in the on-line environment. and by doing so reinforces the organization s ability to deliver consistent and distinctive customer brand experiences. and may even promote temporarily high levels of brand engagement. different. The extent to which these interactions can be scripted and trained is strictly limited and counterproductively prone to perceptions of in authenticity. and valuable.

Joseph Pine and James Gilmore in their book The Experience Economy.K. and family. became proxies for quality and dependability. the desire to fulfill one s potential. use the analogy of the birthday party to illustrate this shift. BMW s global head of Marketing. We wore them like badges. Convenience has become increasingly valuable. Self-actualization is their most deeply felt need. income levels are such that people have the freedom and choice to pursue their desired lifestyle. So Kellogg s became synonymous with healthy breakfasts. then the social need for a mate. and so on. So how does all of this relate to brands? If we go back to the beginning of the twentieth century. Today. Chuck E.J. Research Paper Page 7 . For many people in developed societies. For increasing numbers of consumers. As consumers became more affluent and motivated by ego needs. friends. Consumers have moved through four stages and are willing to pay an increasingly large premium for the extra value represented by each. When my father was young. When I was a boy. talks about wearing a lifestyle. Gillette with safety razors. Allied to this need to achieve our full potential is the need for the time to do it. brands became more aspirational and visible signs of success. most young people take meeting the physical needs for granted. we see that brands were simply means of identifying goods. Now parents are delegating the complete birthday experience complete with decorations and entertainment to a T. the need for longer-term security and protection. secondly. Only as we answer these needs do our ego needs for achievement and recognition become dominant. Our need for safety and security created brands that. For many consumers in the 1990s. Maslow s ego needs have become the drivers.G. Maslow called it self-actualization.I. moving up this hierarchy of needs was a lifelong struggle. When my son was small we would take him to McDonald s with a few of his friends for his birthday treat. my mother would buy a ready-made cake with all the trimmings from the supermarket and hold a birthday party for me and my friends and enlist the amateur efforts of my father to provide the entertainment. and their ego needs become their starting point. Wearing a pair of Timberland boots is as much about making a statement as it is about keeping the feet dry. Karl-Heinz Kalbfell. I can relate their example to my own family experience. over time. his mother would visit the corner shop to purchase the ingredients to bake a birthday cake and invite some of his friends around for a birthday tea. For many people of Maslow s generation. Friday s. Cheese s or Rainforest Café.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research need for food and shelter.

In today s economy. relative to competitors.K. about our values and our lifestyle. Amazon. Brands have moved from being names of products to badges of success to means of enjoying the kind of life we wish for ourselves.J. banking and airlines (Daffey and Abratt. Monash University Kerrie Bridson.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research driving a BMW was as much about making a statement about who they were as was wearing a pair of Armani jeans or Nike cross-trainers. Mohr and Bitner. both integral constructs of corporate branding. Linda McCartney meals. Felix Mavondo. The role of corporate branding has received only recent attention in the leisure services sector. brands go beyond even this. research being concentrated in service industries such as retail.com. and Home Depot are all brands that have intentionally created products and Services aimed at particular consumers and their lifestyles. The Body Shop. 2003. Researchers have conceptually identified the need for brand identity and brand image. The aim of this study is to empirically explore the congruence between brand identity and brand image in the context of the leisure services Research Paper Page 8 . Virgin. First Direct. to be congruent in order to create a shared meaning and understanding between the organization and its target market. Hatch and Schultz. Saturn. Deakin University Corporate branding is seen as a key determinant of an organizations ability to competitively position itself in the minds of target consumers. Four Seasons Hotels. 2006). Quiksilver. Chun and Davies. 2002. they say something about what is important to us. Corporate Brand Identity and Image Congruence in the Leisure Services Sector: A Stakeholder perspective Joanna Minkiewicz. 1995.

brand image. ABS figures also indicate that 40% of people visited zoological gardens in March-July 2002.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research sector. 1995. an increase of 3. The existing scales used to develop the measurement instrument for each construct have been proven to provide high validity as a measurement tool (Parasuraman and Zeithaml. Davies.J. service scape. Chun. 2007. Operationalisation of Constructs: The seven aforementioned constructs: brand identity.6% from previous figures in 1999 (Australian Bureau of Statistics.K. Price. 1988. 1980.6% in 2004-05 (Australian Bureau of Statistics. Arnould and Tierney. Suprenant and Solomon. 2007). with 10. Jones and Taylor. employees. Da Silva and Roper. customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are each measured on seven-point Likert scales. The trend towards a timepoor population and an increasingly globally competitive marketplace means that leisure services such as zoological operations must find a point of competitive advantage and a shared understanding with their target market.3% of local household income in 2003-04 being spent in recreational services. The leisure services industry is beginning to play an increasingly significant role in the Australian economy. supported by an increase in the size of the cultural and recreational services sector of 18. Oliver. external communication. Davies and Chun 2002). 2007). 2004. 1987. 1996. Wakefield and Blodgett. Research Paper Page 9 .

using scales established by Wakefield and Blodgett (1996) and Parasuraman and Zeithaml (1988). such as using personality metaphors to portray it (Bosch et al..K. Harris and de Chernatony. The same scale will measure brand identity from the perspective of senior management. External communication measures incorporate typical sources of external communication as suggested by Nandan (2005) and O Çass and Grace (2004). 2006. 2002. values and positioning. layout accessibility and cleanliness. Information from the Melbourne Zoo in terms of communication media used has also been incorporated into the measure. will also be included. To this end. comprising of constructs most relevant to Melbourne Zoo: competence. 2001).J. Loyalty measures will encapsulate behavioral.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research Brand Image has been measured by researchers in different ways. The role of employees is measured using an existing scale developed by Surprenant and Solomon (1987). attitudinal and cognitive constructs. Items pertaining to mission. helpfulness and sociability. modeled on the premises of Aaker (1997). A modification of this Corporate Personality Scale will be used to measure brand image in the current study. in line with the Melbourne Zoo branding strategy. Davies and Chun (2002) developed a Corporate Personality scale. acknowledging that the scale is a measurement tool specifically modified to measure corporate brand image. The servicescape will be measured in terms of facility aesthetics. as well as affective and emotional attributes. using scales established by Jones and Taylor (2007) and Research Paper Page 10 . Most agree that its measurement should be centered on cognitive. Davies and Chun.

