Consortium Alumni Association Presents A One-day Course on

Basic Well Logging Design
Coordinated By

Sigit Sutiyono Unocal Indonesia Company

Agenda
• • • • • • • Introduction (8:15) Lecture‐I  Basic Theory/Interpretation  Break (10 – 10:15) Lecture‐II  Logging Program/Design Break (12:00) Workshop (1:30 – 4:00) Wrap‐up (4:00 – 5:00)

Objectives
♦ ♦

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Get to know various log measurements Recognize fluid type and lithology of major reservoirs,  and some practical application of log data Familiarize with factors affecting the log response Understand the strategy in well evaluation Get to know various approaches to well logging design Exercise with well log design

usually graphic and plotted to scale on a narrow paper strip. of observations made on the rocks and fluids of the geologic section exposed in the well-bore.Jackson’s Glossary of Geology: Log : A continuous record as a function of depth.A. .Definition According to 4th Edition of J.

Wireline Logging Logging while Drilling Mud in Cable Mud out LWD Tools Tools Drill Bit .

SP was run along with resistivity first time in 1931 Schlumberger developed the first continuous recording in 1931 GR and Neutron logs was started in 1941 Microresistivity array dipmeter and lateralog were first time introduced  in 1950’s The first induction tool was used in 1956 followed by Formation tester  in 1957.Well Logging History • • • • • • • The first electrical log was introduced in 1927 in France using stationed  resistivity method. The first commercial electrical resistivity tool in 1929 was used in  Venezuela. Electromagnetic tool in 1978 and   most of Imaging logs were developed in 1980’s  Advanced formation tester was commercialized in early 1990’s • . Fomation Density in 1960’s. USA and Indonesia.

Well in Pechelbronn .France Surface Recording Instrument The “First” Log recorded in 1927 .

A Formation Evaluation Specialist is essential to understand The theory of measurements. geophysics and petroleum geology as well as petroleum reservoirs .Log Measurements Practical definition of a log Log is an indirect measurement of formation properties  exposed by the well‐bore acquired by lowering a device or  a combination of devices in the well bore. quality control. interpretation principles.

Advantages and Limitations of Well Logging Advantages: .Indirect measurements .Affected by environment .Varying resolution .Easy and quick to work with .Continuous measurements .Better resolution than seismic data .Short time acquisition .Limited by tool specification .Economical Limitations: .

Basic Theory of Measurements .

Logs are Implied Measurements • Log is not a direct measurement of formation properties. it is an implied  measurement based on one or combination of the following devices • • • • • Electrical (Resistivity and Induction) Acoustic Nuclear Electromagnetic Magnetic .

Basic Theory on Resistivity Rw Current path Unit volume filled with only water Current path Ro Unit volume with water and matrix .

Typical Formation Oil Water Sand grain Grain surface water Current path Rt Measured by the tool .

Current .Length of brine containerr .Voltage difference across the formation .Resistivity and Measurement Concept Resistivity is the ability of a substance to impade the flow of electrical current I E E*A Rw L Rw E A L I Rw = A I*L .Cross sectional Area .Formation Water resistivity .

Resistivity and Measurement Concept Schematic diagram of how an induction tool works Secondary magnetic field Created by the ground loop Receiver Secondary magnetic field Induces a current to flow in the receiver Magnetic field induces a current in the ground loop Primary magnetic field created by transmitter Transmitter .

Water saturation Rw .0 Por m SW .Resistivity Application Resistivity is the key to hydrocarbon saturation determination Sh = 1 .Formation factor n .Cementation factor Resistivity is also used for well to well correlation.True Formation resistivity F .Formation water resistivity Rt . and to pick fluid contacts .Sw Water Saturation Estimation Archie’s Equation Sw = ( F * Rw Rt ) 1/n where F= 1.Saturation exponent m .

  Rw determination and  well correlation. .  formation or mud filtrate.  ions movement creates currents measured in mVolt • Negative or Positive SP curve deflection represents which fluid. has more ionic charge.Spontaneous Potential Log (SP) • SP measurement is based on Electrical currents flowing in the  mud from electrochemical and electrokinetic • Salinity difference between mud flitrate and formation waters. bed boundary. distinguishing permeable from  impermeable rock. shalyness indicator. • It only works in water based mud ! • The use of SP log.

..Thick shaly wet sand Thick clean wet sand Thick clean Gas sand ..Spontaneous Potential (SP) (-) (+) Rmf >> Rw in all sands Shale Sand SP .......Hydrocarbon effect Thick shaly Gas sand ..

