# DEFLECTION OF BEAM BY SELF Wgt.

CHAPTER - 1
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor
/PREP7 /title, Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam

3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS...
K,#,x,y,z

We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x,y,z) 1 (0,0)

2 4. Create Lines

(1000,0)

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord
L,1,2

Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 6. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: i. ii. iii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166.67 Total beam height: 10

This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 8. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density

In the window that appears, enter the following density for steel: i. 9. Define Mesh Size Density DENS: 7.86e-6

Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All'

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static
ANTYPE,0

2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem.
o o

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9.81m/s2 in the y direction.

ACEL.ALL. .1. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). DK.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.0.9.

4.777mm 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape ..2 . Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.

the maximum displacement was found to be 5.777mm. This is in agreement with the theortical value .As observed in the upper left hand corner.

The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. /title. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..CHAPTER – II UDL This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Distributed Loading . Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'..0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

iii.. 7. > Add.333 Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L.3.0) 4. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Define Element Material Properties .y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. and rotation about the Z axis).. enter the following geometric properties: i. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. ii. 5. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element.y) 1 (0. 6. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.x..0) 2 (1000.#..K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.K#..

3 Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. .. 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. ii.. 9. Define Mesh Size Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering ..

o o o Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.0 2. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). 3. . of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. over the entire length of the beam. As shown in the following figure.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

... select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. 4.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.2 . In the window that appears. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols.

. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. 6. click 'Apply' 5.. 8. For this example. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. Click 'OK'.2. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. In the second window of the same section. ' d. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res.. 7. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: o ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. we decided to extract the . Click 'Add.' 3.. 9. 1. select 'NMISC. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. In the window that appears a.

3 for the 'J' nodes. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. As shown in the plot below. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa CHAPTER – III NONLINEAR ANALYSIS This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.o stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. . 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex. (ie. For this problem.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. contact elements). A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files.

The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.. > Add. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x... Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. With only 3 degrees of freedom... Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. After each increment. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.0) 3. 5. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... 4. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. . Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. the load will added incrementally.y) 1 (0.To solve this problem. and rotation about the Z axis).0) 2 (5. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. 2.

enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.069e-5 Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.125 inches. 6.03125 Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4. for example.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. Define Analysis Type .25 x 0.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.1 " (50 element divisions along the line).ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 7.In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. ii. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. If we were considering a block of wood. iii. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.. 8. we would have to consider non-linear material properties. not non-linear material properties. ii.

Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Enter 5 as the number of substeps.0 2. C.. Set Solution Controls o Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. however. The following image will appear: Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): . The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. this takes time.. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in.

This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. type help followed by the command into the command line. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. When large static deformations are Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF . By default. the load is ramped. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. However. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. By default. E.the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie . This command controls the solution data written to the database. D.     20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in Now. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. F. For more information about these commands. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step.

stress stiffening is automatically included. and the full NewtonRaphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. Convergence Values CNVTOL By default. 3. the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. the modified Newton-Raphson. Newton Raphson NROPT By default. the program will automatically choose the NewtonRaphson options. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5.permitted (as they are in this case). the previously computed matrix. 4. For some special nonlinear cases. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).

View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 ..This shows the convergence of the solution.. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.

0. UY PLNSOL.. List Horizontal Displacement . > DOF solution.Y.U.1 3.2. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..

However. this is not realistic for large deflections. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS... General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.> DOF solution.If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. Modeling the system non-linearly. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses .

it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.CHAPTER – IV BUCKLING PROBLEM It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. This method is not recommended for accurate. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. ie. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. However. . For this type of analysis. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. in real-life. load perterbations. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. static analysis to predict buckling loads. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. material nonlinearities and gaps. 2. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. real-world buckling prediction analysis. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. large-deflection. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections).

X..#. rigidly constrained at the bottom. /title.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. applied at the top-center of the beam. will be calculated. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: . K. The required load to cause buckling..This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section..

Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. iii.1. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.... enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Mesh Size Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. ii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.333 Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm. 8.. and rotation about the Z axis). 7... ii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. > Add.3 .0) 2 (0.y) 1 (0. 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.100) 4.Keypoints Coordinates (x.

The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. .ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window.. 9. prestress effects must be activated.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. If you are looking at the abridged menu. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line).. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. o o o You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. select the unabridged version.

Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. 4. Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2).3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). .

Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode.1 8.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. 5. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. Specify Buckling Analysis Options o Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options o Complete the window which appears. as shown below. The 'Block . with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. However. 7. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly.

is for an expansion pass. 11. o Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . however. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. 9. The 'Subspace' method could also be used. o Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode . In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase.. and ensure that it is on. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). This time...Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver.. Expand the solution o Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass.

/POST1 SET. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. which is in Newtons for this example.LIST 2. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. Display the Mode Shape o Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. o Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape . View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary.12. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well.123).

Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .#. /TITLE. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2..Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: .PART II Non-Linear Buckling Analysis NonLinear Tutorial Ensure that you have completed the this portion of the tutorial prior to beginning Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.X..

Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) 2 (0. ii.3 ... Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. 7.100) 4.2 5. > Add. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. L... and rotation about the Z axis). the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.y) 1 (0. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833..1.. iii. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 6. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. ii.333 Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters.

0 2.8. Set Solution Controls o Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. ESIZE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..1 9. The following image will appear: Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) .

Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) G. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. however.A. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. H. For more information about these . Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. this takes time. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. C. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. E. D. F.

type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 4. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. 3. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE . 5.commands.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). The model should now look like the window shown below.

The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . View the deformed shape o To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

1 .. > Def + undeformed PLDISP..o General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

..0. UY PLNSOL.1 .U.Y.o View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. > DOF solution.

Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses .

This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". For instance. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used...CHAPTER – V (DO AFTER WORKSHOP 10 OF BOOK) This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. NonLinear Materials . The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. /title. In such a case. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . For this analysis. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.

6. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters. > Add.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.100) 3. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element.. L.y) 1 (0..#. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. 5. ii. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. Define Element Material Properties ..2.0) 2 (0.1.. enter the following geometric properties: i..2 4. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window..X.

Young's modulus EX: 75e3 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. . Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Then click OK. click Graph to see the curve. When the data for the first point is input. the stress-strain data must be included. It should look like the one shown above. When all the points have been inputed.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. click Add Point to add another. ii. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.

8.. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.100 390 10 0.001 75 3 0. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. /REPLOT 7.. Set Solution Controls o Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.200 435 12 0.. .002 150 4 0.003 225 5 0.275 450 To get the problem geometry back..Curve Strain Stress Points 1 0 0 2 0.004 240 6 0.005 250 7 0.060 355 9 0.150 420 11 0.025 300 8 0.0 2.250 449 13 0. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

D. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. data for every load step is written to the database. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. F. C. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. E. this takes time. however. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000.The following image will appear: Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Therefore. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) . you can plot certain parameters over time. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps.

type help followed by the command into the command line. 5.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Ensure Line Search is 'On'. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. 4. H. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge.G. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). For more information about these commands. Solve the System .

To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. .

.Y.2.. > DOF solution.0.1 . View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. UY PLNSOL.U.

.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. Set options for analysis type: o Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.2 2. The following window will appear .CHAPTER – VI (THIS IS EXERCISE-3 OF BOOK) This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. please use the links below. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

o The following window will then appear . This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. It is therefore more exact but. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries).o o o As shown. select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method.

4. 3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). we will use the default options so click on OK. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions . o For this problem.For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

64 285. instead of 10 elements.0 0.51 472.54 0.e.2 0.311 51.69 472. Select 'Def + undef edge' . we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest). View Mode Shapes o Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape o Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS.01 145.68 285. 2..94 145.22 8. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.o Select: General Postproc > Results Summary.300 52.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies. Mode Theory ANSYS Percent Error 1 2 3 4 5 8.1 0.0 0..

Select 'Def + undef edge'. o o To view the next mode shape. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set . Animate Mode Shapes o Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear . The first four mode shapes should look like the following: 3.

o o Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.  Mode 1  Mode 2 .

 Mode 3  Mode 4 .

For example. Complete the window as shown below . going this route means a smaller (reduced) stiffness matrix. The steps for using this option are quite simple. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. and thus faster calculations. However. a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required.Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are For this option. select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. • • Instead of specifying the Subspace method.

select all nodes except the left most node (fixed).311 8.1 . The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). The following window will appear: • Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above).300 0. Mode Theory ANSYS Percent Error 1 8. • • Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted.Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two. The same constraints are used as above.

