JSS Mahavidyapeetha

Sri Jayachamarajendra College Of Engineering
Mysore-570 006

PAVEMENT DESIGN DATA HAND BOOK

Compiled By

Dr. P. Nanjundaswamy

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
2011

CONTENTS
P a g e No .
1. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

1

1 .1 .

Boussinesq’s Solution – Point Load

1

1 .2 .

Circular Load with Uniform Vertical Pressure

2

1 .2 .1

Solutions at Axis of Symmetry

2

1 .2 .2

Foster and Ahlvin Charts

3

1 .3 .

1 .4 .

STRESSES IN LAYERED SYSTEM

6

1.3.1. Solutions at Axis of Symmetry

6

1.3.2. Three Layer Elastic Solutions

10

DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS (IRC : 37-2001)

14

1.4.1

Design Traffic

14

1.4.2

Traffic growth rate

14

1.4.3

Design Life

14

1.4.4

Vehicle Damage Factor

15

1.4.5

Distribution of Commercial traffic over the carriageway

15

1.4.6

Design Criteria

16

1.4.7

Design Criteria

16

1.4.8

Design Charts and Catalogue

17

1.4.9

Pavement Composition

22

1.4.10 Final Remarks

22

2. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENTS

23

2.1

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (K)

23

2.2

Radius of Relative Stiffness (l)

23

2.3

Equivalent Radius of Resisting Section (b)

23

2.4

Critical Load Positions

24

2.5

Stresses and Deflections due to Wheel Load

24

2 .5 .1

24

Corner Loading

2.6

2.7

2.5.2

Interior Loading

25

2.5.3

Edge Loading

25

2.5.4

Dual Tires

26

Temperature Stresses

27

2 .6 .1

Warping Stresses (Westergaard Analysis)

27

2.6.2

Frictional Stresses

28

IRC Recommendations for Design of Plain Jointed Rigid
Pavements for Highways (IRC : 58-2002)

28

2 .7 .1

Legal Axle Load Limits

28

2.7.2

Load Safety Factors

29

2.7.3

Tyre Pressure

29

2.7.4

Design Period

29

2.7.5

Design Traffic

29

2.7.6

Characteristics of Sub-grade

29

2.7.7

Characteristics of Concrete

30

2.7.8

Fatigue Behaviour of Cement Concrete

31

2.7.9

Stress Computations

31

2.7.10 Temperature Differential

32

2.7.11 Recommended Design Procedure for Slab Thickness

32

2.7.12 Design of Joints

33

Design Data Hand Book

1. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
1.1 Boussinesq’s Solution – Point Load
=
=

=

(

=

)
(

)

(

)

The corresponding strains are:
=
=
=
=

(

)
(

)

(

)

In defining these strains, the displacement field considered is two-dimensional; that is, a point in this
space can move only vertically or horizontally, denoted by w and u, respectively.
The closed-form solution for a point load on an elastic half-space was originally developed by
Boussinesq, Circa and adapted by Taylor in the following form:

=

=

=

( −

(
)

(

+

)

(

+

=

+ √

+

)

(

(1.1 a)

)

+

+

+

(1.1 b)

+

+ √

+

(1.1 c)

(1.1 d)

)

Note that for normal stresses, the sign notation is positive for tension and negative for compression.
Note also that directly under the point of load application, (i.e., r = 0, z = 0), the stresses are
undefined. The strain components are calculated from the stress components through generalized
Hooke’s law as:

=

[

− (

Department of Civil Engineering

+

)]

(1.2 a)

1

4 a) ) + ( + ) (1. at any point are computed by integrating the vertical and horizontal strains respectively.2 d) = where G is the shear modulus of the elastic medium.. so σ and σ are the principal stresses.e.2. where τ = 0 and σ = σ . and deflection occur under the center of circular area on the axis of symmetry.1 Solutions at Axis of Symmetry The response due to a circular load with a radius a and uniform pressure q on an elastic homogeneous half-space is obtained by integrating the Boussinesq’s components due to a concentrated load presented in the previous section.3 a) + ) − (1. the most critical stress.2 c) ( + ) = (1.4 b) (1.3 b) 1. strain. w and u. For points on the centerline of the load (i. The vertical and horizontal deflections.2 Circular Load with Uniform Vertical Pressure 1. these stress components are given by = = = − ( + )− ( + ( + ) √ = + (1.Design Data Hand Book = [ − ( + )] (1.2 b) = [ − ( + )] (1. r = 0). When the load is applied over a single circular loaded area.4 c) Corresponding strain components are: Department of Civil Engineering 2 . The resulting expressions are: ( + ) ( + ) = = ( + )( − ⁄ + ( − ) ( ) + ) ( − )( ) + ⁄ + ( (1.

z = 0) ( − = ) (1.Design Data Hand Book = = ( + ) ( + ) ( − )+ ( − )− √ − + ( − ) √ + ( + + ) + ) ( (1. Because Poisson ratio has relatively small effect on stresses and deflections. − → − → . and vertical deflection w.6 a) − (1. → Figure 1.6 c) when z = 0 1. 1954) Department of Civil Engineering 3 . Foster and Ahlvin assumed the half-space to be incompressible with a Poisson ratio of 0.. The load is applied over a circular area with radius a and an intensity q.5 a) (1. shear stress τzr.5.1 through 2. so only one set of charts is needed instead of one for each Poisson ratio.2 Foster and Ahlvin Charts Foster and Ahlvin (1954) presented charts for determining tangential stress σt.e.1 : Tangential Stress σt due to Circular Loading (Foster and Ahlvin. radial stress σr.6 b) when μ = 0. vertical stress σz.5 On the surface of the half-space (i.5.2.5 b) and the vertical deflection under the centerline of the load is given by = ( + ) = ( + √ + ) + − + (1. Note : In the charts. as shown in Figures 2.

2 : Vertical Stress σz due to Circular Loading (Foster and Ahlvin.Design Data Hand Book Figure 1.3 : Radial Stress σr due to Circular Loading (Foster and Ahlvin. 1954) Figure 1. 1954) Department of Civil Engineering 4 .

4 : Shear Stress τzr due to Circular Loading (Foster and Ahlvin. 1954) Department of Civil Engineering 5 .Design Data Hand Book Figure 1.5 : Vertical Deflection w due to Circular Loading (Foster and Ahlvin. 1954) Figure 1.

3 STRESSES IN LAYERED SYSTEM 1. 1958) Department of Civil Engineering 6 .1 Two Layer Elastic Solutions Figure 1.6 : General Two-Layer System Vertical Stress Distribution Figure 1.3.7 : Vertical Stress Distribution in Two-Layer Systems (Burmister.Design Data Hand Book 1.

1943) Department of Civil Engineering 7 .7 b) E2/E1 Figure 1.Design Data Hand Book Figure 1.8 : Vertical Interface Stresses for Two-Layer Systems (Huang. 1969) Vertical Surface Deflection On a flexible plate (1.7 a) On a rigid plate (1.9 : Vertical Surface Deflections for Two-Layer System (Burmister.

Design Data Hand Book Figure 1.10 : Vertical Interface Deflection for Two-Layer Systems (Huang. 1969) Vertical Interface Deflection Department of Civil Engineering 8 .

Figure 1.10 : Continued Design Data Hand Book Department of Civil Engineering 9 .

2 Three Layer Elastic Solutions Jones’ Tables Figure 1.8 g) 10 .3.8 e) − = − = Department of Civil Engineering − − (1.8 f) (1.11 : General Three-Layer System = = = = (1.8 d) − = ( − ) (1.Design Data Hand Book 1.8 a) = ( ) (1.8 b) = ( ) (1.8 c) − = ( − ) (1.