= 135 F Surface temp.51 at 135 F Rm = 0.Spontaneous Potential (SP) SP 40 mV 7430 Given: Rmf = 0.91 at 135 F TD = 8007 ft Bottom hole temp. = 60 F Determine Rw ? 7470 20 Limitation SP is not reliable when you have no or very small contrast Between Formation water salinity and mud filtrate salinity resulting in no to small SP deflection .

Correct Rwe to Rw using SP-2 chart .Determine SP (log) from shale baseline . chart .Determine Rmf/Rwe ratio using SP-1 chart . .Determine Rwe from above equation or SP-1 chart .Rw calculation from SP log SSP = -K log Rmfe Rwe Steps of Calculation.Determine Temperature at Depth of interval .Correct Rm and Rmf to this temperature (gen-9) .Correct SP to SSP using SP thickness corr.

 more accurate than SP log ‐ Shale Volume Indicator (most reliable) ‐ Lithology and mineralogy indicator (NGT) GRlog .GR shale baseline . ‐ Well to well geological correlation ‐ Bed definition. Uranium and Thorium • GR log is used for.GRmin IGR . (Total GR) Potasium.GR clean GRsh .Gamma Ray Log (GR) • GR tool measures natural radioactivity of the formation from  the emmision of all these.Gamma ray index GRmin .GRmin IGR = GRsh .

Gamma Ray Log (GR) .

.

52 2.Gamma Ray Log (GR) Mineral Quartz Calcite Dolomite Orthoclase Micas Kaolinite Chlorite Illite Montmorillonite Anhydrite Pyrite Coal Density DT 2.82 2.64 2.52 2.71 2.47 56 49 44 69 49 50 39 high GR 0-15 0-15 0-15 220 275 80-130 180-250 250-300 150-200 low low low .99 1.41 2.76 2.85 2.12 2.98 4.

Gamma Ray Log (GR) Well-1 GR Res GR Res GR Res Well-7 Well-2 .

Source Rocks .Shale typing .Geochemical logging . .Uranium.Natural Gamma Ray Log (NGT) • NGT tool measures the spectrum of Potasium. and Thorium • NGT log is used for.Study of Depositional Environments .Diagenetic History .Vclay content correction • With combination of Photoelectric curve can be used for clay and mica type identification .

Potasium (%) .Natural Gamma Ray Log (NGT) 10 8 6 Glauconite Biotite Pe 4 Montmorillonite Illite 2 Kaolinite Muscovite 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 K.

  electron density is related to bulk density  of mineral or rock  • In most cases environmental correction for Density log is not  significant. by emitting  gamma ray from radioactive source and returning to two  detectors • The amount of Gamma rays that return depend on the number  of electrons present. field log density can be readily used for  interpretation .Density Log • Density tool is one of the most important instruments used to  evaluate formations which measures formation density and  directly ties to formation porosity • The density tool measures the electron density.

.

Density Log Main categories in the process of GR energy loss due to collisions with other atomic particles: Compton Scattering is selected to be the energy level to generate GR of the Cesium 137 radioactive source at 662 keV .

.

Density Log • Porosity determination from density log: RHOBma .Density derived porosity Exercise: Determine porosity of limestone with field log density inicated 2.RHOBlog POR = RHOBma .5 gr/cc.RHOBfluid RHOBma .Formation fluid density RHOBlog .Log density PORd .Matrix density RHOBfluid . .

Neutron Log • The tool measures the Hydrogen Index which is the quantity of  Hydrogen per unit volume • The tools emit high energy neutrons either from radioactive  source or minitron. They are slowed down by collisions with  formation nuclei. stand‐off. pressure  and formation salinity. mud weight. temperature. Gas will have very low neutron counts • Neutron log is very sensitive to environment change. bore hole  size. collision will result energy loss. . Oil has a little less counts than  Water. measurement is compensation of far  and near count rates. mud cake. and the  element mostly slowed down is H • Water has high neutron counts.

.

Neutron Log .

12 ppg mud at 170 F. 200 kppm borehole salinity.25” mud cake. using water based mud with formation salinity of 50 kppm.Neutron Log • Neutron tool has a wide range of applications ‐ Porosity Determination ‐ Gas Detection ‐ Borehole and formation salinity ‐ Reservoir Saturation ‐ Reservoir Monitoring ‐ Borehole Fluid dynamics • Neutron radioactive source in normally uses Am 241 Exercise Neutron Log environmental correction Given: Uncorrected neutron porosity of 34%. 5000 psi pressure. 0. . 14” borehole size.

Porosity.  Gas shows.  Lithology. Borehole compensated sonic Long spacing sonic Array sonic tool Ultrasonic borehole image Dipole shear sonic image  .Acoustic Log • Sonic tool generates acoustic signals to measure the time travel to  pass through a formation. log measurement in time required to  travel in one foot formation (microsec/foot) • Rock properties can be implied from sonic measurements. Compaction and Rock strength • Main current use :  ‐ Seismic Tie ‐ Mechanical properties ‐ Fracture identification • Tool types.

Acoustic Log .

Acoustic Log .

.

.

.

Dip meter. lower resolution than resistivity based imaging tools. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance . Paleostream direction.Pad device on 4 to 6 arm caliper. a Lithology dependance porosity. stratigraphy. fracture evaluation. AVO and Rock mechanics applications Borehole sonic imaging . saturartion and permeability estimation Dipole Shear Sonic . • • • .Application: Thin bed Evaluation. few mm resolution .Special Tools • Resistivity Based Imaging Tool .Acustic based bore hole imaging for 360 deg coverage.Using Permanent magnet to realign hydrogen protons to new magnetic field.Shear measurement.

VSP: Vertical seismic profile surface guns. identify the fluid type before sampling Wellbore Seismic .WST: Well seismic tool .Very robust formation tester with the capability to take unlimited pressure tests.Special Tools • continued • Modular Formation Test . wellbore detectors .SAT: Seismic acquisition tool .DSA: Downhole seismic array tool (3 axis geophones) . pump the fluid into the borehole.

Wellbore Seismic .

Log and Seismic Tie Effort • Log Data Validation ‐ Check the log quality ‐ See if there is any missing log data ‐ Determine whether sonic peaks/anomalies representing formation Log editing Velocity Correction Sonic over VSP (using 4‐2 msec resolution)  Synthetic Seismic Generation ‐ Acoustic Impedance ‐ Convolution Wavelet to tie seismic and log peaks * Extracted Wavelet ‐ to utilize wavelet as seen in the seismic it is highly recommended (similar apperance) * Rickr Wavelet ‐ commonly used to have zero phase • • • .

Synthetic Seismograms • • • Synthetic Seismograms are used to correlate seismic sections Theoretically this method uses many simplification and assumptions put  into the model It provides important link to understand the tie between seismic data and  well log responses .

VSP& Seismic Section .

 normally borehole effects are found very often causing drift  which is  to be removed to prevent shifting in time of seismic reflections or  pesudoevents • • • .Velocity Survey • Velocity or check shot surveys are performed in the wellbore to obtain  vertical travel paths through the formations by locating sources and  detectors/receivers at certain configuration. normally the receivers are  placed near the gelogical horizons The survey only utilize first arrival to use in the recorded seismic trace First arrivals are then converted into vertical travel times on time‐depth  graphs which can be used to calculate average velocities Sonic log calibration needs to be done prior to generation of synthetic  logs.

 and with much better resolution  due to shorter travel paths it  can provide a tool to generate high resolution maps. and better estimate of  rock properties • • • • • . the  signal changes interm of bandwidth and energy loss are measured Applicatios of VSP are to correlate the actual seismic events with more  confidence.Vertical Seismic Profile • Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) uses both entire recorded seismic trace and  first break.  Receivers are spaced at very closed  intervals in the wellbore in  order to get a seismic section in the wellbore The seismic wave and all effects are measured as a function of depth as it  propagates through the formations Thr receivers are close to reflectors where up‐going and down‐going waves  are recorded as a function of depth The down‐going wavelets are used to design deconvolution filters In general VSP provide much better spatial and temporal resolution.

Basic Concept of VSP .

Basic Concept of VSP .

Offset VSP • Offset VSP are used to detect faults and pincouts developed to illuminate structure away from the wellbore  Multiple offset and walkaway VSP • • Multiple offset VSP were developed to provide high-resolution seismic structural details in the area where interference from the shallow layers The disadvantages is very time consuming. it requires few days for the acquisition by putting multiple source positioned in different locations .

Offset VSP .

gas. oil and water Estimate hydrocarbon reserve Help geological correlation and subsurface mapping Determine facies and drilling locations .Basic Log Interpretation Logs Data Applications • • • • • • Determine depth and thickness Identify productive zones Distinguish fluid types.

Basic Log Interpretation Continued Common Tools in the Logging Industry • • • • • • • • • Gamma Rays Self Potential Resistivity Induction Density Neutron Sonic Magnetic Resonance Formation Test .

Basic Log Interpretation Continued Typical properties implied or estimated from the log Measurements: • Porosity • Water Saturation • Permeability Fluid types • Fluid contacts • Lithology • Dip angle • Velocity .

