Is HA dependent on virtualcenter (Only for Install) What is the Maximum Host Failure allowed in a cluster (4) How does HA know

to restart a VM from a dropped Host storage lock will be removed from the metadata How many iSCSI targets will ESX support 8 for 3.01, (64 for 3.5) How Many FiberChannel targets(256) (128 on Install) What is Vmotion (ability to move running vm from one host to another) what is the different when you use viclient connect to VC and directly to ESX server itself. When you connect to VC you manage ESX server via vpxa (Agent on esx server). Vpxa then pass those request to hostd (management service on esx server). When you connect to ESX server directly, you connect to hostd (bypass vpxa). You can extend this to a trobleshoot case, where connect to esx see one thing and connect to VC see another. So the problem is most likely out of sync between hostd and vpxa, "service vmware-vpxa restart" should take care of it. the default partitions in vmware --/ (5 gb),/boot(100mb),/swap(544 mb) /vmkcore (100) ,/vmfs Types of licensing : starter and standard Starter : limited production oriented features ( Local and NAS storage only) Standard ; production oriented features and all the add-on licenses can be configured with this edition. Unlimited max number of vms,san,iscsi,nas, vsmp support and VCB addon at additional cost. Vmware vitual machine files are vmdk, vmx (configuration), nvram (BIOS file), Log file The esx server hypervisor is known as vmkernal. Hypervisor ESX server offers basic partition of server resources, however it also acts as the foundation for virtual infrastructure software enabling Vmotion,DRS and so forth kerys to the dynamic, automated datacenter. host agent on each managed host software collects , communicates, and executes the action recieved through the VI client. it is installed as a part of the ESX Server Installation.

Virtual Center agent : On each managed host, software that collects commmunicates and executes the actions received from the virtual center server. Ther virtual center agent is installed the firsttime any host is added to the virtual center inventory. ESX server installation requirements 1500 mhz cpu intel or amd, memory 1 gb minimum up to 256 mb, 4 gb hard drive space, The configuration file that manages the mapping of service console file system to mount point is /etc/fstab ---ESX mount points at the time of installaiton /boot 100 mb ext3 / 5 gb ext3 swap 544mb /va/log 2 gb /vmfs/volumes as required vmfs-3 vmkcore 100 mb vmkcore -------------/cciss/c0d0 consider as local SCSI storage /dev/sda is storage network based lun ---VI client provides direct access to an ESX server for configuration and virtual machine management The VI Client is also used to access Vitual center to provide management configuration and monitoring of all ESX servers and their virtual machines within the virtual infractur environment. However when using the VI client to connect directly to the ESX server, no management of Virtual center feature is possible. EG; you cannot cofigure and administer, Vmware DRS or Vmware HA. Vmware license mode : default 60 days trail. after 60 days you can create VM's but you cannot power on VM's --The license types are Foundation, Standard and Enterprise Fondation license : VMFS,Virtual SMP, Virtual center agent, Vmware update manager, VCB

You cannot have two virtual switchs mapped to one physical NIC You can map two or more physical NIC mapped to one virtual switch. which will holds vi client log files Another file is esx-support-date@time. A swithc used by VMkernal for accessing ISCSI or NAS based storage Virtual switch used to give the service console access to a management LaN Vitual swich can have 1016 ports adn 8 ports used for management purpose total is 1024 Virtual switch defalt ports are 56 ESX server can have 4096 ports max Maximum 4 virtual NIC per VM ESX server can have 32 NIC on Intel NIC. 20 Broadcom NIC's ---- .VI standard license : Foundation license + HA feature Enterprise : Foundation license + STandard license + Vmotion. It always in Vswitch 0. and VMware DRS Virtual machines time sync with ESX host By default the first service console network connection is always named service console. The switch always connects vmnic 0 -------To gather vmware diagnostics information run the script vm-spport from the service console If you generate the diagnostic information. this information will be stored in Vmware-virtualcentersupport-date@time folder The folder contains Viclient-support. VM Storage vmotion.tgz. which is compressed archive file contains esx server diagnostics information ---The virtual switch work at layer 2 of the OSI model.