21860 0.04000 8.41442 0.39919 1.11650 5.93487 0.91258 1.8 1.80664 0.00123 0.02728 0.09285 0.50796 0.99922 0.34941 3.00962 0.64175 0.00509 8.00909 0.00810 1.70970 0.01027 3.17763 0.55211 0.01980 0.99434 0.21951 -1.02697 0.98447 0.6 3.98156 0.03269 0.97146 1.27701 0.13976 0.46409 1.03481 0.06221 0.00896 0.89895 0.00530 0.14286 0.24281 0.00179 0.77394 0.03812 0.70622 0.01542 0.66885 0.16717 0.96553 0.00706 0.8 1.23137 0.00861 0.65003 0.71083 0.08634 0.72113 0.00776 0.11491 0.21640 0.11350 0.55490 -7.88358 1.63215 0.00228 0.00203 0.66786 0.33218 0.12259 0.00064 0.92560 11.05278 0.97493 0.4 20 0.61673 4.36932 0.10763 0.66753 0.00969 0.84030 0.01930 0.98044 0.06489 0.4 2 0.44710 0.70225 0.09061 2.60754 0.03467 0.14159 0.28362 0.2 0.25 0.06647 0.35716 0.15524 0.24528 -1.15436 0.58553 0.45208 0.86779 0.27307 27.43263 0.28512 5.13708 0.02167 8.13365 0.76647 0.99215 0.Design Data Hand Book Stress Factors for Three-Layer System (Jones.22319 -0.76234 0.6 3.78424 0.05691 0.99364 0.98743 1.4 2 0.03781 0.89390 0.69014 1.40857 2.43022 0.07623 0.4 20 0.00716 3.93309 0.05952 0.90693 0.59448 0.75904 0.98591 0.22411 -3.96634 0.98610 0.23531 0.07045 36.60493 0.68947 0.26565 2.00257 3.2 0.14447 0.28916 0.02741 0.87931 0.02783 0.64313 0.42809 0.10306 0.98565 0.8 1.29034 3.1 0.8 1.78414 0.96330 0.2 0.04320 0.90325 Department of Civil Engineering ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 K1 = 200 ZZ2 – RR2 ZZ1 ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 ZZ2 – RR2 0.19178 0.6 3.27906 0.66535 -2.74573 0.99893 0.13541 0.10710 0.00828 0.04381 0.19982 -0.31094 0.01716 0.02259 0.93254 0.31263 0.07933 3.06894 0.92757 0.99060 0.77939 0.27093 2.10928 0.11697 0.49612 3.96148 0.63916 23.03493 0.43631 0.97806 0.2 0.94860 4.26278 5.90115 0.00128 3.00710 0.97707 0.08738 0.02452 0.99840 0.69332 0.46835 0.02091 1.05489 0.1 0.06003 0.06741 6.14513 18.04236 0.81178 0.85490 0.98500 0.78651 1.67115 0.83766 0.1 0.42950 0.55231 0.37342 99.72695 0.29072 0.18909 0.12667 0.02985 0.90861 0.48647 6.03336 0.01972 20.26454 0.96921 0.92533 1.00488 1.84462 0.125 0.30923 0.97494 0.89191 0.95639 2.49938 57.15211 0.65934 0.20115 6.48948 0.92086 0.95534 0.13148 57.14529 0.82859 -5.01694 0.29943 1.93712 0.30477 0.31771 0.2 0.29887 0.03421 0.96703 0.00899 0.38469 0.38638 0.03844 26.89878 0. 1962) H K2 A 0.84545 28.01014 10.37852 0.02710 5.95243 0.35384 5.08229 17.03392 0.49523 1.2 0.37882 0.63003 0.42462 0.17331 -0.91393 0.1 0.07827 0.05854 4.53833 0.10684 0.14282 0.03170 3.01888 4.87014 0.68433 0.95080 0.20963 49.46583 -0.00549 3.02218 0.6 3.84369 4.00407 0.25780 0.49135 0.2 0.01611 0.38799 0.97956 0.66097 0.76886 0.01353 0.00259 0.00065 1.00182 1.33736 0.2 K1 = 2 K1 = 20 ZZ1 ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 ZZ2 – RR2 ZZ1 0.93798 0.42940 31.60964 11 .91469 0.

17961 0.25495 0.33263 0.24971 0.00263 0.00160 0.15325 0.00035 0.00384 0.70119 0.12805 0.96681 0.2 0.62399 0.27934 0.22002 0.08337 0.83387 0.66326 0.03731 5.06722 0.01797 0.09508 0.00950 0.39942 0.00372 1.01778 0.56503 3.00028 0.6 3.19267 0.07434 0.70723 0.01083 0.02179 0.71032 0.01453 12.51815 1.02946 0.03578 0.38377 4.12654 10.19358 20.00049 0.09268 0.93831 0.06934 0.12954 0.08469 0.Design Data Hand Book Stress Factors for Three-Layer System (Jones.01799 0.82256 5.14116 0.65530 0.70903 0.1 0.02498 0.4 20 0.8 1.00460 1.39588 -0.07027 0.53398 6.97428 0.62046 0.02249 0.03654 0.66727 0.25168 1.26100 0.00259 0.59341 0.90482 0.38520 3.08556 0.8 1.93447 0.1 0.00322 0.40086 0.14241 0.02732 0.24250 0.25186 0.00007 0.17997 0.85930 0.06974 0.00248 0.27135 0.66041 0.00094 1.18344 15.01797 3.06883 0.79338 0.05399 32.35807 16.05063 0.69098 0.00465 0.23476 0.27574 0.00257 0.01028 0.4 2 0.72264 0.00436 4.59672 0.00138 0.2 0.92442 0.75683 0.03810 0.00440 0.98772 0.06671 8.01474 3.00098 0.00104 0.82430 0.26966 0.52721 0.00241 0.18091 77.14419 4.08027 0.00215 0.00117 0.28318 0.23838 0.00347 0.62943 1.42077 0.08618 0.01683 12.97695 0.03724 0.71973 0.63631 0.11448 0.15765 0.30212 1.56409 0.06476 0.06167 36.01507 2.35175 0.33312 0. 1962) H 0.03454 0.00564 0.00193 0.26620 0.49238 0.19580 0.2 0.00063 0.00116 0.00464 0.13401 0.01911 0.01029 0.28491 0.13480 0.02092 0.00985 0.01744 0.00241 0.00023 0.6 3.91168 2.23256 0.05549 6.00637 0.88655 0.8 1.51128 0.38690 0.08250 0.00131 0.2 0.24726 0.08044 0.08859 0.50790 0.45544 12 .5 1.98801 0.47022 0.00878 0.01996 0.29253 0.00387 0.53836 0.22418 0.20098 4.8 1.02647 0.65446 0.97509 0.34355 Department of Civil Engineering ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 K1 = 200 ZZ2 – RR2 ZZ1 ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 ZZ2 – RR2 0.33878 0.01122 0.21288 0.13989 0.00128 0.42106 6.03379 0.70221 0.1 0.19803 0.14665 0.2 0.00195 0.04172 0.2 0.26817 0.00746 0.51585 0.56298 0.19598 0.05574 0.00100 0.04291 0.19520 0.00990 0.85940 0.18481 0.03825 0.00911 0.07335 0.12007 0.00251 0.31847 0.00885 0.00024 0.88634 0.00963 0.00110 1.04330 0.22047 20.96353 0.01236 0.03697 0.00061 0.02680 0.02713 0.09592 0.77014 0.01836 0.91809 0.75805 0.6 3.23252 1.76292 1.13946 0.0 K2 A 0.33669 0.29640 0.04193 0.41078 0.25229 0.15452 0.97420 0.03620 0.05737 0.00027 0.37407 0.31575 0.30247 0.00453 0.1 0.00988 2.71341 1.52912 34.00545 0.4 2 0.54931 0.4 20 0.86191 0.00958 0.77028 0.00373 0.00751 0.00094 0.2 0.04047 0.14808 0.01025 0.2 K1 = 2 K1 = 20 ZZ1 ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 ZZ2 – RR2 ZZ1 0.12173 0.41828 0.05622 8.19872 0.03648 0.04751 0.05938 1.67174 0.00029 0.92112 0.6 3.89817 0.00149 0.00920 0.64779 0.69109 0.01565 0.41187 0.70726 0.00062 0.01283 0.00509 0.00826 0.04176 0.03998 1.

00021 0.04944 0.00071 0.00542 0.05993 0.00002 0.10980 0.00025 0.6 3.00587 0.00235 0.27835 0.00031 0.00396 0.00186 0.00750 0.00837 0.4 0.12427 0.00130 0.0 20 2 4.2 0.00188 0.21190 0.95622 3.00002 0.01746 0.00179 0.00033 0.06045 0.01862 0.25739 0.00013 0.29365 0.33866 0.01651 0.4 0.16033 0.08957 0.00716 0.00042 0.00050 0.11080 0.00553 0.22795 0.00034 0.00154 0.00250 0.00808 0.38374 0.8 1.10140 0.00036 0.00260 0.1 0.00005 0.69749 2.00215 0.00119 0.00560 1.14735 0.00014 0.00467 4.00214 0.00036 0.18857 0.00039 0.01486 0.00397 0.04843 0.00119 1.00013 0.00002 0.60426 0.28773 0.1 0.00652 0.77434 0.06913 0.17294 0.01569 0.00015 0.97701 0.09049 0.00124 1.08673 0.00553 0.05974 0.43632 0.00003 0.02126 3.00168 0.08465 0.01032 0.00002 0.09396 0.12354 0.07972 0.36644 0.29183 0.00144 0.27590 0.02950 0.06569 0.00131 0.00065 0.20145 0.00510 0.00181 0.30709 0.00059 0.00034 0.00033 0.2 0.00532 0.35641 1.00235 0.00503 0.00007 0.05012 0.27103 0.02043 0.00137 0.02049 0.00520 1.03010 13 .24425 0.00378 0.11666 0.00485 0.00003 0.01140 0.05789 0.14979 0.4 0.17843 0.00045 0.02746 0.00051 0.34131 0.03191 0.6 3.2 0.02441 0.02199 0.00483 4.00922 0.01951 0.08604 0.04134 4.02324 0.6 3.35515 0.00437 0.07248 9.23852 0.00785 2.6 3.00128 0.10017 0.01535 0.07991 0.01790 0.00991 0.06728 0.00054 0.00009 0.00035 0.00138 0.00033 0.00394 0.00610 0.37001 0.91994 7.01219 0.03488 0.00803 0.00147 0.00025 0.00029 0.00555 0.13516 0.00008 0.68382 2.4 0.Design Data Hand Book Stress Factors for Three-Layer System (Jones.00142 0.1 0.03390 0.01784 13.27221 0.00646 0.31215 0.26873 0.00833 0.00321 0.00228 0.29991 0.00008 0.08061 0.10864 0.00229 0.02195 0.02358 0.00130 0.00142 0.90594 2.00030 0.00374 0.02586 0.00005 0.00036 0.00000 0.07444 0.03412 0.02003 3.8 1.00057 0.03109 0.00413 0.00008 0.8 1.00901 0.03500 0.00203 0.00011 0.02160 0.00905 0.2 0.25441 0.00819 0.00001 0.03258 0.2 0.67732 0.95104 0.00002 0.07294 0.00261 0.01103 0.01507 0.03832 0.00099 0.06236 0.00014 0.00099 0.78347 2.2 0.00685 0.01782 0.00201 0.00083 0.8 1.01568 0.05599 0.00008 0. 1962) H K2 2 2.00803 0.1 0.00100 0.02061 0.06638 0.00094 0.45100 1.00054 0.02341 0.01565 0.00469 0.36427 0.00518 0.00134 0.00544 0.00010 0.23065 0.00123 0.06947 0.00030 0.01245 0.02178 0.00011 0.35311 0.13215 0.81908 0.19247 0.2 0.10918 0.00009 0.2 K1 = 2 K1 = 20 K1 = 200 ZZ1 ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 ZZ2 – RR2 ZZ1 ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 ZZ2 – RR2 ZZ1 0.51156 0.11331 0.05958 0.00312 0.0 20 A 0.02332 0.00612 Department of Civil Engineering ZZ2 ZZ1 – RR1 ZZ2 – RR2 0.67384 0.00009 0.02135 0.11553 0.08444 0.02032 0.34121 0.00545 0.75087 1.00924 0.03093 0.28913 0.00003 0.00009 0.01737 0.00018 0.04031 0.20906 0.00058 0.02023 0.00031 0.

4 DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS (IRC : 37-2001) 1.9 b) = ( + ) Number of commercial vehicles as per last count Number of years between the last count and the year of completion of construction 1.4. the design life is defined in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles that can be carried before strengthening of pavement is necessary. 1. Department of Civil Engineering 14 .9 a) ∗ ∗ ∗ The cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design life in terms of msa Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of the number of commercial vehicles per day Lane distribution factor Vehicle damage factor Design life in years Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles = N A D F n r The traffic in the year of completion is estimated using P x (1. it is recommended that an average annual growth rate of 7.4. For other categories of roads. a design life of 10 to 15 years may be adopted. Expressways and Urban roads nay be designed for a longer life of 20 years.1 Design Traffic The design traffic is considered in terms of cumulative number of standard axles (in the lane carrying maximum traffic) to be carried during the design life of pavement using [( + ) − ] (1. It is recommended that pavements for National Highways (NH) and State Highways (SH) should be design for a life of 15 years.Design Data Hand Book 1. If adequate data is not available.5 percent may be adopted. and by establishing econometric models. as per the procedure outlined in IRC:108 “Guidelines for traffic prediction on rural highways”.4.3 Design Life For the design of pavement.2 Traffic growth rate Traffic growth rates should be estimated by studying the past trends of traffic growth.

Indicative VDF Values (Table 1 of IRC:37-2001) Terrain Initial traffic volume (CVPD) Rolling/Plain Hilly 0-150 1.5 More than 1500 4.10 c) Standard Axle Load Single Axle : 8160 kg Tandem Axle : 14968 kg Where sufficient information on axle loads is not available and project does not warrant conducting an axle load survey. of Traffic lanes in two directions Undivided Roads (Single Carriageway) Divided Roads (Dual Carriageway) 1 100 100 2 75 75 3 ---- 60 4 40 45 Department of Civil Engineering 15 .4. the indicative values of vehicle damage factor as given below may be used.5 0. it is recommended to assume the following distribution.10 b) (1.10 a) + … … + … … (1.5 150-1500 3.Design Data Hand Book 1. Percentage of trucks in Design Lane No.5 1.5 1.5 Distribution of Commercial traffic over the carriageway In the absence of adequate and conclusive data for Indian conditions.5 2.4 Vehicle Damage Factor + = + + + + + + + … … + = + … … = (1.4.