Neutron . .Sonic Combination of three inputs will get better estimate Density Porosity: POR = (DENmatrix – DENlog)/(DENmatrix – DENfluid) .Petrophysical Properties Porosity = Volume of pores Total Volume of Rock Porosity = “Storage Capacity” Porosity is estimated using one or combination of the followings.Density .

and formation water resistivity Archie’s Equation Sw = ( 1/Por m * Rw 1/n Rt ) SW .True Formation resistivity n .Resistivity It requires formation factor and saturation index derived from core analysis. .Cementation factor .Saturation exponent m .Water saturation Rw .Petrophysical Properties SW = Formation Water in the pores Total pore space in the rock Water Saturation is estimated using combination of the followings.Porosity .Formation water resistivity Rt .

drillstem test (DST) or from core analysis .Petrophysical Properties Permeability Estimation from Logs Timur’s K= ( 93 * Por Swi 2. The equations are based on empirical study.2 ) 2 where Swi = Irreducible water saturation Tixier’s K= ( 250 * Por Swi 3 ) 2 Permeability (K) is a measure of rock property to get the fluid passes through the rock. accurate K estimation can be obtained from formation test.

 and some practical applications of log  data Familiarize with factors affecting the log response Understand the strategy in well evaluation Get to know various approaches to well logging design Exercise with well log design ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ .Objectives ♦ Get to know various log measurements ♦ Recognize fluid type and lithology of major  reservoirs.

Fluid and Lithology Identification From the Logs

Fluid and Lithology Identification From the Logs

Gas

Gas Sand
Gas-Oil Contact

Oil

Oil Sand
Oil-Water Contact

Water

Water filled Sand Water filled Sand Water filled Sand Coal Carbonate/Limestone

Fluid and Lithology Identification From the Logs
0.1 RES 100

Gas Sand
Gas-Oil Contact

Oil Sand

Oil-Water Contact

Water filled Sand Water filled Sand Water filled Sand Coal Carbonate/Limestone

 and radioactive materials. is not harder than limestone and is very conductive. lowest density and very resistive • • • . Sandstone‐ is less dense than limestone.How Can We Remember These Easily? About Lithology Interpretation • Claystone ‐ has large amount of water. high density. contain more water  than limestone except when it is saturated with dry gas. fast velocity. Coal ‐ Normaly low radioactive. it has low radioactivity materials. its conductivity is depending on  fluid type it contains. rarely radioactive. is denser when it has  less water. very  resistive. has less water than clay. contains least water of the three. Limestone ‐ is harder than both clay and sand. has small to none radioactive fragments.

  less dense than water. denser  than gas Less Neutron than water. more  resistive than water. less‐ resistive than gas when other  properties are the same ‐ Very resistive. largest density  neutron crossover ‐ Larger density‐neutron crossover  than oil with low GOR ‐ Reservoir filled with high resistive water • • • Dry Gas High GOR Fresh Water .How Can We Remember These Easily? About Fluid Interpretation • • • • • High Radioactivity Very Conductive High Water High Gas High Oil ‐ High GR ‐ Low Resistivity ‐ High Neutron and Low Resistivity ‐ Low Neutron and High Resistivity ‐ Higher Neutron than Gas.

Are There Any Anomalies? About Fluid Interpretation • In a gas zone ‐ Mud filtrate invasion will cause the neutron‐density  crossover looks like that of oil zone. the shallow investigation  resistivity will be less resistive than that of deeper depth of  investigation. resistivity difference is larger when conductive  mud is used ‐ High Irreducible water (water bounds in clays and grains’  surface) will demonstrate little density‐neutron crossover  similar to that of oil or water zones but less resistive than gas  or oil zones with less irreducible water In an oil zone  ‐ similar to above • .

Gas Analysis and finger prints of fluid samples.For detailed rock and fluid properties such as X Ray Diffraction.How Is Log Analysis Calibrated? • Core Data Routie Core Analysis . when the parameters are not well established. Scanning Electron Microscopy.m and n determination). Petrophysical parameters (a. • . Formation Test Fluid Identification from the logs is not direct. PVT.For Porosity and Permeability Calibration Special Core Analysis . Formation test is also used when possible log response anomalies encountered to get conclusive fluid identification. and etc. formation test fluid samples can be used to calibrate fluid identification using the logs.

Modern Formation For Fluid Identification MDT String Configuration Single Probe Module Electric Power Module Large sample Chamber Multi sample Chambers Fluid Description Module Hydraulic Power Module Test Probe .