22 52. .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.0 0.66 0.0 0.2 3 4 5 51. the error does not change significantly. However.71 473.94 145.3 As you can see.1 0.01 145. larger errors would be expected using the reduced method Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.69 472.68 285. for more complex structures.66 285.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .100 Hz. However. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. please use the . These 3 methods are the Full .We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.

. the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear.links below. . Use the default settings (shown below).3 2. select the Full Solution method. Both the command line codes and the in the respective links. The following window will appear o o As shown. Set options for analysis type: o Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE. GUI commands are shown Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction . Apply Constraints o Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples): o Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window 4. Apply Loads: o Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes o Select the node at x=1 (far right) o The following window will appear.3.

Set the frequency range o Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase.c. The ramped option. would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N.Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. 2 Hz.100Hz.. specify a frequency range of 0 .. By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz. o As shown in the window below. . For harmonic analysis. 100 Hz. 3 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. 5. all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. on the other hand. 100 substeps and stepped b... You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window ..

6. POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 2. . By default. which is node #2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. and the following window should pop up. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1).. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes.. o Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). In our case it is assigned Frequency. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 1. rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.

o Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . Click OK. List Stored Variables o In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows 3. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.o o We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > YComponent of displacement.

94Hz. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. To get a better view of the response. Plot UY vs.311 and 51. Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8.3 and 51 Hz. o Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .4. frequency o In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. view the log scale of UY. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.

o o o As marked by an 'A' in the above window. change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following .

the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available. o For ANSYS version lower than 7.0.100 Hz. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . See the help file for instructions .

. For our case. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. for example. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. However.Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. a static analysis may be used instead. Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.

It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. In other words. . this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. the calculations are much quicker. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. Therefore. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. • • • The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. However.we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. All types of non-linearities are allowed. The smaller the time step. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. It is the quickest of the three methods. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. After the application of the load. In ANSYS.

Define Analysis Type o Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient o The following window will appear. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. if stresses and forces are of interest than. 2. please use the links below. The following window will open. choose UY as the first dof in this window . If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. Define Master DOFs o Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define o Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). However.We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Select 'Reduced' as shown. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. 3. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps. see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. . 4. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs).For an explanation on Master DOFs. Note that for the reduced method. a constant time step is required throughout the time range.

We can also solve for each load step after we define it. two sets of initial conditions are required. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. initial displacement and initial velocity. Therefore.  set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). This will specify a time step size of 0.  set [DELTIM] to 0. Load Step 1 . a.Initial Conditions i.Time Step . Specify Time and Time Step Options  Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . However. ii. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). both default to zero. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it.001 seconds to be used for this load step..001. . for this example we can skip this step.

s01 .iii. Write Load Step File  Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear  Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname.

ii. Load Step 3 i.Time Step .. and set a time of 0. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Solve the System o Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. ii. Load Step 2 i. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. Define Load Step  Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).Time Step . Define Load Step  Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Specify Time and Time Step Options  Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time ..b. . Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 2. Specify Time and Time Step Options  Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .001 for the end of the load step iii.

1. o Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. In our case it is assigned Frequency. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted.. select Utility Menu > List > nodes).. and the following window should pop up. which is node #2. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.o Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. . Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. By default.

o Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . Click OK.o o We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > YComponent of displacement. List Stored Variables o In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows 2.

This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it.3. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. A few things to note in the response curve    There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. we would have to expand the reduced solution. Plot UY vs. . 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. Expand the Solution For most problems. frequency o In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. We did not specify damping for our system. We also see another response at a higher frequency. if stresses and forces are of interest. However.

o Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's o Complete the window as shown below..08 and 0. 1. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded . Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). For this case. Expand the solution o Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu o Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.11 seconds 2. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip)..Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0.08 and 0.11 seconds.

Give example a Title 2. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.CHAPTER – VII THERMAL ANALYSIS (EXERCISE-4 OF BOOK) This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Width=1.0. Y=0.1 .0. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Height=1 BLC4.1.

Heat Generation. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. . Convection..ALL.1. Heat Flow. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Apply Constraints For thermal problems.05 AESIZE. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.10 6. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. constraints can be in the form of Temperature.0.1. or Radiation.PLANE55 For this example. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. In this example. 5. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Quad 4node 55).KXX.0 2. Heat Flux.05 7. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.4.

options cannot be selected. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected.o o o Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. The following window will appear: .

Temperature TEMP Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied.o o Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . 3. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. > DOF solution.. . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100..