Building a Services Brand: Stages. Many texts are devoted to services management and brand management. Satisfaction will also be measured using existing scales developed by Oliver (1980) and Price. Little has been published about this. attention from researchers has not matched services sector growth. People and Orientations: Traditionally. as evident in goods branding. but rather have a balanced internal and external orientation. Brand Architecture in Services: The term "brand architecture" refers to an organization s approach to the design and management of its brand portfolio. Due to the dearth of literature on these three issues. brand architecture decisions are concerned with the number of brands to utilize the role of specific brands and the relationship between Research Paper Page 11 . Arnould and Tierney (1995). we sought to advance knowledge through qualitative research amongst senior consultants advising clients globally about services branding. have considerable knowledge and experience. but none focus solely on services branding. 2000]. One reason for so few valuable Services brands [Clifton and Maughan 2000] is the continual reliance on branding techniques devised in the goods sector. branding research has its roots in the goods sector.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research Davies and Chun (2002). This article opens by reviewing the limited literature about the stages involved in services brand building. Even though the services sector dominates developed economies [Lovelock. the importance of gaining staff commitment and striving for consumer satisfaction suggested that successful services-branding models would not stress an external orientation. We focused on consultants since they are at the forefront of application.J. and through their work and conference presentations are strongly influenelng tomorrow's services-branding agenda. There are only a few models dedicated to services brand building. Finally. the people involved and the internal/external orientations of successful services-branding organizations. we anticipated that management teams involved in building services brands would be senior and likely to be cross-departmental.K. In particular. As services brands are about the delivery of promises through personal interactions.

In such a manner parsimony. Olins 1995).K. implement and maintain a harmonious and efficient brand architecture that spans all areas of a firm's operation. et al. individual product or service brands may be used.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research such brands. In particular. (2002) suggest that natural momentum. Petromilli. As expected. the dominant strategy is a "multi-corporate" approach. customer fragmentation and Industry consolidation. et al. Berry 2000. This is perhaps not surprising as many organizations are faced with increased market dynamism. However. Aaker and Joachimsthaler 2000. 1988). as well as maximum clarity and consistency. 2002) many companies struggle to keep their brand portfolios in order. having a propensity to rely. egos of senior management and the attraction of acquisitions tend to produce an over-complex brand architecture in many organizations. on one overarching brand. However. Findings indicate that although some support for the corporate branded approach was apparent. This paper presents a study of brand architecture strategies in a services context. et al. (2001). Brand architecture refers to the nature of the brand spectrum utilized by an organization in its marketing efforts (Aaker and Joachimsthaler 2000). the data shows little support for the approach of branding individual services or the wide-scale use of sub brands. it is imperative that managers design. According to Douglas. The study reported here investigates this contention in the context of financial services. according to Petromilli. Added to that. brand architecture describes the number and nature of brands employed and the relationship between each brand in the marketing of a range of products or services. At one extreme. Berry. the dominant proposition in the literature is that the brand architecture of services firms will normally be relatively uncomplicated and rudimentary.J. can be achieved cost effectively. as services organizations tend to rely on the corporate branded approach (de Chernatony 2001. et al. companies may employ one overarching corporate brand. where the brand architecture comprised a family of main brands. whilst at the other. This study makes a Research Paper Page 12 . using a number of semi-structured interviews with senior marketing managers. Dobree and Page 1990. It has been posited that services organizations tend to adopt a corporate brand approach to the management of their brand architecture. The main motivations for such an approach are to maintain strong relationship franchises with different customer groups and/or to signal distinct competencies to the marketplace. In between there are various hybrid options (de Chernatony 2001. in the main.

Thus. often in unrelated markets.K. An organization such as the Virgin Group tends towards such an approach.J. which involves an independent set of stand-alone brands each. or some combination of these two extremes. Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000) use the term "branded house" to describe the strategy where the master. it is necessary to introduce and explain the notion of brand architecture before focusing more specifically upon brand architecture in a services context. The study is important as empirical investigation of brand architecture strategies is largely absent from the literature. Dibb and Simkin 1993. Although the importance of brands in the marketing of services has been highlighted by a number of writers (Berry 2000. At the other extreme is a "house of brands" strategy. In the following section the main literature is reviewed before the methodology is explained. brand becomes by far the dominant brand driver across multiple offerings. a separate distinct stand-alone brand for each offering.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research contribution by investigating empirically whether the corporate branding approach is the dominant strategy in the management of brand architecture adopted in a services context by eliciting the views of practitioners. producing an Research Paper Page 13 . The paper proceeds in the traditional manner. limitations are acknowledged and avenues for further research highlighted. in the literature review section. namely senior marketing and brand strategists in a services environment. or corporate. Results are presented and discussed and implications explored. Insights will also be provided into the justification and rationale for the various brand architecture strategies employed as well as the practical considerations associated with brand architecture management. Dall'Olmo Riley and de Chernatony 2000. Finally. before conclusions are drawn. The study presented here is concerned with the appropriate brand architecture for services markets. de Chernatony and Dall'Olmo Riley 1999. far fewer studies have focused upon the nature of the "brand architecture" adopted by services organizations." All "multi-offering" organizations face a choice as to whether to use one single brand covering all products or services. The term "brand architecture" refers to an organization s approach to the design and management of its brand portfolio (Aaker and Joachimsthaler 2000) and is defined by those authors as: "An organizing structure of the brand portfolio that specifies brand roles and the nature of relationships between brands. as are the views of industry practitioners. Zeithaml 1981).

