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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the astronomical event. For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation).
Multiwavelength X-ray, infrared, and optical compilation image of Kepler's supernova remnant, SN 1604. A supernova (plural supernovae) is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. Supernovae are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. During this short interval a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span. The explosion expels much or all of a star's material at a velocity of up to 30,000 km/s (10% of the speed of light), driving a shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium. This shock wave sweeps up an expanding shell of gas and dust called a supernova remnant. Nova (plural novae) means "new" in Latin, referring to what appears to be a very bright new star shining in the celestial sphere; the prefix "super-" distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which also involve a star increasing in brightness, though to a lesser extent and through a different mechanism. The word supernova was coined by Swiss astrophysicist and astronomer Fritz Zwicky, and was first used in print in 1926. Several types of supernovae exist. Types I and II can be triggered in one of two ways, either turning off or suddenly turning on the production of energy through nuclear fusion. After the core of an aging massive star ceases generating energy from nuclear fusion, it may undergo sudden gravitational collapse into a neutron star or black hole, releasing gravitational potential energy that heats and expels the star's outer layers. Alternatively a white dwarf star may accumulate sufficient material from a stellar companion (either through accretion or via a merger) to raise its core temperature enough to ignite carbon fusion, at which point it undergoes runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting it.
Stellar cores whose furnaces have permanently gone out collapse when their masses exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, while accreting white dwarfs ignite as they approach this limit (roughly 1.38 times the solar mass). White dwarfs are also subject to a different, much smaller type of thermonuclear explosion fueled by hydrogen on their surfaces called a nova. Solitary stars with a mass below approximately 9 solar masses, such as the Sun, evolve into white dwarfs without ever becoming supernovae. Although no supernova has been observed in the Milky Way since 1604, supernovae remnants indicate on average the event occurs about once every 50 years in the Milky Way. They play a significant role in enriching the interstellar medium with higher mass elements. Furthermore, the expanding shock waves from supernova explosions can trigger the formation of new stars.
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1 Observation history 2 Discovery 3 Naming convention 4 Classification 5 Current models o 5.1 Type Ia o 5.2 Type Ib and Ic o 5.3 Type II 5.3.1 Core collapse 5.3.2 Light curves and unusual spectra o 5.4 Pair-instability type o 5.5 Asymmetry o 5.6 Energy output 6 Interstellar impact o 6.1 Source of heavy elements o 6.2 Role in stellar evolution o 6.3 Impact on Earth 7 Milky Way candidates 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links
 Observation history
Main article: History of supernova observation
The Crab Nebula is a pulsar wind nebula associated with the 1054 supernova. The earliest recorded supernova, SN 185, was viewed by Chinese astronomers in 185 AD. The brightest recorded supernova was the SN 1006, which was described in detail by Chinese and Islamic astronomers. The widely observed supernova SN 1054 produced the Crab Nebula. Supernovae SN 1572 and SN 1604, the last to be observed with the naked eye in the Milky Way galaxy, had notable effects on the development of astronomy in Europe because they were used to argue against the Aristotelian idea that the universe beyond the Moon and planets was immutable. Since the development of the telescope the field of supernova discovery has extended to other galaxies, starting with the 1885 observation of supernova S Andromedae in the Andromeda galaxy. Supernovae provide important information on cosmological distances. During the twentieth century successful models for each type of supernova were developed, and scientists' comprehension of the role of supernovae in the star formation process is growing. American astronomers Rudolph Minkowski and Fritz Zwicky developed the modern supernova classification scheme beginning in 1941. In the 1960s astronomers found that the maximum intensities of supernova explosions could be used as standard candles, hence indicators of astronomical distances. Some of the most distant supernovae recently observed appeared dimmer than expected. This supports the view that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Techniques were developed for reconstructing supernova explosions that have no written records of being observed. The date of the Cassiopeia A supernova event was determined from light echoes off nebulae, while the age of supernova remnant RX J0852.0-4622 was estimated from temperature measurements and the gamma ray emissions from the decay of titanium-44. In 2009 nitrates were discovered in Antarctic ice deposits that matched the times of past supernova events.