4. thickness of granular and bituminous layers are selected using the analytical design approach so that strains at the critical points are within the allowable limits. the stiffness of dense bituminous macadam (DBM) layer with 60/70 bitumen has been used in the analysis. To consider the aspects of performance. Figure 1. the following three types of pavement distress resulting from repeated (cyclic) application of traffic loads are considered:  Vertical compressive strain at the top of the sub-grade which can cause sub-grade deformation resulting in permanent deformation at the pavement surface.  Pavement deformation within the bituminous layer.11.6 Design Criteria The flexible pavements has been modeled as a three layer structure and stresses and strains at critical locations have been computed using the linear elastic model.11 : Critical Locations in Pavement While the permanent deformation within the bituminous layer can be controlled by meeting the mix design requirements. For calculating tensile strains at the bottom of the bituminous layer.Design Data Hand Book 1.7 Failure Criteria As shown in figure 2. Maximum value of the strain is adopted for design. A and B are the critical locations for tensile strains (εt). The relation between the fatigue life of the pavement and the tensile strain in the bottom of the bituminous layer is expressed as Department of Civil Engineering 16 .4.  Horizontal tensile strain or stress at the bottom of the bituminous layer which can cause fracture of the bituminous layer. C is the critical location for the vertical subgrade strain (εz) since the maximum value of the εz occurs mostly at C. Fatigue Criteria: Bituminous surfacing of pavements display flexural fatigue cracking if the tensile strain at the bottom of the bituminous layer is beyond certain limit. 1.

. (1. 10. and CBR value of subgrade. 5. 100 and 150 msa. 2.56 MPa is considered for analysis. (1. The pavement designs are given for subgrade CBR values ranging from 2% to 10% and design traffic ranging from 1 msa to 150 msa for an average annual pavement temperature of 35 C.11) Allowable number of load repetitions to produce 20% cracked surface area Tensile strain at the bottom of surface layer (micro strain) Elastic modulus of bituminous surfacing (MPa) Nf εt E Rutting Criteria: The allowable number of load repetitions to control permanent deformation can be expressed as . simple design charts (Figure 2. For traffic exceeding 150 msa. 4.14) and a catalogue of pavement designs are added in the code. One dual wheel set with a wheel load of 20kN. 50. 20. 1.12) Allowable number of load repetitions to produce rutting of 20 mm Vertical subgrade strain (micro strain) Nr εz Standard axle load considered is 80 kN. = . Department of Civil Engineering 17 . the pavement layer thickness may be interpolated linearly. 30. = . the pavement design appropriate to 150 msa may be chosen and further strengthening carried out to extend the life at appropriate time based on pavement deflection measurements as per IRC : 81.8 Design Charts and Catalogue Based on the performance of existing designs and using analytical approach. For intermediate traffic ranges. The designs relate to ten levels of design traffic 1. Using the following simple input parameters. center-to-center tyre spacing of 310 mm and tyre pressure of 0. appropriate designs could be chosen for the given traffic and soil strength:   Design traffic in terms of cumulative number of standard axles.Design Data Hand Book .4. 3.13 and 2. The later thicknesses obtained from the analysis have been slightly modified to adapt the designs to stage construction.

14 : Pavement Thickness Design Chart for Traffic 10-150 msa Department of Civil Engineering 18 .13 : Pavement Thickness Design Chart for Traffic 1-10 msa Figure 1.Design Data Hand Book Figure 1.

Design Data Hand Book Pavement Design Catalogue Cumulative Traffic (msa) Total Pavement Thickness (mm) PAVEMENT COMPOSITION (mm) Bituminous Surfacing Granular Granular Wearing Binder Base Sub-base Course Course CBR 2 % 1 660 20 PC ------ 225 435 2 715 20 PC 50 BM 225 440 3 750 20 PC 60 BM 250 440 5 795 25 SDBC 70 DBM 250 450 10 850 40 BC 100 DBM 20 880 40 BC 130 DBM 30 900 40 BC 150 DBM 50 925 40 BC 175 DBM 250 460 100 955 40 BC 195 DBM 150 975 50 BC 215 DBM CBR 3 % 1 550 20 PC ------ 225 435 2 610 20 PC 50 BM 225 335 3 645 20 PC 60 BM 250 335 5 690 25 SDBC 60 DBM 250 335 10 760 40 BC 90 DBM 20 790 40 BC 120 DBM 30 810 40 BC 140 DBM 50 830 40 BC 160 DBM 250 380 100 860 50 BC 180 DBM 150 890 50 BC 210 DBM CBR 4% 1 480 20 PC ------ 225 255 2 540 20 PC 50 BM 225 265 3 580 20 PC 50 BM 250 280 5 620 25 SDBC 60 DBM 250 285 10 700 40 BC 80 DBM 20 730 40 BC 110 DBM 30 750 40 BC 130 DBM 50 780 40 BC 160 DBM 250 330 100 800 50 BC 170 DBM 150 820 50 BC 190 DBM Department of Civil Engineering 19 .

Design Data Hand Book Pavement Design Catalogue Cumulative Traffic (msa) Total Pavement Thickness (mm) PAVEMENT COMPOSITION (mm) Bituminous Surfacing Granular Granular Wearing Binder Base Sub-base Course Course CBR 5% 1 430 20 PC ------ 225 205 2 490 20 PC 50 BM 225 215 3 530 20 PC 50 BM 250 230 5 580 25 SDBC 55 DBM 250 250 10 660 40 BC 70 DBM 20 690 40 BC 100 DBM 30 710 40 BC 120 DBM 50 730 40 BC 140 DBM 250 300 100 750 50 BC 150 DBM 150 770 50 BC 170 DBM CBR 6 % 1 390 20 PC ------ 225 165 2 450 20 PC 50 BM 225 175 3 490 20 PC 50 BM 250 190 5 535 25 SDBC 50 DBM 250 210 10 615 40 BC 65 DBM 20 640 40 BC 90 DBM 30 655 40 BC 105 DBM 50 675 40 BC 125 DBM 250 260 100 700 50 BC 140 DBM 150 720 50 BC 160 DBM CBR 7% 1 375 20 PC ------ 225 150 2 425 20 PC 50 BM 225 150 3 460 20 PC 50 BM 250 160 5 505 25 SDBC 50 DBM 250 180 10 580 40 BC 60 DBM 20 610 40 BC 90 DBM 30 630 40 BC 110 DBM 50 650 40 BC 130 DBM 250 230 100 675 50 BC 145 DBM 150 695 50 BC 165 DBM Department of Civil Engineering 20 .

Design Data Hand Book Pavement Design Catalogue Cumulative Traffic (msa) Total Pavement Thickness (mm) PAVEMENT COMPOSITION (mm) Bituminous Surfacing Granular Granular Wearing Binder Base Sub-base Course Course CBR 8% 1 375 20 PC ------ 225 150 2 425 20 PC 50 BM 225 150 3 450 20 PC 50 BM 250 150 5 475 25 SDBC 50 DBM 250 150 10 550 40 BC 60 DBM 20 575 40 BC 85 DBM 30 590 40 BC 100 DBM 50 610 40 BC 120 DBM 250 200 100 640 50 BC 140 DBM 150 660 50 BC 160 DBM CBR 9% 1 375 20 PC ------ 225 150 2 425 20 PC 50 BM 225 150 3 450 20 PC 50 BM 250 150 5 475 25 SDBC 50 DBM 250 150 10 540 40 BC 50 DBM 20 570 40 BC 80 DBM 30 585 40 BC 95 DBM 50 605 40 BC 115 DBM 250 200 100 635 50 BC 135 DBM 150 655 50 BC 155 DBM CBR 10 % 1 375 20 PC ------ 225 150 2 425 20 PC 50 BM 225 150 3 450 20 PC 50 BM 250 150 5 475 25 SDBC 50 DBM 250 150 10 540 40 BC 50 DBM 20 565 40 BC 75 DBM 30 580 40 BC 90 DBM 50 600 40 BC 110 DBM 250 200 100 630 50 BC 130 DBM 150 650 50 BC 150 DBM Department of Civil Engineering 21 .

gravel. minimum thickness is 300 mm (4 layers of 75 mm each) Bituminous Surfacing  Wearing course or Binder course+wearing course  Wearing course : Surface dressing. SDBC and BC  Binder course : BM. The same can be done with the analytical tool for design. SDBC and BC  Wearing surface used is open-graded premix carpet of thickness upto 25 mm. design for subgrade CBR of 2% and provide a 150 mm thick capping layer of minimum CBR 10% in addition to sub-base Base Course  Unbound granular material – WBM.Design Data Hand Book 1. it should not be counted towards the total thickness 1.10 Final Remarks     The present guidelines follows mechanistic empirical approach and developed new set of designs up to 150 msa Thickness charts are still available for CBR values of up to 10% only Design charts are available for only a pavement temperature of 35o C The contribution of individual component layers is still not realized fully with the system of catalogue thicknesses. brick metal. mix seal surfacing. Department of Civil Engineering 22 . WMM or other equivalent granular construction conforming to IRC/MORT&H specifications  Minimum Thickness  225 mm for traffic ≤ 2 msa  250 mm for traffic > 2 msa  If WBM is used and traffic > 10 msa. DBM.4.4.9 Pavement Composition Sub-base Course  Natural sand. mix seal surfacing. laterite. crushed stone or combinations thereof  Minimum CBR :  20% upto 2 msa traffic  30% exceeding 2 msa  Minimum Thickness  150 mm for traffic < 10 msa  200 mm for traffic ≥ 10 msa  If subgrade CBR < 2%. open-graded premix carpet.

125 cm  Allowance for Worst Subgrade Moisture (2.2) = E μ h K ( − ) Modulus of elasticity of cement concrete Poisson’s ratio of concrete = 0. = Radius of wheel load distribution Slab thickness Department of Civil Engineering < 1.724 ℎ ≥ . + − .1 a) = p ∆ ∆ Pressure sustained by a rigid plate of diameter 75 cm at design deflection ∆ Design deflection = 0.2 Radius of Relative Stiffness (l) (2.1 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (K) (2.125 cm which produces a deformation of δ in unsoaked consolidation test Pressure required to produce the same deformation δ in the soaked consolidation test Modulus of subgrade reaction for the prevailing moisture condition Corrected modulus of subgrade reaction for worst subgrade moisture  Correction for Small Plate Size (2.Design Data Hand Book 2.1 b) = pus ps K Ks Pressure required in the plate bearing test for design deflection of 0.15 Slab thickness Modulus of subgrade reaction 2.1 c) = K1 K Modulus of subgrade reaction determined using plate of radius a1 Corrected modulus of subgrade reaction for standard plate of radius a 2. (2.3) 23 . ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENTS 2.3 Equivalent Radius of Resisting Section (b) = A H .

3 d) (2.3 e) 24 .3 b) Westergaard analysis modified by Kelly = .Design Data Hand Book 2.5 Stresses and Deflections due to Wheel Load 2. √ − (2. √ − (2.3 c) Ioannides et al (1985) .3 a) √ .1 Corner Loading Westergaard (1926) = ∆ = . are treated as critical load positions. − . Figure 3. edge and corner. Department of Civil Engineering − . (2. = ∆ = − .1: Critical Load Positions 2. (2.4 Critical Load Positions The three typical locations namely the interior.5. where differing conditions of slab continuity exist.

4 a) − . ∆ = . ( + . (2.2 Interior Loading Westergaard (1926) = ( + ) ∆= + + . ) (2. (2. + .5.5 a) + .5 e) (2. Westergaard’s analysis Modified by Teller and Sutherland (1948) = .5 c) (2.Design Data Hand Book 2.5 b) ( )− .3 Edge Loading Westergaard (1926) = .5 f) 25 .5. (2.15 = .5 d) When μ = 0. + Ioannides et al (1985) – Semicircular loaded area = ( + ) ( + ) + . Department of Civil Engineering − . − ( . + ( + ) ) (2. (2. + . + .4 b) 2. ∆ = − + .

+ . interior and edge loading respectively Slab thickness Wheel load Modulus of subgrade reaction Radius of wheel load distribution Radius of relative stiffness Radius of resisting section Side length of square contact area = 1.15 2.5 h) When μ = 0.5. − .2: Method for Converting Duals into a Circular Area Department of Civil Engineering 26 .15 = .Design Data Hand Book Ioannides et al (1985) – Circular loaded area ( + ) ( + ) = + . ( + ) ) (2. + − + .772a Modulus of elasticity of cement concrete Poisson’s ratio of concrete = 0.5 i) (2. − . σ e ∆c. σ i . ∆i. + .5 j) Maximum stress at corner. + . ∆ = − − ( . ∆ = σ c.5 g) (2. ∆e h P K a l b c E μ . interior and edge loading respectively Maximum deflection at corner. (2.4 Dual Tires Figure 3.

the area of each tire is = [ ( .7 c) Bradbury warping stress coefficient Department of Civil Engineering 27 . + (2.Design Data Hand Book If Pd is the load on one tire and q is the contact pressure. + (2.15 α Thermal coefficient of concrete Cx. 2. σte ( − ) Maximum warping stress at corner.6 b) The radius of contact area = .6 a) The area of equivalent circle is = ( . = . Cy. (2. interior and edge region respectively a Radius of wheel load distribution l Radius of relative stiffness E Modulus of elasticity of cement concrete μ Poisson’s ratio of concrete = 0.7 a) Edge = = (2. . ) +( . σti.1 Warping Stresses (Westergaard Analysis) Interior = + − (2.7 b) Corner = σtc. )( . (2. )+( ) = . − .6 Temperature Stresses 2.6. )] = .6 c) .

040 8 1.6.3: Warping Stress Coefficient or Stress Correction Factor for Finite Slab (Bradbury – 1938 and IRC : 58-2002) 2.1 Legal Axle Load Limits Single Tandem Tridem Department of Civil Engineering 10.8 b) σtf Frictional Stress developed in cement concrete pavement h Slab Thickness B Slab width L Slab length f Coefficient of subgrade restraint (maximum value is about 1.920 12 1.720 11 1.080 4 0.7 IRC Recommendations for Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for Highways (IRC : 58-2002) 2.0 tonnes 28 .5) γc Unit weight of concrete (about 2400 kg/m3) 2.2 tonnes 19.440 10 1.050 6 0.7.000 7 1.Design Data Hand Book L/l C L/l C 1 0.075 5 0.175 9 1.030 2 0.2 Frictional Stresses = (2.0 tonnes 24.077 3 0.8 a) Or = (2.000 Figure 3.

3 Tyre Pressure Range 0. Pressure sustained per unit deflection Plate bearing test (IS : 9214 – 1974) Limiting design deflection = 1. d.7.7.0 MPa No significant effect on pavements ≥ 20cm thick 0.data from roads similar classification and importance d. c.5 k30 One test/km/lane Department of Civil Engineering 29 .0 2.7. New highway links where no traffic data is available . 4-lane or multi-lane divided traffic – 25% of total traffic in the direction of predominant traffic.9 b) Initial number of axles per day in the year when the road is operational Annual rate of growth of commercial traffic Design period in years Number of commercial vehicles as per last count Number of years between the last count and the year of completion of construction 2.4 Design Period Normal – 30 years Accurate prediction not possible – 20 years 2. c. Cumulative Number of Repetitions of Axles = [( + ) − ] = ( + ) A R N P X (2.7. 2-lane 2-way road – 25% of total for fatigue design b.5 Design Traffic a.6 Characteristics of Sub-grade Modulus of sub-grade reaction (K) a.8 MPa is adopted 2.7 to 1. e.Design Data Hand Book 2. Average annual growth rate – 7.7.2 1.1 1. b.2 Load Safety Factors Expressway/NH/SH/MDR Lesser importance with lower truck traffic Residential and other streets 1.5% e.25mm K75 = 0.9 a) (2.

8 27.6 6.8 5.5 6.7 16.7 17.0 22.8 14.9 50 100 14.2 4.8 12.8 27.8 20.1 2.8 4.3 7.8 3.5 4.9 - - - k-value over Dry Lean Concrete Sub-base k-Value of subgrade (kg/cm3) 2.7 13.0 x 105 kg/cm2 for M40 Concrete  Poisson’s ratio µ = 0.6 10.7 41.2 6.3 22.8 5.8 3.2 Effective k over 100 mm DLC (kg/cm3) 5.8 38.6 9.5 8.3 7.1 5.5 8.9 4.7 Characteristics of Concrete  Modulus of Elasticity  Experimentally determined value  3.7.9 Effective k over 150 mm DLC (kg/cm3) 9.6 20.15  Flexural strength of Cement Concrete fcr = 45 kg/cm2 for M40 Concrete  Coefficient of thermal expansion α = 10 x 10-6 per °C Department of Civil Engineering 30 .5 6.1 2.Design Data Hand Book Approximate K-Value Approximate K-value corresponding to CBR values for homogeneous soil subgrade Soaked CBR (%) 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 k-Value (kg/cm3) 2.4 5.2 10.2 11.2 4.5 30 10 15 20 2.7 - 2.2 k-values over Granular and Cemented Sub-bases Effective k (kg/cm3) k-Value of subgrade Untreated granular sub-base Cement treated sub-base of 3 (kg/cm ) of thickness in cm thickness in cm 15 22.4 9.

914 762.76 0.10 c) .099 Stress Ratio Allowable Repetitions 0.80 0.54 0.761 14.7 b) Corner Stress  Due to Load –Westergaard’s analysis modified by Kelly (Equation 2.55 (2.927 23.61 0.45 0.66 0.830 4.60 0.48 0.334 229.415 3.59 0.526 94.77 0.84 0.50 0. − = for SR < 0.842 30.790.127 166. N SR Fatigue life Stress ratio Stress Ratio and Allowable Repetitions in Cement Concrete Stress Ratio Allowable Repetitions Stress Ratio 0.56 0.82 0.62 0. .53 0.46 0.733 13.78 0. .72 Allowable Repetitions 40.67 0.286.69 0.45 (2.917 1.236 5.71 0.51 0.10 b) for SR > 0.202.043 485.68 0.63 0.428 10.83 0.9 Stress Computations Edge Stress  Due to Load – Picket & Ray’s chart  Due to Temperature –Westergaard’s equation (Equation 2.73 0.419 17.52 0.81 0.474 2.79 0.85 --- 832 630 477 361 274 207 157 119 90 68 52 39 30 ---- 2.065 71.335.402.75 0.45 ≤ SR ≤ 0.229 53. − .754 1.65 0.64 0.7.452 1.49 0.7.8 Fatigue Behaviour of Cement Concrete = = .55 0.74 0.532 1.10 a) when 0.57 0.168 7.58 62.Design Data Hand Book 2.55 (2.533 124.700 5.184 326.47 0.70 0.343 2.3 c)  Due to temperature – negligible and hence ignored Department of Civil Engineering 31 .937 0.

7.11 Recommended Design Procedure for Slab Thickness  Stipulate design values for the various parameters  Decide types and spacing between joints  Select a trial design thickness of pavement  Compute the repetitions of axle loads of different magnitudes during design period  Calculate cumulative fatigue damage (CFD)  If CFD is more than 1.7.Design Data Hand Book 2.0 revise the thickness  Check for load+temperature stress at edge with modulus of rupture  Check for corner stress Department of Civil Engineering 32 .10 Temperature Differential Recommended Temperature Differentials for Concrete 2.

then δ' = Le α (T1 to T2) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete.7. replace LHS by σts As Maximum Spacing between contraction joints for unreinforced slabs 4.11) If Reinforcement is provided. Expansion joint gap δ = 2 δ' Maximum expansion joint gap = 25 mm Maximum Spacing between expansion joints for rough interface layer 140 m – all slab thicknesses for smooth interface layer when pavement is constructed in summer 90 m – upto 200 mm thick slab 120 m – upto 250 mm thick slab when pavement is constructed in winter 50 m – upto 200 mm thick slab 60 m – upto 250 mm thick slab Contraction Joint = σtc Allowable tensile stress in concrete h Slab thickness B Slab width Lc Slab length or spacing b/w contraction joints γc Unit weight of concrete f Coefficient of subgrade restraint (max 1.12 Design of Joints Expansion Joint If δ' is the maximum expansion in a slab of length Le with a temperature rise from T1 to T2.Design Data Hand Book 2.5 m – all slab thicknesses for reinforced slabs 13 m – for 150 mm thick slab 14 m – for 200 mm thick slab Department of Civil Engineering 33 .5) (2.

0 at effective distance  Design spacing = The spacing which conforms to required capacity factor % ( ′) Recommended Dimensions of Dowel Bars for Rigid Pavements (Axle Load of 10. mm 20 25 500 250 25 25 500 300 30 32 500 300 35 32 500 300 Note : Dowel bars shall not be provided for slabs of less than 15 cm thickness Department of Civil Engineering 34 . (2. kg/cm2 Permissible bearing stress in concrete. cm Total length of embedment of dowel bar.8 (radius of relative stiffness)  Variation of capacity factor linear from 1. + . kg/cm2 Permissible flexural stress in dowel bar.12 a)  Bending = + . ( (2.12 b)  Bearing P' d Ld δ Fs Ff Fb  = . cm Permissible shear stress in dowel bar.2t) Slab thickness. cm Joint width. kg Diameter of dowel bar. mm Spacing. ) Load transfer capacity of a single dowel bar.12 c) + . (2. (2. cm Dowel Bar Details Diameter.0 under the load to 0.13)  Minimum dowel length L = Ld + δ  Load capacity of dowel system = 40% of wheel load  Required load capacity factor =  Effective distance upto which there is load transfer = 1. kg/cm2 Balanced design for equal capacity in bending and bearing gives = + . mm Length.Design Data Hand Book Dowel Bar Design  Load transfer capacity of a single dowel bar in  Shear = .