Basic components of the tool OLD NEW Probe Probe HP Gauge Strain Gauge Pre-Test Pre-Test Quartz Gauge Isolation Valve Two Sample Chambers Multi-sample Chambers Resist. sensor Pump Out Module Valve Optical Fluid Analyzer Flow line .

Gas Detector System OFA Gas Detector Optics Photodetector Array Sapphire Prism Sapphire window Fluid Flow Gas Gas Light Emitting Diode Cylindrical Lens Polarizer Liquid .

How OFA Divice Operates OFA Spectrometer Filter Lens Catridge Light Distributor Source Light path Filter lens Photodiode Solenoids Lamp Chopper motor Measure Light Path Sapphire Fluid flow .

How Can We Differenciate Fluid Types ? OFA Spectrometer 4.0 Visible Near infra-red Crude Oil B Optical Density Mud Crude Oil A Filtrate Fuel Oil Diesel 500 1000 Water 0.(NM) .0 1500 2000 Wave Length .

ExampleExample-1 : Gas OFA .

ExampleExample-2 : Water OFA .

ExampleExample-3 : Oil OFA .

Are There Any Other Logs Applications? The Logs Can Help Us to Determine: • • • • • • • • Volume of Hydrocarbon Fluid continuity Reservoir Extent Reservoir Rock Properties Depositional Environtment Diagenesis and Compaction Trapping Heterogeneity Selecting Drilling Location Well Completion Subsurface Geological Mapping Reservoir Characterization All are useful for .

Hydrocarbon Reserves Estimate Oil rec = 7758 * (1-Sw) * h * Por * RF * A BoI (43560 * DEPTH*0.43)* (1-Sw)* h* Por*RF*A 15 Gas rec = Where : RF .Recovery Factor h .5 * (Gas Oil Ratio/100) .Oil Vol.Area BoI .05 + 0. A .Thickness. factor BoI = 1.

Lateral Continuity ? Well-1 GR GR Res Well-7 Res Well-2 GR Res .

Compaction Trend ? DT GR Res .

 and  some practical applications of log data Familiarize with factors affecting the log response Understand the strategy in well evaluation Get to know various approaches to well logging design Exercise with well log design .Objectives ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Get to know various log measurements Recognize fluid type and lithology of major reservoirs.

Depth of Investigation and Resolution of Logging Tools Induction log 80 cm Resistivity Laterolog 80 cm Neutron 40 cm Radioactivity Gamma-ray Density 30 cm 20 cm Acoustic Sonic 60 cm 5 cm 2 cm 0 cm Micro resistivity Micro log Resistivity Dipmeter 250 cm 200 cm 150 cm 100 cm 50 cm Depth of Investigation Resolution .

Dipmeter .Others This slide helps you to configure the tool string that is appropriate for your well .Dipole Sonic .Borehole Imager .Formation Tester .Magnetic Resonance .Tools Size and Measuring point for Typical Oil Based Mud Environment AIT SDT LDT Neutron CNT SGT GR LEH TCC AMS Induction Sonic Density Tool Length Measuring point from the bottom of the tool Additional combinable tools: .

Tool Specification .

Resistivity Measurement Problems and Limitations
Resistivity measurements are not reliable when you have: Severe invasion due to overbalanced mud Large washed-out borehole Shoulder bed affects High content of conductive minerals Some older tool generations have limited vertical resolution

Effects of Borehole Environment

Ro Rt Rw Sw

Ri Rz Si

Rxo Rmf Sxo

Flushed Zone Rm Ri Invaded Zone Mud Cake Rmc

Undisturbed Formation

Invasion Profile
Fresh Mud Rmf > RW
Rm

Low

High

Rxo Rt

D M

S

Salt Mud

Rmf < Rw Rt S M D

Rxo
Rm

SP Log Limitations The tool is only for water based borehole environment SP is not reliable when you have no or very small contrast between Formation water salinity and mud filtrate salinity resulting in no to small SP deflection GR Log Limitations Standard GR tool is not reliable when you log an interval with radioactive mineral rich rocks. NGT is recommended to use for this type of Formation to get reliable GR derived clay volume calculation. it is very sensitive to the pad contact with The borehole wall. and cement attenuation Density Log Limitations Density log is a pad device. GR measurements in cased hole environment need to be normalized due to casing. make sure to consult with your petrophysicist prior to using the data for any other applications. .

mud weight. pressure and formation salinity. bore hole size. Sonic Log Limitations Sonic log is likely affected by strong attenuation when we log unconsolidated formation. Typically shows some curve skippings. measurement is compensation of far and near count rates. mud cake. rugose and enlarged borehole sections. Depleted and highly invaded zone would cause long fluid pumping before you get clean sample or fluid identification . Formation Test Log Limitations Formation test problems normally occur when you don not have a good Rubber pad seal. aerated muds. gas saturated reservoirs. fractured formation. temperature. causing a communication with the mud giving you much Higher pressure reading. stand-off. invasion.Neutron Log Limitations Neutron log is very sensitive to environment change.