 Towards the end of the 20th century astronomers increasingly turned to computercontrolled telescopes and CCDs for hunting supernovae. the distance to a remote object with a known emission spectrum can be estimated by measuring its Doppler shift (or redshift). on average. Recently the Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS) project has begun using a network of neutrino detectors to give early warning of a supernova in the Milky Way galaxy. High redshift searches for supernovae usually involve the observation of supernova light curves. when they are discovered. with the boundary falling around a redshift range of z = 0. obtaining a good sample of supernovae to study requires regular monitoring of many galaxies. Supernova searches fall into two classes: those focused on relatively nearby events and those looking for explosions farther away. which is a plot of distance versus redshift for visible galaxies. and so have a higher redshift.Because supernovae are relatively rare events within a galaxy. Supernovae in other galaxies cannot be predicted with any meaningful accuracy. there are also professional installations such as the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope. Low redshift observations also anchor the low-distance end of the Hubble curve. Normally. typically by looking at some of the closer galaxies through an optical telescope and comparing them to earlier photographs. more distant objects recede with greater velocity than those nearby. It is therefore important to discover them well before they reach their maximum. While such systems are popular with amateurs. and they are not significantly absorbed by the interstellar gas and dust of the galactic disk. occurring about once every 50 years in the Milky Way. used to study the physics and environments of supernovae. Thus the search is split between high redshift and low redshift. Neutrinos are particles that are produced in great quantities by a supernova explosion. Most scientific interest in supernovae—as standard candles for measuring distance. have played an important role in finding supernovae. Supernova spectroscopy. for example—require an observation of their peak luminosity. These are useful for standard or calibrated candles to generate Hubble diagrams and make cosmological predictions. Because of the expansion of the universe. Amateur astronomers. they are already in progress.1–0. is more practical at low than at high redshift.  Naming convention . (See also Hubble's law). who greatly outnumber professional astronomers.3—where z is a dimensionless measure of the spectrum's frequency shift.
even if there was only one supernova discovered that year (e. indicating that it was the 367th[nb 1] supernova found in 2005. 261 in 2008. For example. astronomers have classified them according to the absorption lines of different chemical elements that appear in their spectra. The first element for a division is the presence or absence of a line caused by hydrogen. Among those types. since 1988. If a supernova's spectrum contains a line of hydrogen (known as the Balmer series in the visual portion of the spectrum) it is classified Type II. SN 1006. etc.)—this last happened with SN 1947A. the last supernova of 2005 was SN 2005nc. otherwise it is Type I. Since 1885 the letter notation has been used. is a standard prefix. and so on. "SN". ab. which sends out a circular with the name it assigns to it. SN 1885A. The first 26 supernovae of the year are designated with a capital letter from A to Z. 1907A.g. Afterward pairs of lower-case letters are used: aa. for SuperNova. there are subdivisions according to the presence of lines from other elements and the shape of the light curve (a graph of the supernova's apparent magnitude as a function of time). two-letter designations were rarely needed. Supernova discoveries are reported to the International Astronomical Union's Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.SN 1994D in the NGC 4526 galaxy (bright spot on the lower left). Supernova taxonomy Type Characteristics Type I Type Ia Lacks hydrogen and presents a singly ionized silicon (Si II) line at .  Classification As part of the attempt to understand supernovae. The name is the year of discovery. 390 in 2009). they have been needed every year. immediately followed by a one or two-letter designation. Since 2000. Until 1987. professional and amateur astronomers find several hundreds of supernovae each year (572 in 2007. however. SN 1572 (Tycho's Nova) and SN 1604 (Kepler's Star). SN 1054. Historical supernovae are known simply by the year they occurred: SN 185.