It requires network lablel. In addition only a single service console gateway.Three type of network connections Service console port : access to ESX server management network Vmkernal port : Access to vmotion. Vmkernal port is requied for Vmotion. Static ip or DHCP Multiple service console connections can be created only if they are configured on different network.ISCSI. ---------Virtual machine port group required A network lable VLAN id optional ------to list physical nics esxcfg -nics -l ------------Three network policies are available for the vswitch Security Traffic shaping NIC teaming ----------- .only single vmkernal gateway Ip address can be defined. IP setting Multiple Vmkernal connections can be configured only if they are configured on a different networks. NAS based networks.VLAN ID optional. vlan id optional. IP address can be defined --------------A VMkernal port allow to use ISCSI.NFS/NAS networks Virtual machine port group : Access to VM networks Service console port requires network lable.

11:3 adapter 0 : target id : LUN: partition ----------SNMP incoming port 161 out going port 162 ISCSI client outgoing port 3260 Virtual center agent 902 ntp client 123 port VCB 443.Network security policy mode Promiscos mode : when set to reject. where the source address field contains a MAC address other than the assigned virtual NIC mac addresss ( default accept) --------32 ESX hosts can user a singel shared storage ------vmhba0&#0. it stops receiving frames Forged trasmitts .When set to reject drops any frames that the guest sends. 902 ports ----------the defaul ISCSI storage adapter is vmhba32 ISCSI follow Iqn naming convention ------------ISCSI uses CHAP authuntication . placing a guest adapter in promiscuous mode has no which frames are received by the adapter Mac address changer : when set to reject. if the guest attempts to change the MAC adress assigned to the virtual NIC.

With fixed disks. the virtual disk and guest OS disk start out at the same (large) disk. For more information on monolithic vs. above: ------------We can create VM 1. you can then restore your machine to the same state as when the snapshot was taken. As you can see from the screenshot below.Vmware license port is 27000 After changing made at command line for reflecting the changes you need to start the hostd daemon service vmware-mgmt restart ---------------Log files should be used only when you are having trouble with a virtual machine. split disks see this comparison from sanbarrow. P2V 5. NVRAM files ± these files are the BIOS for the virtual machine. ISO file 6.com. and networking. the disks start small and grow as the disk inside the guest OS grows. A VMSN file is used to store the exact state of the virtual machine when the snapshot was taken. VMEM ± A VMEM file is a backup of the virtual machine¶s paging file. You¶ll notice that the names of these files match the names of the snapshots. VMDK files ± VMDK files are the actual virtual hard drive for the virtual guest operation system (virtual machine / VM).Deploy from templete 3. Vm from scratch 2. The VM must know how many hard drives it has and other common BIOS settings. The NVRAM file is where that BIOS information is stored. It will only appear if the virtual machine is running. VMSN & VMSD files ± these files are used for VMware snapshots. A VMSD file stores information about snapshots (metadata). When you create a new virtual machine and answer questions about the operating system.vmx´ file from the directory listing. Cloned 4. those answers are stored in this file. With dynamic disks. a VMX file is actually a simple text file that can be edited with Notepad.vmx file . disk sizes. Here is the ³Windows XP Professional.. VMX files ± a VMX file is the primary configuration file for a virtual machine. Using this snapshot. or if it has crashed. You can create either dynamic or fixed virtual disks.

Once the entire memory and system state has been copied over to the target ESX Server. VMotion pings the network router to ensure that it is aware of the new physical location of the virtual MAC address. Once the destination machine is activated. and uses will be working on the bitmap file and the changes will be copied to the other ESX host How Vmotion works : -Live migration of a virtual machine from one physical server to another with VMotion is enabled by three underlying technologies. copies the bitmap to the target ESX Server. the virtual machine network identity and network connections are preserved. and resumes the virtual machine on the target ESX Server. the active memory and precise execution state of the virtual machine is rapidly transferred over a high speed network. Third. This entire process takes less than two seconds on a Gigabit Ethernet network. VMotion manages the virtual MAC address as part of the process. VMotion suspends the source virtual machine. First. the entire state of a virtual machine is encapsulated by a set of files stored on shared storage such as Fibre Channel or iSCSI Storage Area Network (SAN) or Network Attached Storage (NAS). ensuring that even after the migration. Second. VMware¶s clustered Virtual Machine File System (VMFS) allows multiple installations of ESX Server to access the same virtual machine files concurrently.Max CPU's per core is 4 to 8 vcpu's At the time of vomotion arp notification will be released 70 to 80 % will be copied to the other ESX host a bit map file will be created. allowing the virtual machine to instantaneously switch from running on the source ESX Server to the destination ESX Server. the networks being used by the virtual machine are also virtualized by the underlying ESX Server. VMotion keeps the transfer period imperceptible to users by keeping track of on-going memory transactions in a bitmap. .

but that could be by bypassing any resource provisioning and planning previously established. the network identity. the virtual machines need to be relocated to other host servers. Since virtual machines can't be run during maintenance mode. partially. administrators will configure the ESX cluster to fully automate the rules for the DRS settings. the result is zero downtime and no disruption to users. or manually by an administrator. It is an essential component of any successful ESX implementation. reconfiguring the host operating system's networking or shutting down the server for maintenance. Poor resource pool configuration (such as using unlimited options) can cause DRS to make unnecessary performance adjustments. Sharing unlimited setting resource pools with limited setting resource pools within the same cluster could cause DRS to make unnecessary performance adjustments. Isolation requires a separate ESX cluster with a limited number of ESX hosts that share a single resource pool where the virtual machines that require unlimited resources are allowed to operate. it's possible to configure VirtualCenter to manage the access to the resources automatically. and the active network connections. If you truly need to use unlimited resources within a resource pool the best practice would be to isolate. available resources and available host servers An important point to keep in mind is that DRS works in conjunction with any established resource pools defined in the VirtualCenter configuration. This option is particularly useful for setting an ESX server into maintenance mode. ----------------------------------DRS DRS will balance the workload across the resources you presented to the cluster. Maintenance mode is a good environment to perform tasks such as scanning for new storage area network (SAN) disks. ESX requires a dedicated network interface at 1 GB per second or greater. Commonly. . With VMware ESX 3. DRS can compensate for this scenario. ---------------------How VMotion works with DRS The basic concept of VMotion is that ESX will move a virtual machine while it is running to another ESX host with the move being transparent to the virtual machine.x and VirtualCenter 2. This allows VirtualCenter to take action based on workload statistics.Since the migration of a virtual machine with VMotion preserves the precise execution state.x.

This is generally caused by obsolete virtual machines. whether by automatic VMotion task or if evoked manually. prevent a virtual machine from migrating.5 introduces the highly anticipated Storage VMotion. An automatic situation would be as described earlier when a DRS cluster is configured for full automation. Well. In the database Identification of your risks is the most important pre-implementation task you can do with DRS and VMotion. Keep virtual machines up to date with VMware tools and virtual machine versioning. Should the DRS cluster be configured for all manual operations. the traffic is managed through the VMotion network interface. VMware ESX 3. an active virtual machine can be moved automatically or manually from one ESX host to another. There also is a slight increase in memory usage and on larger virtual machines this may cause a warning light on RAM usage that usually clears independently. This migration will take longer. Anomalies can happen. DRS and VMotion are solid technologies. Certain situations. Not all virtual machines can be moved. Regularly put ESX hosts in and then exit maintenance mode. Points to consider One might assume that with the combined use of DRS and VMotion that all bases are covered. not entirely. When the cluster goes into maintenance mode. Because this is not a storage solution. such as optical image binding to an image file. In one migration failure I experienced recently. VMotion does not give an absolute zero gap of connectivity during a migration. Most situations will not notice the change and reconnect over the network during a VMotion migration.Shared storage and a virtual machine that can be moved. With VMotion enabled. So what can you do to identify your risks? Here are a couple of easy tasks: Schedule VMotion for all systems to keep them moving across hosts. The Virtual Center server had no information related to the migration task in the local logs.VmFailedMigrateEvent All in all. as the geometry of the virtual machine's storage is copied to the new storage location. CD-ROM binding or other reasons that may not be intuitive.Storage VMotion can migrate an active virtual machine to another storage location. the virtual machines are moved to another ESX host by VMotion. There are a few considerations that you need to be aware of so that you know what DRS and VMotion can and cannot do for you. Some virtual machines may fail to migrate. Monitor the VPX_EVENT table in your ESX database for the EVENT_TYPE = vim.event. the migration via VMotion is approved within the Virtual Infrastructure Client. Should your shared storage need to be brought offline for maintenance. Do not leave mounted CD-ROM media on virtual machines (datastore/ISO file or host device options). and the risks should be identified and put into your regular monitoring for visibility. the Virtual Infrastructure client did not provide any information other than the operation timed out. In my experiences the drop in connectivity via ping is usually limited to one ping from a client or a miniscule increase in ping time on the actual virtual machine. then VMotion proceeds with the moves. .