In between. (2001) also proposes a "brand spectrum". (1995) and the house of brands of Aaker and Joachimsthaler. in general. He identifies three brand structures and termed them monolithic. with 80 major brands having little or no link with P&G or to each other. the master-brand forms the dominant part of the brand.J. the master-brand plays a far less prominent role. such as Obsession by Calvin Klein or Courtyard by Marriott. there are strong and weak company endorsement positions. For instance. similar to Aaker and Joachimsthaler.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research optimum impact in the targeted market. Research Paper Page 14 . Between. the traditional approach of Proctor & Gamble (P & G). perhaps even only being mentioned by association. (2001) are defined in terms of corporate branding and individual product brands.K. (2000) and Olins. It is apparent that de Chematony's concept of the corporate brand is closely related to those of the monolithic brand and branded house discussed above. these two approaches. is a house of brands strategy. is moved into an area where the organization appears credible and when there is the potential for communication efficiencies. The difference between an endorsed brand and a sub-brand is a subtle one. the authors see a continuum encompassing "sub-brands". Indeed. which is roughly similar to the schema of Aaker and Joachimsthaler. the individual product branding approach is akin to the branded approach discussed by Olins. according to de Chernatony. Olins (1995) did not distinguish between endorsed and sub-brands. The branded approach is more likely when separate brands are needed to create and own an association (often avoiding the association of the master-brand) and to retain a customer brand bond. (2000). endorsed and branded. Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000) suggest that. Equally. de Chernatony. The ends of the brand spectrum. where the master brand is the primary frame of reference but is augmented by additional naming. Examples include Microsoft Office or Audi TT and "Endorsed Brands". (1995). a branded house or monolithic approach is more likely when the master brand has associations that enhance the value proposition. but with some different terminology. whereas in the latter case. as can be seen from Figure One. (2000). In the former case.

A commonly used approach to Research Paper Page 15 . even though services dominate Western economies (Clifton and Maughan. Recognizing that there are diverse interpretations of brands (de Chernatony and Dall Olmo Riley. while the identification of services brands values needs to focus internally within the organization. the brand is likely to lose its way amongst both customers and employees. This unfounded assumption may be part of the reason for a low proportion of valuable services brands.J. In addition. 2000). Techniques are discussed for identifying and sustaining services brands values. This paper explores the issues surrounding this. 2001). 1998). unless values can be effectively identified and then selectively sustained. the issue of gaps between image and identity cannot be ignored. The work is based upon a literature review and in-depth interviews with leading-edge services branding consultants.K. 2000). This paper explores the origins of services brands values and the issues that arise when identifying and sustaining them.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research Identifying and sustaining services brands Values: Identifying and sustaining the values of a services brand is vitally important for brand success. the failure factors associated with and the people responsible for the identification of services brands values are discussed. which has traditionally relied upon the assumption of importing ideas from classical goods brand management (Aaker and Joachimsthaler. It is suggested that core and peripheral brand values need different treatment in order to maximize services brands success and that human resources management is one of the most effective methods of sustaining services brands values. emphasizing that. The issue of identifying and sustaining a services brand s values is vital to the continued strength of both its image and its identity. These indicate that. a widely accepted view is that brands are clusters of functional and emotional values. There is a paucity of research into services branding (Van Riel et al..

Zeithaml and Bitner.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research identifying values for a new brand in the goods sector is to research consumers needs (Gordon. Regular tracking of environmental changes would result in managers re-evaluating the suitability of their brand s values. It could be postulated that successful services brand management would draw a distinction between core and peripheral values. One way of bridging these seemingly conflicting perspectives is to introduce a distinction between core and peripheral values. However. albeit briefly addressed and done within his identity model. Research Paper Page 16 . Rohan (2000) discussed the prioritization of values. social. If a brand is to thrive over time it could be speculated that the values that form part of its identity would need regular subtle adjustments in order to synchronize continually with consumers needs. another school of thought might draw on Rokeach s (1973) definition.K. a brand may have peripheral values that are less central (but are nevertheless still important values at that point in time) and that reflect societal change. 264). for example honesty. but the peripheral value of fashionability will never result in dresses shorter than a critical length. A brand of women s dresses may have decency and fashionability as its values. people s value priorities will change in response to changes in their environments (p. In their study of Coherency in corporate branding Morsing and Kristensen (2001) found that the corporate brand is updated via a strategy of allowing subtle changes in stakeholders interpretations of the brand. as the employees in a services organization reflect the evolving changes in society. Over time the importance of these two values will change. A brand could be considered as having core values. noting how . 1987. 2003). In the services sector staff has a greater impact on shaping a brand s values (Berry. Yet there is a dearth of research into the process by which practitioners identify services brands values. . 1999) and then develop a manufacturing process and a communications strategy that provide the bases for the brand s values. technological and economic environments. which posited the enduring nature of values. Kapferer (1997) is one of the few academics to have considered brand evolution as values change in society. Some of these subtle amendments are no doubt ongoing. 2000) and the determination of brand values needs to be more attentive to their contribution (Heskett. 1998). Societies change over time in response to evolving political. since the core value of decency dictates particular standards. In addition. which are enduring (Collins and Porras. As such the relative importance of values changes.J. .

2002) there is less about which values should be sustained and which approaches are most effective. Day and Fahey. Shervani and Fahey. several emergent issues that surfaced during this research are discussed. and therefore brand performance. 2001). Finally. 2000].J. 1988. These include the failure factors associated with the identification of services brands values and the question of who is responsible for the identification process. 2000]. Traditionally research into brands has focused upon the opinions of brand managers. The findings about the way organizations identify their services brand values and sustain/change their services brand values are then explained. This paper opens by reviewing the literature on values in brand management. in no insignificant part. The paper then explains how in-depth interviews were undertaken with senior brand consultants specializing in services branding. but they often play a fire-fighting role and are more likely to have their time occupied by day-to-day activities (Mitchell.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research Techniques would be instigated for sustaining their brand s core values and appropriate amendments would be made to the peripheral values. 1986. As managers face the challenge of facilitating consumer choice by communicating the continuity of their brands. Developing a Brand Performance Measure for Financial Services Brand: Business success is due.g. In addition. based on the literature. Srivastava. to brand performance [Doyle. researchers have conceptualised and measured business performance using a variety of metrics [Venkatraman and Ramanujam. whether all of a brand s values should be sustained and how companies go about doing this. 1998. Doyle. This paper strives to assist managerial decisions about striking the right balance. This paper seeks to advance knowledge by investigating how services brands values are identified and. However. the overall implications of the results are considered. once identified. Thus one might anticipate a consensus about measuring business performance.K. they also need to refresh their brands and keep them contemporary. Propositions are then outlined. While there is a stream of literature about how managers can sustain their brand values (e. In view of the implications this has for Research Paper Page 17 . Lencioni. This research took the view that brand consultants were more likely to offer leading edge ideas and therefore interviewed brand consultants who had high profiles in the services branding literature.

