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STANDARD BALANCES

Introduction

Mass of a given object is determined by comparing it against a standard of known mass using the balance as a comparator. The precision of measurement of mass depends on the performance of the balance used. Therefore, it is imperative that before a balance is chosen for calibration of a given set of weights, it is evaluated for its performance. A brief method of testing an equip-arm balance is described in the following pages. The balance must be checked periodically and any adjustments required due to wear and tear should be carried out immediately. The results obtained depends on the environment. Therefore, an area, which is free from vibration and excessive air currents, where changes in temperature and relative humidity and minimal, is selected. The balance should be placed on a steady stone table. The floor, on which the balance is resting should be rigid and preferably be the ground floor.

Specifications of Standard Equipments Specifications of Standard Equipments is noted under chapter III, Rule 7, 8 & 9 of Standards of weights and measures (General) Rules 1987.

Types of standard balances:1. 2. 3. 4. Reference Standard Balances Secondary Standard Balances Working Standard Balances Working Standard Digital Type Balances

1. Reference Standard Balances:A set of reference Standard Balances shall be maintained at every place where the reference standard weights are kept for the purpose of verification of secondary standards. Every reference standard balance shall be verified at least once in six months and shall be adjusted, if necessary, to make it correct within the units if

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sensitivity and other metrological qualities as are specified in part- I of schedule IV. 2. Secondary Standard Balances:Capacity:- 20 kg, 5 kg, 1 kg, 200 gm, 20 gm, 2 gm. A set of secondary standard balances shall be mentioned at every place where secondary standard weights are kept for the purpose of verification of working standards. Every secondary standard balance shall be verified at least once in one year and shall be adjusted, if necessary to make it correct within the limits of sensitivity and other metrological qualities in part II of schedule IV. Capacity Sensitivity figure, mg/div. 2 25 7.5 1.5 0.5 0.1 0.02 Mini. Scale division

Maximum variation in sensitivity figure with respect to load

**Minimum overall accuracy of measurement 5
**

25 mg in 10 kg 7.5 mg in 2 kg 1.5 mg in 500g 0.5 mg in 50g 0.1 mg in 5 gm

0.02 mg in 1mg

1 20kg 5 kg 1 kg 200 gm 20 gm 2 gm

3 1.5 mm 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 0.75 mm

4 10 per cent 10 per cent 10 per cent 10 per cent 10 per cent 10 per cent

3. Working Standard Balances:Capacity:- 50kg, 5kg 200gm, 50gm, 2gm. A set of working standard balance shall be maintained at every place where working standard weights are kept for the purpose of verification of weights intended to be used for transactions, or protection, or industrial production. Every working standard balance shall be verified at least once in a year and shall be adjusted, if necessary to make it correct within the limits of

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sensitivity and other metrological qualities as are specified in part III schedule IV. Capacity Max. sensitivity figure/division 100mg 10mg 1 mg 0.4mg 0.05mg Maximum variation in sensitivity figure 20 per cent 20 per cent 20 per cent 20 per cent 20 per cent Minimum overall accuracy of measurement 100 mg in 10 kg 10 mg in 500 g 1 mg in 100 g 0.4 mg in 5 g 0.05 g in 1 mg

50 kg 5 kg 200g 50g 2g

4. Working standard Digital type balances:Every working standard digital type balance shall conform, as regards value of verification scale interval as given below:Capacity 50kg 20kg 2 kg 200g Max. value of verification Type of weights to be scale interval verified Non-bullion : 50 kg and 20 kg 1g Bullion : 10 kg, 5 kg; 0.1g 10mg 0.1mg

Non bullion : 20 kg to 2 kg Bullion : 2 kg to 500g; Non bullion : 2 kg to 200g Bullion : 200g and below Non- bullion : 200g and below

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Evaluation of Standard Balances Test to be carried out: Following tests are carried out for evaluating a balance: 1. General Examination 2. Inequality of arms 3. Inaccuracy in weighing 4. Rider test 1. General Examination

The knife-edges should be free from chipping or rough areas. The bearing planes should not show any scratches or burs. The clearances between knife and bearing planes should be small and of uniform width. Uniformity of the width of clearance, we should assess by observing the movement of the pointer or spot of light in the case of a balance fitted with lamp and scale indicate the non-uniformity of the width of clearance. The arresting mechanism, pan stops and stirrups should work smoothly. The action of rider pick up should be without any jerks and the rider should be able to sit firmly in the notches of the rider bar.