VMotion is the process that VMware has invented to migrate. While DRS migrates VMs here and there with VMotion. DRS is included in the VI3 Enterprise edition along with VMotion. ------------------------------------ .VMotion usage scenarios: Now that VMotion is enabled on two or more hosts. The rest of VM-A's memory is copied from ESX-A all the while memory is being read and written from VM-A on ESX-A when applications attempt to access that memory on VM-A on ESX-B. For information on how to configure DRS see page 95 of the VMware VI3 Resource Management Guide. Once DRS is properly configured it will constantly be evaluating how best to distribute the load of running VMs amongst all of the host servers involved in the DRS-enabled cluster. VI3 balances its load by using a new feature called DRS. VM-A is started on ESX-B and all access to VM-A is now directed to the copy running on ESX-B. This is because DRS uses VMotion to balance the load of an ESX cluster in real time between all of the server involved in the cluster." When a server is put into maintenance mode. This way it is possible to bring the first server offline to perform physical maintenance on it without impacting the services that it provides. VMotion will be used to migrate all of the running VMs off it onto another server. or move. as with everything. in a series of steps: A request has been made that VM-A should be migrated (VMotioned) from ESX-A to ESX-B VM-A's memory is pre-copied from ESX-A to ESX-B while ongoing changes are written to a memory bitmap on ESX-A. when should it be used? There are two primary reasons to use VMotion: to balance the load on the physical ESX servers and eliminate the need to take a service offline in order to perform maintenance on the server. VM-A is quiesced on ESX-A and VM-A's memory bitmap is copied to ESX-B. This is accomplished by putting a server into "maintenance mode. This is known as a "hot-migration. it is also possible to migrate all of the VMs off of one host server (resources permitting) and onto another. a virtual machine that is powered on from one host server to another host server without the VM incurring downtime. If DRS decides that a particular VM would be better suited to run on a different host then it will utilize VMotion to seamlessly migrate the VM over to the other host. If the migration is successful VM-A is unregistered on ESX-A." How does this hot-migration technology that VMware has dubbed VMotion work? Well. How VMotion works As stated above.

.. The two ESX servers involved must not have virtual switch port groups that are labeled the same. i. The VM must not be clustered with another VM (using a cluster service like the Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS)). When a host is selected. binding it to physical CPU(s). continuous service availability. . Conclusion The intent of this article was to provide readers with a solid grasp of what VMotion is and how it can benefit them. and complete transaction integrity.For a VMotion event to be successful the following must be true: The VM cannot be connected to an internal vswitch. The two ESX servers involved must have compatible CPUs.. ‡ Improve availability by conducting maintenance without disrupting business operations VMotion is a key enabling technology for creating the dynamic." The VI3 client will ask to which host this VM should be migrated. The VM cannot be connected to a CD-ROM or floppy drive that is using an ISO or floppy image stored on a drive that is local to the host server. The two ESX servers involved must have access to the same physical networks. -----------------------------------------------------------------------What Is VMware VMotion ? VMware® VMotionŒ enables the live migration of running virtual machines from one physical server to another with zero downtime. If any of the above conditions are true then the VI3 client will halt the VMotion operation with an error. (See support on Intel and AMD). VMotion is not supported and will not start. The VM's affinity must not be set. If you have any outstanding questions with regards to VMotion or any VMware technology please do not hesitate to send them to me via ask the experts. VMotion allows IT organization to: ‡ Continuously and automatically allocate virtual machines within resource pools. The two ESX servers involved must be connected via Gigabit Ethernet (or better). This is accomplished by rightclicking on VM in the VI3 client and clicking on "Migrate. The two ESX servers involved must both be using (the same!) shared storage. The simplest way to test these conditions is to attempt a manual VMotion event. If any of the above conditions are not met. several validation checks are performed. automated. and self-optimizing data center.e.