5) Length of tie bar Perimeter of tie bar Diameter of tie bar Allowable bond stress in concrete = 24. spacing. cm Plain Deformed bars bars 44 48 51 56 51 56 58 64 58 64 72 80 58 64 72 80 57 64 72 80 Note: The recommended details are based on the following values of design parameters σts Allowable tensile stress in steel = = 2000 kg/cm2 for deformed bars 1250 kg/cm2 for plain bars σbc Allowable bond stress in concrete = = 24.5 kg/cm2 for plain tie bars σts As B h γc f Lt P d σbc Details of Tie Bars for Longitudinal Joint of Two-Lane Rigid Pavements Slab Thickness cm 15 20 25 30 35 Tie bar details. cm Plain Deformed bars bars 33 53 52 83 39 62 56 90 45 72 80 128 37 60 66 106 32 51 57 91 Minimum Length.14) Length of embedment required to develop a bond strength equal to working stress of steel = or = (2.15) Allowable tensile stress in steel = 1400 kg/cm2 Area of tie bar distance b/w the joint and nearest free edge Slab thickness Unit weight of concrete Coefficient of subgrade restraint (max 1.6 kg/cm2 for deformed bars Department of Civil Engineering 17. cm Diameter mm 8 10 10 12 12 16 12 16 12 16 Max.5 kg/cm2 for plain bars 35 .Design Data Hand Book Tie Bar Design Area of steel per unit length of joint is obtained by equating the total friction to the total tension developed in the tie bars = (2.6 kg/cm2 for deformed tie bars = 17.

989 42.079 23.235 12.306 38.743 11.939 27.990 15.0 30.527 21.0 8.003 14.0 45.029 16.668 17.502 19.689 5.529 10.267 23.165 16.0 30.820 17.767 17.497 9.146 14.668 19.684 21.319 16.675 38.225 18.371 16.509 7.259 27.757 20.0 55.0 15.381 14.0 10.302 8.634 8.439 11.261 Single Axle Load – 14 tons 25.961 17.457 20.121 32.397 13.Design Data Hand Book EDGE LOAD STRESSES IN RIGID PAVEMENT (kg/cm2) K kg/cm3 16 18 20 Slab Thickness (mm) 24 26 28 22 30 32 34 36 8.706 15.933 32.833 48.131 14.918 28.264 21.982 12.195 12.0 8.817 24.302 10.493 20.061 16.729 12.0 10.736 14.123 10.243 18.153 23.880 14.493 25.570 25.785 23.999 17.246 26.684 6.364 29.790 13.923 25.684 19.552 46.604 35.925 12.223 23.467 13.301 8.948 7.902 13.478 19.583 22.244 18.511 26.868 6.375 13.761 16.178 18.191 11.034 36.845 10.342 15.044 14.388 44.315 15.849 13.709 11.434 34.264 8.886 7.939 16.081 11.862 22.878 50.490 21.541 9.461 19.808 20.794 15.539 6.915 47.376 10.688 22.203 5.065 45.802 10.373 10.423 15.208 17.983 15.0 8.528 20.330 10.623 21.028 27.956 SINGLE AXLE LOAD Single Axle Load – 6 tons 6.012 20.0 15.284 16.584 8.503 29.488 24.119 15.0 10.962 34.500 8.739 29.872 14.306 16.126 21.0 8.944 22.640 16.126 41.744 9.604 24.472 13.731 10.379 11.142 14.152 19.810 7.855 9.550 10.524 12.297 60494 13.783 22.988 33.276 9.0 30.996 28.054 15.656 14.992 14.173 18.434 18.331 17.625 16.307 28.892 13.785 28.925 20.328 18.594 21.964 40.454 Single Axle Load – 10 tons 6.595 36.203 14.0 10.740 15.150 11.0 30.0 22.148 9.502 15.529 7.231 16.492 28.329 33.817 16.344 26.979 31.0 50.917 15.010 13.0 10.824 12.106 7.383 23.307 9.812 23.641 19.347 9.547 43.519 20.215 10.631 11.957 35.856 15.006 7.073 8.181 15.582 12.405 21.755 31.415 24.117 18.335 11.810 42.549 14.009 Department of Civil Engineering 27.329 9.0 30.090 23.790 11.853 14.886 8.930 26.692 7.796 22.319 14.394 Single Axle Load – 12 tons 22.0 15.626 9.938 9.252 6.774 32.496 26.559 13.590 6.672 9.986 52.432 36.427 Single Axle Load – 8 tons 15.147 40.637 6.851 11.078 12.917 13.404 17.0 15.410 16.614 17.998 38.762 13.980 21.191 6.538 31.317 7.697 27.494 6.532 36 .552 26.0 8.533 18.0 15.456 12.578 12.179 10.103 11.0 30.293 30.363 18.284 29.236 13.122 20.215 8.075 5.364 9.067 30.703 18.325 13.921 34.912 17.297 6.0 15.161 24.307 9.184 25.037 20.598 18.334 18.247 26.911 13.237 12.978 16.896 17.0 8.407 18.537 24.317 8.320 16.0 40.299 11.000 22.269 10.559 12.0 10.0 15.615 27.812 17.138 14.879 39.939 17.774 6.851 7.981 32.999 23.354 11.642 19.610 14.461 29.698 8.0 8.702 7.988 21.822 Single Axle Load – 18 tons 31.173 36.634 15.112 15.491 25.301 13.164 30.881 11.521 42.562 11.322 13.281 28.365 36.319 13.009 26.488 39.414 23.870 10.680 21.542 20.466 20.053 21.601 10.771 13.120 29.972 10.347 20.732 28.811 11.961 31.824 17.291 12.889 17.487 8.653 10.520 34.0 10.625 6.725 11.635 21.264 12.067 Single Axle Load – 16 tons 6.131 18.832 8.841 12.895 25.558 15.150 18.396 11.0 30.342 12.697 17.527 18.553 17.0 28.724 22.971 27.101 32.0 34.561 11.798 6.780 12.471 32.909 22.450 24.560 15.734 15.775 38.656 9.261 9.662 18.070 7.838 21.841 25.475 33.560 33.216 24.470 15.779 16.511 19.174 16.103 38.687 32.062 17.225 12.684 16.575 19.469 21.210 6.358 16.