615.  Current models  Type Ia Formation of a type Ia supernova Main article: Type Ia supernova There are several means by which a supernova of this type can form. The term "Type IIb" is used to describe the combination of features normally associated with Types II and Ib. Type II Type IIP Reaches a "plateau" in its light curve Displays a "linear" decrease in its light curve (linear in magnitude versus time). but they share a common underlying mechanism. over a period of weeks to months.38 solar masses (for a non-rotating star). where the 'n' stands for 'narrow'. If a carbon-oxygen[nb 2] white dwarf accreted enough matter to reach the Chandrasekhar limit of about 1. some have relatively narrow features. These are called Type IIn. Supernovae that do not fit into the normal classifications are designated peculiar. A few supernovae. or 'pec'. but. While most Type II supernova show very broad emission lines which indicate expansion velocities of many thousands of kilometres per second. Non-ionized helium (He I) line at 587. such as SN 1987K and SN 1993J. near peak light. Type IIL  The supernovae of Type II can also be sub-divided based on their spectra. appear to change types: they show lines of hydrogen at early times. it would no longer be able to support the bulk of its plasma through electron .6 nm and no strong silicon absorption Type Ib feature near 615 nm. Type Ic Weak or no helium lines and no strong silicon absorption feature near 615 nm. become dominated by lines of helium.0 nm (nanometers).
This would allow them to be used as a secondary standard candle to measure the distance to their host galaxies.3 (or 5 billion times brighter than the Sun).000–20. with the combined mass momentarily exceeding the Chandrasekhar limit. The larger of the two stars is the first to evolve off the main sequence. The giant star then sheds most of its envelope. losing mass until it can no longer continue nuclear fusion. One model for the formation of this category of supernova is a close binary star system. The two stars now share a common envelope.3. However. Eventually the secondary star also evolves off the main sequence to form a red giant. and thus in the intrinsic luminosity of supernovae. releasing enough energy (1–2 × 1044 joules) to unbind the star in a supernova explosion. increasing temperature and density inside the core ignite carbon fusion as the star approaches the limit (to within about 1%). having a maximum absolute magnitude of about -19. causing the latter to increase in mass. with matter reaching velocities on the order of 5. Within a few seconds. A white dwarf could also accrete matter from other types of companions. However. There is also a significant increase in luminosity. with little variation. recent discoveries reveal that there is some evolution in the average lightcurve width. Matter from the giant is accreted by the white dwarf. An outwardly expanding shock wave is generated.degeneracy pressure and would begin to collapse. the current view is that this limit is not normally attained. reaching an absolute magnitude of -19. before collapse is initiated. Type Ia supernovae follow a characteristic light curve—the graph of luminosity as a function of time—after the explosion. Another model for the formation of a Type Ia explosion involves the merger of two white dwarf stars. causing their mutual orbit to shrink. or roughly 3% of the speed of light. The peak luminosity of the light curve was believed to be consistent across Type Ia supernovae (the vast majority of which are initiated with a uniform mass via the accretion mechanism).000 km/s. At this point it becomes a white dwarf star. composed primarily of carbon and oxygen. and it expands to form a red giant.  Type Ib and Ic Main article: Type Ib and Ic supernovae . including a main sequence star (if the orbit is sufficiently close). although significant evolution is found only over a large redshift baseline. This luminosity is generated by the radioactive decay of nickel-56 through cobalt-56 to iron-56. a substantial fraction of the matter in the white dwarf undergoes nuclear fusion.
this outward pressure is no longer created. and a hotter. evolved star just prior to core collapse. (Other elements such as magnesium. shown in X-ray (left) and visible light (right) at the far upper end of the galaxy. like supernovae of Type II. are probably massive stars running out of fuel at their centers. (Not to scale. The core expands and cools slightly. causing a rise in temperature and pressure which becomes great enough to ignite the helium and start a helium-to-carbon fusion cycle. helium-fusion center. There is some evidence that a few percent of the Type Ic supernovae may be the progenitors of gamma ray bursts (GRB). The core begins to collapse. hydrogen is fused into helium and the thermal energy released creates an outward pressure. a Type Ib supernova. which maintains the core in hydrostatic equilibrium and prevents collapse. the progenitors of Types Ib and Ic have lost most of their outer (hydrogen) envelopes due to strong stellar winds or else from interaction with a companion. creating sufficient outward pressure to halt the collapse.SN 2008D.) Stars with at least nine solar masses of material evolve in a complex fashion. Type Ib supernovae are thought to be the result of the collapse of a massive Wolf-Rayet star. Each layer is prevented from collapse by the heat and . sulfur and calcium are also created and in some cases burned in these further reactions.) This process repeats several times. When the core's supply of hydrogen is exhausted.  Type II Main article: Type II supernova The onion-like layers of a massive. Type Ib or Ic supernova could be a GRB. and the collapse is halted by the ignition of a further process involving more massive nuclei and higher temperatures and pressures. with a hydrogen-fusion outer layer. These events. In the core of the star. though it is also believed that any hydrogen-stripped. each time the core collapses. dependent upon the geometry of the explosion. however. higher pressure.
In a typical Type II supernova the newly formed neutron core has an initial temperature of about 100 billion kelvin (100 GK). A further release of neutrinos carries away much of the thermal energy. resulting in a rapid increase in temperature and density. These carry away energy from the core and accelerate the collapse. absorbing energy. which is unable to produce energy through fusion (but does produce iron-56 through radioactive decay). About 1046 joules of gravitational energy—approximately 10% of the star's rest mass—is converted into a tensecond burst of neutrinos. producing neutrons and electron neutrinos. while some neutrinos are absorbed by the star's outer layers and provide energy to the supernova explosion. at which point this mechanism catastrophically fails. The infalling matter. the core implodes due to its own mass. and a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. and no further fusion process is available to ignite and prevent collapse this time.000 km/s (0. The inner core eventually reaches typically 30 km diameter.23c). As a result. allowing a stable neutron star to form (the neutrons would "boil away" if this cooling did not occur). requiring a general acceleration of the fusion processes to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium. a nickel-iron core builds up that cannot produce further outward pressure on the scale needed to support the rest of the structure.outward pressure of the fusion process in the next layer inward. which escape. gamma rays decompose iron into helium nuclei and free neutrons.  Core collapse See also: Gravitational collapse The core collapses in on itself with velocities reaching 70. producing a shock wave that propagates outward. then the iron-nickel core will eventually exceed the Chandrasekhar limit (1. and total several times the number of electron-capture neutrinos. 6000 times the temperature of the sun's core. The forces holding atomic nuclei apart in the innermost layer of the core suddenly give way. Through photodisintegration. These 'thermal' neutrinos form as neutrino-antineutrino pairs of all flavors. each layer also burns hotter and quicker than the previous one—the final burn of silicon to iron consumes its fuel in just a few days at most. Computer simulations indicate that this expanding shock does not directly cause the supernova . rebounds. This escalation culminates with the production of nickel-56. If the star is sufficiently large. It can only support the overlaying mass of the star through the degeneracy pressure of electrons in the core. suddenly halted. The star becomes layered like an onion. with the burning of more easily fused elements occurring in larger shells. Fusion produces progressively less energy. while electrons and protons merge via electron capture. and also at higher core energies photodisintegration and electron capture occur which cause further energy loss in the core. which is the main output of the event. The energy loss processes operating in the core cease to be in equilibrium. and further collapse is abruptly stopped by strong force interactions and by degeneracy pressure of neutrons.38 solar masses). In the later stages increasingly heavier elements with higher binding energy undergo nuclear fusion.
explosion. Above this mass the remnant collapses to form a black hole. possibly producing a large burst of gamma rays through a hypernova explosion. The surrounding material is blasted away (f). Above 50 solar masses stars were believed to collapse directly into a black hole without forming a supernova explosion. When the progenitor star is below about 20 solar masses (depending on the strength of the explosion and the amount of material that falls back). leaving only a degenerate remnant. and a process that is not clearly understood is necessary to allow the outer layers of the core to reabsorb around 1044 joules[nb 3] (1 foe) of energy. Above about 140 solar masses stars may become pair-instability supernovae that do not leave behind a black hole remnant. Current research focuses upon a combination of neutrino reheating. Within a massive. causing infalling material to bounce (d) and form an outward-propagating shock front (red). producing the visible explosion. The inner part of the core is compressed into neutrons (c). but it is re-invigorated by a process that may include neutrino interaction.  . The shock starts to stall (e). forming an iron core (b) that reaches Chandrasekhar-mass and starts to collapse. the degenerate remnant of a core collapse is a neutron star.)  The theoretical limiting mass for this type of core collapse scenario was estimated around 40–50 solar masses. (This type of collapse is one of many candidate explanations for gamma ray bursts. evolved star (a) the onion-layered shells of elements undergo fusion. it stalls within milliseconds in the outer core as energy is lost through the dissociation of heavy elements. rather. although uncertainties in models of supernova collapse make accurate calculation of these limits difficult. rotational and magnetic effects as the basis for this process.