VMotion keeps the transfer period imperceptible to users by keeping track of on-going memory transactions in a bitmap. . the networks being used by the virtual machine are also virtualized by the underlying ESX Server. the entire state of a virtual machine is encapsulated by a set of files stored on shared storage such as Fibre Channel or iSCSI Storage Area Network (SAN) or Network Attached Storage (NAS). VMotion pings the network router to ensure that it is aware of the new physical location of the virtual MAC address. the result is zero downtime and no disruption to users. VMotion manages the virtual MAC address as part of the process. VMware¶s clustered Virtual Machine File System (VMFS) allows multiple installations of ESX Server to access the same virtual machine files concurrently. Third. First. Once the destination machine is activated. flexibility and availability. and the active network connections. Once the entire memory and system state has been copied over to the target ESX Server. copies the bitmap to the target ESX Server. How Does VMotion work? Live migration of a virtual machine from one physical server to another with VMotion is enabled by three underlying technologies. Since the migration of a virtual machine with VMotion preserves the precise execution state. VMotion suspends the source virtual machine. and resumes the virtual machine on the target ESX Server. the virtual machine network identity and network connections are preserved. ‡ Perform hardware maintenance without scheduled downtime.How Is VMware VMotion Used? VMotion allows users to: ‡ Automatically optimize and allocate entire pools of resources for maximum hardware utilization. the active memory and precise execution state of the virtual machine is rapidly transferred over a high speed network. allowing the virtual machine to instantaneously switch from running on the source ESX Server to the destination ESX Server. This entire process takes less than two seconds on a Gigabit Ethernet network. Second. ensuring that even after the migration. ‡ Proactively migrate virtual machines away from failing or underperforming servers. the network identity.

in general. · SDK. Manage hundreds of virtual machines from one location through robust access controls. Monitor system availability and performance. · Zero-downtime maintenance. you still gain a number of advanced features. VirtualCenter provides: · Centralized virtual machine management. here are the major advanced features: . SVMotion works to move the storage for a VM from a local datastore on an ESX server to a shared datastore (a SAN) and back ± SVMotion will not move a VM at all ± only the storage for a VM.With VirtualCenter. no matter the virtualization package you choose. Optimizes the utilization of data center resources to minimize unused capacity. Safeguards business continuity 24/7. · Continuous workload consolidation. so that the solutions you use today will work seamlessly within virtual infrastructure. virtualization. While I cannot go into everything that ESX Server (itself) offers. One final reminder. interactively from the command line.--------------------------------------------What is VirtualCenter? VirtualCenter is virtual infrastructure management software that centrally manages an enterprise¶s virtual machines as a single. Additionally.hardware independence. Closely integrates 3rd-party management software with VirtualCenter. offers many benefits. ease of management. there are a ton of caveats about SVMotion in the ESX 3.or migration. Reduces server-provisioning time from weeks to tens of seconds. Configure automated notifications and e-mail alerts. an administrator can manage ------------------------------------------------What is Storage VMotion (SVMotion) and How do you perform a SVMotion using the VI Plugin? there are at least 3 ways to perform a SVMotion ± from the remote command line. and with the SVMotion VI Client Plugin Note: You need to have VMotion configured and working for SVMotion to work. without service interruptions for hardware maintenance. · Instant provisioning. Of course.5 administrator¶s guide (page 245) that could cause SVMotion not to work. fewer data center infrastructure resources required. ---------------------------Overview of VMware ESX / VMware Infrastructure Advanced Features #1 ESX Server & ESXi Server Even if all that you purchase is the most basic VMware ESXi virtualization package at a cost of $495. and much more. deployment. For example . logical pool of resources. better utilization of hardware.