**2. Inequality of Arms Apparatus Required: 1. 2. 3. 4.
**

Given standard balance Standard weights A fractional weight box, script level Hand gloves and forceps

**Theory and formula used
**

In a good balance the length of the arms should be equal. But in practice there is always some difference, howsoever small it may be, in the two lengths. To find out the inequality, rest of the balance at no load is determined. Two pans are then loaded with weights of equal mass and volume. The mass of the weights selected is equal to the total capacity of the balance. If the arms are

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unequal the rest point will change and a small weight will have to be place d on the pans to restore the rest point to its original value. This small weight is a measure of the inequality of arms. If M is mass of each weight placed in the pans and m is the mass of the small weight then the arm above the pan in which m is placed is shorter than the other arm. Working Formula: E= W/2+{(|R1+R2-2R0| )/2 } X SR

Legends are: E = Error due to inequality of arms R0 = Rest point at zero load R1 = Rest point at full load R2 = Rest point at full load after the weights are interchanged SR = Sensitivity reciprocal at full load W = Working standard weight needed to equipoised the beam after interchanging loads. TABLE FOR INEQUALITY OF ARMS

S.N LOAD OF THE PAN L R TURNING POINTS T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Me an of T1 T3 T5 Me (To+Te) an 2 of REMARKS T2 T4

1 2 3

ZERO

ZERO

Full load Full Load Interchange Interchange Full load Full load

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3. Inaccuracy in weighing Apparatus Required:1. 2. 3. 4. Given standard balance Standard weights A fractional weight box, spirit level Hand gloves and forceps

Accuracy in weighing

Accuracy is the agreement between the result of the measurement and the true value of the quantity measured. The overall accuracy of a balance is judged by repeatedly comparing two standard weights of equal volume and each having a mass equal to the full capacity of the balance. At least ten double weighing (ordinary single weighing repeated with the loads interchanged) are performed. The maximum departure from the mean of the differences between the masses of the two standards gives an idea of the overall inaccuracy of the balance. Firstly the balance is equipoised at full load and rest points are determined. Then load is interchanged in the pan and the rest point R2 is calculated. Similarly R3, R4 .R20 is calculated by the process of interchanging the weights on the pan. Tehn d1, d2, d3 ..d10 is calculated by the formula 1/ |R -R | } XSr and d , = {1/ |R -R | } XSr and so on; then the mean d1 = { 2 1 2 2 2 3 4 difference D = d1+d2+d3 .+d10 is calculated and then D-d1 = x1 D-d2 = x2 .. D-d10 =x10 is calculated.

The value of x1, x2 inaccuracy in weighing.

..x10 is checked and the max. value gives the overall

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S.No Load on the Observation of Pan turning points L R T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Mean of

Rest points (To+Te) 2

Difference in the rest points

T1, T3 and T5 (To)

T2, and T4 (Te)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q

Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q P

d1 = d2 = d3 = d4 = d5 = d6 = d7 = d8 = d9 = d10 =

Calculation : d1 = { ½ | R1 R2 | } X Sr d2 = { ½ | R3 R4| } X Sr

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Similarly,

d3 = d4 = d5 = d6 = d7 = d8 = d9 = d10 =

So, Mean D = d1+d2+d3----------+d10 10 And, x1 = D-d1 Similarly, x2 = X3 = X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X8 = X9 = X10 = Xmax = overall inaccuracy in weighing.

Precautions:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) The knife-edges should be free chipping or rough areas. The bearing planes should not show any scratches or burs Level the balance with the help of spirit level Arrest and release the balance carefully Handle the weights carefully Assure that there should be sufficient light in the lab Avoid parallax error while taking readings

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4. Rider Test

Aim :- To perform the Rider test for a given Standard Balance. Apparatus Required:1. 2. 3. 4. Accuracy of Rider Bar A rider bar assembly is provided to make small changes in mass without resorting to the use of very small weights which are neither convenient to use nor easy to make. Since changing the position of the rider effect the change in the mass, the accuracy of the rider scale is very important. The overall length of the rider scale and the distance between the knives should closely match. The notches should be well formed and uniformly spaced so that rider may be seated correctly and give correct indication. The matching of the rider skill can be checked by transferring rider from one end of the scale to the other and at the same time transferring and equal weight from pan to pan in the reverses direction. The alternative method is to transfer the rider from each terminal notch to the pan below it and calculate the difference into rest points. The method is quite satisfactory for a 200g balance with Sr Equal to 1mg but is liable to cause error in microbalance. As in that case, centre of gravity will shift when rider is moved from the rider bar to the pan. This will cause change in sensitivity. Formula:Position Error = ( | R1-R2 | ) X Sr Where Sr = Sensitivity reciprocal of the given standard balance R1 = Rest point when the rider is on the pan R2 = Rest point when rider put on the load notch

Given standard balance Standard weights A fractional weight box, spirit level Hand gloves and foreceps

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Procedure:The balance is equipoised at zero load. The rider is placed in the right pan and is equipoised by putting equivalent weight on the left pan. Rest point R1 is calculated then the rider is placed in the last notch of the mounting beam scale then R2 is calculated. OBSERVATION TABLE:Load on Pan Turning points

L

R

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Mean of T2, T3, T5 (T0)

Mean of T2, T4, (Te)

(To+Te) 2

Positional Error

Standard Rider weight Standard Rider weight on last notch Precautions:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

R1 R2

The knife-edges should be free chipping or rough areas. The bearing planes should not show any scratches or burs Level the balance with the help of spirit level Arrest and release the balance carefully Handle the weights carefully Assure that there should be sufficient light in the lab Avoid parallax error while taking readings.

Reference: A Treatise on Standards of Weights and Measures (General) Rules, 1987 by Dr. S. V. Gupta Class Notes

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standard balances

standard balances

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