For example. an insurance company operating in a price sensitive market needs to keep control of its costs and would focus more on the number and levels of claims being made. Rust. which is a further reason for different business performance measures. Doyle [2000] and Srivastava and colleagues [1998] argue that the objective of marketing is to generate healthy returns to shareholders by creating and managing market-based assets. resource Research Paper Page 18 . 1993]. 2000].K. Ogbonna and Harris. This literature review focuses on understanding why there is no standardized business performance measure. Business performance measures have tended to evolve from goods-. but rather satisfactory solutions. The environment and the strategy influence managers choice of measures [Day and Nedungadi. The type of market influences the business performance measure [Ambler. as Cyert and March [1963] argued. 1994]. preferences for measures vary between managers in the same organization [Day and Nedungadi. 1989]. overlooking services distinctive characteristics. Zeithaml and Lemon. Ambler [2000]. Different performance measures are likely between managers in the same corporation since. By contrast. rather than servicescentered organization. as managers employ different mental models to make sense of their environments [de Chernatony. flexibility. Business performance is a multidimensional and complex phenomenon necessitating various measures [Lenz. they place more emphasis on consumer equity metric. Furthermore. A relationship-centered bank would be more concerned with client satisfaction and relationship suitability. 2000]. Differences exist between researchers about the central objective of marketing. 1981. 2000.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research seeking a standardized brand performance measure we sought to understand why there is no consensus business performance measure. This leads to measures of the contribution of market-based assets.J. Daniels and Johnson. Fitzgerald and colleagues [1991] suggested six dimensions of services business performance. managers have conflicting goals and do not seek optimal. as does the functions within which managers operate [Deshpande and Webster. two measuring the results of a competitive success (competitiveness measures and financial measures) and four measuring the determinants of competitive success (equality. Rust and colleagues [2000] concur with this. 1994]. net present value of cash flow and shareholder value. since these influence retention rates. but because they believe the route to achieving this is through maximizing the lifetime value of a firm s consumer base. which form the basis for their business model.

Customers derive a sense of safety from strong brands and Berry20 argues that emo purchasing services from a perceived safe haven would appeal to consumers. Farr and Hollis. a point also made by Zeithaml18 and Dib and Simkin. Not surprisingly. 1996]. consultants have diverse brand performance measures [e. financial services brand performance. According to Berry. as there are a variety of measures for business performance. in particular for offerings which are intangible. and external encounters with customers. such as those concerned with employees. reflecting their differing philosophies. On a related theme. Barwise and Ehrenberg. Our review found no research on a standardized business performance measure specifically for financial services organizations. Dyson. 16 as well as the lack of consumer interest.J. before moving on to focus upon branding issues in financial services.g.19 among others. so researchers have employed various brand performance measures [e. Thus the following literature review will briefly discuss branding in services generally. 1995. because of the well-documented characteristics of services offerings. 1994. providing the link between internal factors. In addition. both customers and employees relationships with a brand are potentially important in the marketing of services. Furthermore. 17 branding has a special role to play in the marketing of services. many of the arguments associated with the branding of services generally are also relevant here. understanding and engagement in many instances. 1996. They propose that the service brand should be seen as a holistic process . As there is no standard way of measuring brand performance and. Pitta and Katsanis. of specific relevance to our study. As such. financial services present certain challenges for marketers in terms of trust and fiduciary responsibility issues. due to the difficulty of differentiating offerings which are intangible rather than a physical product.g. In a more general context.K. such Research Paper Page 19 . as we next describe. as a result. a process had to be followed to develop a measure. Blattberg and Deighton.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research utilization and innovation). Dall Olmo Riley and de Chernatony21 argue that the brand can act as a relationship fulcrum in services marketing. He suggests that branding is now a cornerstone of services marketing and that branding is potentially crucial in services. 1985]. Challenges in branding financial services: Financial services are services offerings and. Young and Rubicam.

Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research arguments receive support from de Chernatony and Dall Olmo Riley22 although this earlier study was not focused specifically on services. in packaged goods markets the product is the primary focus of the brand. according to Devlin. The same authors address the question of service brand definition and the principles of services branding. 32 in a financial services context. and others have suggested similarly that few brands are successfully differentiated in the financial services sector. In general terms. while Camp33 suggests. including ensuring consistency of service and brand delivery. Dall Olmo Riley and de Chernatony26 cite Dobree and Page27 as an example of a study stressing the importance of the company as the Brand and quote Berry et al.34 argue powerfully that there is presently a dearth of salient brands in the financial services sector. As Berry explains. Faust and Eilertson.K. and through using internal marketing to engender a customer-focused culture.31 financial services are excellent examples of highly intangible and often complex service offerings. but that there are particular issues and challenges associated with the Operationalisation of services branding.30 also provide a detailed analysis of the prevalence of and challenges associated with corporate branding in a services context. McDonald et al. that optimizing brand use in financial services involves using a brand that is preferred by targeted consumers. Dall Olmo Riley and de Chernatony add that the corporate brand forms the focus of the relationship-building efforts both inside and outside a services organization. Dall Olmo Riley and de Chernatony state that brand experts believe that there are relatively few Research Paper Page 20 . McDonald et al. 25 it is seen as having a particularly crucial role to play in the marketing of services.28 to illustrate that consumer are likely to view all services offered by a company as components of a single brand. It is perhaps not surprising that the arguments discussed in relation to services generally apply equally to financial services as. not unreasonably. remind one that the brand is much more than just a logo.J. whereas in services the company is the primary focus of the brand. Although corporate branding is seen as becoming more important generally. In his services branding model. in keeping with the relationship focus of the analysis they present. The other main argument advanced by Berry is the importance of corporate branding to services markets. In addition. Berry24 states that service companies build strong brands through distinctiveness and message consistency.23 They suggest that many branding principles are consistent between products and services.