within seconds. in some cases. With VMFS you can dynamically increase a volume. and VLAN. Support for up to 64GB of RAM for VMs. #5 VMotion & Storage VMotion With VMotion. ESXi installs right on your hardware (bare metal installation). a SAN for shared storage. This is because it is so unique. VMFS file system ± see advanced feature #2. without any downtime for the users of those virtual guests. Enhanced virtual machine performance ± virtual machines may perform. processing tasks will be balanced among the various CPUs. virtual NICs. QoS & port configuration policies. below. Virtual Center. and the addition of a virtual disk on the fly. Additionally. #4 VM High Availability (VMHA) One of the most amazing capabilities of VMware ESX is VMHA. 64 bit guest OS support. What is required is a shared SAN storage system between the ESX Servers and a VMotion license. again. VMotion also makes maintenance of an ESX server possible. below. support distributed journaling. This feature works regardless of the operating system used or if the applications support it. Network Virtualization ± virtual switches. even better in a VM than on a physical server because of features like transparent page sharing and nested page table. it is the highest performance file system available to use in virtualizing your enterprise. While VMFS is included with any edition or package of ESX Server or VI that you choose. the virtual guests on that server will move over to the other server and restart. #2 VMFS VMware¶s VMFS was created just for VMware virtualization. VMotion is what makes DRS possible. Thus. and a VMHA license. VM guests are able to move from one ESX Server to another with no downtime for the users. . VMFS is still listed as a separate product by VMware. including features like boot from SAN Local SATA storage support. simultaneously. #3 Virtual SMP VMware¶s Virtual SMP (or VSMP) is the feature that allows a VMware ESX Server to utilize up to 4 physical processors on the host system.Hardware level virtualization ± no based operating system license is needed. up to 32 logical CPUs and 256GB of RAM on the host. VMFS is what gives you a solid platform to perform VMotion and VMHA. with VSMP. With 2 ESX Servers. SAN Support ± connectivity to iSCSI and Fibre Channel (FC) SAN storage. Virtual SMP ± see advanced feature #4. VMFS is a high performance cluster file system allowing multiple systems to access the file system at the same time. if a single ESX Server fails.

With Update Manager. that has SAN connectivity to the ESX Server VMFS file system. Many backup vendors integrate with VCB to make that task easier. and administer all of you ESX Server systems. you gain performance information. you need VMware Virtual Center. VC has many advanced features in its own right. #9 VMware¶s Virtual Center (VC) & Infrastructure Client (VI Client) I prefer to list the VMware Infrastructure client & Virtual Center as one of the advanced features of ESX Server & the VI Suite. please see the VMware ESX Server 3. To perform ESX Server updates. From there.Storage VMotion (or SVMotion) is similar to VMotion in the sense that "something" related to the VM is moved and there is no downtime to the VM guest and end users. This can be used both for initial placement of VM guests and for ³continuous optimization´ (as VMware calls it). Virtual Center is a required piece of many of the advanced ESX Server features. #7 VMware Update Manager VMware Update Manager is a relatively new feature that ties into Virtual Center & ESX Server. Also. DRS can recognize the best allocation of resource across all ESX Server and dynamically move VM guests from one ESX Server to another. If you have more than 1 ESX Server. If set to fully automatic. When tied with VC. you can even use VMotion and upgrade an ESX Server without ever causing any downtime to the VM guests running on it. the VI Client is really the interface that a VMware administrator uses to configure. Update Manager is there to patch your host and guest systems to prevent security vulnerabilities from being exploited. However. without any downtime to the end users. DRS is essentially a load-balancing and resource scheduling system for all of your ESX Servers. To read more technical details on how it works. back to the VCB server. Overall. security & role administration. Thus. you can perform file level or image level backups and restores of the VM guests. installed on a Windows system. using VMotion. With VCB. you can perform ESX Server updates and Windows and Linux operating system updates of your VM guests. . you could move a VM guest's virtual disks from one ESX server¶s local datastore to a shared SAN datastore (or vice versa) with no downtime for the end users of that VM guest. There are a number of restrictions on this. you will have to find a way to get those VCB backup files off of the VCB server and integrated into your normal backup process. optimize. #6 VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB) VMware Consolidated Backup (or VCB) is a group of Windows command line utilities. and templatebased rollout of new VM guests for the entire virtual infrastructure. with SVMotion the VM Guest stays on the server that it resides on but the virtual disk for that VM is what moves. #8 VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) VMware¶s Distributed Resource Scheduler (or DRS) is one of the other truly amazing advanced features of ESX Server and the VI Suite. Additionally. With the VI Client.5 Administrators Guide. this can be used for ESX Server maintenance.