Objectives ♦ ♦ ♦ Get to know various log measurements Recognize fluid type and the lithology of major reservoirs.  and practical uses of log data Familiarize with factors affecting the log response ♦ ♦ ♦ Understand the strategy of a well evaluation Get to know various approaches to well logging design Exercise with well log design .

2. 5.Why Wireline Well logging 1. Better Resolution More advanced tools Better depth control Only choice available (certain tools) More certain on data quality . 4. 3.

Disadvantages of Wireline  logging 1. 2. 3. more rig time More uncertainty in getting data or good data in problem prone wells . 5. 4. Invasion effect Hole condition dependant Unable to log in high angle wells (>60 deg) Acquired after drilling.

2. 4. High Mud Weight resulting in over balanced . 3. Borehole fluid type Borehole size Well deviation Tool combination 5.Important Issues with  Running Wireline logs 1.

Logging while Drilling .

Why LWD? • • • • Reduce Rig Time Real Time Decisions Minimized Borehole Problems High Angle/Horizontal Wells .

Disadvantages of LWD Borehole size and rugosity are not known Good data collected only when the tool is rotating Data quality is rate dependant Log resolution is generally poorer than that of wireline Ability to configure the tools is limited Not a good application for a slow drilling rate for cost  consideration especially for expensive rig. • Depth control is poorer than wireline data • • • • • • .

LWD and Wireline Comparison X800 X800 Invasion X900 X900 .

Wireline Log Example X400 X450 .

LWD Real time and Recorded Logs D. RES NEU DEN X600 X600 X700 X700 . RES GR X500 NEU GR DEN X500 D.

Selecting the Tools to run What tools do you run in the hole? It depends on what type of information you are about to get  and the cost you are willing to spend.  Need              Want What is the value of information you are getting? .

Ability to Define Your Need
• Geological • Geophysical • Reservoir • Petrophysical • Mechanical

Type of Information to Acquire
• Geology ‐ Sand development and sand thickness ‐ Stratigraphic information ‐ Lateral continuity ‐ Hydrocarbon source • Geophysics ‐ Velocity uncertainty ‐ Well to seismic tie ‐ Seismic and fluids/lithology correlation

Type of Information…  
• Petrophysics
‐ Porosity ‐ Water saturation ‐ Permeability ‐ Mineralogy

continued

• Reservoir
‐ Compartment ‐ Fluid properties ‐ Reservoir pressure ‐ Reservoir monitoring

• Rock Mechanics
‐ Stress direction ‐ Pressure profile ‐ Fracture orientation

Understand the Scales Of Observation Seismic Section Wireline Logs Out-Crops/Core Thin Sections .

Scales Of Observation .

Objectives ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Get to know various log measurements Recognize fluid type and the lithology of major reservoirs.  and practical uses of log data Familiarize with factors affecting the log response Understand the strategy in well evaluation ♦ ♦ Get to know various well logging designs Exercise with well log design .

Well Logging Design Objective The objectives of a well logging design should follow your drilling objectives. the objectives of logging program should be adjusted accordingly. . if drilling objective is not met. A logging program would vary depending on drilling Objectives.

    . the A‐4 well has produced this  Reservoir for a year.Well Logging Design‐1 Well Logging Design‐ • Onshore well A development well. and currently produces 80% water. is to drill updip structure of A‐Sand  to accelerate oil  production.  The  reservoir has a strong aquiver drive mechanism. A‐5.

Well Logging Design‐1  continued Well Logging Design‐ • Drilling objective is to drill and complete the A‐Sand Level • Logging program objective for this well is then to locate the  top of the A‐Sand and make sure that the interval is still in the  oil column. no need to take pressure  data. therefore. • Other information: Strong water drive means it has good  pressure maintenance. • Rig type: Onshore Rig (inexpensive). • Logging Design : Wireline GR‐Resistivity‐Neutron‐Density . a vertical well.

  however pressure data has helped the  well to well correlation.  First two‐wells suggest that well to well log  correlation is not easy.  This well is to reveal the lateral  continuity and the compartment issue of the reservoirs.  .Well Logging Design‐2 Well Logging Design‐ • Offshore well A third appraisal well is proposed on the west flank of the  structure.

 directional well? • Logging Design :  ‐ LWD GR‐Resistivity‐Density‐Neutron ‐ Wireline GR‐Resistivity‐Density‐Neutron as contigency in case LWD data is not reliable ‐ Wireline formation test for pressure correlation ‐ Wireline OBMI for stratigraphic information to help well to well correlation . • Rig type: Offhore Rig (expensive).Well Logging Design‐1  continued Well Logging Design‐ • Drilling objective is to drill and to find out the lateral continuity  of some reservoirs. • Other information: The well is still in the appraisal phase. • Logging program objective is to collect  as much data to  confirm lateral continuity and well to well correlation.

