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38 PDLIC£ R£FDRM IN SDU7H ASIA
74 Kamal Kumar, former Dlrector, Natlonal Pollce Academy and Member, Monltorlng Commlttee, made a statement ln the wake of
the 26/ll attacks. He lterated the "need for capaclty bulldlng of the pollce to counter terrorlsm."
75 (2006) 8 SCC l.
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History of PoIice Reforms in India:
SeIect Recommendations of Various Committees
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3.2 PoIice Reform: Initiatives and Resistance
7be Supreme Court 1udgement
76 Pollce Commlsslons were set up ln 8lhar ln l958-6l, Uttar Pradesh and west 8engal ln l960-6l, Punìab ln l96l-62, Maharashtra
durlng l962-64, Delhl ln l966-67, Assam ln l969 and Tamll Nadu durlng l969-7l.
alrs, Government of |ndla's Letter No.ll0l3/ll/83- NPC Cell, dated 3l March l983.
78 ltolosh 5|nçh onJ Othets v un|cn cl lnJ|o onJ Othets (2006) 8 SCC l.
79 |bld., p. 7.
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80 Tamll Nadu, Guìarat, Punìab, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka.
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Chronology: Prakash Singh and Others v Union of India and Others
Date Supreme Court Hearings, £vents and DeadIines
le a P|L ln the Supreme Court.
September 2006 The Supreme Court dellvers ìudgement requlrlng state and central governments to
lmplement lts seven dlrectlves. Governments had tlll 3 1anuary 2007 to comply.
ll 1anuary 2007 Supreme Court Hearlng on compllance. Pequest for extenslon by states. Slx states
le separate revlew petltlons.Supreme Court reìects revlew petltlons and orders
lmmedlate compllance of Dlrectlves 2, 3 and 5 whlle extendlng the deadllne for
compllance of Dlrectlves l, 4, 6 and 7 by three months.
3l March 2007 Lxtenslon for lmplementatlon of Dlrectlves l, 4, 6 and 7.
davlts of compllance.
les contempt petltlons agalnst slx states - Guìarat, Punìab,
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamll Nadu and Uttar Pradesh.
led ln 1anuary .
led by Prakash Slngh. Court makes no rullng on
merlts and grants a further extenslon of slx weeks to all states and unlon terrltorles to
davlts of compllance.
le compllance report.
Aprll 2008 Supreme Court conslders establlshlng a Monltorlng Commlttee (MC).
May 2008 Supreme Court passes an order to set up the MC.
December 2008 Supreme Court Hearlng decllnes to rule on contempt before MC reports back.
2l 1uly 2009 Supreme Court Hearlng decllnes to rule on contempt, C1| statlng, "Not a slngle
state government ls wllllng to cooperate. what can we do!"
Pebruary 20l0 Supreme Court Hearlng - Advocate Paìu Pamchandran appolnted om|cµs cµt|oe for
the Monltorlng Commlttee.
nal report to the Court.
8 November 20l0 Supreme Court lssues notlce to four states - Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka
and west 8engal for total non-compllance.
6 December 20l0 Supreme Court glves Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and west 8engal four
weeks to lndlcate the tlme they would requlre to lmplement the reforms ln a phased
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3.3 State CompIiance of tbe Directives
3.3.1 Cbecking PoIiticaI Interference: 7be Creation of State Security Commissions
8l These are Assam, 8lhar, Chhattlsgarh, Haryana, Hlmachal Pradesh, Punìab, Paìasthan, Trlpura, Uttarakhand, Guìarat, Kerala and Slkklm.
82 1ustlce K.T. Thomas Commlttee Peport, p. ll.
83 The Pollce Act, l86l, Sectlon 3.
84 |bld., Sectlon 4.
85 1oshl G.P. (2007), Controlllng the Pollce: An Analysls of the Pollce Acts of Commonwealth Countrles, worklng Paper No.l3, |PLS,
October: http://www.lpes.lnfo/wps/wPS%20No%20l3.pdf, as on l2 November 20l0.
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3.3.2 PoIice AccountabiIity: Setting up PoIice CompIaints Autborities
clals as lts members. |nstead lt recommended a retlred Chlef 1ustlce of the
Hlgh Court as lts Chalr along wlth a member from the State Human Plghts Commlsslon (SHPC), one from the State Publlc Servlce
Commlsslon (SPSC), and three other lndependent members to be appolnted by the governor after a trlpartlte and transparent
selectlon process. The Peblero Commlttee recommended three lndependent members selected by a panel created by the
Chalrperson of the NHPC. A 1udge of the Hlgh Court (on recommendatlon of the Chlef 1ustlce) ls a member. The NHPC model
comprlses two servlng or retlred ìudges as members (on recommendatlon of the Chlef 1ustlce): alternatlvely lt may be composed
of one ìudge and elther a member of the SHPC or the Lok Ayukta of the state.
87 Daman and Dlu, Dadra and Nagar Havell, Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nlcobar |slands, Chandlgarh, Puducherry and the Natlonal
Capltal Terrltory of Delhl.
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88 Azera P. (20l0), "Over 3.7 Lakh Complalnts Agalnst Pollce on Human Plghts Abuse", NLPvL news, 29 Aprll: http://www.nerve.ln/
news, as on l0 December 20l0.
alrs, Government of |ndla.
90 These are the states of Assam, Goa, Kerala, Trlpura, Uttarakhand, Haryana and the Unlon Terrltory of Chandlgarh.
9l The Supreme Court ordered that the Chalrperson of the state-level PCA ls to be a retlred 1udge of the Hlgh Court or Supreme
Court chosen by the state government from a panel of names proposed by the Chlef 1ustlce. The other members are to be chosen
by the state government from a panel prepared by the State Human Plghts Commlsslon, Lok Ayukta (Ombudsman) or State Publlc
92 Of the total number of cases the Commlsslon reglstered over the past l0 years tlll 3l March 20l0, the hlghest number was agalnst
the pollce. Accordlng to earller data, the NHPC reglstered 377,2l6 complalnts agalnst the pollce tlll March thls year, and of these,
248,505 were from Uttar Pradesh. The nature of complalnts agalnst the pollce lncludes arbltrary use of power, abductlon, rape,
custodlal vlolence and death, fake encounters and unlawful detentlon.
93 The Tlmes of |ndla (20l0), "Delhl, Uttar Pradesh Account for 67 Per Cent Human Plghts vlolatlons", 29 November: http://tlmeso
ndla.lndlatlmes.com/lndla/Delhl-Uttar-Pradesh-account-for-67-human-rlghts-vlolatlons/artlcleshow/70l0286.cms, as on ll
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3.3.3 CompIiance Watcbdog: 7be Monitoring Committee
94 1ustlce K.T. Thomas Commlttee Peport, p. l2.
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3.3.4 7be Monitoring RoIe of Higb Courts
3.4 7owards Democratic PoIicing: RepIacing tbe 1861 Act
3.4.1 ModeI PoIice Act: PoIice Act Drafting Committee
96 The Tlmes of |ndla (20l0), "Pollce Peforms Stlll a Dlstant Dream", 8 December: ndla.lndlatlmes.com/clty/bangalo re/
Pollce-reforms-stlll-a-dlstant-dream/artlcleshow/7062490.cms, as on l5 December 20l0.
ce (2005), PM's Address to the Superlntendents of Pollce Conference, l September: http://pmlndla.nlc.ln/
speech/content.asp!ld¬l82, as on l December 2008.
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3.4.2 State PoIice Laws: Reform or Retrogression
No States and U7s Lack of Response
l Maharashtra No leglslatlon or draft underway
2 Mlzoram No leglslatlon or draft underway
3 Nagaland No leglslatlon or draft underway
No States and U7s Work in Progress
l Uttar Pradesh Draftlng Commlttee set up but no draft produced as yet
2 west 8engal west 8engal Draft Pollce Act, 2007, ready
3 1ammu & Kashmlr Draftlng Commlttee set up
4 Manlpur Draftlng underway
5 Madhya Pradesh Draftlng underway
6 1harkhand Draftlng underway
7 Orlssa Draftlng Commlttee set up
8 Arunachal Pradesh Draft 8lll ready
9 Delhl Draft Delhl Pollce 8lll, 20l0, ready
l0 Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Pollce 8lll drafted and ready
No States and U7s ßiIIs
l Tamll Nadu Tamll Nadu Pollce 8lll, 2008, tabled ln leglslature on l4 May 2008
98 The states of Assam, 8lhar, Chhattlsgarh, Haryana, Hlmachal Pradesh, Punìab, Paìasthan, Slkklm, Trlpura, Uttarakhand and
Meghalaya have passed new pollce leglslatlons. Kerala and Guìarat have passed Amendment Acts.
99 Goa, Kerala and Tamll Nadu have tabled thelr drafts ln the Assembly. Arunachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Delhl and west 8engal
have thelr drafts ready, though some are not ln the publlc domaln.
l00 Orlssa and Uttar Pradesh have set up commlttees to draft new leglslatlons but have not produced a draft.
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2 Karnataka Draft 8lll was completed by end of 2008, but not tabled
3 Kerala The Kerala Pollce 8lll, 20l0, tabled ln the assembly ln Aprll 20l0: the 8lll has been
referred to a l9-member Select Commlttee
4 Goa Goa Pollce 8lll tabled ln the Leglslatlve Assembly on 27 August 2008: the 8lll has been
referred to a Select Commlttee
No States and U7s New LegisIation/Amendment ßiIIs passed after tbe Prakasb Singb judgement
ed on 3l March 2007
2 Trlpura Trlpura Pollce Act passed on 29 March 2007: ln force from 7 Aprll 2009
ed on 28 September 2007
ed on l8 September 2007
ed on 2 1une 2008
6 Hlmachal Pradesh Hlmachal Pradesh Pollce Act passed on 28 August 2007: Governor's assent glven on
2l September 2007
7 Kerala Kerala Pollce (Amendment) Act passed on l9 September 2007: ln force from
5 October 2007
ed on l November 2007
ed on 30 1uly 08
l0 Punìab Punìab Pollce Act passed on December 2007: ln force from 20 Pebruary 2008
ll Uttarakhand Uttarakhand Pollce Act passed on 2 1anuary 2008: ln force from 4 1anuary 2008
l2 Guìarat 8ombay Pollce (Guìarat Amendment) Act, 2007, passed by Leglslatlve Assembly
ed on 23 March 2008
l3 Chandlgarh The Punìab Pollce Act, 2007 was extended to Chandlgarh ln March 20l0
l4 Meghalaya Meghalaya Pollce Act passed by the state Leglslatlve Assembly on 3 December 20l0:
ed at the tlme of wrltlng thls report.
3.5 NationaI PoIice Mission and Micro-Missions
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3.6 Reforms in tbe Face of Insurgency
alrs, Government of |ndla: http://bprd.nlc.ln/lndex2.asp!slld¬37
7&subllnkld¬l59&lang¬l, as on l2 December 20l0.
l02 One of the most glarlng lncldents took place ln a remote vlllage called Slngaram ln Dantewada Dlstrlct, Chhattlsgarh, where l9
led a petltlon ln the Hlgh Court.
Por detalls, see "The 1ungle 1ustlce of the Trlgger Happy", Tehelka Magazlne, volume 6, |ssue 5, 7 Pebruary 2009: http://www.
lename¬Ne070209coverstory.asp, as on l0 December 20l0.
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3.7 Lost Dpportunity for Reform: 7be Prevention of 7orture ßiII
alrs, Government of |ndla, Annual Peport 2008-2009, pp. ll6-ll7.
l04 Plannlng Commlsslon, Government of |ndla, "M|S-Left wlng Lxtremlsm Dlstrlcts", avallable at http://pcserver.nlc.ln/lwe/logln.aspx.
l05 Peport of the worklng Group on the Unlversal Perlodlc Pevlew: |ndla, 23 May 2008, p. l6: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/
UNDOC/GLN/G08/l36/54/PDP/G08l3654.pdf!OpenLlement, as on l0 December 20l0.
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3.8 SpeciaI Laws: Uncbecked Powers
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3.8.1 Anti-7error Laws
l06 Two Preventlon of Terrorlsm Ordlnances were promulgated ln October 200l and December 200l before the passage of POTA.
They were enacted as temporary laws to operate for three years. The Hlgh Courts and the central government had the power to
make rules ln accordance wlth the law.
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3.8.2 Laws Against Drganised Crime
l07 7ehello Voçoz|ne (20l0): "Terror that wasn't", volume 7, |ssue 08, 27 Pebruary: http://www.tehelka.com/story_maln43.
lename¬ Ne2702l0terror_that.asp, as on l0 December 20l0.
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7be Armed Forces SpeciaI Powers Act
l08 The North Last states lnclude Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manlpur, Meghalaya, Mlzoram, Nagaland, Slkklm and Trlpura.
l09 The Act has been ln force ln the North Last states slnce l958 and ln 1ammu and Kashmlr slnce l990.
ll0 Sectlon 4, Armed Porces Speclal Powers Act.
lll Sectlon 45, Code of Crlmlnal Procedure, l973.
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