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Ehru The erhu (Chinese: . It is a lute with a fretted neck. It is often used in wind and percussion ensembles in northern China. metal mounted on wood.Yunluo The yunluo is a set of usually ten small tuned gongs mounted in a wooden frame. together with the zhonghu. It is the most popular instrument in the huqin family of Chinese bowed string instruments. "southern fiddle"). Ruan The ruan ( . with each gong being about 9-12 cm in diameter. which is about 25 cm (10 inches) in diameter and 10 cm (4 inches) deep. and the height of the frame being about 52 cm. its player leads the ensemble. The modern ruan has 24 frets with 12 semitones on each string." is a twostringed bowed musical instrument. a circular body. Xiao The xi o is a very ancient Chinese instrument usually thought to have developed from a simple end-blown flute used by the Qiang people of Southwest China. the thicker gongs produce a higher pitch. The yunluo's gongs are generally of equal diameter but different thicknesses. Bangu bangu. and numerous others. also called nanhu ( . creates a sharp dry sound essential to the aesthetics of Chinese opera. Used in both traditional and contemporary pieces. pinyin: ru n) is a Chinese plucked string instrument. The frets are commonly made of ivory. Chinese frame drum that. also called danpi. the skin and wedges are wrapped by a metal band. which was held by a handle by one hand and played with the other. which has greatly expanded its range from a previous 13 frets. Yuequin . consists of an animal skin stretched over wooden wedges. jinghu. pinyin: èrhú). The wedges do not reach the small area in the centre (the drum¶s ³heart. it is a versatile instrument. The drum. and sometimes known in the West as the "Chinese violin" or "Chinese two-string fiddle. gaohu. Its strings were formerly made of silk but since the 20th century they have been made of steel (flatwound for the lower strings). used as a solo instrument as well as in small ensembles and large orchestras. sihu. It is sometimes called ruanqin ( ).´ guxin) where the drum is struck. banhu. when struck by one or two small bamboo sticks. The metal frets produce a brighter tone as compared to the ivory frets. The modern six-hole form of the instrument goes back to the Ming Dynasty. Old drawings also depict a smaller yunluo with just five gongs. and four strings. It is also used in many Chinese chamber music ensembles. particularly in Taiwan. The bangu is held in its own stand. Wade-Giles romanization pan-ku. Or in recent times.

photo Sheng The Chinese sheng (Chinese: . Unlike instruments in the shawm family. sometimes spelled tang gu) The tanggu ( is a traditional Chinese drum from the 19th century. ) or bili (traditional: . with two heads made of animal skin.The yueqin (Chinese: . generally tuned to the interval of a perfect fifth. pinyin: b nhú) is a Chinese traditional bowed string instrument in the huqin family of instruments. and also called moon guitar. gekkin. In the modern large Chinese orchestra. simplified: ) The northern Chinese version is called guanzi ( ). and is played with two sticks. It is used primarily in northern China. and instead of a snakeskin that is commonly used to cover the faces of huqin instruments. the guan has a cylindrical bore. or laqin) is a traditional Chinese string instrument. is held vertically. pinyin: tángg . such as the wind and percussion ensembles in northern China. It is classified as a bamboo instrument in and the Cantonese version is called houguan ( the Ba Yin (ancient Chinese instrument classification) system. it is used for both melody and accompaniment Bili/Guan The guan ( . The tanggu is usually suspended by four rings in a wooden stand. the body of the yueqin may be octagonal in shape. or yueh-ch'in. and the bow hair passes in between the two strings. It is one of the main instruments in kunqu and some other forms of Chinese opera. The banhu differs in construction from the erhu in that its soundbox is generally made from a coconut shell rather than wood. the banhu has two strings. Traditionally. Ban means a piece of wood and hu is short for huqin. . It is medium in size and barrel-shaped. also spelled yue Banhu The banhu ( . It has a short fretted neck and four strings tuned in courses of two (each pair of strings is tuned to a single pitch). literally "ceremonial hall drum". Tanggu . Like the more familiar erhu and gaohu. hollow wooden body which gives it the nickname moon guitar. la ch'in. literally "pipe" or "tube") is a Chinese double reed wind instrument. Occasionally. Pinyin sh ng) is a mouth-blown free reed instrument consisting essentially of vertical pipes. the banhu uses a thin wooden board. giving it a clarinet-like tone. It is a lute with a round. pinyin: yuèqín. moon-zither. such as the Western oboe or Chinese suona. pinyin: gu n. Traditional small ensembles also make use of the sheng. the sheng has been used as an accompaniment instrument for solo suona or dizi performances.