Example‐1 ‐ Example‐1 ‐ Logging Program • • • • 26 “ Conductor ‐ 3500’ to 3700’MD None 20” Casing ‐ 3700’ to 4100’ MD None 17‐1/2” Hole section 4100’ to 6000’ MD ‐ LWD:  GR‐Resistivity 12‐1/4” Hole Section 6000’ to 9000’ MD ‐ LWD:  GR‐Resistivity‐Density‐Neutron ‐ Wireline: Triple combo only when LWD fail Formation test as required 8‐1/2” Hole section 9000’ to 12000’ MD ‐ LWD:  GR‐Resistivity‐Density‐Neutron ‐ Wireline: Triple combo only when LWD fail Formation test as required Borehole image as required Nuclear Magnetic tool as required • .

Example‐ Example‐2  Logging Program • 8‐1/2” Hole Section 9000’ to 12000’ MD LWD: GR‐Resistivity‐Density‐Neutron Wireline: Triple combo as a contingency when LWD fail Wet Case: Triple combo as a contingency when LWD data is not reliable Formation tests for pressures and water samples Continued H. Case: Triple combo as a contingency when LWD data is not reliable Formation tests for pressures and fluid samples Borehole image log for dip and stratigraphic information Nuclear Magnetic tool when considerable thick‐shaly sand reservoirs are  penetrated Borehole seismic for velocity survey .C.

Important Aspects To Consider • Risk • Cost • Environment • Hole Size • Well Design • Tool Speed .

  ‐ In case of a risk that we are not able to go down passing  the same depth with new tool configuration.  The company  representative has decided to pull out of hole to run  different tool configuration. the  tools could not go down at certain depth. . the  petrophysicist has asked the log engineer to log up while  pulling out of hole to get data assurance.Important Aspects To Consider Some examples • Risk ‐ While we are running in hole with wireline tools.

 to drill additional 50 ft would take 24 hour rig  time including RIH and POOH. the team found out  that they do not have room to get all log data to the base of  the reservoir near TD if they use typical triple combination  wireline tools.  ‐ The petrophysicist has then decided to split the tools into  two runs.Important Aspects To Consider Some examples • Cost ‐ After the well reached TD at 6000 ft. which only require additional 6 hour rig time for  second wireline run.  By doing that it would have saved 18  hour rig time if they drill additional 50 ft to have only one  logging run  .

 limestone can be  penetrated in the same hole section. ‐ The geologist and petrophysicist have suggested their  drilling team to drill the well with oil based mud to help  possible swelling clay problem.  Where coal. therefore it would  promote a smooth and successful logging operation after  they reach TD. sand. shale. formation of limestone  ledges and washed‐out sand section.Important Aspects To Consider Some examples • Environment ‐ The well is to drill complex lithology interval in Jurasic  section.  .

  . ‐ The petrophysicist has argued and suggested to run  wireline because based on previous wells in this field where  they have drilled at average rate of 300 ft/hr resulting in not  reliable data. The team has supported their petrophysicist to  run wireline because it would help to support field  certification.Important Aspects To Consider Some examples • Hole Size ‐ The Drilling engineer has suggested to run only LWD in the  12‐1/4” hole section to reduce well cost.

Important Aspects To Consider Some examples • Well Design ‐ After the G&G team provide the targets to the drilling  engineer.  . the team has to end up with a well design that it  requires a highly deviated well exceeding 60 deg. ‐ LWD log data acquisition is then put in their logging  program because based on their experience in this field 50  deg well was the highest deviated well that they could log  with wireline.

Important Aspects To Consider Some examples • Tool Speed ‐ Based on the statistics drilling the Pliocene section is very  quick. ‐ LWD engineer and the petrophyscist have worked together  and have given a recommendation to do controlled drilling at  about 200 ft/hr to get an acceptable log data quality. averaging 400 ft/hr.  . the company is drilling a  horizontal gas well at about 3000 ft TVD.

Cost. Well Design. Environment. Tool Speed .What do you have in mind? On Shore Development Well Off Shore Deep water development-well In respect to Risk. Hole Size.

Exploratory Well • Seismic Information • Regional Geology Information • Drilling the well using “Learning while doing”  concept • High Risk but must be manageable • Mostly Vertical well .

 highly deviated to horizontal wells .Development Well • In Many cases with little to no need of seismic  information • Local Geology Information • Drilling with full knowledge • Low Risk mainly mechanical • Vertical.

An Example of rather complex Logging Program  Decision Tree West Seno Data Gathering Strategy Standard we ll Y PAY Y LWD MD T N LWD N SAMPLING N Full Cor es N Y Fully Loade d Wireline Y CST Cor es N Spe cial Logging N N Y SAMPLES PRESSURE P.O PEX MD T Y 12 1/4 “ PAY Y WIRELINE N LWD SAMPLING N STOP Y N Velocity Uncertainty N N UBI or CBL N Y Objective VSP CSAT or VSP De epest Well N Y Objective driven-logging STOP Y STOP Cased H ole GR GR to bottom of 13 3/8 “ .

Another Way To Save Cost! • ACQUIRE DATA WITHOUT USING COSTLY RIG TIME  (PIPE DECISION NOT NECESSARY ‐ NO DRY HOLES) – GATHER DATA REALTIME WHILE DRILLING – GATHER DATA THROUGH TUBING AFTER COMPLETION – COMBINATION OF BOTH .

.

Project Base Approach UOME company has $200 MM program for exploratory wells for the year 2004. As a follow up of their exploration campaign. UOME Company has $ 600 MM program for developing a new deepwater field for the year  2005 that will have peak production of 100.000  BOPD .

  and practical uses of log data Familiarize with factors affecting the log response Understand the strategy in well evaluation Get to know various well logging designs ♦ Exercise with well log design .Objectives ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Get to know various log measurements Recognize fluid type and the lithology of major reservoirs.

200 ft.000/day.. Density and Neutron ‐ $10.000 to 4. the well penetrates 5 thick sand units with high mud log gas from  3. The costs for various available log data acquisition are as follow: Wireline GR ‐ $1/ft. $1000/fluid identification.  How do you recommend the company on the logging design? 3) After the well reached the proposed TD. Indoco‐1. on‐shore.  The company is looking at a  prospect to drill the first well. the sole owner of mineral right on Block A. there were no encouragement seen from  the mud log signs. and it is estimated 50 ft down  dip in this block.Exercise‐1 • PT Indooil Co. what would you do for your logging program?  • • • • • • • • • . BHC Sonic ‐ $1/ft.000/day The rig cost is $5000/day  1) What is your recommended data gathering strategy and well logging design for  the well? 2) While drilling. in the block targeting for the same  producing interval in Block B at about 4000 ft depth. Neutron‐$2/ft Formation test ‐ $100/pressure. 2 km in  adjacent to a known oil producing area in the Block B. Density‐$2/ft. LWD GR and Induction ‐ $10. $2000/fluid sample  Depth charge for each Wireline tool is free. Induction ‐ $4/ft.

  The company did low profile and ran  only simple wireline GR.Exercise‐2 • The exercise‐1 was seismically to test the amplitude anomaly  at Orange horizon. • What is your data gathering strategy for this Indoco‐2 well? . neutron and sonic  on the Inoco‐1 well.   The Indoco‐1 well encountered 300 ft of Oil column and was  completed and produced from this level for over one year  with cumulative production of 4 mmbo.  The company is  looking at similar seismic character 1‐1/2 km away from  Indoco‐1 well.  It has been interpreted as a  different channel lobe. equivalent to the Berani Clastic Formation. density. which was connected by dim event to the  amplitude at the Indoco‐1 well. resistivity.

 it is a big structure filled with  hydrocarbon.   To properly evaluate the prospect.Exercise‐3 • A subsurface team is evaluating a four‐way closure structure  offshore East Kalimantan.  The water depth around the prospect is about  4500 ft. if the  timing of migration is right. .  Some apparent faults due to regional  compressive stress cut the structure into possible many  compartments.   • Make assessment on options the company needs to do and  make recommendation on well evaluation strategy. the team thinks  that they need at least 8 wells drilled at various locations on  the structure. based on their synthesis.

  The team is looking at drilling  horizontal well with about 500 ft of producing  section.  What is your recommended logging  program for this well and why? .  The company is trying to get  more gas production.Exercise‐4 • An offshore well is proposed to redrill the A‐5 well  with updip direction from this well to get the gas leg  of clean and blocky sand found with gas water  contact in the A‐5 well.