 Light curves and unusual spectra This graph of the luminosity as a function of time shows the characteristic shapes of the light curves for a Type II-L and II-P supernova.5 (apparent magnitude +3 for a distance of 51 kpc). The shock wave ionizes the hydrogen in the outer envelope. but not all. as compared to the standard -19. The light curves for Type II supernovae are distinguished by the presence of hydrogen Balmer absorption lines in the spectra. As the ejecta of a Type IIb expands. much lower than the decay rate for Type I supernovae. These light curves have an average decay rate of 0. The plateau phase in Type II-P supernovae is due to a change in the opacity of the exterior layer. Type II are sub-divided into two classes. This prevents photons from the inner parts of the explosion from escaping. Type IIb supernovae are likely massive stars which have lost most.3 for Type Ia. depending on whether there is a plateau in their light curve (Type II-P) or a linear decay rate (Type II-L).0075 magnitudes per day for Type II-P. The net decay rate is higher at 0. the low-luminosity SN 1987A had a peak visual absolute magnitude of -15.008 magnitudes per day. the hydrogen layer quickly becomes optically thin and reveals the deeper layers. of their hydrogen envelopes through tidal stripping by a companion star. The difference in the shape of the Type II-L supernovae light curve is believed to be caused by the expulsion of most of the hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star. Of the Type II supernovae with unusual features in their spectra. which greatly increases the opacity. the outer layer becomes transparent.  The peak absolute magnitude of Type II supernovae varies from one to another.  Pair-instability type Main article: Pair-instability supernova . For instance. Once the hydrogen cools sufficiently to recombine. but they are dimmer than Type Ia. Type IIn supernovae may be produced by the interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material.012 magnitudes per day for Type II-L compared to 0.
This pair-instability supernova creates a larger quantity of elements heavier than helium ("metals") than other types of supernova and leaves no black hole as a remnant. Fraley in 1968. (Neutron stars are observed. bright enough to observe for 555 days—and production of much more radioactive nickel. bounce and resulting explosion. Proposed explanations for this kick include convection in the collapsing star and jet production during neutron star formation. The pair-instability supernova was predicted by Gary S. black holes presumably do as well. reducing the photon pressure supporting the star's outer layers and triggering a collapse that leads to a supernova explosion. which is characteristic of the early universe before the first supernovae produced metals from the primordial hydrogen and helium.  . but the mechanism by which this momentum is transferred to the compact object remains a puzzle. This neutron star is travelling at an estimated 375 km/s. This displacement indicates an asymmetry in the explosion.The core temperature of a star of over about 140 solar masses can become so high that photons convert spontaneously to electron-positron pairs. but are far harder to observe in isolation. A pulsar near the center is propelling particles to almost the speed of light. Stars of this size can only form from interstellar gas with very low metal content. resulting in uneven nuclear burning during the collapse. It is believed that supernova SN 2007bi was of this type. One possible explanation for the asymmetry in the explosion is large-scale convection above the core. propelling an object of more than a solar mass at a velocity of 500 km/s or greater.) The initial impetus can be substantial. to have high velocities. as pulsars.  Asymmetry A long-standing puzzle surrounding Type II supernovae is why the compact object remaining after the explosion is given a large velocity away from the core. it was distinguished from other supernovae by very long duration—77 days to peak brightness. The convection can create variations in the local abundances of elements. This composite image shows X-ray (blue) and optical (red) radiation from the Crab Nebula's core region.