K. They further comment upon the need for a coherent strategy with regard to corporate. Finally. it is more important than ever that financial services organizations develop strong brands to avoid commoditization. Saunders and Watters also study the growing importance of branding in financial services. preferring instead to focus upon well-known companies. it is apparent that. and they suggest that managers are too preoccupied with building functional rather than emotional brand values. The latter concept occurs when the customer is not only familiar with a particular brand. divisional and individual brands. particularly when dealing with wellestablished products and new market segments within an existing customer base. Others have argued similarly that consumers show little interest in individual financial services offerings. Milligan45 argues that banking products are more or less indistinguishable. In common with arguments advanced in favour of the importance of corporate brands in a service context more generally. Dall Olmo Riley and de Chernatony49 argue that financial services do not lend themselves to individual product brands. but also holds some favorable. it is generally posited that most brands in financial services have not moved beyond awareness and are not particularly strong. McDonald et al. but that corporate branding can help differentiate banking companies and their offerings. argue that due to structural change. As discussed above. Devlin43 notes the potential importance of branding in differentiation.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research notable financial services brands. and stress the crucial role that brands play in financial services marketing. consolidation and new media provision of financial services.39 While a detailed exposition of the concept of brand equity is beyond the scope of this paper. including deregulation.Denby-Jones also suggests that corporate brands are of primary importance in the marketing of financial services. Despite this contention. McDonald et al. in order to Research Paper Page 21 . suggesting that the corporate brand may be particularly important in situations where it is difficult to make a priori judgments. illustrating various approaches. to be salient in the marketplace. For a brand to be particularly notable or salient in the marketplace is arguably akin to possessing what Keller describes as customerbased brand equity. suggest that corporate brands are important in a financial services context. particularly for more complex financial services. a brand has to move beyond mere awareness a combination of recognition and recall to having particular associations which help differentiate the offering.J. strong and unique brand associations in memory .

given the environment that financial services firms face. Much work has been done by de Chernatony and associates. and challenges associated with. To summarize. possibly both externally and internally.business. is that although strong brands are required more than ever.54 There is a paucity of work which counsels the opinions of Senior brand managers in financial services. and should be. Thus the main research question investigated in this study can be characterized as follows: What are the views of senior financial services branding managers as to the particular role and importance of. branding in financial services is relatively weak. to customer involvement.K. As it is managers who determine brand strategies and face the long-term and day-to-day challenges of branding financial services. and that achieving true brand equity in financial services markets may present difficulties for brand managers in financial services. branding retail financial services successfully? The Service Brand as Relationships Builder: Relationship marketing has recently received a lot of attention by researchers. from customer manipulation. notably few empirical studies in the area. with many brands lacking saliency and true customer-based brand equity. McKenna (1991) suggested that this increased interest in establishing relationships with consumers represents a fundamental shift in the role and purpose of marketing. but the material published thus far has been based upon a series of interviews with brand experts (such as consultants. Research Paper Page 22 . however. however. A number of authors have suggested that branding in financial services is. a point acknowledged by Dall Olmo Riley and de Chernatony. it is apparent that the successful branding of retail financial services is challenging. they are important stakeholders in the branding process that can provide important insights. advertising executives and so on). both in business to. and in consumer goods and services contexts. While the literature regarding financial services branding is replete with hypothesized trends and relationships and papers discussing general concepts.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research avoid confusion. The common perception. there are. An input from managers would yield further important insights. Overall.J. the literature suggests that brands are potentially very important in a financial services context in order to provide differentiation and a focus for relationships. reported extensively above. concentrated primarily at the corporate level.

The developing literature on relationship marketing might have contributed to this renewed emphasis.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research from telling and selling. Next. As we discuss below. grant the notion of relationship marketing at least with the role of keeping managers focused on a long-term customer orientation.K. In essence. A further issue is the similarity in the terminology used in the literatures discussing the theoretical bases of relationship marketing and the brand.g.g. However. from last-in-line function to corporate-credibility champion.J.g. However. 1997). to a longer term relational approach to brand marketing (e. we analyze similarities between the conceptual antecedents (motivations) and consequences (advantages) of relationship marketing and the essence of the brand as emerging from the general branding Research Paper Page 23 . and from a short-term transactional. relationship marketing would be equivalent to doing all the things expected of branding (e. one interpretation of this similarity would be the redundancy between the two concepts. In practice. Consistent with Petrof (1997). 1996). between the two literature streams. rather than redundancy. etc. Moreover. Peppers and Rogers. 1995). which is the focus of the relational definition of marketing.). advances in IT and the consequent emergence of direct marketing and Internet shopping have prompted even mass marketing companies to seek the development of distinctive 'relationships' with individual consumers (e. the concept of the brand has evolved. Copulsky and Wolf.g. 1995. Gringos. others have objected to the notion of relationship marketing as a 'paradigm shift (e. Gringos (1990b) makes a distinction between how to develop and execute good marketing performance. As a result of the recent 'rediscovery' of relationship marketing and the conceptual and practical issues just discussed. however. 1990. 1990b. the extent to which real mutual Relationship between organizations and their customers are created is questionable (e.g. which is the focus of the traditional marketing notion. A slightly less reductionist view would. simplifying decision making. Fournier. we consider it more appropriate to think in terms of convergence. Iacobucci and Ostrom. 1998). 1990a. In contrast. to communicating and sharing knowledge. Petrof. and what decisions to make to do marketing. Dobscha and Mick. noting that satisfying and keeping customers has always been the core of the marketing concept. reducing risk. with an increased emphasis on relational aspects. the first aim of this paper is to examine the appropriateness of the 'relationship marketing' notion and the main criteria for its applicability in various contexts.