VMware HA. such as powering on virtual machines. and update manager. and a SRM supported SAN at each site. VMware¶s Site Recovery Manager is a huge disaster recovery feature. VMFS. the Foundation package includes ESX or ESXi. and VMware HA. you can use SRM to plan. update manager. relying on a cached version of the license state. the VMware Infrastructure Suite VMware ESX Server is packaged and purchased in 4 different packages. VMFS. there are varying levels of support available for these products. all licensed functionality currently operating at the time the license server becomes unavailable continues to operate as follows: ?? All VirtualCenter licensed features continue to operate indefinitely. Virtual center agent. VMware Infrastructure Foundation ± (previously called the starter kit. Virtual center agent. so does the cost ---------------------------------------Advantages of VMFS VMware¶s VMFS was created just for VMware virtualization. VMware Infrastructure Enterprise ± includes ESX or ESXi. VMware ESXi ± the slimmed down (yet fully functional) version of ESX server that has no service console. even across reboots. VMFS is a high performance cluster file system allowing multiple systems to access the file system at the same time. ?? For ESX Server licensed features. Virtual SMP. This includes not only basic VirtualCenter operation. you get VMFS and virtual SMP only. Virtual SMP. support distributed journaling. consolidated backup. . such as VMotion and DRS. Consolidated backup. Virtual SMP. consolidated backup. certain ESX Server operations. test. VMware ESX Servers at each site. VMotion. update manager. Also. With VMFS you can dynamically increase a volume. relying on a cached version of the license state. VMFS is what gives you the necessary foundation to perform VMotion and VMHA. After the grace period expires.#10 VMware Site Recovery Manager (SRM) Recently announced for sale and expected to be shipping in 30 days. -----------------Virtual center licenses issues However. and the addition of a virtual disk on the fly. If you have two data centers (primary/protected and a secondary/recovery). there is a 14-day grace period during which hosts continue operation. Storage VMotion. You should note that Virtual Center is required for some of the more advanced features and it is purchased separately. VMware Infrastructure Standard ± includes ESX or ESXi. become unavailable. and recover your entire VMware virtual infrastructure. Virtual Center agent. By buying ESXi. As the length and the priority of your support package increase. VMware ESX Server vs. VMFS. and DRS. but licenses for VirtualCenter add-ons.

When the license server becomes available again. by default # vdf -h recovery command for vmkfstools.conf file. During the grace period. HA. # vmkfstools -R /vmfs/volumes/SAN-storage-2/ ESX host's system UUID found in the /etc/vmware/esx. The grace period timer is reset whenever the license server becomes available again. ?? ESX Server hosts continue to run. when the license server is unavailable. the following operations are unaffected: ?? Virtual machines continue to run. When the grace period has expired. You can connect to any ESX Server host in the VirtualCenter inventory for operation and maintenance. cached license information is no longer stored. ESX has 22 different users and 31 groups. You cannot change VirtualCenter agent licenses for hosts. ?? Adding or removing license keys. or DRS configuration. restricted operations include: ?? Adding ESX Server hosts to the VirtualCenter inventory. VMware ESX Server. Connections to the VirtualCenter Server remain. No rebooting or manual action is required to restore license availability. you have 4 Roles. Running virtual machines continue to run but cannot be rebooted.--------------During the ESX Server grace period. VI Clients can operate and maintain virtual machines from their host even if the VirtualCenter Server connection is also lost. It failed. You cannot change host membership for the current VMotion. VI Clients can configure and operate virtual machines. ?? Adding or removing hosts from a cluster. By default. virtual machines can no longer be powered on. . hosts reconnect to the license server. As a result.

check LUNs A. Avail.Recently VMware added a some what useful command line tool named vmfs-undelete which exports metadata to a recovery log file which can restore vmdk block addresses in the event of deletion. The names in light blue are the VMFS labels. Use%. below. Mounted on) for all file system volumes recognized by your ESX host. If there is a table. The hexidecimal values are described later. Used. example b. ls -l \vmfs\volumes ----------Using the Linux device name (obtained using e sxc f g . the command to scan luns --esxcfg-mpath -l and also check var\log\vmkernal View the iSCSI name assigned to the iSCSI software adapter: vmkiscsi-tool -I -1 vmhba40 View the iSCSI alias assigned to the iSCSI software adapter: vmkiscsi-tool -k -1 vmhba40 ---Login to the service console as root and execute e sxc f g . Well I think this falls well short of what we need here. example a. so we really need to know what to look for and how to correct it and that's exactly why I created this blog. # fdisk -1 /dev/sd<?> ------------ . List the contents of the /vmfs/volumes directory. B and C to see if any are partitioned. If there is no partition table. go to step 2. It's a simple tool and at present it's experimental and unsupported and is not available on ESXi.vmhbadevs command). # esxcfg-vmhbadevs Run the esxcf g-vmhbadevs command with the -m option to map VMFS names to VMFS UUIDs.vmhbadevs to identify which LUNs are currently seen by the ESX server. # esxcfg-vmhbadevs -m ------------Use the vdf -h comand to identify disk statistics (Size. What if you have no previous backups of the VMFS configuration. go to step 3. The tool of course demands that you were proactive and ran it's backup function in order to use it. The hexidecimal numbers (in dark blue) are unique VMFS names. The labels are symbolically linked to the VMFS volumes. Note that the LUN partition numbers are shown in this output.