However. that must expand (and therefore cool) enormously before becoming transparent. while a Core Collapse supernova probably ejects closer to 0. A fundamental difference between Type Ia and Core Collapse supernovae is the source of energy for the radiation emitted near the peak of the light curve. The progenitors of Core Collapse supernovae are stars with extended envelopes that can attain a degree of transparency with relatively little expansion.1 days) and its daughter cobalt-56 (with a half-life of 77 days). The radiation emitted by Type Ia supernovae is thus entirely attributable to the decay of radionuclides produced in the explosion. These jets might play a crucial role in the resulting supernova explosion. (A similar model is now favored for explaining long gamma ray bursts.) Initial asymmetries have also been confirmed in Type Ia supernova explosions through observation. Gamma rays emitted during this nuclear decay are absorbed by the ejected material. although not undisputed. candidate sites for the r-process. Types Ib. Supernovae are the most likely.  Interstellar impact  Source of heavy elements Main article: Supernova nucleosynthesis Supernovae are a key source of elements heavier than oxygen. The progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.0 solar masses of nickel-56.1 solar mass of nickel-56. Early asymmetries are detectable by measuring the polarization of the emitted light. and by nucleosynthesis during the supernova explosion for elements heavier than iron. Ic and various Types II supernovae are collectively called Core Collapse supernovae. and driving transverse shocks that completely disrupt the star. Heat from the explosion is dissipated in the expansion and is not available for light production. radioactive decay eventually takes over as the main energy source for light emission in this case also. Most of the energy powering the emission at peak light is derived from the shock wave that heats and ejects the envelope. These elements are produced by nuclear fusion (for iron-56 and lighter elements). A bright Type Ia supernova may expel 0. which is a rapid . much smaller (but more massive) than the Sun.5–1.  Energy output Because they have a similar functional model. the explosion becomes more symmetrical with the passage of time. on the other hand. As the material ejected by a Core Collapse supernova expands and cools.Another possible explanation is that accretion of gas onto the central neutron star can create a disk that drives highly directional jets. heating it to incandescence. principally nickel-56 (with a half-life of 6. are compact objects. This result may mean that the initial luminosity of this type of supernova depends on the viewing angle. propelling matter at a high velocity out of the star.
going from an almost pure mixture of hydrogen and helium to a more metal-rich composition. The reactions produce highly unstable nuclei that are rich in neutrons. Supernovae are the dominant mechanism for distributing these heavier elements. which are formed in a star during its period of nuclear fusion. throughout space. uranium and californium. helium. which can last for up to two centuries. This cloud of material sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium during a free expansion phase. The wave then gradually undergoes a period of adiabatic expansion. Supernovae tend to enrich the surrounding interstellar medium with metals—elements other than hydrogen and helium. and traces of lithium.000 years. produces about half of all the element abundance beyond iron. and which cannot produce elements heavier than lead. including plutonium. which is likely to occur in type II supernovae. while all heavier elements are synthesized in stars and supernovae. which produces these elements much more slowly. The Big Bang produced hydrogen.  Role in stellar evolution Main article: Supernova remnant The remnant of a supernova explosion consists of a compact object and a rapidly expanding shock wave of material. Supernova remnant N 63A lies within a clumpy region of gas and dust in the Large Magellanic Cloud. and will slowly cool and mix with the surrounding interstellar medium over a period of about 10.form of nucleosynthesis that occurs under conditions of high temperature and high density of neutrons. each stellar generation has a slightly different composition. These injected elements ultimately enrich the molecular clouds that are the sites of star formation. The r-process reaction. The different . Thus. old red giant stars. [not in citation given] The only other major competing process for producing elements heavier than iron is the s-process in large. These forms are unstable and rapidly beta decay into more stable forms.