we would like to stress that such synergies are not exclusive to services and may apply to both goods and services. Shostack.g. Finally. the crucial point for the applicability of relationship marketing is not so much the distinction between goods and services. From these experts' opinions and the literature. Faust and Eilertson. Future research will test these propositions from the perspectives of other stakeholders in the branding process. Branding health services: Defining you in the marketplace: The author begins by saying thatFinancial managers think that branding is the proprietary domain of the marketing managers . and the benefits from engaging in relationship marketing might be more pertinent for some services. The author also introduces a segmentation map through which he tries to gauge whether why a particular customer is more Research Paper Page 24 . The author tries to bring out the history of brands and tries To apply the concepts to healthcare industry. starting with the relationship between the organization and the employee providing the service. 1995). As we discuss.K. such as professional advisers. such as managers and consumers. with the aim of advancing the understanding of effective services branding. As we later discuss.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research literature. However. we expand the notions emerging front the literature by examining the perspectives of twenty leading-edge brand consultants. Author discusses a very important concept called the brand pyramid wherein he discusses the various levels of customer interaction with the brand to the level where they start having a bond with each other. and coming alive in the interaction between the customer and the service provider. Our focus is on consumer services branding mainly as an area which many authors have identified as under researched (e. Turley and Moore. a further motivation for focusing on services is that the opportunity for. 1977. We then focus on services and elaborate on potential synergies between branding and relationship marketing. we suggest that the service brand is a holistic process. 1994. Theoretical similarities between the concept of the brand and the notion of relationship marketing as risk reducers. simplifiers of choice and guarantees of quality emerge from this analysis.J. They understand the power of a brand but they are not necessarily familiar with the branding strategies.

This is especially apparent when comparing equipment-intensive goods to labour-intensive services. and how to improve the branding strategies to the financial managers for the branding strategies for their organizations.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research loyal to a particular brand and not to the other brand. We focus on equipment-intensive goods and labourintensive services (shaded in the chart) because. is a reputation that develops most durably from customers actual consumption experiences. how it works. the source and nature of customer experiences differ for goods and services. A brand. is rescue a poor product or service. If customers experience with the offering differs from the advertising message. second. in short.K. However. Branding Labour Intensive Services: A brand is not a name. and providing language and imagery to frame the desired brand. however. Consumption experience is important for goods brands as well as services. stimulating trial. logo or advertising slogan. No US retailer advertises more effectively on television than the discount chain Target but the advertising works only because customers like shopping at Target. The differences range from subtle to significant depending on which two categories are compared. logo or slogan is presented. first. including creating awareness of the offering. Marketer controlled communications such as advertising can play important roles in brand development.J. a brand is a person s dominant perception when the stimulus of a name. the branding literature emphasizes Research Paper Page 25 . the differences are the greatest. they believe the experience and not the advertising. What marketing communications cannot do. The fundamental discussion provided by the author about what branding is. Advertising provides an investment return only when it is reinforced by positive customer experiences.

for Research Paper Page 26 . the product is branded. The focal brand differs for services in part because they lack the tangible form that facilitates packaging. a company or specific service provider is branded. It is quite common. For virtually all services. Few customers know or care that Unilever is the manufacturer. Customers brand the source of the benefit they seek in purchasing. brand impact shifts from product to company or person in proportion to the role service plays in creating the benefits customers buy. such as a restaurant or hotel service. Moreover. which are equipment-intensive in their manufacture. the more likely it is that the individual will be the primary brand rather than the company.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research packaged goods. third. A beauty salon s name and logo can be put on the facility and even on the service provider s clothing but cannot be put on the haircut. labelling and visual display.J. and. customers brand the company for services that are not uniquely dependent on a specific person. relatively little has been written specifically about services branding especially from the customer s perspective. Conversely. Washing powder provides the benefit and Persil is the focal brand. The more the service s value to the customer equates to an individual provider. however.K. In equipment-intensive goods.

Research Paper Page 27 . personal problems.. many services are produced and consumed simultaneously. the customers experience with the product comes largely from seeing.K.J. services present more customer touch points . than goods. the greater the variability. As Stan Richards. or discrete experiences. such as certain types of clothing. Branding plays a special role for labourintensive services because strong brands increase customers trust of an intangible. for customers to follow a hair stylist who changes salons. Because goods are produced before they are consumed. the more customers need brand reassurance. moods and personal commitment. With labourintensive services..walks around on two legs. variable offering that is difficult to evaluate prior to purchase. can inspect and remove items not meeting specifications before shipping to vendors. they can be inspected prior to purchase. a bank s manager of its ATM network has a different set of concerns than the manager of human tellers. Consider the breadth and duration of brand impression touch points for airline travel. service customers often do.the brand deliverer. The more consequential.. The customer directly experiences at least three service factories : the departure and arrival airports and the aero plane. With goods. the breadth of discrete experiences is typically more extensive and often of much longer duration. A strong brand is the surrogate when there is no dress to try on. personalities. thereby limiting the opportunity for pre-consumption quality inspection. and an encounter with an unpleasant customer or other reasons. Labor-intensive offerings are less predictable because human beings vary in their skills. the greater the involvement of human beings in the production of a good or service. attitudes. Within these environments. founder of Dallas-based advertising agency The Richards Group. In general.. passengers experience facilities. Customers for goods don t visit the factory. Conversely.. Generally. Companies that sell labour-intensive goods. as services researchers Leslie de Chernatony and Francesca Dall Olmo Riley put it. In the latter case . complex and variable the service. no bananas to scrutinize. Variability occurs not only among a group of employees but also with the same employee as a result of fatigue. knowledge. stated in a speech: A strong brand is a safe place for customers .. From a quality and branding standpoint. The labour-intensity of goods and service production figures prominently in the consistency of quality. handling and using it. no automobile to test-drive.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research example.