071 37.0 15.599 40.233 9.196 6.162 32.574 9.105 11.339 22.743 18.222 10.499 21.964 7.002 7.456 30.567 10.994 27.809 33.200 10.618 23.666 10.486 9.0 8.031 44.943 11.888 17.892 16.206 30.972 18.0 8.0 22.479 21.397 39.422 16.009 6.833 66.999 46.265 21.952 9.600 14.0 30.884 41.706 6.623 24.597 15.603 Tandem Axle Load – 20 tons 6.295 8.385 17.645 58.260 45.543 21.856 46.417 12.973 62.640 37.336 4.0 10.516 31.511 9.795 25.591 22.461 TANDEM AXLE LOAD Tandem Axle Load – 12 tons 6.411 27.592 43.605 8.603 8.282 6.621 19.802 16.985 17.674 6.0 8.154 11.362 11.932 14.763 8.470 29.727 9.350 29.215 5.0 61.653 6.Design Data Hand Book EDGE LOAD STRESSES IN RIGID PAVEMENT (kg/cm2) K kg/cm3 16 18 20 22 Slab Thickness (mm) 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 24.147 56.805 15.881 5.0 8.137 14.027 57.209 26.461 7.484 24.333 32.535 12.762 10.109 7.238 8.869 23.795 5.040 13.518 6.293 27.139 20.617 9.008 50.438 29.871 38.318 26.252 20.187 24.0 10.244 11.174 49.742 20.663 14.0 10.295 8.082 22.998 9.0 8.368 8.532 28.201 6.577 7.839 24.634 20.336 7.827 15.498 17.942 11.198 59.970 10.630 26.517 7.365 Department of Civil Engineering 14.488 7.143 34.0 65.814 9.429 18.768 32.464 6.275 23.981 6.810 7.075 19.246 32.897 17.675 8.795 8.729 42.171 18.344 6.011 37.418 46.093 8.402 21.268 17.783 5.902 6.046 25.750 7.422 7.004 8.131 37.876 14.990 32.139 10.674 18.396 20.847 Single Axle Load – 24 tons 40.206 Single Axle Load – 22 tons 6.646 42.746 9.307 33.943 36.355 5.606 9.215 5.0 15.0 10.385 16.752 31.523 7.067 23.149 27.0 8.157 38.251 33.807 35.119 25.642 20.602 10.801 13.571 7.204 12.554 6.388 20.096 19.030 25.889 9.023 11.743 19.573 25.038 Tandem Axle Load – 16 tons 6.155 28.278 12.165 27.595 28.571 22.953 7.066 18.710 22.667 16.888 10.230 10.248 10.965 16.364 19.154 14.485 20.0 10.533 14.0 15.0 30.497 60.642 21.168 39.0 30.152 35.792 7.777 4.135 27.585 55.907 6.524 19.862 28.636 6.0 15.957 18.915 14.0 30.398 9.392 42.0 15.0 18.883 13.958 4.199 51.996 37.226 11.726 63.004 35.726 19.578 6.724 10.392 14.873 21.968 52.576 8.389 55.0 30.021 16.413 9.864 14.898 22.830 43.839 15.739 19.932 25.717 11.241 34.447 SINGLE AXLE LOAD Single Axle Load – 20 tons 6.552 42.492 29.894 36.341 23.342 19.524 15.742 8.216 29.122 12.474 10.0 30.370 54.503 43.142 20.661 20.789 25.045 33.172 30.716 42.993 21.825 50.790 14.963 21.478 46.083 37 .223 12.573 51.120 16.164 27.854 18.056 13.124 22.149 22.094 12.062 24.075 21.524 15.104 13.452 26.628 12.986 6.118 16.391 18.077 45.220 31.254 35.312 37.293 5.664 15.048 30.728 8.0 15.951 15.290 8.0 10.416 13.064 19.727 54.545 10.243 49.126 40.0 70.480 24.845 7.473 4.648 9.686 18.553 11.348 22.914 13.378 9.978 23.719 48.996 23.365 12.836 48.162 12.0 27.908 48.841 24.486 26.324 5.248 12.104 17.636 17.133 9.793 8.881 32.

237 23.065 14.388 41.735 22.290 30.271 26.825 21.687 10.341 17.818 19.409 21.491 33.438 23.672 14.298 8.411 40.233 16.396 28.793 30.698 19.081 19.868 18.790 33.434 29.Design Data Hand Book EDGE LOAD STRESSES IN RIGID PAVEMENT (kg/cm2) K kg/cm3 16 18 20 Slab Thickness (mm) 24 26 28 22 30 32 34 36 14.981 16.845 16.531 45.617 17.604 13.662 Department of Civil Engineering 28.076 16.079 12.630 27.721 14.638 25.753 13.028 13.856 18.425 19.191 37.150 8.675 18.167 10.451 11.371 22.754 28.744 33.541 19.899 20.766 22.953 20.127 11.201 11.641 18.624 17.651 21.054 12.875 9.292 19.912 20.388 15.743 12.508 21.801 38 .089 36.100 30.531 25.935 14.785 40.170 9.373 16.492 Tandem Axle Load – 28 tons 6.285 39.645 18.515 14.864 45.231 27.139 Tandem Axle Load – 36 tons 28.642 37.0 10.884 23.558 20.143 18.0 8.555 24.703 14.0 15.754 14.811 15.402 13.185 34.569 27.189 35.0 30.275 TANDEM AXLE LOAD Tandem Axle Load – 24 tons 6.526 16.0 8.0 30.385 32.232 28.0 15.0 15.852 39.593 35.159 21.145 19.829 21.795 17.581 18.0 10.579 27.003 15.955 39.119 16.093 17.909 7.793 27.953 20.394 16.427 23.439 19.773 19.335 30.0 10.067 11.662 19.465 28.398 18.105 19.717 20.0 15.0 15.224 6.155 14.030 17.237 42.451 19.288 21.777 23.0 43.323 21.429 23.711 9.547 29.0 10.197 38.929 33.226 19.624 35.743 16.856 18.0 8.0 30.156 20.504 20.539 13.649 15.297 19.065 17.834 23.972 41.587 18.339 37.550 29.011 14.210 Tandem Axle Load – 44 tons 34.843 16.511 40.815 11.364 35.929 20.622 30.0 30.061 31.240 25.814 15.636 47.685 9.365 22.694 19.280 17.936 25.0 30.530 12.860 25.765 16.634 15.121 10.616 26.220 32.056 18.810 26.595 21.235 13.868 6.339 18.194 36.870 18.160 20.649 17.0 30.179 27.822 16.002 17.312 28.602 18.991 28.189 17.924 24.144 13.315 13.027 11.365 23.0 15.146 15.626 25.940 14.202 16.841 15.157 20.894 43.123 22.359 25.425 15.908 26.166 20.897 13.0 8.089 11.492 15.012 15.060 16.0 10.757 21.878 12.629 15.268 14.394 15.0 8.802 22.434 21.926 8.069 32.161 30.557 10.589 13.403 13.024 23.109 21.781 26.710 11.623 18.123 26.369 24.987 14.0 8.418 21.108 12.305 11.752 32.528 16.0 50.070 44.117 15.943 19.030 24.284 22.513 29.076 22.747 35.828 21.983 14.785 17.365 11.284 10.978 37.590 27.282 12.051 18.111 17.893 14.480 20.885 12.495 17.280 16.0 10.172 34.767 23.782 14.401 17.680 21.190 23.960 14.467 12.172 20.339 22.721 26.067 12.271 20.673 13.108 12.232 15.705 19.795 34.877 29.881 23.408 10.0 31.006 24.0 48.137 43.537 24.264 17.041 25.292 24.294 32.383 19.415 26.296 29.041 17.285 34.242 24.587 12.457 13.956 26.589 16.188 14.144 18.671 12.922 20.153 17.431 11.431 10.258 24.0 8.365 9.490 31.972 31.435 12.894 21.977 13.792 23.163 17.371 14.618 38.490 16.934 31.871 31.154 19.239 23.415 26.357 25.685 26.553 8.860 24.255 13.368 16.734 15.838 13.841 Tandem Axle Load – 32 tons 6.727 11.717 18.117 21.0 10.445 14.309 28.979 13.164 11.0 15.394 Tandem Axle Load – 40 tons 6.206 10.902 20.785 20.801 33.622 14.153 13.613 Tandem Axle Load – 42 tons 6.691 21.163 16.515 30.888 13.0 39.372 30.966 24.071 29.783 33.331 10.438 13.888 24.690 29.172 35.0 47.952 12.0 30.768 30.848 40.499 18.878 16.748 32.543 9.823 23.899 22.045 14.279 19.137 16.123 14.909 21.124 17.0 35.966 16.754 28.554 17.381 37.772 24.394 14.785 13.588 26.132 26.050 11.791 15.

Second Revision. Indian Roads Congress IRC : 58 – 2002 “Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for Highways”. CRC Press. Indian Roads Congress Papagiannakis A T and Masad E A (2008) “Pavement Design and Materials” John Wiley and Sons Rajib B. 2nd edition. Second Revision. Mallick and Tahar El-Korchi (2009) “Pavement Engineering – Principles and Practice”. 2nd edition. Prentice Hall Yoder and Witzack (1975) “Principles of Pavement Design”.Design Data Hand Book References IRC : 37 – 2001 “Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements”. Taylor & Francis Group Yang H Huang (2004) “Pavement Analysis and Design”. John Wileys and Sons Department of Civil Engineering 39 .

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