 Evidence from daughter products of short-lived radioactive isotopes shows that a nearby supernova helped determine the composition of the Solar System 4. Recent estimates predict that a Type II supernova would have to be closer than eight parsecs (26 light-years) to destroy half of the Earth's ozone layer. Type Ia supernovae are thought to be potentially the most dangerous if they occur close enough to the Earth. In 2009. Supernova production of heavy elements over astronomic periods of time ultimately made the chemistry of life on Earth possible. depleting the ozone layer enough to expose the surface to harmful solar and cosmic radiation. Because these supernovae arise from dim. which coincided with the 1006 and 1054 supernovae.abundances of elements in the material that forms a star have important influences on the star's life. The increase in turbulent pressure can also prevent star formation if the cloud is unable to lose the excess energy. The closest known candidate is IK Pegasi (see below). This has been proposed as the cause of the Ordovician-Silurian extinction.  Impact on Earth Main article: Near-Earth supernova A near-Earth supernova is a supernova close enough to the Earth to have noticeable effects on its biosphere. The kinetic energy of an expanding supernova remnant can trigger star formation due to compression of nearby. In 1996 it was theorized that traces of past supernovae might be detectable on Earth in the form of metal isotope signatures in rock strata.  Milky Way candidates Main article: List of supernova candidates . and may decisively influence the possibility of having planets orbiting it.5 billion years ago. dense molecular clouds in space. which became trapped in the ice. Gamma rays from these supernovae could have boosted levels of nitrogen oxides. it is likely that a supernova that can affect the Earth will occur unpredictably and in a star system that is not well studied. which resulted in the death of nearly 60% of the oceanic life on Earth. depending upon type and energy—different figures have been suggested. One theory suggests that a Type Ia supernova would have to be closer than a thousand parsecs (3300 light-years) to affect the Earth. Iron-60 enrichment was later reported in deep-sea rock of the Pacific Ocean. elevated levels of nitrate ions were found in Antarctic ice. Gamma rays from a supernova would induce a chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere converting molecular nitrogen into nitrogen oxides. common white dwarf stars. This would need to be nearer than about 100 to 3000 light-years away. and may even have triggered the formation of this system.
 WR 104. which is located at a distance of about 21. located at a distance of 150 light-years. Astronomy portal Star portal Space portal • • • • • • • Champagne Supernova Dwarf nova Guest star (astronomy) List of supernovae List of supernova remnants Quark nova Supernovae in fiction . Several large stars within the Milky Way have been suggested as possible supernovae within the next million years. and those in the Quintuplet Cluster. The dwarf has an estimated mass 1.15 times that of the Sun. VY Canis Majoris. Antares.The nebula around Wolf-Rayet star WR124. These include Rho Cassiopeiae. are also considered possible precursor stars to a supernova explosion in the 'near' future. Eta Carinae.  See also Book: Classes of supernovae Wikipedia Books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. Betelgeuse. The nearest supernova candidate is IK Pegasi (HR 8210). This closely orbiting binary star system consists of a main sequence star and a white dwarf 31 million kilometres apart. and Spica.000 light years. RS Ophiuchi. It is thought that several million years will pass before the white dwarf can accrete the critical mass required to become a Type Ia supernova. Many Wolf-Rayet stars. such as Gamma Velorum. U Scorpii.