A cross cultural perspective on branding of in financial services: a cross cultural perspective: The role of marketing as an integrated management function in financial services organizations had been well documented in the literature since the 1980s (Hooley and Mann 1988. The small business sector may be of particular interest in this context. 1993) and for financial services in particular (Easingwood and Arnott. Moreover. despite strong conceptual arguments for the relative importance of brands in a financial services context.K. branding can play a key role in the marketing process for services in general (Bharadwaj et al. consumers' dependence on experience/credence qualities and high levels of perceived risk. Kalafatis 2000). given that small businesses lack the resources and financial expertise of larger businesses. De Chernatony and Dall'Olmo Rily 1998. Keller 1998. This paper aims to examine the importance of the brand in bank selection decisions for small business customers. 1993). 2002) and by mapping consumer perceptions (Devlin et al. Given the high degree of intangibility. The empirical setting is cross-cultural with data being collected in both the UK and Egypt.J. 1997. Finally. 2001). given that estimates would suggest that as many as 75% of small businesses are profitable over a three year period (Berger and Ulrich 1986. Saunders and Watters 1993. small businesses make a significant economic contribution across most economies (File and Prince 1992. 1995). there is relatively little research to evaluate the significance of brands in consumer decision making for services (Krishnan and Hartline. Ennew et al.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research equipment. Freeman and Turner 1990). there are grounds for believing that the brand may have a significant role to play in the decision making process. 1991). multiple service providers and other customers. It is a complex mix of experiences over a period of hours with numerous opportunities for pleasing or displeasing customers. which suggests that there is a real need to explore the role of brands in consumer decision making in business markets as well as in retail markets. However. It is Research Paper Page 28 . Clearly. Harris. Existing research has addressed aspects of branding from organizational perspectives (see for example Easingwood and Mahajan 1989. a number of researchers argue that both the two concepts are under-developed in business markets (Mudambi et al. They represent an important market from the perspective of the banks. Athanassopoulos and Labroukos 1999).

Thereafter. de Chernatony and Dall Olmo Riley 1999. 1996). Onkvisit and Shaw 1989). given that branding appears to be a cornerstone of successful services marketing (Berry 2000). This lack of benchmarking data is surprising. Knight 1999. Malhotra et al. The benefits to both academics and practitioners of conducting such studies are well known (Ta and Har 2000. determine your own fame.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research widely recognized that there is a relative shortage of cross-national studies and this is particularly apparent in the financial service sector. Balmer 1995. the current work will contribute specifically to our understanding of the importance of the brand in consumer choice and more generally will provide an illustration of the approaches to and benefits from the conduct of cross national research in financial services. and internalize the brand. yet there has been relatively little research into identifying best practices in services branding (de Chernatony and Dall Olmo Riley 1999). A leading American services marketing researcher has produced a model of brand equity formation based on interviews with 14 mature. highperforming service providers in the USA (Berry 2000). While the majority of authors conclude that branding the company (or corporate branding) is more appropriate than branding individual service products (e. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions. de Chernatony and Dall Olmo Riley 2000).J. The following section presents the results of the analysis for UK and Egyptian small businesses. despite its international focus. and could be as applicable to the producers of tangible goods as to the providers of intangible services.K. these rather jingoistic terms appear to be based more on anecdotal than empirical evidence. Accordingly. the methodology is discussed with particular attention being paid to the cross-national dimension. Berry 2000. others take a contrary view (e. The results of the few empirical investigations of services branding practices are somewhat equivocal. The author then identifies four generic strategies to cultivate brand equity: dare to be different.g. Prominent branding researchers in Research Paper Page 29 . The paper begins by providing an overview of branding and selection criteria for small business customers. Benchmarking Services Branding Practices: The services sector accounts for up to three-quarters of the GDP of developed economies. make emotional connections. Although the last point emphasizes the important role that staff play in services branding.g.

through interviews with leading brand consultants. consumers do not solely interpret brands on the basis of marketing communications. by benchmarking the branding practices of successful professional and business services providers in New Zealand. Implications for services branding theory and practice are discussed. Research Paper Page 30 . y A powerful tool when communicating brand values is cascading this down throughout the organization by getting groups to run sessions with other groups. Findings: y This paper has sought to augment. what is known about the communication of brand values to both employees and consumers. y The HR function plays a key role in transmitting brand values through activities such as recruitment. As small numbers of individuals are interacting with each other it may be appropriate for the trainers not just to explain the brand values. it is vital that HR employees have a comprehensive understanding of the brand and this is then explicitly used to guide their activities with all employees. There is a need for some system of quality control to be in place regarding the services provided by the HR department. induction and training. In the case of services brands.K.e. and that more research is required to produce a tailored model of services branding (McDonald. de Chernatony and Harris 2001). The current study takes a small step towards answering the call by McDonald et al. i. Brand success is therefore dependent on ensuring that staff correctly interprets their brand s values and are committed to enacting these values in their interactions with consumers. it then becomes appropriate to reinforce the brand through communicating its values to consumers. Once staff is behind the brand. through a ripple effect.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research the UK have argued that the fast moving consumer goods approach to branding needs to be adjusted for the services sector. As guardians of services brand values. The findings enable implications to be considered and conclusions drawn.J. but also through their interactions with employees. but to then ghost individuals and after observing their behaviour discuss how their actions do or do not support the brand values.