N ame> ------------In order to remove a span.L abel. # nano -w /etc/sysconfig/clock UTC= t rue . # chkconfig --list ntpd -----Configure the system to synchronize the hwclock and the operating system clocks each time the ESX Server host is rebooted. Using the command below.C and .spanned to the VMFS label name. Add . # vmkfstools -C vmfs3 -S LUNc#> vmhbal:O:#:l ---------------Now that the LUN has been partitioned and formatted as a VMFS volume.1. Your ESX host recognizes these new volumes. vdf -h --------------------Use the esxcf g-vmhbadevs command with the -m option to map the VMFS hex names to SAN LUNs. you must reformat LUN B with a new VMFS volume (because it was the LUN that was spanned to). create a VMFS volume on LUN A. Use the . THIS WILL DELETE ALL DATA ON BOTH LUNS IN THE SPAN ! # vmkfstools -C vmfs3 -S <label> vmhbal:O:#:l -----------------------Enable the ntpclient service on the Service Console # esxcfg-firewall -e ntpclient -----------Determine if the NTP daemon starts when the system boots. Ask your instructor if you should use a custom VMFS label name. it can be used as a datastore. # In -sf /vmfs/volumes/<V~~S-UUID> /vmfs/volumes/ <New. Format a partitioned LUN using vmkf s tool s . # esxcfg-vmhbadevs -m -------------It may be helpful to change the label to identify that this VMFS volume is spanned.S options respectively. to create and label the volume.

443 Communication between VI client and virtual center 80. to create the snapshot for the 3rd party backup software to access: vcbMounter -h <VC .address .u s e r.u ser.or . To do this.virtual-machine .fullvm> -----------------List the different ways to identify your virtual machine.S e r v e r.address .IP .hostname> -u <VC. 903 Communication between VI client and virtual center 902 Communication between VI web access client and ESX 80.V M -t o. 8042-8045 (out) ESX serever during VMotion 8000 The required port for ISCSI 3260. use the vcbVmName command: vcbVmName -h < V i r t u a l Center .a ccount> -p < V i r t u a l c e n t e r.-----------List the available services.to .putbackup> -t <Backup .S e r v e r.8086 Update manager Web port . 443 Communication between ESX server and License server 27010 (in).of . among other things.p assword> -s ipaddr:<IP .backup> . NFS : 2049 Update manager SOAP port .type: .t he.or .VCB Proxy . # esxcfg-firewall -s ------------Communication between VI client and ESX server the ports reqired 902.b ackup> -r <Directory .file .Server-IP-Address-or-Hostname> -u < V i r t u a l c e n t e r.on . 27000(out) ESX server in a vmware HA cluster 2050 -5000 (in).a ccount> -p cVC user password> -a ~~dzntifi-eo rf .to .9084 Vmware converter SOAP port 9085 Vmware converter Web port 9084 vcbMounter is used.

vmdk -.vmsd ---vm snapshot file .vm swap file vmname.vmdk--preallocated space vmname.actual virtual hard drive for the virtual guest operation system vmname_flot.vmx --virtual machine configuration file vmname.vswap -.log --virtual machine log file vmname.Unmount the virtual disk(s): mountvm -u c:\backups\tempmnt ----------------VMFS Volume can be created one partition 256 GB in the maimum size of a VM For a LUN 32extents can be added up to 64 TB 8 mount points for NFS are the maximum ----------------Service console will use 272 mb ---------------The files for vmware virtual machine vmname.