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(2007-01-08). ^ Weaver.ns?id=dn2311.gov/docs/snr.org/outreach/eduoff/edu-prog/catchastar/CAS2004/casreports2004/rep-310/.. http://chandra. ^ Kaler.edu/abs/1993PASP.uiuc. ^ Lloyd. ^ "Supernova Remnants and Neutron Stars". http://www. HubbleSite NewsCenter. doi:10.harvard. Alexi V. (2004).Bibcode: 2002ASPC.1. Retrieved 2007-01-08.edu/~kaler/sow/regor. ^ Samuel.. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.35. Physics Today 43 (9): 24–27. The Alchemy of the Heavens: Searching for Meaning in the Milky Way.harvard. Ken (1996). http://adsabs. http://www. Astronomical Society of the Pacific 105 (690): 841–847. D.261. "The hot white-dwarf companions of HR 1608.pdf. 2005-08-02.harvard. "Astronomers Map a Hypergiant Star's Massive Outbursts".com/scienceastronomy/060904_mystery_monday. doi:10. Robin (2006-09-04). Jim. An article describing spectral classes of supernovae..html.261.77T. W.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2007/03/full/. 119.105. "Optical Spectra of Supernovae".1146/annurev. Retrieved 2007-01-12.star. Humphreys.881256. and HD 15638".html.ucl. "SUPERNOVAE.edu/resources/faq/sources/snr/snr-5.  Further reading • Bethe. (1997).eso. http://zuserver2. Further reading internet link: http://heasarc. A popular-science account. Astronomy Picture of the Day..adsabs.ac. Filippenko.astro.309. Simon..physicstoday. "Supernova poised to go off near Earth". R. Eugenie (2002-05-23). Bergeron.. ^ Tzekova. Retrieved 2009-0124. Retrieved 2007-01-08. Retrieved 200701-16. Retrieved 2007-01-12.1086/133242. http://articles.. http://www. ^ Kaler. Retrieved 200606-08. 116. 121. "IK Pegasi (HR 8210)". "Regor". 115. "WR 104: Pinwheel Star".astro. ESO. S.gsfc. Hans (September 1990). et al.. P.org/vol-43/iss9/vol43no9p24_27. Y. Anchor Books. http://hubblesite. • . 118. Retrieved 2007-02-01. space. Retrieved 2007-01-08. http://www.space.nasa. New Scientist. By what mechanism do massive stars explode?" (PDF). ^ Landsman.com.html • Croswell.html. doi:10. (1999).newscientist. 122.edu/abs/2002ASPC. 117.com/article. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 35: 309–355. University of Illinois. "Strange Space Pinwheels Spotted".html..77T.uk/~apod/apod/ap990409. http://www. HR 8210. 120.1063/1. ISBN 0385472145. T.. Jim (1999-04-09).841L..
http://arxiv. http://en. [show]v · d · eSupernovae .html. 2008).html.citebase. Hans-Thomas Janka (December 2005).1038/scientificamerican1006-42. Bartunov.—link is to a preprint of the article submitted to Nature.. Yu. Scientific American 295 (4): 42–49. (2003). P. • •  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Supernovae • • • • • • List of Supernovae-related Web pages. Nature Physics 1 (3): 147–154. K..68. doi:10. A.com/article.harvard. IAU: Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. http://www. Overbye. "The Physics of CoreCollapse Supernovae" (PDF). http://www. "How to Blow Up a Star". Sternberg Astronomical Institute. T. "BoomCode".astronomerstelegram. "RSS news feed" (RSS). "Sternberg Astronomical Institute Supernova Catalogue". Thompson.org/pdf/astro-ph/0601261. http://www. O. Hans-Thomas. Moscow University. The Astronomer's Telegram. A.. and the Mass of the Progenitor Star". N.. Müller. S. N.1038/nphys172.sciam. Retrieved 2006-11-28. Pskovskii. Retrieved 2008-05-21. Yu.msu.. Anonymous (2007-01-18). Burrows. Retrieved 2006-11-28.113009.org/?rss+supernova. Janka.nytimes. Tsvetkov. "List of Supernovae with IAU Designations". Woosley.cbat. "Scientists See Supernova in Action". WikiUniversity. Ewald (October 2006). Retrieved 2006-11-28. A searchable catalog.sai.• Takahashi. doi:10. http://www. Sato. Physical Review D 68 (11): 77–81. Neutrino Oscillations. "Supernova Neutrinos. Retrieved 2007-03-17.su/sn/sncat/.cfm? chanID=sa026&articleID=000160CC-A71B-150E-A26183414B7F0000. Professionalgrade type II supernova simulator on Wikiversity. Wolfgang. K.org:hep-ph/0306056.1103/PhysRevD. A good review of supernova events. The New York Times.edu/lists/RecentSupernovae. D. Retrieved 201010-25. Pavlyuk. Stan.org/abstract?id=oai:arXiv. doi:10.org/wiki/BoomCode. Hillebrandt.eps.wikiversity. http://www... Dennis (May 21. http://www.com/2008/05/22/science/22nova.
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