and resources. and may even promote temporarily high levels of brand engagement. and consumer communication is mainly through marketing and organizational communication. we anticipated that values are communicated to employees mainly through a combination of management and organizational communication. Drawing on van Riel [1995]. Employer brand management provides just such a mechanism for translating the brand ethos into the everyday working experience of employees. y Making a link between brand. y Creating a Branded Customer Experience one that really drives customer loyalty requires thought. culture and customer experience is not new.J. IM and branding programs can play a role in raising awareness of the desired brand ethos. but sustainable brand-led culture change will only be effective when the brand ethos is deeply embedded in the everyday leadership and people management processes of the organization. effort. it may be more informative to adopt the framework in Figure 1. but it also highlights the importance of feedback mechanisms which through discourse enable brand values to be better appreciated.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research y Contributed to a better understanding of how services brand values are communicated to employees and consumers. But most of all it requires managers to understand what it means to lead the brand. the powerful combination of technology and human interface. This is likely to be led by a Research Paper Page 31 . y Responsibility for brand development is less likely to reside with one person and more likely to be a team representing the main functional areas. and it takes the means to harness the power of your people to turn them into Brand Ambassadors. and Operations. HR. It takes careful design.K. Not only does this provide more detail about channels. It also requires the seamless integration of high-tech and high-touch. The interviews suggest that while this framework provides a good appreciation of communication channels. but the practice of managing the link between these related domains has evolved significantly over recent years. and by doing so reinforces the organization s ability to deliver consistent and distinctive customer brand experiences. it takes new forms of collaboration between Marketing.

but equally important is a brand supporting culture.Also. at least some of the Research Paper Page 32 . Limitations The study conducted is totally a secondary kind of an effort. commitment and "on-brand' behaviour. The validity of the values must be ensured through effective identification techniques headed by senior management that surface unique and genuine brand values.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research senior manager who has the vision and the power to build shared support. The main rationales provided by practitioners for adopting such an approach were to maintain a strong relationship franchise with different customer groups and/or signal distinct competencies to the marketplace. Conclusion Although branding has attracted considerable attention from marketing academics in recent years. y Having a strong customer-orientation is important. y The approach that has to be incorporated is the "multicorporate" approach where a family of main brands is incorporated into an organization s brand architecture. This would give us an opportunity to conduct the research comprehensively and would allow us to include many more respondents than what was possible following the current methodology. Critical to success is enthusiasm. The intangibility factor associated with services has led to the suggestion that branding and image creation may be even more critical for services . shared values.J. based on relevant. It is no longer enough for a company to include a statement of values in their annual report. the overwhelming majority of this interest has been directed at products with physical forms (goods). The study can be modified to include a primary research where in data can be gathered by conducting a market research amongst the practitioners of brand in the corporate world. This would give a comprehensive insight into the brand building process practiced by the corporate world. y Increasingly.K. while the rationale for branding is the same for goods and services. rather than services. service organizations must consider the effect of brand values on every aspect of working life.

LESLIE de CHERNATONY. branding the experience-Shaun Smith Corporate brand identity and image congruence in leisure services sector. whereby a strong 'brand as a company' identity permeates the organization and provides a relevant focus to both consumers and employees. now its core values-Business Standard-D. Edgbaston Park Road. Birmingham B15 2TT.J. People and Orientations. Felix Mavondo.Nottingham University Business School y Identifying and sustaining services brands Values-LESLIE DE CHERNATONY AND SUSAN DRURY. This can be achieved using internal marketing and incentives to motivate and retain good employees.Joanna Minkiewicz. University House.Murali. Communicating Services Brands Values Internally and Externally-Leslie De Chernatony Services Branding. y y Experiencing the brand. organizational culture and the employer brand-Richard W Mosley. References: y y y y Building Services Brands-Leslie De Chernatony. Customer experience. When excellent service is experienced. The University of Birmingham. the consumer is encouraged to engage in a long term relationship with the service provider.Birmingham Business School. and comes alive in the external relationship (encounter) between consumer and service provider (employee).K. Deakin University y Building a Services Brand: Stages. we propose a notion of 'the service brand' as a holistic process which provides focus to the internal relationship between the service company and the employees. UK Research Paper Page 33 . Monash University Kerrie Bridson. This can be conceptualized in terms of a virtuous circle. Edgbaston. SUSAN DRURY and SUSAN SEGAL-HORN y Brand Architecture in Services: The Example of Retail Financial Services-James Devlin. or the promised brand is delivered in a way consistent with expectations. From the literature and the interviews.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research concepts from the marketing literature associated with goods branding may not apply in the service sector.

Callaghan. His work has been published in many journals and he won prizes for the best paper at the Annual UK Academy of Marketing Conference in 1996 and for the best paper in the European Journal of Marketing in 1998. Kingstoti Hill. Australia y The Service Brand as relationships Builder-Francesca DaU'Olmo Riley. The Open University. y Service brands and communication effects-RON O CASS.Gold Coast Mail Centre. Open University Business School. University House.J. Sarwar is currently researching the competitive strategies of domestic companies in Pakistan. The Open University. Queensland 9726. Department of Marketing. He has also worked for City University (now Cass Business School) and in private banking. Walton Hall.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research SUSAN SEGAL-HORN. UK y Branding health services: Defining you in the marketplace-Jeanne Yasiri and Tom Blinn Medical Group Medical Association. Griffith Business School. UK y Life would be a lot easier if we were a Kit Kat : Practitioners views on the challenges of branding financial services successfully-JAMES F.K. His interests are retail financial services marketing and policy issues in financial services. Australia DEBRA GRACE. Griffith University PMB 50. Milton Keynes MK7 6AA.Newcastle Graduate School of Business. University of Newcastle. New South Wales 2308. Open University Business School. He previously worked in the commercial and educational sectors in Pakistan. Kitigston upon Thames. SARWAR AZHAR is a research student at Nottingham University Business School. Milton Keynes MK7 6AA. Surrey KT2 7LB And Leslie de Chernatony. Kingstoti University Business School. DEVLIN is a reader in marketing at Nottingham University Business School. Walton Hall. y Branding Labour Intensive Services-Leonard L Berry and Sandra S Lampo Research Paper Page 34 .

Gray University of Otago Research Paper Page 35 . Ennew.J.Somaiya Institute Of Management Studies & Research y A cross cultural perspective on branding of in financial services: a cross cultural perspective-Sally A. McKechnie and Christine T. Abou Aish. Nottingham University Business School Ehab M. Cairo University y Benchmarking Services Branding Practices-Brendan J.K.

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