The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): . The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. followed by the side and bottom constraints. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners CHAPTER – VIII THERMAL TYPE II This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first.0 to solve simple thermal examples. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. however. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied.

PLANE55 As in the conduction example.0. 5.1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Height=1 BLC4. Give example a Title 2.1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.. Element Material Properties . Y=0. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Quad 4node 55). Width=1. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.0. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1 4. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines o Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C o Using the same method. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C 3.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.0 2.ALL.05 AESIZE. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions o Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines o Select the right side of the block. 6.KXX.05 7. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Apply Conduction Constraints In this example.0.1. o The following window will appear: . all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.

thereby modeling an insulated wall. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature o You should obtain the following: .Fill in the window as shown. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions o Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines o Select the bottom of the block. 4. This is because we have uniform convection across the line. This will eliminate convection through the side. o Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0.

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS
SOLVE

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu ... > DOF solution, Temperature TEMP

CHAPTER –IX

THERMAL ANSYS TYPE III
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Also, the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.040 kJ/kg*K. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title...
/Title,Transient Thermal Conduction

/PREP7

3. Create geometry

This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.05 7.ALL. Y=0.0. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH..1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.0..1.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0. 5. Quad 4node 55).1.1 4. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1.C. Width=1. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.05 AESIZE.1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Height=1 BLC4.PLANE55 For this example.920 6. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.0.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.DENS.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. the model should look like the following: .2. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.04 MP.ALL At this point.KXX.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.4 The window shown below will pop up. We will use the defaults. so click OK. .

A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. Max no. of substeps to 100.2. Min . B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.

Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes . 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. o o Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. of substeps to 20. Heat Flow. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. 3. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown D) Set Line search to ON .no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Convection. Heat Generation. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Heat Flux. For a complete description of what these options do.options cannot be selected. refer to the help file. or Radiation. Basically. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. By writing the data at every step. In this example.

The following window will appear: o o Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K .o Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK.

.. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > DOF solution. Temperature TEMP .Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. 4.

. Fill in the window as shown. user specified. specify the contour range. with 8 contours. from 100 to 500..Animate Results Over Time o First. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. .

DOF solution > TEMP) . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time. 0 300 Time Range.o Then animate the data. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames... Auto contour scaling OFF.

The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. As can be seen. the curves are practically identical. Also. Analytical Solution .

Time Graph o Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Creating the Temperature vs. The following window should open automatically.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. .

select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer o o Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. Pick the center node on the mesh. node 261. Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. o The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .If it does not open automatically.

o o Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Graph Results over Time o Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. so you must change them manually.2. The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. .

Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. To cause the solution to converge. will cause the solution to converge. CHAPTER – X .Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. From experience. This is because the solution has not completely converged. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. Instead.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..PRACTICE SUM This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4.0. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. etc.0. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.) of the following example.Width.Height. /title..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Define the Type of Element . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. Stress. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size esize. Y and Z directions).all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Loads . 6.Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.20 Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size For this example we will use an element size of 20mm.. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh. 7. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 5.. ii. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1).0 2. 3.

Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown Visual Representation SECT or (1) CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. For this example we are trying to display a section. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. • Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. 5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. 4. therefore. Type Description Section display.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). Deflection . This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. • • Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). options 1.

increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears.Before we begin selecting cross sections. o Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. offset the working plane to the desired position. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane . let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane o o First. To illustrate how to take a cross section. let's view deflection of the entire model.

0 ! Offset the working plane for crosssection view WPROTA.As desired.0.0. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS.0.1 ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP . you should now have the following: This can be repeated for any slice. however.Width/2.90 ! Rotate the working plane /CPLANE.

1. Equivalent Stress Again.0 2.1 Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP. let's view stresses within the entire model. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations). Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options./TYPE.-1... And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' o Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises . simply use: WPCSYS.U.0.8 PLNSOL.SUM.

Because it is much easier. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. but please bear with me. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.0. for something a little more impressive.1.0. You should now see the following: 3.0. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' .5 ! Use the capped hidden display PLNSOL. Animation Now..1 Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). o o Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears.1/16*Length ! Offset the working plane /CPLANE. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.EQV.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane..1 ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP /TYPE. Unfortunately.S.

select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). the sweep direction is in the Z direction.o You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. the origin. select the node in the back. In the graphics window. and the Y axis. Finally. Next. For more information on how to modify the animation. type help ancut into the command line . so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). the sweep direction. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam.