This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
In line with recent trends toward high-quality production and diversification in the textile processing , much efforts is being exerted to improve the performance of mixed fabrics of natural and synthetic fibres and to introduce the new product with new values. This technical information presents a detailed description of the standard working procedure adopted under normal practice for continous dyeing of polyester/cellulosic blended fabrics,a and series of important suggestions over the selection of dye sftuff. As continous dyeing polyester /cellulosic blended fabrics involves a large variety of fibre substrates, processing methods and recommendable dye stuffs, in this information two possible dye stuffs are described—one is disperse vat combination and second is disperse reactive combination .
All thanks are due to Almighty “ALLAH” most beneficial and merciful who enable us to complete this project.
The completion of this project is perceived as the fruitful result of and incredible effort, devotion and hardwork. It can be stated without any hesitation that this subject is the outcome of the joint effort of all concerned by successfully negotiating the various tedious problems and hurdles.
We are particularly thankful of S.M Qutab ,our project advisor for the guidance and valuable cooperation render by him at any stage regarding this project. He full indulged himself to facilitate our job whenever approached him to seek guidance regarding this study.
Finally we acknowledge a debt of gratitude to our parents and other encouragement, who led us to complete this project work.
HISTROY OF DENIM
Denim is more than a cotton fabric; it inspires strong opinions from historians, designers, teenagers, movie stars, reporters and writers. In 1969 a writer for American Fabrics magazine declared, "Denim is one of the world's oldest fabrics, yet it remains eternally young." If continuous use of and interest in an item makes it "eternally young," then denim certainly qualifies. Legend and fact are also interwoven when scholars discuss the origin of the name denim. Most reference books say that denim is an English corruption of the French phrase "serge de Nimes;" a serge fabric from the town of Nimes in France. However, some scholars have begun to question this explanation. ORIGINS IN EUROPE: There are a few schools of thought on the derivation of the word "denim." The serge de Nimes fabric traces back to France prior to the 17th century. At the same time, there was also a fabric known in France as "nim." Both fabrics were composed partly of wool. Serge de Nimes was also known in England before the end of the 17th century. The question then arises: was this fabric imported from France or was it an English fabric bearing the same name? Fabrics which were named for a certain geographic location were often also made elsewhere; the name was used to lend a certain cachet to the fabric when it was offered for sale. Therefore a "serge de Nimes" purchased in England was very likely also made in England, and not in Nimes, France. There still remains the question of how the word "denim" is thought to have descended from the word "serge de Nimes." Serge de Nimes was made of silk and wool, but denim has always been made of cotton. Again, this relation between fabrics is in name only, though both fabrics are twill weave. Is the real origin of the word denim "serge de nim," meaning a fabric that resembled the part-wool fabric called nim? Was serge de Nimes more well-known than serge de nim and mistranslated when it crossed the English Channel? It's likely we will never really know.
a cotton. In 1864. In 1849. DENIM COMES TO AMERICA: As denim moved across the Atlantic in the late 18th century. and though the two fabrics were very similar in some ways. The book "The Weavers Draft Book and Clothiers Assistant. A factory in the state of Massachusetts wove both denim and jean. valued especially for its property of durability even after many types of washing. This is evidence of a fabric being named for a place of origin. contains technical sketches of the weaving methods for a variety of denims. Research on this textile indicates that it was a fustian . That same year. It was apparently quite popular and imported into England in large quantities during the 16th century." published in 1792. They also differed in how they were used. a New York clothing 4 . Denim's popularity was also on the rise. mostly as a way to become independent from foreign producers (mainly the English). another fabric known as "jean" also existed at this same time. linen and/or wool blend . cotton fabrics were an important component of American mills' product line. etc. an East Coast wholesale house advertised that it carried 10 different kinds of denim. Webster's Dictionary from the same year contained the word "denim. American textile mills started to produce their own denim fabric on a small scale. American President George Washington toured this mill in 1789 and was shown the machinery that wove denim. including "New Creek Blues" and "Madison River Browns. By the 18th century. From the very beginning. one of the first printed references to the word "denim" in the United States appeared: a Rhode Island newspaper reported on the local production of denim among other fabrics.and that fustian from Genoa. jean was woven of two threads of the same color. It was stronger and more expensive than jean." terms that still sound contemporary today. jean was being produced in Lancashire. they did have one major difference: denim was made of one colored thread and one white thread.To confuse things even more." Research shows that jean and denim were two very different fabrics in 19th century America. Italy was called jean. jean cloth was made completely of cotton and used to make men's clothing. By the end of this period." referring to it as "a coarse cotton drilling used for overalls.
where Loeb's half-brothers ran a wholesale dry-goods business (selling bolts of cloth. vests or short jackets in chestnut. Mechanics and painters wore overalls made of blue denim. Levi's® jeans.manufacturer advertised topcoats. then. including those not engaged in manual labor. For a few years. "If we were to use a human term to describe a textile we might say that denim is an honest fabric .substantial. and unpretentious. are named for the founder of the company that invented them: Levi Strauss. He sold common dry-goods products to small stores all over the West. underwear and clothing whose manufacturers 5 . Working men in general. blankets. of course. wore more tailored trousers made of jean. but it did not offer the added benefits of denim.). when both durability and comfort were needed. he obtained his American citizenship and decided to make a new start and undertake the hazardous journey to San Francisco. black. the magazine American Fabrics ran an article that stated. and by 1850 had changed his name to Levi. In 1853. his mother and two sisters left Germany in 1847 and sailed to New York. white and blue jean. THE FIRST BLUE JEANS: In 1962. olive. which he started as soon as he got off the boat. linens. Jean was a sturdy fabric. a city enjoying the benefits of the recent Gold Rush. Other American advertisements show working men wearing clothing that illustrates this difference in jean and denim usage. Fine trousers were offered in blue jean. born as "Loeb" Strauss in Bavaria in 1829. such as durability and comfort. young Loeb worked for his brothers. He. etc. clothing. Denim.goods business. These products included pillows." So how did this utilitarian and unpretentious fabric become the stuff of legends that it is today? And how did pants made out of denim come to be called jeans. seems to have been reserved for work clothes. overalls and trousers made for work were offered in blue and fancy denim. when they were not made out of the fabric called jean? One very important reason can be found in the life and work of a Bavarian-born businessman who made his way to Gold Rush San Francisco nearly 150 years ago. His mission was to open the West Coast branch of his brothers' wholesale dry. forthright.
who had come up with a great idea. The following year." the old name for jeans. Knowing that the riveted pants were going to be perfect for work wear. Nevada tailor. the two men could make riveted clothing and. The oldest surviving catalog in our company archives. "What has happened to denim in the last decade is really a capsule of what happened to America. To improve the strength of the pants he made for his customers.are no longer in business. a Reno. we have been moved to wear the same thing: denim jeans. saying that if he would pay for the application. he added metal rivets. "make a very large amount of money. DENIM MEETS THE 21ST CENTURY: American Fabrics magazine predicted back in 1969 that denim would become a fashion statement for many occasions when it said. we know that the very first people to wear Levi's® jeans worked with pick and shovel. but didn't have the money he needed to file the papers." Today. Jacob Davis sold back his share of the company. In 1872. he got a letter from Jacob Davis. which proved to be a big success. millions of people wear jeans to work." Levi knew a good business opportunity when he saw one. It has climbed the ladder of taste. at the age of 73. Louis. So he wrote to Levi." Levi brought Jacob Davis to San Francisco to oversee the first manufacture of their copper riveted "waist overalls. shows a variety of denim products for sale. He left his thriving manufacturing and dry goods business to his four nephews — Jacob. as Davis put it in his letter. Levi and Jacob decided to make them out of denim rather than jean because denim was a very sturdy fabric appropriate for workwear. He wanted to patent the idea. which was published after the earthquake. Levi Strauss died in 1902. and in 1873 he and Davis received a patent for an "Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings. Levi worked hard. Though our tools are now pencils. 6 . and acquired a reputation for quality products over the next two decades. paper and computer keyboard. These pants were made from brown cotton duck and blue denim. Abraham and Sigmund Stern — who helped rebuild the company after the big earthquake and fire of 1906. where the suit once ruled. Looking back.
or indigotin. Indonesia. is a dyestuff originally extracted from the varieties of the indigo and woad plants. Through the early 1990s. Egyptian artifacts suggest that indigo was employed as early as 1600 B. History The name indigo comes from the Roman term indicum. the yarn may be sun dried to deepen the color. Originally extracted from plants. DYES WHICH ARE BEING USED FOR THE DENIM DYEING Background Indigo. denim's function and adaptable form found a perfect home in untamed 19th century America with the invention of jeans. is derived. By comparison. including Asia. In the dying process. Java. Japan. but historically the indigo plant was the most commonly used because it is was more widely available. which means a product of India. The dye can be extracted from several plants. al-nil. cotton and linen threads are usually soaked and dried 15-20 times. When yarn died with indigo is untwisted.Born in Europe.C. After dying. It belongs to the 7 . Another ancient term for the dye is nil from which the Arabic term for blue. Indigo is unique in its ability to impart surface color while only partially penetrating fibers. and it has been found in Africa. It is most commonly sold as either a 100% powder or as a 20% solution. and China. it can be seen that the inner layers remain uncolored. Denim gives us a little bit of history every time we put it on. This is somewhat of a misnomer since the plant is grown in many areas of the world. today indigo is synthetically produced on an industrial scale. The dye imparts a brilliant blue hue to fabric. silk threads must be died over 40 times. India. and Central America. The English word aniline comes from the same source. The dye also fades to give a characteristic wom look and for this reason it is commonly used to color denim. indigo prices ranged near $44/lb ($20/kg). Indigo was known throughout the ancient world for its ability to color fabrics a deep blue.
SOURCES AND USES: A variety of plants. In recent years. the synthetic process used to produce indigo has come under scrutiny because of the harsh chemicals involved. Therefore. accounting for nearly 50% of all indigo dyestuffs sold.legume family and over three hundred species have been identified. Only the leaves are used since they contain the greatest concentration of dye molecules. indigo was a precious commodity because plant leaves contain only about small amount of the dye (about 2-4%). and polygonum. So chemists began searching for synthetic methods of producing the dye. in part due to the popularity of Levi Strauss's blue denim jeans. although the Indigofera 8 . Within 14 years their work resulted in the first commercial production of the synthetic dye. Heumann identified a synthesis pathway to produce indigo. Later. At the end of the 1990s. In the synthetic process. Raw Materials The raw materials used in the natural production of indigo are leaves from a variety of plant species including indigo. a number of chemicals are employed as described below. have provided indigo throughout history. which are native to the tropics. He found that he could treat omega-bromoacetanilide with an alkali (a substance that is high in pH) to produce oxindole. the German based company BASF AG was the world's leading producer. but most natural indigo is obtained from those in the genus Indigofera. In 1883 Adolf von Baeyer (of Baeyer aspirin fame) researched indigo's chemical structure. Demand for indigo dramatically increased during the industrial revolution. K. Indigo plantations were founded in many parts of the world to ensure a controlled supply. more environmentally responsible methods are being sought by manufacturers. Indigo tinctoria and I. based on this observation. In 1905 Baeyer was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery. In temperate climates indigo can also be obtained from woad (Isatis tinctoria) and dyer's knotweed (Polygonum tinctorum). suifruticosa are the most common. New. a large number of plants are required to produce a significant quantity of dye. including woad. woad. The natural extraction process was expensive and could not produce the mass quantities required for the burgeoning garment industry. In ancient times.
Indigo does not bond strongly to the fiber. The primary commercial indigo species in Asia was true indigo (Indigofera tinctoria. Indigotinesulfonate is also used as a dye in renal function testing. Within a short time. It is insoluble in water. INDIGO MOLECULE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: Indigo is a dark blue crystalline powder that melts at 390°–392°C. the primary use for indigo is as a dye for cotton work clothes and blue jeans. In the United States. In Central and South America the two species Indigofera suffructicosa and Indigofera arrecta (Natal indigo) were the most important. and wear and repeated washing may slowly remove the dye. also known as Indigofera sumatrana). The chemical structure of indigo corresponds to the formula C16H10N2O2. alcohol. Indigo is also used as a food coloring. however. or concentrated sulfuric acid. For many years indigo was used to produce deep navy blue colors on wool. Natural indigo was the only source of the dye until about 1900.species yield more dye. and today nearly all indigo produced is synthetic. nitrobenzene. and is listed as FD&C Blue No. 2. synthetic indigo had almost completely superseded natural indigo. Over one billion pairs of jeans around the world are dyed blue with indigo. as a reagent for the detection of nitrates and chlorates and in the testing of milk. of which the major one is the sodium salt of Indigotindisulfonate. or ether but soluble in chloroform. The specification for FD&C Blue No. 2 includes three substances. 9 .
which are then packed into the fermenting vats and covered with clear fresh water.The naturally occurring substance is indican. It became available in the mid-1700s. In this process. Tyrian purple was a valuable purple dye in antiquity. have an area of about 400 square feet and are 3 feet deep. The manufacturing process developed in the late 1800s is still in use throughout the world. which are usually made of brick lined with cement. Sulfonated indigo is also referred to as Saxon blue or indigo carmine. indoxyl is synthesized by the fusion of sodium phenylglycinate in a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodamide. It was made from excretions of a common Mediterranean Sea snail. The vats. these compounds include aniline and picric acid. such as by exposure to air. The only chemical reaction of practical importance is its reduction by urea to indigo white. Several simpler compounds can be produced by decomposing indigo. converts indoxyl to indigo. Mild oxidation. Indican can easily be hydrolyzed to glucose and indoxyl. The indigo white is reoxidized to indigo after it has been applied to the fabric. Indigo treated with sulfuric acid produces a blue-green color. It has never been produced synthetically on a commercial basis. which is colorless and soluble in water. the tops of the bottom or "beating vats" being generally on a 10 . are arranged in two rows. INDIGO CARMINE HOW THE DYE WAS PRODUCED IN INDIA The cut plant is tied into bundles.6′dibromoindigo. In 1909 its structure was shown to be 6.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF INDIGO Now just a bit of chemistry about how the compounds in plants are converted into indigo. but nearly all indigo produced today is synthetic. when the supernatant liquid is drawn off. and is precipitated to the bottom of the vats. The indigo is allowed to thoroughly settle. The natural dye comes from several species of plant. finally. The indigo plant is allowed to steep till the rapid fermentation. Among other uses. it is used in the production of denim cloth for blue jeans. or by machinery. has almost ceased. The pulpy mass of indigo is then boiled with water for some hours to remove impurities. is then run into the beaters. the indigo separates out as flakes. then pressed to remove as much of the moisture as possible.level with the bottoms of the fermenting vats. and is listed as FD&C Blue No. The colour of the liquid becomes green. after which it is cut into cubes and finally air-dried Nature 1 November 1900 INDIGO DYEING: Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). where it is agitated either by men entering the vats and beating with oars. the time required being from 10-15 hours. 2.. The form of indigo used in food is called "indigotine". filtered through thick woollen or coarse canvas bags.. The liquor. which quickly sets in. which varies from a pale straw colour to a golden-yellow. and. 11 . then blue.
mostly (40%) produced by BASF in Ludwigshafen. indoxyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. That is where things started in July 1897. the precursor of indigo is indican (left). It started with naphthalene.000 tons/year. While in woad it is mainly isatan A (right) INDUSTRIAL SYNTHESIS OF INDIGO Current world production of indigo is 17. 12 . using a process developed by von Heumann.In Indigofera species...
Reduction of a substance can also be thought of as gaining oxygen atoms. In dye bath the pigment is converted into a water-soluble form using a strongly alkaline solution of a powerful reducing agent. REDOX REACTIONS Oxidation-reduction reactions (redox reaction) are important in textile colouration because they are an essential part of the process of the application of vat and sulphur dyes. This form the sodium “leuco” compound of the dye. For example when hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water the hydrogen to become oxidized and the oxygen is reduced. which is soluble in water but often different in colour from the original in pigment. when a compound id oxidized it gain oxygen when something is reduced it loses oxygen. which is acting as an oxidizing agent. This is a more general way of expressing the phenomena of oxidation and reduction. In rather oversimplified terms. so their applications depend on reversible reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction. The reducing agents become oxidized the reaction by the compound that is being reduced. Thus the hydrogen atom has lost one electron to become oxidized and the oxygen atom is reduced by gaining electrons. Oxidation = entails the loss of electrons by the oxidized compound Reduction = entails the net gain of electrons by the reduced compound 14 . It is then allowed to dye the cellulose in this water-soluble from once exhaustion is completed the leuco compound is oxidized. In their coloured form they are insoluble pigments. and oxidation as losing hydrogen atoms. (In this case oxygen) NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Na+ + OHSodium ion Hydroxide ion In the water molecule each hydrogen atom shares the only electron it possesses by pairing with one of the six electron of the oxygen atom. to form a covalent bond. and also of blends of cotton with polyester. In a redox reaction there is always a compound acting a reducing agent (hydrogen in this example).VAT DYES Vat dyes are used in the dyeing and printing of all types of cellulose fibres.
In earlier countries. and they all possess two carbonyl groups (C = O) linked by alternate single and double bonds in a conjugated chain. The molecular arrangement is responsible for the easily reversible redox reactions on which the application of vat dyes depends. Once on the fibre it can be re -oxidized back to the insoluble carbonyl form by air or by the use of an oxidizing agent. 15 . upholstery. indigo plant is steeped in a large vat. Synthetic vat dyes are costly because they are difficult to prepare. curtains. in the dyeing of fabric for uses such as awning. in which sodium sulphide is used as the reducing agent. military and naval uniforms and high quality gabardines. Fermentation converts one of the plant constituents into the soluble leuco dye. It is forming this ancient vatting process that the term fermentation vat dyes are derived. so their use is usually directed to the higher quality fabrics. one of the oldest dyes still in use. they are widely used and noted for their high fastness to light. this convert the dye in to a colorless water insoluble form. CHEMICAL NATURE OF VAT DYES A large majority of vat dyes are based on the anthraquinonoid or the indigo (or thioindigo) chromophores. The reduced form is called the leuco vat acid.vat dyes such as indigo and compounds derived from anthrequinone are applied after the temporary reduction of two carboxyl group in a conjugated chain. indigo. remains popular through the wide use of indigo-dyed anthrequinone dyes are complex polycyclic quinines (Appendix 1). Nevertheless. The conversion is carried out using a strong reducing agent and in this reaction the two oxygen atom becomes reduced –O – and the two hydrogen atoms are oxidized to H+. when all textile colorants where obtained from natural sources. The replacement of the natural by synthetic indigo at the end of the nineteenth century gave the imputes to research on other syntheses vat dyes have since followed. which diffuses out of the plant. and is applied from an alkaline. Sulphur dyes are also applied using a redox reaction mechanism.
because its leuco from is an insoluble acid. Under those conditions the rate and extent of reduction can be decisive factors in the dye stuff choice for example. fabrics of women and children clothing and tropical suiting. Consequently the colourist needs to concentrate only on the temperature and the concentration of reducing agent. it will not readily oxidize to the coloured form. high quality over all. Variables such as pigment practical size and crystalline from can affect the rate of reduction but these are controlled by the dye manufacturing. APPLICATION OF VAT DYES Both the extent of reduction and the rate at which equilibrium between the reduced and oxidized from is achieved are of practical significance. Anthraquinonoid vat dyes are widely used in the manufacturer of for example good quality. If instead of being formed as its water soluble salt. This is exploited in the production of patterned fabric from vat-dyed yarn in which the white areas of the can be safely bleached out after weaving. As a result any difficulties in vatting can be over come by raising the vatting temperature. shirting’s. sportswear. Vat dyes vary in the speed with which they go undergo reduction (Na2S2O4). This condition is usually met by using as the reducing agent sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate (Formosul) a compound that is fairly stable in air at room temperature and develops the necessary action during steaming. maroon and wide shades.High fastness to bleaching is another strong point of the anthraquinonoid group. With careful dye solution. and yarns and effect threads where repeated washing will be required. 16 . table cloths. the use of vat dyes allows is that the range lacks scarlet. in textile printing. Premature oxidation of the leuco compound in his print paste must also be avoided during both storage and steaming. which is capable of completely reducing even the most stable of vat dyes. The vatted dyes must be kept in a strongly alkaline solution. towels. There are still some application methods in which reduction and adsorption in the fibre take place rapidly and almost simultaneously. increasing the concentration of reducing agent or prolonging the vatting time.
but there are difficulties in obtaining leveling dyeing. A different approach is to use specially formulated to stable dispersion of the pigment. winch or beam dyeing machines provided specially formulated vat dyes are used. or by using a dye bath auxiliary that restrains the rate of exhaustion. in which form they are evenly distributed on the fabric by padding (pigment padding). It is too readily oxidized in air for the manufacturer to provide the dyer with the leuco compounds. In some cases a change in the crystalline form of dye accompanies the change in shade. it is easily removed by the action of sodium nitrate in dilute sulphuric acid. jig. Pre-pigmentation can be carried out using package. Once the pigmentation is completed. followed by working the padded fabric through a of caustic soda and sodium dithionite on a jig. it is possible however to convert the leuco acid into the leuco ester. both for cleaning the dyed fabric and for developing the final shade. Serious leveling problems can be lessened by raising the temperature of dyeing and then cooling to obtain satisfactory exhaustion. Such ester can be formed by the reaction of a hydroxyl group of a leuco acid with sulphuric acid forming a sulphuric ester. SOLUBILISED VAT DYES The need to reduce vet dyes before use makes their application a cumbersome process. The necessary high concentration of sodium hydroxide and reducing agent affect the exhaustion. The sodium salt of such esters are stable and can be stored until required for use. Since the ester group is only weakly attached to the rest of the dye molecule. The regenerated leuco compound may then be oxidized back to the pigment form. a derivative that has greater resistance to oxidation and grater solubility in water. Although it is possible to isolate the reduced form of the dye. 17 . A soaping treatment is given to the fabric at the end of the dyeing process this is essential. Oxidation in air or in solution is then used to regenerate the pigment. The difference is that the option of reducing the concentration of the addition is not available. sodium hydroxide and sodium dithionite are added to the dye bath to reduce the pigment and allow the leuco day salt to diffuse into the fibre.Leuco compounds can be applied by batch wise methods similar to those used for other dye classes. because they are needed to form the leuco compound.
As with ordinary vat dyes application under alkaline condition is essential. A interesting property of solubilised vat yes is their sensitivity to light in the solubilised state.OH + H2S2O4 Leuco vat Dyes sulphuric acid R .Solubilised vat dyes are less rapidly taken up than are the more conventional vat dyes and are mainly used for the production of pale shade. This is used to produce “photographic” print on fabric. The low up take and higher cost of solubilised vat dyes make them uneconomical for deep shade however and for theses normal vat dyes alternative have to be used. thus eliminating wool from the list of possible substrates because alkaline condition modifies the wool fibres.OH + H2S2O4 + H2O sulphuric ester 18 . R .
The structure of the chromophores of sulphur dyes is complex and unknown. Again like vat dyes. leather. arising from the presence of sulphur. Limited quantities are also consumed in the colouration of silk. After exhausting the dye bath for approximately 1 hour at 6090Co the fabric is thoroughly rinsed and exposed to the atmosphere. paper and more widely. Bordeaux and reddish-browns. Typical application is for heavy drill fabrics. A simplified the version of the reaction is represented in following equation. awning and canvas. But with these the shade gamut is restricted to back. where oxidation generates the mechanically entrapped insoluble pigment. overalls. Like vat dyes. olives. One of the earliest and best known sulphur dyes is Cl sulphur black 1. Sulphur dyes are used mainly in the dyeing of cellulose fabrics and in blend of cellulose with polyester. nylon and acrylic fibres. One disadvantages of certain sulphur dyes (although. sulphur dyes are reduced and applied as soluble leuco compounds that need to be kept under alkaline condition. which is popular black with good fastness properties still in use today. strangely. this problems appears to arise with the black shade only) is that dyed material stored under condition of high humidity and temperature can lose its nature strength. but sulphur dyes need only sodium sulphide to act as both alkaline and reducing agent.Ar’ Reduction with Na2S Ar’ – S – S. Ar’ – S – S. Corduroys. these dyes can not be applied to wool without damage to the fibres due to the action of sodium sulphide on the cystine cross links. denim. This is because inadequate washing-off after dyeing can lead to the slow generation of sulphuric acid in the fibre. mauves.Ar’ 19 .SULPHUR DYES Deposition of insoluble pigments inside fibres may achieve more cheaply using sulphur dyes.
hard rock washing). soft denim.LATEST DYEING METHODS Now processing and dyeing methods for indigo warps were introduced from 19781987 to obtain a higher productivity and savings in dyeing or to achieve the required darker shades (hard rock washing.Loop dye 1for 6 with dyemer (continuous mercerization dyeing and sizing). STONE WASHING With soft stones it takes 20 – 30 min. These chemical washed types of ready made garments show less tensile strength and a harder hand.Loop dye 1 for 6 (continuous dye slashing) 5.Indigo double sheet dyeing 4. 20 . The following table gives you a comparison of the possible processing stages such as: 1. or softness of the yarn for final finishing. we also must take into consideration that a certain appearance of the garments is only achieved after a certain washing method.Indigo one sheet dye slashing 3. For the five major Indigo dyeing methods for the basic denim. super blue denim. Limited Japan. soft denim). super blue. DRY BLEACH Soft rock are socked with chloride and the garment treated in washing machines. to achieve the desire surface appearance. stone washing. CHEMICAL WASHED DENIM The father of snow wash denim or of f-side denim is Edwin Co.Indigo rope dyeing process 2. The final finishing methods have influence on fabric construction and dyeing methods. use of certain sizing agents (soft denim) or irregular appearance in warp or weft direction by using a yarn with slubs and neps (antic denim). stone wash denim. (Chemical washing.
This treatment requires improved yarn quality and deeper dyed shades. padazoic dyed etc. Hard stone washing fades out partly at hems and stitched lines. Possibility to achieve by simple repeated dipping. INDIGO. With mercerized yarn where the colour stays at the surface of the yarn (ring dyeing) with continuous loop dye range with integrated mercerizing and dyeing unit (dyemer). to keep the colour shade that always a clear. A very soft hand the garments is achieved. This by no doubt is achieved by the fact that Indigo has a number of properties which have in this combination not yet been achieved by other single dyestuffs. Possibility to achieve an acceptable colour fastness and the exceptional advantage by repeated washing of fading colour. deep marine blue shade. on continuous dyeing sizing machines or loop dye ranges. 21 .HARD STONE WASHING Treatment takes approx. Due to the extended time of treatment in washing with hard rocks the strength of fabric is influenced. Possibility to dye cotton in cold dye bath. The main properties are: • • • • • Pleasant colour shade. 3 – 4 hours. SUPER BLUE Deepness shade is achieved by dyeing in 8 – 12 dye boxes with rope dyeing methods. Competitive in price. DYESTUFF AND HIS DENIM CHARATERISTICS Indigo has despite many other blue dyestuffs kept his popularity. The following drawing shows the symbolic the built-up of dye stuff of the yarn according to the multi-deep process. pleasant blue shade result. BLACK DENIM Sulfur dyed.
A high squeezing effect promotes a quick and through oxidation and reduces the migration and reduction in the following bye bath. With the low squeezing effect. In the core of the thread however more or less vat dye stuff may be deposited 22 . With increasing dipping operations.The sketch shows how Indigo layers one after the other is placed on the surface of the yarn then again scraped off. Through force or tension or by washing. that means with high liquid absorption. A very important factor for the reduction of migration is the squeezing effect and the oxidation which follows. An Indigo has only a very low affinity the depth of colour of the fibre is achieved by repeated dipping / oxidation. Each dipping cycle occur in a certain balanced manner as dye stuff is observed by the fibre at the same time and part of the already oxidized dye stuff is reduced and migrates from the fibres. The balance of absorption / migration moves towards migration. similar tot knife. the purely visual impression of a good oxidation can be deceptive as the outer colour skin looks blue.
000 meters. The facilitate Rebeaming every 1000 meters an additional lease is inserted. Usually 18 – 24 ropes are simultaneously process on the rope dyeing machine. 23 . the ropes are boiled out and treated with caustic-soda and wetting agent to remove from the cotton oil. A lease is inserted at the start and end of the rope.Let us have a close look at the different dyeing systems. The rope is guided similar as a cross wound package and wound into a ball. Please note that squeezing pressure is important 5 tons as fastness of colour and shade depends on even squeezing pressure. To dye in rope 30 – 60 seconds immersion (20 meters yarn) and 60 .chain-beamer Sizing Yarn from the ring spinning machine is wound on automatic winding machines on to a suitable package either cylindrical or 5057 cone. The winders are directly linked to the ring spinning frames and the cops joint by splicing. The comparatively long immersion and oxidation time requires a comparatively expensive equipment of machinery. impurities which could influence the fastness for the dye. These ends are wound onto a core. of ends (usually 380 – 420 ends) are assembled into a rope. Prior to dyeing. 12 – 15. OE yarns are directly creeled up on the Ball warper. To dye with indigo. (Indigo belongs to the group of the vat dyes which is watersoluble in reduced solution and becomes an insoluble pigment when oxidized. the ropes are immersed into the dye-bath. The requires No. CONVENTIONAL CLASSICAL CONTINUOUS INDIGO ROPE DYEING The classical rope dyeing system is very labour intensive and consists of: • • • • Ball warping Indigo dyeing Rebeaming on long.180 seconds are required for the oxidation of the Indigo dyestuff to ensure that also ends in the centre of the rope are equally dyed. In order to obtain the required deep shade of blue colour the ropes are 5 – 6 times immersed in a sequence of dye boxes with an oxidation range then so called skying after each dye box. length of ball approx.
They are dried in series of cans. whilst in USA certain low % of PVA is applied sin combination with starches by some companies. Depending on the final finishing process (washed denim) with no filler also CMC gives excellent performance in weaving.Having passed the dyeing and oxidation rage the ropes are guided through 2 or 3 washing boxes to wash off excessive loss pigments in the last box softener are added to ease the opening of the ropes. Special size mixes for soft denim will be discussed separately. The dried ropes which contain 380 – 420 ends are then deposited into large coilers Rebeaming with 300 – 380 ends per rope is easer. in 10 -11 meters distance from the long chain beamer. These coilers are placed behind the long chain beamer where the Rebeaming and opening of the ropes takes place. In Europe mainly modified starches with binders are used. We recommend however not to use 24 . Initially these machines were supplied without yarn stop motion but are available now a days on special request. This is of major importance as lost ends. fluff. In order to guarantee even yarn tension through Rebeaming on to a back beam ready for sizing the ropes are guided over a tension device which is placed approx. The size pick up varies between 8 – 10%. Broken ends which very really happen process of the rope are repaired at this process stage. The so prepared beck beams are now sized in a sizing machine preferably with 2 size boxes. 3 – tail ends and yarn remnants can cause inferior performance in weaving.
CONTINUOUS INDIGO DYEING AND SIZING PROCESS We must however consider that the squeezing effect is lower and therefore the danger streakiness and shade variation from centre to out side is also higher.000 meters. dried. 25 . no softener are used in the last wash box.PVA for sizing of denim as a surface of denim may show a leather skinned appearance. Consequently it would be better to deduce the warping width rather to 140 cm instead of using warper beams with 160 – 180 cm warping width. for the continuous slasher dyeing and sizing back beams are used. That means that the total No of ends required for a weavers beam are dyed. CONTINUOUS SLASHER DYEING Contrary to the Indigo rope dyeing system. sized and dried simultaneously. warp length 12 – 15. The back beam contains similar to rope 380 – 420 ends but distributed evenly over the width of 140 or 160 cm between the flanges so the end lay parallel to each other. similar to the rope dyeing system the full No of ends are pretreated (washed) dyed in 4 dye boxes and oxidized.
thick places) was not kept at a very high level was that ends sown in the dyeing range could cause major colour variation through machine stops.The immersion time in the dye boxes is approx.000 – 15. dried and the full length of the warper beam 12. that means 8000 – 8200 end are dyed. These beams are transported with the aid of air cushions to the sizing machine and the yarn sheet sized in double size boxes. With the system dyeing sizing is done in 2 operations. oxidized. 26 . This system allows the installation of less expensive dye rage and less additional preparatory machinery. Therefore: Squeezing effect is increased. The final result is a weaver’s beam. 10 – 15 seconds and time for oxidation 30 – 60 second.000 meters flange diameter. Indigo full-width warping process With double sheet dyeing the linear warp thread density is doubled. Godau date back as 1976. DOUBLE SHEET CONTINUOUS DYEING Patents applied for double shade dyeing by E. One of the disadvantages in previous year when warp preparation (knots. weak. Immersion time and oxidation time is the same as with continuous slasher dyeing. The main reason for dyeing of 2 sheet simultaneously is achieved a more even dyed sheet.
One of the advantages is: 27 . The yarn sheet is guided to the soaking bath through a feed-in system with tension compensation rollers. streakiness or shading in the finished fabric. The warper beams are placed in a moveable warp creel which can be loaded whilst one set is in potation. As you can see from the slide the back beams are inside the yarn sheet passes through the dye box as often as necessary to obtain the required deepness of shade. Dyeing of 3 layers of yarn simultaneously is possible but very difficult to control the beaming on 3 big warp batches. Condensation and concentration of ends at one spot show compared to single sheet dyeing no colour strips formation.An even squeezing over the whole width is achieved. The production out put of the dyeing is increased by 75%. Unfortunately the double sheet dyeing machine as well as the rope dyeing range cannot be linked with a sizing machine which must be regarded as disadvantage as the processes of dyeing and sizing must be carried out separately. Loop dye system 1 for 6 Similar to the sheet dyeing systems 10 – 16 warper beams with the total number of ends required for the weaver beams are used. The yarn sheet after having been immersed into a single indigo dye bath runs into a long loop where oxidation takes place. The soaking bath has the task to prepare the yarn for the following dyeing operation.
28 . The creels can be loaded with back beam with 1200 mm diameter which allows to warp approx. Temperatures are automatically controlled as well as the PH value in the dye box. The automatic control unit of the PH value supplies automatically hydrosulfite and caustic soda to stabilize the present value from the start to end of a dye set. utilization of Hydrosulphite through squeezing 4 – 6 layers simultaneously and oxidation of yarn in a comparatively long oxidation loop.800 meters of yarn. dried and wound onto a weavers beam. they keep the sheet in position and reduce deposit of dye and build-up of other deposit (fluff). After the oxidation the yarn sheet is guided through 2 washing boxes into a yarn accumulator and finally on to a series of drying cans. 36. dried up to 25 – 30% final moisture content prior being immersed into size boxes. 35 m/min. The molecules are controlled DC drive to maintain warp tensions.000 m count No 10 (tex 60). This means that depending on the count normally one cyl-spool is used in warping to fill a warper beam. No 10 (tex 60) MACHINE STOPS DURING SIZING For 36800 m. All accumulators placed between washing boxes and drying cans guarantees a continuous production of the dye range when a weaver beam has to be exchanged at the head stock. No 5. 4 recorded on expansion comb. 5 (tex 107) and 42 m/min. count No 7. WARPING SPEED PRODUCTION Speed varies between 1000 m/min. 5 (tex 78) or 50. All rollers are contact with the dyed sheet are fluted. In addition to width is controlled by guides to ensure even distribution of the yarn layer over the whole width of the dyed sheet.Ideal.
A higher squeezing effect is achieved due to the over laying of the watp ends this also gives more side to side squeezing. The high squeezing effect results also in better. The linear density in the nip is calculated in the same manner as for sizing. 29125 29 . Double dyeing with 2 layers width with 150 cm gives approx. whilst single sheet slasher dyeing varies depending on count between 100 – 130%. Q= linear thread density F= ends in cm -1 D= diameter of yarn D= 0. quicker and proper oxidation and better colour fastness. 15-20 kg per set. Under a given squeeze pressure.WASTE OF MATERIAL Approx. for instance 500 kg the squeezing effect of the mentioned 4dyeing systems can be compared. We can see that similar squeezing effect can be achieved with the loop dyeing system 1 for 6 (75%) as with rope dyeing 70 – 110%. therefore reduce strips formation. 80% squeezing effect.921 10 = 3. Loop dye 1 for 6 Rope-dyeing Slasher-dyeing 0.921 mm = Nm Q= F x D As already mentioned previously the warp density has an influence on colour fastness.1622 = 0. It must be mentioned that recommended dip and oxidation times on warp dyeing ranges are of little use if not the squeezing effect is taken into consideration. TIME REQUIRED FOR CHANGE OF SET 2 hour Linear warp densities in the squeeze.
therefore less chemicals in use at same time. black shades or other shades needed by fashion. A mercerizing prevents penetration of dye stuff into the inner code it is suitable for this purpose to obtain an optical blue effect and superior colour fastness and behavior in washing. other indanthrene dye stuff can be directly added into the indigo dye bath (indanthrene yellow or orange). In order to achieving ring dyeing.As only one short indigo dye bath is deeded only one feeding tanks. Fine counts can be dyed as well (No 30) For dark shades. Dye liquor is use in 1500 1 instead of 6-4500 1. Besides achieving a darker shaded with the desire greenish touch it is very suitable for biological treatment. mercerized yarn has also been used. • • • Lowe power consumption. LOOP DYE 1 FOR 6 COMBINED WITH DYEMER The demand for dark shades specially dark marine blue for super blue denims also led to new ideas in indigo dyeing ranges have been increased between 8-15 dye boxes with corresponding oxidation ranges. 30 . therefore new ways is continuous mercerizing and indigo dyeing was found. Mercerizing is very costly. In some cases Hydroxyaceton has been specially treated with high frequency. no separate feeding of chemicals is necessary.
For impregnation padder for hot caustic solution is placed after the heating system. The yarn is guided over could cylinders and with an adjustable roller the tension of the yarn sheet can be adjusted according to the required tension prior to the scouring in 2 more boxes. the yarn sheet is immersed into the dye box and the same process as with the loop dye method is repeated. 31 . CONTINUOUS DYEING AND SIZING ON THE DYEMER RANGE If fashion needs other colours than indigo blue it is comparatively simply to dye and size on this range. After having passed this.DYEMER The dyemer range is integrated.
in ALKALINE IMPREGNATION bath and at temperature relatively low to oxidation it follows. the purpose of the oxidation is to get the permanent dye on the yarn and to eliminate the insolubility of the dye stuff in the water. enabling separation of vats and that allows the maximum flexibility in use. Oxidation The oxidation is very important in the dyeing process. after squeezing a pressure a passage in air to allow the leuco to oxidation and to become blue and therefore insoluble.INDIGO ROPE DYEING SLASHER (INDIGOFLOW) DYEING Indigoflow We can explain the indigo flow dyeing tech as. a steamer and a special double circuit system for bath circulation system. this means that after the first dyeing/squeezing the yarn has to remain exposed in the air for about 60 seconds before being dipped again in the second dyeing vat and so on for all the following dyeing. FLEXIBILITY IN USE The high degree of evolution that can be reached by completing the basic machine with the mercerizing and an intermediate drying can group. The dyeing mean time can be calculated in about 30/35 meters of yarn per minutes therefore keeping as base the machine with eight dye vats. In addition to the classical indigo blue it thus possible to dye the modern mercerized to dye the modern mercerized indigo 32 . But indigo flow with their special device Rapidsky only eight meters per dye vat of yarn remain in the Rapidsky device. That means the total saving of yarn with Rapidsky is m 24 x 8 = 216 meters. every phase included the of the yarn with the Leuco solution. According to the practical experience the average time for a perfect oxidation is about 60 seconds. The total yarn in the oxidized can be calculated as m 35 x 8 = 280 meters.
direct.blue and black. automatic level adjustment. Dye bath circulation vat. temperature control and dosing of colours. relatives and pigments dyes. the new indigo supper blue the per-dyed indigo. MERCERIZATION Mercerization causes morphological and mechanical changes in the yarn thus increasing its resistance and dye affinity (dye stuff) saving. This system is very simple and dose not required maintenance. mercerized warp makes it possible to obtain a better texture handle and look as well as particular chromatic effect on the ready made cloth. automatic feeding and electronic yarn tension regulation devices. where it is filtered its temperature is adjusted and colour Hydrosulphite and soda are automatically added. MERCERIZED PROCESS Mercerizing group consisting of soda process vat with circulation pump and filter. Through a variable flow pump. CIRCULATION SYSTEM OF DYE STUFF This system has a ingenious and perfect dye bath circulation system. stainless steel made. as well as the large range of colour denim with sulphurs. indanthrene. Hydrosulphite and soda. timing cans neutralizing and washing vats with 10 tons squeezing foulards. naftoles. complete with interchangeable bucket filters. 33 . the dye bath is sent from the circulation vat to the first dyeing vat. and from this by means of an overflow system with special conveyors/mixers. to the next vat and so on until it falls back into the circulation vat. ACCUMULATORS This system have to Gravity accumulators for automatic storage of the dye yarn when the slasher machines stops for beam change complete with finned stainless steel rollers for synchronization and safety devices.
In order to eliminate the cleaning operations and to help the colour oxidation this system has special finning on the surface on the rollers of the oxidizers and accumulators. dark shades. Hydrosulphite and indigo is supplied with filters and stand by pumps to allow uninterrupted operation. fabric luster and strength as well as popular faction effects. Dyestuff preparation circulation and custom designed chemical and system allow full flexibility for variation dyestuff application. Compactness. will tend to pass through the machine. Basic range consists of eight box/sky sections. Squeezing foulards with special rollers enabling a uniform squeeze effect over the entire width under all pressure conditions. if they do occur. reactive and vat dyes. thus being accessible and easy to handle. This adds important properties such as improved dye affinity. Multiple dips of indigo and proper oxidation time and in the skying section achieve depth of shade. 4. over dye and fashion colours. 2. These would include sulfur. Morrison’s color kitchen for caustic. Therefore there is no yarn waste from beam set splicing stops or shade tailing from dye class changes. Ropes are braided from let-off creels to provide continuous operation. Large diameter feed and return lines assure content level in the each dye box 34 . Reduced capacity dye vat with semicircular bottoms and with only 2-3 large diameter immersed rollers. to avoid the yarn breaking and tangling and to reduce the bath quantity. 3. Standards pretreatment consists of counter flow scour/boxes. High production and/or deep fashion blue ay require more sections.TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. Rope dyeing is economical and well suited for processing chambrays. Optional mercerizing section adds a caustic box plus skying rolls to provide proper reaction time before washing. Ropes are stronger and less subjective to broken ends that.
Coilers lay the individual ropes into drums in a pattern to facilitate the subsequent Rebeaming operation. Kept the surface area to a minimum. • • • Dye boxes with maximum yarn contents for highest production speed. and then further randomized when the twelve beams set are sized prior to weaving. a major contribution to a more efficient Rebeaming process. Following are the major features of the rope dyeing systems which results in a uniformly dyed quality denim to meets the strict quality standards of the BIG BRANDS NAMES. Ropes are than carefully dried to 6% moisture or steam heated drying cylinders.After dyeing the ropes enter multiple wash boxes for rinsing and chemical application. Those nips are used on all dyes and wash boxes throughout the range. Reducing the risk of dye-stuff oxidation. The indigo dyes ranges can be built to give you the flexibility to switch from bottom to top application or use indigo dye stuff only. based on customers choice and market requirement. Two different working position of bottom rolls feature maximum flexibility in operating speeds. Optimal sulfur black. This system has HV nip which permits the removal of bottom nip rolls without dismantling the top rolls. Large diameter direction rolls in the skying section insure the optimum guarding of yarn ropes. can easily be achieved with slight modifications of entire system. top or bottom. The 350 plus ends per rope are blended during the Rebeaming (post dye) stage. Virtually guaranteeing side/side colour uniformity. The use of sulfur black has for some time been a popular tool to the denim manufacturer to achieve the dark shades economically by reducing the use of 35 .
Standby pumps ensure the uninterrupted operation of the range 36 . Teflon coating are available upon costumer request.expenses indigo dye stuff without violating the high quality standards of “genuine denim” The dry cans are other factors in making the rope dyeing range efficient and reliable. caustic and Hydrosulphite. The dye stuff circulation system is an extremely important part of an indigo dye range. Constant circulation at high rates guarantees of dye-stuff.
a) Pre-washing b) Mercerizing CRITICAL POINTS Building Area ROPE DYEING floor space required more than indigo flow It is not a continues process. Including Ball warping indigo dyeing (6-8) boxes Rebeaming critical c) Dyeing with (6 -8 boxes) d) Washing e) Sizing f) Drying The mercerizing process Is easy and simple Mercerizing in rope dyeing mercerizing is difficult.SLASHER DYEING VS ROPE DYEING SLASHER DYEING Required lesser floor Space Is a continuous process or beam.e Rebeaming The capacity of one dye Bath is 100 lits to make more effective and to save the expensive indigo dye stuff. Due to Rebeaming (critical) Required lesser manpower i. The capacity of dye stuff is 2.500 lits. beam process including. The dye bath have three rollers one is Manpower required more man-power due to extra steps Ball warping & Dye bath the dye bath are in require shape. the dye bath have five rollers of same size 37 .
Or we can meet the all demands of the international denim. It is very difficult to fulfill the require of major buyers.e blue and black reason is difficult to change colours quality as in Slasher dyeing this system is only allows to produce the classic Denim With this system we can entire denim market. we can produce the any type of denim on this range Limitation Flexibility this system allows to produce denim only in two colours i. The piece of the denim Produce with its technology in comparatively low than the denim produced on rope dyeing technology.bigger than the other two this system have the option to use the yarn from Ne 1-30 count on the same system with out ant major change this system have the flexibility to produce the denim in different colours.85 per meter in international market Yarn this major allows to use the yarn from Ne 1-16 count without any major change 38 .e approx. Market share The market share of classic denim in 70 & in international denim market. Price we can get the premium price of the classic denim with this technology i. Reason is required short time to change colours. $ 2.
With the trends towards mill washed denims and garment washed denim with the systems mentioned earlier (stone wash. Despite the fact we have learnt from one of our customers who operate his loop dye system between 35-42 m/min. we feel that a comparison the operating speed of 30 m/min. To test colour evenness.COST COMPARISON A study made recently to compare the 3 main systems in use in indigo dyeing. slasher single sheet dyeing and loop dye system 1 for 6 for a given production are summarized in the following the comparison. depending on the yarn count used. 39 . Despite the fact that yarns in rope dyeing are expose to varying squeezing effect in the rope slightly different colour take-up is equalized in Rebeaming and use of 10 – 12 back beam in sizing. is still justified. QUALITY OF DYEING AND COLOUR FASTNESS Shading of fabric from center to selvedge has always been critical. The comparison does not claim to complete in all respects but should give an objectives bases to interested listeners. hard rock. the quality of dyeing becomes a very critical aspects in the choice of the dyeing process. If we remember the squeezing effect of the rope dyeing system and the loop dye system 1 for 6 give very similar good results. fabric have been sewn together from center and out side to compare the colour after weaving and sanforizing. chemical treatment with chloride of super blue and normal basic denim) where the fabric is exposed to washing treatment varying from 30 min to 4 hour and more. rope dyeing. Single slasher dyed denim fabrics however will experience more problems to match specification for colour shade. The percentage figures in brackets refer to the quantities required for an equivalent production. The dye systems with 12 ropes has been taken as basis of comparison.
tex 100 warp/tex 100 weft. Let me show you a few examples what can be achieved by rearranging the drafting plan and the lifting frequencies of the heddles. bed fords card. There is no limitation for a designer to turn a apparently simple fabric into a highly sophisticated fashion fabric.CONSTRUCTIONS FOR DENIM FABRICS STANDARD DENIM As a rule denim fabric for woven as twill 3/1 Z or broken twill 3/1 or 2/2. of the marketing teams and market leaders. diamond blocks) four colour machines or second beam in high position.5 and 16. Some fabric cam be woven with tappet motion whilst other will require dobbys reversals. ounces.2. tops. weft appearance and to achieve the desired tearing strength in warp direction by using open-end yarns or ring spun yarns. sweat shirts and jogging suits. ideal for blouses. trousers and jackets The classical construction of a 14/ ½ ounce denim is 24.1. depending on the weight. combinations of twill 3/1 and 1/3 or twill 2/1 and plain weave popular just recently.1. 16. Last year jacquard designer and diamond weaves were the runner on the fashion market.) A fashion continuously creates new ideas the cloth manufacturers have to follow the demands. shirts.5 picks/cm. and 3. The weight of the finished fabrics vary between 3. But there are many other possibilities to in constructions a cloth to (size and stiffening). 3 ½ . crinkle cloth.6 ends/cm. sweet shirts. Checks in fabrics for jackets and trousers were very popular in USA 1975-1978. It also gives us the possibility to show a more pronounced twill-line. herringbone weaves. the fabrics are used for different garments. DENIM CLOTH CONSTRUCTIONS 40 . (See table 3.12 11 .16 ½ ounces.15 ounces sq/yd.1. Depending on the final used.
7 6 11.Some typical denim grey fabric constructions Weave: twill 3/1 Z No.8 25 27 16 16 16 15.5 19 17 15 16.8 27 24 23 23 24.5 tex 98 98 107 98 88 98 50 84 84 84 107 50 88 84 107 weave 3/1 CHAMBRAY FABRICS Weave: plain or twill 2/1 24 27 21 23 25 23.5 18 18 warp tex 7 7 7 7.4 7.6 30 25 26 22.8 6.5 11.5 7 11.5 16.8 7 7 7 5.5 18 26 21 16. of ends per cm yarn count Warp weft 24 25 24 20.3 25 25 23 20 16 12 16 15 16 16 15 19 24 24 12 12 9 16 16 9 20 25 25 49 49 66 37 37 66 30 24 24 12 14 7 12 16 12 20 25 25 49 42 84 50 37 50 30 1/1 1/1 1/1 1/1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/1 1/1 41 .7 7 5.8 6.8 7 6 8.6 7 11.7 7 7 84 84 84 80 78 84 50 84 98 71 84 50 88 84 84 weft 6 6 5.5 6 6.
Possibilities to achieve different fabric appearance. Stripps twill 2/1 + ½ Stripps twill 2/1 + plain Whipcord narrow strips whipcord weave strips 42 .Denim with strips: combination twill 3/1. plain 1/1 whipcord.
12 Fig. 13 Fig. Fig.Fancy fabric woven on dobby (fig. 14 Reversal drafting Fig. 14 + 16 woven on tappets) by inserting Lurex or count. 14 Fancy drafting 43 . Viscose filament in weft good cloth.
14 Broken drafting Fig. 44 .Fig. 17 Effects are achieved with multicolor WM and warp beam in high pos.
In Europe however because of the different dyeing technologies byproducts of the classical denim warp elastic denim is produced. warp elastic and bi-elastic corduroy was highly in demand in Europe. The denim ranges in USA consists nearly 100% of rope dyeing units. As mentioned earlier denim. Warp dyeing systems were warper beams are used are very well suitable for a continuous open width dyeing and sizing operation. With this dyeing system it is practically impossible to warp and dye and rebeam yarns with an elastomeric core.3 17. Because of these facts only weft elastic denims are used in USA for leisure wear.6 25.Elastic Denim For many years. flats and corduroy share the market for leisure wear.6/91 24 192 192 stretch% reed width cm 45 .8/30/30 twisted 15. The fabrics are not only pleasant to wear they also help to improve the appearance of the fashion conscious individuals.5 91 tex 7.3 weft tex 84 84 counts warp Ne 70/20/20 6.6 WARP ELASTIC Ends per finished counts 17. Consequently efforts were made to compete with elastic corduroy. ELASTIC FABRICS WEFT ELASTIC Ends per cm Warp Ne 25.
5 20.6 6 98.5 Metallic Thread Used In Weft In fancy metallic threads are very suitable to achieve a bright luster when used in weft faced weave. Cashmere designs in different colours as well as check over prints have been in demand for some time. 25 46 .8 18 14 14 18 15.5*2+15.5 weft tex grey reed warp Ne weft tex 45*2+15.5 15.6 grey reed 32*2+15.5 21.7 23. filigree prints or acid prints. PRINTED DENIM A special surface appearance can be achieved on denim fabrics with multicolour print.7 24.6 6.5 91 finished 13*2+15.5 23.Warp Ne 26. In consequence of this trend jacquard designs in indigo warps with different colours in weft came for a short time on the market. Some are shown in fig.6 finished 18.
Fig. 47 . 24 Cockling appearance of fabric by combining weave and different twisted yarn types.
Fig.Fig. Fig. 27 coloured printed denim. 25 jacquard design of denim. 26 printed denim with cashmere. 48 .
Main problems in denim production in previous years were uneven weft. As a rough figure we can say that end breaks in weaving are reduced by 30 – 40% in some case for example dense fabrics and fine count up to 50%. OPEN END YARNS: 49 .WARP PREPARATION SPINNING The base of a good fabric and weaving operation is already laid down with the purchase of the cotton fiber. The superiority of spliced joins over knots is felt not only when weaving outerwear fabrics but also for technical cloth. but also find counts. With the aid of weft mixers or 4 colour mixing uneven yarn appearance or irregular yarn blending can be more or less avoided. we require perfect spun yarn. RING YARN: With the possibility to link the ring spinning frame with an automatic winder ring yarn has become of interest again for denim production. But most of the problems can already be solved in spinning through: Good blending Correct drafting ratio on draw frames Speed frames Ring frames OE – spinning. It contributes substantially towards improved yarn performance in weaving not only for course. Warp – and Weft preparation plays a major part. knots on surface of denim fabrics and weft bars. Although the count range suitable for denim fabrics is rather towards coarse counts.
thin places. It must be mentioned that in order to meet higher standards 2 draw frame passage give better results.Due to the lower tensile strength of OE – spun yarn it took quite some time before they were accepted by the garment manufacturers . 1979 / 1080 and standards from 1986 where especially thick thin places and neps are reduced by 50 %. Nov.000 trs.15 stops per 1000 rotor hours. Many problems existing with ring yarns such as thick. In a few tables I would like to compare standards in spinning under similar conditions (Ne 6) for ring and OE – yarns. good colour fastness were of advantage but some of the garment finishing techniques reduce the tensile strength of OE – yarns that a switch to ring yarn is necessary. Jets on OE spinning machines 80. tex 30. 17 stops per 1000 rotor hours. Tails must be perfect.15 %. Ne 7. deeper colour. The slightly higher hairiness and different colour Take-up. dust content max. thin place 1st yarn layers must be wound tight on spool cores. Check for: • • • • Perfect yarn joins Thick. / Min 4 groves 60.000 trs. twist variation tube base top of ring tube and therefore tendency to barriness in weft were eliminated. 50 . Ne 20. 0. / Min 6 groves Stop value standards: tex 84.
warping speed adds to increase tension during the warping process. We must remember that each supported guiding eyelet in addition to distance to the head stock. Depending on the advanced transport and automatic in spinning a truck creel where trucks can be loaded automatically by robots in the spinning may be more suitable than a magazine creel. But all creels should have one thing in common: the tension must be adjustable. or when a warper stopped to keep a certain tension to avoid snarling or sagging of the yarn.WARPING Indigo dyeing required even tension over the whole width of the yarn sheet irrespective whether the yarn is rope dyed or in full width. We have measured on different occasion’s tension and found a tension increase from front to back row of 80 – 100 %.creel with trucks is used. These units not only help to reduce tension variation caused by warper acceleration. with or without automatic knotter Magazine creel (to run from nose to tail ) V – creel V . But uneven tension from front to rear rows of a creel may show up more on a single sheet slasher dyeing machine than in rope dyeing. difference in spool diameter. deceleration. Machine supplier offer today electronic tension control devices. TYPE OF CREEL: The selection of a creel which provides more or less even tension from front to back rows is important irrespective whether • • • • A parallel creel with trucks . 51 .
creel Benninger now offers an automatic pre-tensioner. • • • Stop: Acceleration: Running speed: tensioner is open to allow free access to spools.creels. Especially on ball warpers very often faller bar stop devices are fitted. Automatic pre-tensioner with creel length compensating unit.The adjustment of the tension in 3 – 6 zones to compensate for different in length is a first start. which can be used as creel length compensating unit as well as automatic pre-tensioner for the 3 main positions. ELECTRIC STOP MOTIONS:- scheme: automatic pre-tensioner in three working position. Even at low warping speeds of 350 – 450 m/min they are sometimes not fast enough to stop a yarn break prior the yarn has been condensed into the rope. a 52 . Electronic yarn stop motion sensor at the exit of each spool should be standard equipment for a denim warp producer. but will bring certainly more benefits for high speed full width warping at 1000 – 1200 m/min. especially when magazine creels are used. tensioner open to allow optimal warping tension. To find the end is time consuming and the danger exists that the end is tied whilst still twisted with one or more ends. These controls are important for both warping systems. Despite the fact that tension variations are far less pronounced in a V. (Reed Chatwood) Other possibilities are offered by adopting a pre-tensioner in V. yarn is diverted to eliminate snarls. ball-warping as well as full width warping.
fly) causes problems resulting in: • • • • Uncontrolled thread tension Or deflecting pins cut. or adjustable roller tensioner performs better. Tension level remains content across entire yarn sheet tension level remains nearly content throughout yarn package. ceramic posts. chromeplated tension discs and varying weight washers. It consists of mechanical pivot levers.in Missing loading discs Uneven distributed loading discs. 53 . even at high beaming speeds of 1000 – 1200 meters.Creels equipped with electronic tension control and broken end detectors.dependable thread monitoring is necessary if faultless ropes or beams are to be warped without lost ends or wrapped threads.tension system. Fibre abrasion (fluff. THREAD TENSIONERS The yarn is controlled by 2 or 3 post. I have been realized that uniform thread tension is important: • • From full to empty package Between front and rear packages. V.and disc.
running out or missing ends on the loom beam. It is therefore. Threads do not built up at beam flanges.SOME HINTS FOR WARPING Mistakes made in ball warping and direct beaming can no longer be corrected in downstream operations. • • • • Loose ends in the selvedge zone may lead to breaks in the dry split zone or taped ends and badly twisted selvedge ends. vital to: BALL WARPER WITH MAGAZINE CREEL That • • • • • • • all bobbins are properly wound transfer tail are perfect (no 2 tails ) Spools without transfer tail not to be used as in many cases they lead to lost ends or it is difficult to find ends. Make sure that the last end at the flange drops. 54 . thread monitoring devices must work perfect tension units to be checked regularly Leases to be inserted at 1000 meter intervals. Beaming speed to be adapted to the yarn material to be warped. Lost ends lead to wrapped ends on back beams. One source of trouble frequently encountered are loose ends on back beams due to poor machine maintenance. Joins to be made by weaver knots. This will prevent that the last ends in the size box separate from the dye or sizing sheet or become slack. FULL WIDTH WARPING • • The back beam flanges are in perfect condition with no sign of damage.
The danger of faults at change over In most cases does not exist. (No dog knots) The leases made at the ball warper in certain intervals (1000 – 2000m) are used to check the position of A shake-out rolls 55 . • • • • • End breaks must be recorded regularly. Inadequate maintenance. down ta a few meters of waste on each spool. All broken ends caused mainly through the separation process must be repaired with weavers knots. In order to obtain the required thread tension to separate the rope into single ends the rope has to be tensioned by a tow tensioning system which consists of 2 belt connected cylinders designed open ended for rapid threading. packages running out etc.• • Broken ends should be joined in such a manner that the thread is warped under tension upon restarting. They help to improve warping standards.coordinated with the beam reverse function is of advantage to find lost ends quick in rebeaming. Spinning faults. Less knots in all other processing stages. Winding faults. Unsuitable package types lead to layers sloughing off from the cone and can cause multiple end breakages at the expanding comb on the sizing machine. rewinding is more expensive because the remnants entail less costs if they LONG CHAIN BEAMER The ropes are opened at the long chain beamer and warpers beams made. to prevent end breaks prior passing the expansion comb. Specifying the causes and where they occur. Packages with metered length can be worked off. An expansion comb separates and distributes the threads over the width of the warper beam. because no creel remnants have to be rewound. are reeled off as waste. The shake reed is a useful tool to separate entangled ends. A machine mounted accumulator microprocessor. and not wound slack onto the beam. system with a square rather than round design.
the threads in the rope in relation to the comb to prevent that broken ends are twisted with other ends.yarn 5 3 2 240 m/min 40 – 70 16 – 40 10 – 30 Full width warper 1000 m/min 7 5 4 56 . Some hints: • • • The distance of the shake out roll system to the beamer should be 11 – 14 meters. a perfect training in repairing ends. Assessing End Stop Rates At Ball Warpers. Depending on the quality of the ropes and yarn preparation rebeaming speeds up to 340 m/min can be achieved. handling machines and warp built-up control is of vital importance. It is of advantage to equip the long chain beamer with suction devices at the comb in combination with beamer mounted fans. As in most cases beamers are operated without broken thread monitoring devices. Ball warper 400 m/min Ring yarn knotted Ring yarn spliced Rotor yarns Rebeamer Ring yarn knotted Ring yarn spliced OE. And Full Width Warpers.
STANDARDS 57 .
BALL WARPER FULL WIDTH WARPER STANDARDS 58 .
This can lead to over tensioning of warp ends and high warp end stop frequency. For many years native starches or slightly modified starches with corresponding binders were sometimes regarded as the most economical way to size Indigo warps. The change in garment washed denims led to new sizing recipes. 1 or 2 boxes. It is therefore the task of the sizes to apply just as much size which is needed to avoid beading of the dyed yarn during weaving. shore hardness of the squeeze rolls is important. In order to obtain the required weft density a very high warp tension is needed. squeezing pressure and type of size box. to prevent fibre abrasion due to shedding in subsequent processing on the weaving machine. The final size pick-up is not only influenced by the applied size mix but also. 1 or 2 nip.REBEAMER SIZING OF INDIGO WARPS The main purpose of sizing is to surround the warp ends with a protective coating. But there is one thing we have to bear in mind. SIZE BOX If we look at the different possible size box combinations only 2 size boxes with normal squeeze pressure 1200 kg but 2 squeeze rolls or 1 size box with 2 squeeze and immersion rolls and squeeze pressure 2500 – 3000 kg will give good results in sizing. Oversized warps which optically appear to be perfect as there are no protruding fibres at all may cause tremendous problems in weaving. Besides this. It can be performed in various ways. With normal pressure we have With high pressure top Bottom 70 – 75 shore 90 – 95 shore 95 – 100 shore 59 .
Apart from the moisture content of the size products the accuracy of weighing-in also effects the viscosity and concentration. Particularly prone to errors are sizing recipes quoting the required quantities in bags. and pumped into the stock tanks after reaching the right viscosity.SIZE PREPARATION Under the just mentioned conditions. b) The size is dissolved in turbo-cookers or other open cookers with high-speed agitators. This method of size preparation gives high flexibility in use and reduces the size losses in sizing when batches and recipes are changed. c) Production of a stock size for dilution as required. Modern size preparation can be accomplished in different ways: a) Automatic metering from silos or large containers through duct system and weigh scales (size. but is may bring serious disadvantages such as weights indicated on the bags differ from actual weights (moisture content). SIZING PRODUCTS FOR NORMAL DENIM. size concentration and viscosity of size is different for normal squeeze pressure and high squeeze pressure (2500 – 3000 kg). wetting agent. In many cases sizing products used are governed by: 60 . We must make sure that size concentration and size viscosity remain uniform through the sizing operation. This is equally possible with synthetic as natural or modified starch products. This may seem a simple way of establishing recipes. The concentration may be raised or lowered again in simple fashion. lubricants). The viscosity and concentration should therefore be monitored and checked continuously (at least twice per cooking) with refractometer and Ford cup.
0 kg 0. squeeze roll pressure. rope dye.0 kg 2. We have to consider in addition.5%) In order to achieve good weaving performance: • Elongation of yarn should remain 6%. Residual moisture content of yarn (7 – 8.yarns are used. ROPE DYED YARN Noredux M 20 U – size Fat Refractometer Viscosity Ford cup Size pick-up 10.5% All recipes are based on 100 L of water.1 kg 0.0 kg 6. Depending on the type of cooker a finished solution of size of 120 – 130 L is achieved. residual moisture content 7 – 8.2 kg 7.or OE.8% 12 sec.8 kg 9 – 9. sizing speed. and yarn whether ring. 9% 61 . sheet dye or loop dye.8 .3% 16 sec 12% Noredux 20/50 Fibrosint M 85 Olinor NW 81 Belsoft 200 6. The sizing recipes depend of course on the type of size box. • • • • Size mix Size pick-up Stretch of warp during sizing (loss of elongation) as low as possible.a) b) c) Product availability Material and yarn to be sized Finishing loom state denim sanforized denim SIZING FORMULAS With the following examples I would like to give a few figures from industrial practice.3 kg 0.
0 kg 0.5 kg 8 – 8.2 kg 0.5 kg 8% 14 sec.3% 9% Extramyle WS 60 Plastifil M Cerapol Fixot N5 14.0 kg 1. 11 % LOOP DYE SYSTEM OR SINGLE SHEET DYEING.8 kg 2.0 kg 1.4 kg 0.2 kg 12 – 12. Kollotex 1250 Carbocil CMC Leomin WG Glissofil Refractometer Size pick-up 7.Perfectamyle 35 Wax (Softner) Refractometer Viscosity Size pick-up 9.0 kg 0.3% 12% 62 .
5 kg 0.5 % 6% Alkazet 2069 Viskosil PSN Digoral PV 5. The mentioned products have an ideal viscosity and good binding properties in normal and high pressure sizing.3 kg 7 – 7.5 kg 0. desizing for modified starch printing is not necessary.SOFT DENIM: • Horsil HV 55 Olinor NW 81 Belsoft 200 3. Size mixes with CMC have also shone excellent results on gray fabric which which are printed or dyed black after weaving. High elasticity which can improve weaving properties.0 kg 0.5 kg 4 – 4.5 % 9 sec 10 % For soft denim it is important to know whether the material will be mill washed prior to garment make-up or the fabric is used loom state or Sanforized. As salt-free CMC is water soluble in warm water.0 kg 4 % 6% WITH HIGH PRESSURE SIZE BOX (2700 – 3000 KG): Perfect amyl 35 Glissofil Refectometer Viscosity ford cup Size pick-up 8.2 kg 0. hand of fabric and 63 .5 sec.2 kg 3.3 % 7 % 12.0 kg 0. • • • • • Refractometer Size pick-up Viscosity Ford cup Carbocol CMC Refractometer Size pick-up 4.
less critical qualities side by side with denim. especially in the edge zones. which automatically control and adjust let-off tension . wet split tension . CREEL FOR BACK BEAMS: One requirement for proper sizing. AFTER WAXING: In cases where a higher percentage of size pick-up with starches is reached after waxing with 0. dry split tension .5 – 0. pressure roller . intake tension . Let me just point a few things out which always need attention irrespective whether size and dye or just size the indigo back beams. in many cases this leads to undesirable threads loading and loss of elongation. size pick-up which is very important . thus ensuring more or less constant tension on the individual threads in beaming may be corrected a little by raising the take-in tension. Will in addition reduce dusting-off during weaving. It also reduces dust in weaving which will allow to produces certain gray. LET-OFF TENSION (3% OF WARP BREAKING STRENGTH): Modern back beam stands are designed so that the thread tension in the drawing-in section is regulated automatically to a preset level . winding tension .shows better twill line as a higher crimp can be achieved as far less tension is required to weave with same recoil of fell as with normal viscose sizes. Further important points in sizing: As we can assume that at the moment very few companies have computerized sizing machines installed . 64 . pressure at head stock . Besides modified starches pure CMC products are since many years in use in Corduroy Manufacturing with excellent results. is perfect alignment of the back beams with their flanges. roughened or slack.8 % will help to obtain more flexible warp ends without danger of beading. Odd ends may be undersized. Crowded threads due to inaccurately aligned back beam flanges may lead to inadequate size take-up in the affected zones.
from the yarn count and kind of yarn.With the breaking system normally today. If however the tension in the wet split section is too high. If the weighting is applied in the same direction as the yarn run-off. Especially in the wet split section between size box and first drying cylinder. this will raise the tension in the drawing-in section. check for wear very often only certain ends breaks in weaving they might be caused by worn-out bushes on one side only. More recent run-off systems operate with disk brake and roller bearings. The tension to be adjusted here depends on the weight of the thread sheet: • • • Light/medium-weight articles Heavy articles Very heavy articles 20 – 30 kg 30 – 50 kg over 50 kg These figures may be calculated approx. even if two size boxes are already being used. If shafts with bushes are used.5% OF WARP BREAKING STRENGTH): Attention must be given to proper elongation while the yarn is exposed to the size. brings benefits especially when sizing cotton/polyester blends. It must act against the direction of the yarn draw-off. It must under no circumstances be reduced or eliminated by using excessive tension in the wet split section. WET SPLIT SECTION TENSION (2. They should then be recorded in the sizing instruction sheet for future warps of the same article. Whether the weighting is applied by spring. the draw-off direction and weighting must be taken into account. This allows much more accurate braking via tension rolls than band or rope brakes. with braking belt and weight. The warp ends are separated from a thicker layer in the wet state and predried on drying cylinders. WET SPLITTING THE WARPS True wet splitting. suspended weight or breaking piston actuated by compressed air. Now the highest possible elongation is important in downstream weaving operations. Cotton fabrics increase slightly in strength in the wet state if properly stretched. The threads thus lie 65 . the thread elongation will diminish.
In the dry spilt section the uniformity of this squeeze roll pressure can be ascertained in sample faction. otherwise there is no guarantee that the warp will run of satisfactorily. To prevent this. The reason for this is that the moisture from the bottom row of cans is absorbed by the top row as the drying temperature on both rows is the same. Taped threads cause trouble with the stop motions droppers. This should be done also when changes beams if end breaks occurred during sizing. End breaks in the dry split section usually lead to double thread and ends running out. Very often different tension of a yarn sheet visible when sizing is done in 2 boxes and the drying cans are paced in 2 rows only. the top sheet has higher moisture content when it leaves the final drying cans.spaced well apart on the drying cylinder. Double ends taped are already apparent in the dry split section. There are various possibilities for single or multiple warp splitting in the wet state: • • Single box Double box single split . Protruding fibres are less likely to cling together.sextuple splitting DRY SPLIT SECTION (10% OF WARP BREAKING STRENGTH) This is calculated from the number of ends and the yarn count. this will be apparent at ounce on the first split roll.quadruple splitting double split . This can be watched best in the dry split section. if there are groves in the squeeze roll or the squeezing action is uneven across the width of the bath. the split rods should be put in a fresh after more than 2 breaks. WINDING TENSION (12% OF WARP BREAKING STRENGTH) 66 . The split wedge before the first split rode must show evenly over the full width of the warp (about 3 – 5 cm). and splitting in the dry split section is simpler. The warp ends are smoother and have fewer fibers protruding. Special attention must be given to the warp ends in the edge zones.
Before every fresh run the press rolls should be inspected for possible dents and polished with emery paper if necessary. and ultimately to end breaks.0% The total elongation is determined between the entry tension before the size box and the entry roll trio on the beaming machine. Warps with little elongation may lead to higher end break rates on densely woven fabric. EXPENDING COMB 67 .0 – 3. but at any rate not more that 10% higher. Often small burrs form on the press rolls if these are handled inexpertly. As a rule. WARP WAXING For denim warps however the main aim is to achieve a soft thread.5 – 2. Set the winding tension just high enough to ensure proper warp beam winding. The aim must therefore be to retain the inherent elongation of the threads. PRESSING Formula: Damage to the thread layers may result from excessive pressing. • • • Cotton yarns Blended yarns Rayon 1.5% 1. Roughness on the end pieces may lead to damage warp beam flanges and roughened warp thread. this elongation is. due to impacts. TOTAL ELONGATION ON THE SIZING MACHINE It is important that the necessary the warp tension is properly selected and maintains.The winding tension should be equal to the split section tension. less friction and dusting-off during weaving. The pieces of pressing material at the ends of the press rolls must correspond to the press roll diameter.0% 2.2 – 1.
Good parallelism of the warp ends calls for finer combs. Leasing in to a fixed comb brings advantages with grey and also with coloured yarn warps.When guiding warps through the sizing machine. especially with high warp densities. • • Normal Fine comb about 6 – 14 ends per dent 6 – 8 ends per dent • Important is that as few correction as possible are made on the expending comb ounce it is leased. TAPING-OFF THE WARPS Warps are taped-off with adhesive taped on both sides for tying-on in weaving. parallel warps ends are indispensable. Switching threads in the comb means crossed ends. otherwise thread tangles may increase. High sizing speed call for coarser combs. to prevent the warp ends rolling. warp satin and down proof fabrics with 40 – 60 threads per cm. With high number of warp ends. It must however be realized that finer expending combs are not unattended by risks: • Work must be done more carefully There is a danger of several threads breaking out if breaks are not noticed at ounce The expending comb should be traversed as little as possible. If good results are to be obtained. A relatively short dry split section can be adopted. The demands of weaving are diametrically opposed to those of sizing. as in poplin. make sure that the thread layers are as parallel as possible. Experience gathered by sizing machine makers indicates that a widening of the warp by up to 70 per side 68 . RATIO BETWEEN WARPING AND BEAMING WIDTHS Warps with warping width identical with beaming width are ideal strictly speaking. it is advise able to lease the end into the expending comb.
and as a result the thread-to-threads friction. Followed by a assembling the sectional beam into the warp beam (single size box without dipping roll). through also with polyester/cotton and polyester/rayon blends yarns and 100% polyester. The point must be given attention. However tangling techniques have recently undergone big changes. Nor can yarns reabsorbed the missing moisture during storage in air-conditioned rooms. With the sheet dyeing process the width of back beams should be as narrow as possible (140 cm) to obtain even dye pressure and colour shade over the width. trials with multiple splitting using revolving split rods have been successful only with textured and air-tangled yarns. With spun yarns especially. This is exactly opposite to what we need in sizing. For denim warps moisture contents 7 – 8. Which not only affects the elasticity of the sized coating but also increases the hairiness. As already mentioned.5% should be attained. so that sizing is better. Often yarns are over dried after sizing. so that in feature it may be possible to omit sizing for various material. sizing the warp in a double in double box brings advantages if the thread loading exceeds 50 – 70% The thread loading is calculated as follows: Loading% = yarn diameter x total no of ends x 10 Back beam width in cm 69 . RESIDUAL YARN MOISTURE Yarn should have their normal residual moisture content if possible. SIZE BOX YARN LOADING IN THE SIZE BOX Continuous filament yarns without twist can be sized successfully only on a singleend sizing machine. wider back beam feeds yield benefits in sizing because there are then fewer end in the size box.(equivalent to 25 cm per meter dry split section length) is quite acceptable. Up to now.
4200 ends.303 x 4200 x 10 = 79. Shore hardness recommendations: Normal pressure High pressure 70 – 75 shore 90 – 95 top squeeze roll 95 – 100 bottom squeeze roll OTHER CHECKS ON THE SIZE BOX • • Automatic temperature control function Function of the feed valves for automatic size level control. back beam width 1600 mm 0. 70 . This will enable faults due to worn squeeze rolls or defect bearings to be a identified in good time. MAINTENANCE OF SQUEEZING ROLLS To ensure optimal sizing results the squeezing pressure must be checked regularly over the entire roll width using blue paper. Irrequalities in the squeezing pressure are already visible on the first rode in the dry split section. The squeezing rolls should be checked regularly for true running.For example: metric 17s (English 10s).53% 160 Thread loading guide lines: Cotton Cotton Yarn blends (metric 10 – 34s) over 70 % (sizing with double) (metric 40 – 120s) over 70 % (box is advisable) (metric 10 – 100s) over 50 % Coarse to medium yarn are sized to advantage in size boxes equipped with 2 dipping and squeezing unit. and the surface grinded-off according to the instruction of the roll makers. The shore hardness of the rubber or daico rolls must also be checked. The squeezing action at crawl speed and in normal running should also be checked regularly.
Concentration control by Refractometer GENERAL CHECKS • • • • Sizing speed Temperature of sizing cylinder. Expanding comb too coarse threads lifted out of expending comb. Yarn elongation on the sizing machine Prescribe values in the sizing instructions with actual values. breaking extension and residual moisture percentage of the yarn • • Size uptake on the yarn. shed closure wrong. Too many ends in the 71 . whip roller covering. Brookfield. Abrasion with “Ruti-Reutlingen Webtester”. insufficient size uptake. damage during dyeing. Poor knotting in weaving mills. Shed closure too late. over dried. Shaft setting too high. Yarn over stretched. Whip roller too high. • RECOGNATION OF PROBLEMS Possible causes: Size dust-off Waft density can be attained only with difficulty Crossed threads warp overdried Poor unsuitable sizing agents warp oversized incorrect shaft adjustment. Thread sheet not taped off with double tape. Too many ends in the size box. Breaking strength. Hairy yarn High warp end break rate Ends cut by projectiles Not enough fibres in the yarn cross section. Lint balls in healds and reed warp under sized.• • Viscosity metering by ford cup or other viscometer Haake.
240 kp per end Metric count Warp breaking load = 0.5%% of warp breaking load) = 960 x 2. Incorrect cooking.240 x 4000 = 960 kp Run-off tension (3% of warp breaking load) = 960 x 3 = 29 kp 100 Entry tension (1.roughened selvedge threads. Warp over sized. size box. size concentration too low.5 = 24 kp 100 Dry tension (10% of warp breaking load) = 960 x 10 = 95 kp 100 Winding tension (12% of warp breaking load) = 960 x 12 = 115 kp 100 50 72 .5% of warp breaking load) = 960 x 1. TYPICAL CALCULATION FOR COTTON YARNS Given data: a) Number of warp ends b) Yarn count c) Yarn breaking strength (length) d) Warp tension and adjustment according to table Warp weight = number of ends = 4000 = 80 grams per running meter Metric count 50 4000 metric 50s 12 km Thread breaking load = breaking length = 12 = 0. Knot ends too long. Neighbouring ends broken.5 = 15 kp 100 Wet tension (2.
The values for rayon must be taken from the table. factor 2) = 80 x 1000 x 2 = 160kp 1000 For rayon the calculation procedure is the same. 73 .Pressing (for warp weight 80 g/running meter.
250 tex range. Quite apart from the fact that a comber waste assortment with average staple length 11 . from a new rotor spinning machine better values are expected than those yielded by machines supplied 5 years ago. Important for weaving are: • • • • • • Yarn regularity Elongation Breaking strength Thick places Thin places Neps YARN CLEARING Spun yarn contains faults which may be caused by various shortcoming in spinning such as bad manual sliver piecings. foreign fibres (jute. since rotor yarns for example give much lower thread stoppage frequencies in weaving than knotted ring yarns. fly. regarded as suitable now a days despite lower breaking strength.25% range user statistics). malfunctioning of stop motions. This has been demonstrated beyond all doubt.12 mm can not be spun on ring frame anyhow. more important than breaking strength.WEFT PREPARATION FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE WEAVING MACHINES Different limits are set depending on the machine used in spinning and weaving operation. 74 . (Typically 50% . From the weavers point of view the regularity of a yarn is of prime importance. in the 20 . polypropylene fibres).100 tex. even when spun from 100% comber waste of 36 . Thus.
autospinnconer. thick. thin places are not within these values. KNOTS AND OTHER YARNS JOINS SIMPLE WEAVER KNOTS 75 . ADJUSTING CLEARERS Suppliers of yarn clearers recommend certain sensitivities and reference length for the different yarn types. With coarse yarn (metric 10 – 34 s) 10 to 12 knots per kg yarn are expected. Murata No 7 . single motor driven ring spinning machine. with combed yarns (metric 10 – 160s) 20 to 40 knots per 100 000 m yarns (35 to 90 per 100 000 m length). with the integrated controls for thickness of splicers show by different companies at the ITMA in Paris with their links with spinning machines. The degree of clearing depends not only on the reference values named.11. fine combed yarn about 80 grams. The cops should hold 120 . "Uster Polyguard" in rotor spinning "Uster Polymatic" in winding which automatically record and allow to stop individual spindles or spinning units if the preset values of count. which in downstream processing cause thread breaks and especially on high speed weaving machines may cause neighboring threads to break also. with the aid of automatic piecing at the spinning machine (Fill-A-mat Zinser). Excessive clearing should be avoided. because it only leads to more knots.NEW SPINNING TECHNOLOGIES With latest equipment in the market for automatic flyer bobbin doffing (Howa) and auto matic splicing. but also on the winding speed. links coner for ring spun yarns as well as rotor spun yarns. automatic sliver stop. in addition automatic transfer-tail winding at spool core and full bobbin and start-up is performed. The number knots per kg yarn will increase or decrease accordingly. if coarse ring yarn are used without splicers or spinning links. these faults should be prevented.150 grams of yarn. New electronic clearers have been developed which allow single spindle data collection.
wool worsted and also cotton/polyester blends are very smooth. however especially in outerwear fabrics on account of the time taken it opening it or pushing it through to the outer side. through it has certain disadvantages owing to its inferior strength under the alternating stresses of weaving. Splicing contributes significantly toward improved running performance in weaving. such as welding or latexing. direct beaming. New techniques like splicing like from much better here.This knot is still used on a large scale with cotton yarns. this gives added strength. FISHERMAN KNOT Pure rayon yarns. coated fabric for artificial leather. There are now only few yarns (smooth filament. outerwear). It brings considerable disadvantages in the finished cloth. A separate lecture is being giving on splicing. ROTOR YARN 76 . This knot has found increasing favor in recent years in order to prevent knots coming undone in the downstream operation section warping. For certain fabric categories a surface as smooth as possible is even minatory (emery twill. both in warp and weft. sizing and weaving. SPLICING The advantages of splicing over knotting are felt with all yarn types and counts. acrylic OE-yarns and monofils) demanding a knot or some other join. DOUBLE WEAVER KNOT With smooth yarn especially.
In addition evenness of length of the knot tail is to be checked. Possible faults due to poor maintenance: • • • • • • Slack layers in the knotting zone 9thread tension). 5 mm. warp them on a black board and check for strength. 7 mm. Precision –wound packages may be used for dyeing to with normal winding hardness. nozzle distance) fly (suction) (pressure of spool cradle) soft packages rings on packages WINDING DESTINY FOR CROSSWOUND PACKAGES RANDOM WINDING Cross wound packages must be wound hard enough for the draw off speed in direct beaming 800 to 1200 m/min. like rotor spinning. to be expected in the future. CHECKING In many cases we still have to deal with machines installed a few years ago and we have to assure good quality of yarn by continuous checks such as • • Knotters (functional checks at least once every shift.Some new spinning techniques.) splicers This involves to take 5 – 10 knots from a knotters. up to 1500 m/min. 3 legged knots thread remnants wound in (suction. The deal winding density is influenced by 3 factors 77 . There is practically no longer any difference between warp and weft packages. The same applies also for spliced joins. Maximum length of tail of coarse to medium counts (100 – 36 Tex) is approx. Only dye packages require random winding with less density. have already integrated continuous yarn regularity monitoring and knotless joining by splicer in the spinning operation. finer accounts approx.
The angle should be between 25 – 28o • As we know from Monofils-weaving a bobbin with flanges and exactly parallel wound layers side by side could give the lowest packages are random or precision wound packages. 400 g/dm3 450 g/dm3 78 . thread length per double traverse 835 mm 125 mm 2.5 pitch. thread length per double traverse 1450 mm OPTIMUM WINDING DENSITY PER DM3 For yarns to be used in warp or weft winding densities are as follows: Ring yarn Coarse counts Fine counts OPEN END YARN Count metric Nm 40/1 (tex 25) = 380 – 420 g/dm3 Nm 20/1 (tex 50) = 390 – 430 g/dm3 Nm 10/1 (tex 100) = 400 – 440 PATTERING AND CROSS WOUND PACKAGES Pattering appears on every cross wound package driven by a grooved drum. A thread guiding drum with symmetrical guiding groves gives uniform winding hardness over the whole width of a spool.5 pitch. For direct weft insertion up to 800 m/min or via weft accumulators this winding system has advantages. 25 – 28o corresponds to drum traverses of: • • • 83 mm 1. thread tensioners Package cradle pressure on the drum Winding angle. The winding angle of approx.5 pitches. thread length per double traverse 1150 mm 150 mm 2.• • Winding speed.
Pattering is always pronounced when the package and drum diameters are in a whole-number ratio such as 1:1. Random winding Precision winding Step precision winding (Digital winding) 79 . the pattering may cause problems if it coincides with the knotting zone and cause layers sloughing-off or entanglements on spools. With increasing outside diameter of the spools (warp and weft packages) anti pattering gains more and more importance. etc.5. 1:2 etc. (drum diameter 90 mm spool diameter 180 mm) less marked pattering results with ration 1:1. ANTI PATTERING DEVICES Attempts are made to achieve a certain slippage between drum and package by varying the drum speed.5. The aim therefore is to produce random wound packages without patterns What are the differences of the 4 systems? • • • • Random winding Precision winding Step precision winding (digital winding) pattern free random winding Pattern free random winding RANDOM WINDING The crossing angle is constant from small to big diameter. causing a rhythmic change in the winding angle. The winding ratio becomes smaller with increasing spool diameter. Anti pattering drives yield better results than regularly lifting the packages off from the winding drum surface. 1:2.
By employing microprocessors the winding angle is allowed to change within narrow. The distribution of the thread layers prevents patterning and assures uniform wining density. The winding angle varies from small to large package diameter in accordance with the wind ratio selected. precisely controlled thread laying and hence no pattering. DIGITAL WINDING (SCHWEITER) With digital winding the wind ration alerts with growing package diameter. the tube must be slightly rough. Thus roughness 80 . With the aid of a second displacement frequencies the main patterns and intermediate patterns are over jumped. PACKAGE CORES Surface If the thread layers are to be worked off completely from the package tube. and differs for fine and coarse yarns as well as types. Advantages are uniform density. ideal winding is obtained. as it is the case when using magazine creels in direct beaming and by weft insertion and shuttle. With appropriate choice of wind ration and reversing point displacement. Open precision diamond winding for all continuous filament yarns and dye packages. Closed precision diamond winding for coarse yarns.Pattern free random winding PRECISION WINDING With precision winding we have constant wind ratio. closely definable limits during the package build from small to final diameter. PATTERN FREE RANDOM WINDING With this winding technique 2 layers of yarn with different winding angles are used.less weaving machines. The wind ratio is selected to suit the yarn geometry. For instance 20 and 14o corresponds to a winding angle between 20 and 40o.
3o30. 4o20. PACKAGE FROM CORE DIAMETER For weft insertion on the SRWM-P following package sizes are recommended: Cylindrical. tube. ROTOR YARN (PACKAGE TRAVERSE 150 MM) Rotor yarns are now being spun in the 250 tex count range (metric 4 to 50s) DREF YARNS (FRICTION SPUN) 81 . 5o57 EQUIPMENT NEED FOR THE WEAVING MACHINE WEFT ACCUMULATORS OR WEFT FEEDERS PU-WEAVING MACHINES Here accumulators must be employed with cones of 2o. at weft insertion rates exceeding 800 m/min For weft insertion rates above 1000 m/min. This treatment ensures that the last thread layers do not slough-off. 5o57. 3o30. Brushing is the most common method used today. PACKAGE TRAVERSE In the design of winding machine as well as rotor spinning machines there is a clear trend to travels widths around 150 mm. The smooth part at the front end of the core prevents that the last layers get caught by roughness at the edge f the tube. 4o20. ideal 100-105 mm outside diameter Minimum 60 mm Cones: 2o. through it should be borne in mind that 10 mm at the front of the tube is to be left smooth.may be obtained by brushing the tubes or cones with high-speed wire brushes. for coarse yarns even 200 to 300 mm. accumulators are always needed. sandblasting or flocking the surface.
A distinction is made between P and Q winding. metric count range 55 to 14s (18 – 72 tex). with cylindrical packages this may lead to trapped triangles in the pattern zone or catching on the front edge of the package. Entangled threads are however directly connected with the winding direction on the package and yarn twist. As a rule yarns up to metric 40x (25 tex) may be inserted from a package of this format via accumulators. or a cone of 2 to 5o57. With cylindrical package surface. Drawing-off a yarn over the end of the package reduces the twist or increases it. using as accumulators or storage motion in any case.Metric count range 1.2 to 10s (833 – 10 tex) Normally cylindrical cheeses. Remedies: User cones from 2o to 5o50 Reduce the package traverse to 80 mm possibly S – P = twist reducing Z – Q = twist reducing S – Q = twist increasing Z – P = twist reducing 82 . Reason for this are: Fine yarns from a small balloon. to are possible. FACTORS NECESSITATING REDUCED PACKAGE TRAVERSE For finer yarns from metric 50s the package traverse must be reduced to 3 inches. employed. depending on the direction of the yarn twist and the winding direction. Fibres projecting slightly from the package surface sometime twisted is so strongly by the thread dragging on the surface that the thread gets caught. and inevitably to end breaks. mostly precision -wound. causing to thread to drag over the package surface. through also cones up 3o30. JET SPINNING (MURATA) Yarns are taken up on cylindrical cheeses of 100 mm diameter and 128 mm traverse.
ingoldstadt). LENGTH MEASUREMENT Uniform thread length on the cross wound packages does not affect weft run-off. autocore. Routine maintenance and check on machinery and equipment must be performed regularly. PACKAGE STORAGE 83 . Repairing a thread break before the accumulator takes an average of 1. Results are secured in the neighborhood of 0.2% constancy.55 to 0. Length metering is an integral feature on all winding and rotor spinning machines.20 minutes. 300 mm diameter. • • For multi-colour machines maximum package diameter is 240 mm For single-colour and weft mixing machines. On the other hand length measurement is very important for reducing waste in warping.MAXIMUM PACKAGE DIAMETER Various winding machines and also spinning machines are now capable of producing packages up to 300 mm diameter. compared with 0. PERSONNEL SUPERVISION • • • • The way the personnel do its work must be verified regularly. Damaged tubes cause not only more stoppages but more waste s well. More recent winding and rotor spinning machines allow transfer trails to be produced automatically (autoconer. TRANSFER TAILS To ensure smooth transfer from the package running out to the next one. a transfer tail 50 to 70 cm long is needed.70 minutes tails are therefore especially important. Cleanliness and tidiness at the work place are indispensable Damages package centers must be rejected.
5 Nm 11.Cross wound package intended for weft insertion should be woven as soon as possible. We assume that the following values are known to us: Finished width of fabric Warp ends/cm in finished fabric Picks/cm in finished fabric Yarn count warp Yarn count weft Warp crimp 150. causing more and less severe “cauliflower” deformation. Cotton approx.0 cm 26. Tex 91 6. Tex 91 84 . Long storage periods are detrimental to good weft insertion in the pattern zones and sloughing-off. This may be aggravated further by distorted thread laying on cylindrical cheeses.7 18. packing and storage on transport and storage tracks specially made for the purpose. because where small-diameter package core are employees. will help to prevent damage to weft packages. 15-20 days. These may give trouble during unwinding. depending on the material the yarn layers contract. of dents per dent) d) Reed width If we want to make a calculation we need to know at least 2 of the mentioned values. Careful handling.75 cm Ne Ne 12% 6. leading to thread tangling due to lateral sloughing or soft layers pressed out close to the package core. CALCULATION FOR REED WIDTH For the construction of a fabric the following values are closely related with each other: a) Total No of ends b) Reed density (No. CALCULATION FOR DENIM FABRICS Figures given for the weight for denims are usually for the finished fabric in ounces and square yards.5 Nm 11. Prolonged storage is to be avoided. of dents/cm) c) Reed density (No.
ends X crimp X tex 1000 X 1000 No of ends X warp crimp Nm.7 4005: 4 = 4005 = 1001 1001: 161.12 X 91 1000 Size pick-up 8% Total weight = 407. of dents No of dents/cm Total dents of reed Total No of ends/width Yarn weight kg: For 1 m cloth Or 150 X 26. 150 X 100 97 ends dents 6.3 = 6.3 Grey width/cm finished width X 100 Contraction in sanfor %i.e sanforizing Size and colour pick-up CALCULATION Reed width/cm finished width X 100 Crimp + sanfor %i.Weft contraction Warp Weft 14 3 4% Contraction in finishing f.2 dents ends = kg/m 154. 150 X 100 93 161.3 X 6.H.H.20 = 1000 1000 X 4 = 4000 total No. of ends Total No.61 g = 440.205 161.6 Total No. X 1000 = kg/m 4000 X 1.68 kg/m + 32.29 g Yarn weight = reed width/cm X pick/cm X 100 X Tex 1000 X 1000 = kg 85 .
3 10.02 g/m 778.3 cm2 86 .3 X 1605 X 100 X 91 1000 X 100 Total weight Weight increase by sanforizing 14% Total weight finished 682.000 433.02 X 100 150 518058 X 8361.35 = = = 518.68 g/yd2 15.02 g/m = 242.44 cm 8361.68 g/ m2 433.48 g/m + 95.68 28.19 g/m Weight 1 m2 Weight 1 sq/yd Weight in ounce 778.29 ounce/yd2 WEIGHT AND MEASURES USED 1 ounce 1 yard 1 square yard = = = 28.35 g 91.Weft kg for I m cloth 161.
a distance of. is marked on the fabric in warp direction. In order to do this.98 1.0 picks/cm of weaving machine 87 .26 The cloth is now boiled off for 10 minutes and the actual weft density counted elongation and relaxed fabric length measured.7 / 18.0 ends / cm Tex 45 X 2 + 15. boiled off. Considering 6% weave take-up (warp crimp) the weft density is as follows: 18 X 0.6 Elastan Tex 91 6% 2% 26% fabric under tension on weaving machine = picks/cm Picks/cm X (1-warp crimp)X1-fibre sheath shrinkage 1 + cloth elasticity 18 X 0. as after washing is finishing it develops its final expected elasticity. but loses some contractive power during dyeing and finishing due it extended heat exposure.CALCULATION OF WEFT DENSITY FOR WARP STRENGTH DENIM We have to produce warp stretch denim with 26% warp elasticity (warp stretch) Construction of finished fabric: Yarn count warp Yarn count weft Warp crimp (weave take-up): Sheath fibre shrinkage: Cloth elasticity fabric elongation Required No. for example 20 cm.16 picks/cm on weaving machine The pick density increase in relaxed condition of machine. Final cloth elongation stretched length-relaxed length X 100 = 14.26 = 13.98 1. of picks in fabric: 26. The cloth is stretched and measured again.94 X 0.
Relaxed length = (25.2 – 20) X 100 = 26% 20 In case the check shows higher elongation than required we add picks, with lower elongation we reduce picks.. Weft stretch fabrics Finished cloth construction Warp: Weft: Yarn count warp: Yarn count waft: Warp crimp: Sheath fibre shrinkage: Weft elongation Finished width Weft contraction: 26.7 ends/cm 16.5 picks/cm tex 91 tex 91 core spun (with 15.6 tex Elastan) 12% 1% 22% 150.0 cm 4% = 20.79 ends/cm
Setting ends in the reed: = 26.7 X 0.96 X 0.99 1.22
With weft stretch fabrics the No. of ends have to be dented more open to allow the elastic weft to contract. Reed with cm 150 X 26.7 20.79 To determine the weft elongation and relaxed with, the same procedure is used as for warp stretch fabrics. According to the final elongation the reed width is changed. The elasticity is governed by the count of the elastomeric (44, 78 or 156 d Tex) BI-ELASTIC FABRICS In order to determine elongation and relaxed state with bielastic fabrics the procedure is used to determine reed width and required weft density. = 192.64 cm
WIDTH SETTING FOR WEFT ELASTIC DENIM Denim 3/1 twill Warp: cotton tex 91 Weft: tex 91 core spun (with 15.6 tex Elasthan +22.0% Stretch width 2X183 cm -2.3% Boil-off width 2X146 cm 100%
Finished width 2X150 cm +24.0%
Grey width 2X186 cm +28.4% Reed width 2X192.6 cm
FINISHING PROCEDURE The fabric already inspected in the weaving shed where all faults are recorded and minor faults required at the batching motions with the aid of an integrated inspection table and cloth accumulator is transported direct to the finishing range. From the batch roll the fabric is guided into an inlet scray or accumulator which contains 60 – 70 meters to ensure continuous finishing. Depending on the final use on the fabric. Denim can be processed differently, in-line, continuously or discontinuously. We recommend to apply the continuous process as skewing of the fabric is easier and the skew can be controlled easier. In case of mill washed denim or bleached denim a discontinuous process can be applied too. The following lay-out shows a version of a continuous finishing process MILL WASHED DENIM NORMAL BIG BATCH BRUSHING SINGING RIGHT SIDE DUST EXHAUSTION WASHING STRETCH METER ANTI TWISTER PADDING ON FOULARD STRETCH METER ANTI TWISTER FOAM APPLICATOR STRETCH METER ANTI TWISTER FOAM FINISHING
After leaving the padder. the fabric passes the squeeze roller and if necessary is stretched on a stretch meter to achieve the required fabric width. as well as chambray is finished without skew.DRYING SANFORIZING DRYING SANFORIZING SANFORIZING Continuous finishing range for denim STRETCHING. SKEWING After the fabric has been brushed. double singed on the face of the fabric it is impregnated on a padder (Foulard) to guarantee moisture absorption. An integrated ani-twisted serves to de-twist the fabric to avoid twisting of the trouser legs in the finished garment. Broken twill. SKEWING Denim basically twill 3/1 Z (right and twill) is usually skewed 6 – 10% during the finishing process. 91 .
IDEAL SCEW A= B= First selvedge thread in fabric Last selvedge thread in fabric TOLERANCES A= B= First selvedge thread in fabric Last selvedge thread in fabric No stretch between A and B: max. 92 . tolerance 20 cm No stretch between A and B: max. tolerance 20 cm NOT TOLERATED The piece is not accepted if the distances A-B and C-D are greater than 20 cm and the stretch runs in direction opposite to the twill.
straightening roller. felt calendar. cloth scray to allow the fabric to cool out prior it is plaited or wound on a big batch roll. The pressure roller with precision setting controls and scale compresses the rubber belt by an amount corresponding to the specified shrinkage and so the rubber belt stretches and lengthens its surface. The fabric guided in close content with the belt is forced to follow the subsequent shortening of the belt when the pressure is relaxed and again is automatically shrunk in the process. Moisture measure and control units installed after the drying cans influences the steam pressure ¼ of the installed cans and influenced cabs and thus influence the residual moisture of the fabric. The finished range works with continuous speed to achieve the desired sanfor standard. The basic rubber belt shrinkage installation consists of a water spraying system (damping) of fabric. It is therefore not possible to slow down the line. felt drying drum. clip chain. COMPRESSIVE SHRINKAGE The shrinkage of the fabric takes place between rubber belt and shrinkage drum. rubber belt shrinkage unit. 93 . 15 – 20% residual moisture content. steaming drum.A= B= First selvedge thread in fabric Last selvedge thread in fabric SANFORIZING If the fabric is finished in line it leaves the drying cans with approx.
The warp shrinkage of 14 ¾ ounce denim is approx. 7. Rubber-belt shrinkage unit compl with rubber belt. that sanfor standard specifies: Maximum residual shrinkage + 1% as tested to fixed rules. Felt calendar. full-width expanded track 1400 mm long 6. High cloth inlet for working from the stack with powered draw in roller 2. 1500 mm diameter. Steaming drum 4. with felt control and tension system 8. Clip-chain.RUBBER BELT SHRINKAGE INSTALLATION 1. Straightening roller to remove bias stretch 5. Water spraying (damping) system 3. Felt drying drum.5% (3 washings) Under normal circumstances the finished fabric contains approx 8% filler. 14-15%. weft contraction 3-4% 94 . very often denim is finished –2 to -2. 1000 mm diameter 9. Cloth plaiter Despite the fact.
12 % shrinkage after washing. Before it submerges in liquid ammonia.LIQUID –AMMONIA PROCESS In some mills denims are Sanforized by liquid-ammonia process. it is passed over a tension regulating device and several drying cylinders to let it have minimum humidity. The fabric is treated in liquid-ammonia. The fabric shrinkage take place slower as the shrinkage demands a mechanical reorientation. A cooling device placed after the steam heated drying cylinders reduce the temperature of the fabric. As soon as a fabric is submerged in liquid ammonia. In addition the warp shrinkage can be limited by tensioning the warp while the fabric is treated in liquid ammonia. 80 % shrinkage is reached in 5 – 6 seconds. In warp direction the fabric shows a 5 – 6 % shrinkage after washing. Subsequently the fabric is compressed shrunk. Where a dimensional control is necessary as the fabric would otherwise shrinkage several times more than the normal shrink during washing. 95 . The extent of shrinkage is controlled by observing the duration over which the fabric is immersed in liquid ammonia before drying. Approx. and the whole swelling effects is visible in 1 – 2 seconds. In this way the weft and warp shrinkage of denim is treated with liquid ammonia is treated. In weft direction the fabric may shrink to such an extent that when it leaces the machine it posses approx. Before the fabric enters the treatment camber. the swelling of fibre starts instantaneously.
Cloth scray 4. Less water pollution 1. FOAM FINISHING In addition to the already mentioned finishing possibilities some companies see in foam finishing advantages • • • The fabric has only 20 % moisture and therefore no staining of the white weft.The fabric enters the machine through a sluice and is submerged in a bath containing water free liquid ammonia. In this way the required effect is achieved. A special reaction compartment after the squeezing roller allows regulation of reaction time. which is evenly spread over in the cloth by squeezing rollers.Anti twisted 96 . Subsequently the ammonia is taken away from the fabric under the action of dry heat from belt calendar. No drying process needed therefore lower cost.
6.6-Shrinkage range 3.Runner control unit.Washing and brushing unit 97 .Knife 3.Bottom roller 4.Stretching unit 11-Foam applicator Moanforts vacu-foam 1.Air tight for runner 5.Cloth 2.Foam 8.Vacuum drums 7.
TINTING OF DENIM FABRIC The achieve certain colour variations. Further test stripes are taken to check skewing. tensile strength. such as blue / yellow. the piece is cut and the control strips is kept for the allotment of the different pieces in the corresponding colour class. If the colour shade varies. • • • • Breaking strength Tear strength Abrasion Shrinkage 98 . tearing strength. With this system colour variations or shading of the fabric can immediately been seen. STANDARDS OF DENIM FINAL CLOTH INSPECTION (LEVIS – STANDARD) The standards are layed down by the market leaders and specify weight and tolerance. FINAL FABRIC CONTROL In our final cloth inspection remaining cloth faults as wall as colour variations centre / selvedge get special attention. blue / red. To grey weft takes up the desired color shade and can lead to very interesting colour combinations. fabric can be tinted. blue/ green. From each piece prepared for the garment manufacturer a small 10 cm wide cutting over the whole width of the inspection table and fastened in clamps. weight. washing shrinkage and colour fastness prior the pieces are packed and prepared for delivery.
FINISH GOODS QUALITY STANDARDS A piece shall not have more than 12 demerit points for 100m2 to be recognized for first grade. • • • • • Double end Temple marks Slack picks Stitches Dyeing and sizing marks (stripes) In addition skew and hand is checked and must meet the requirements.• Colour fastness As well as quality standards for the finished fabric the standard layed down in 1975 by Levis Strauss consists of 12 pages. 99 . The demerit points are assigned as follows: • • • • • • • Weft bars/ starting marks Dropped picks Oil spots 5 mm o up to 10 mm Oil sports above Slub yarn Slub yarn exceeding Fly – woven-in 100 mm 70 – 150 mm 22 mm 4 points 4 points 1 points 2 points 4 points 2 points 4 points 1 points Piece with the following continuous faults are regarded as second grade fabric.
Specification for Raw Material Evaluation 100 .
Existing A/C plants have to be improved in most cases. grade: Second: 0.5% . To minimize the fibre and colour dust in the weave room. AIR CIRCULATIONS / OVER HEAD CLEANER In indigo dyeing blue particles adhere to the fibres.1.3% inclusive finishing LIGHTING IN WEAVE ROOM The ideal lighting for a denim-installation is 800 – 1000 lux. Over head cleaner should be installed in addition so that the dust and fly deposited on the fabric. The advantages of over head cleaner are best utilized if the weave room floor has returned air pockets CENTRAL / MOBILE VACUUM CLEANER PLANT For a denim installation a central or a vacuum cleaning unit can be strongly recommended. The tube should run parallel to the warp and be as possible without interruption.5% 97% . 32 air changes are would be ideal.FIRST AND II GRADE Weaving basic denim : Weaving soft denim Total : max 1. 101 .98% inclusive finishing 2% . and the dust development during weaving is quite considerable. For a small to medium sized plant a mobile unit is better suited as it requires less investment. a minimum of 26 air changes per hour should be considers as the lower limit. As well as machine elements are continuously removed. A twin flamed tube line should be placed at distance of 3m from whip rollers and be without shades so that the roof is also illuminated.5% 0.
(2 widths. 170 and 200 picks/min).The central vacuum cleaning unit is more suitable for bigger installations. How the operate spinning. The most striking example was hoe one operator could handle the finishing of denim supplied by 96 rapier machines. EXPERIENCE IN MILL During ITMA 1983 I paid a visit to (Italdenim) with operated for some time already the first 1 for 6 loop dye installation knowing that I had loop-dye installation No. The fist installation for single sheet. 1983 • • • • • Over looker Assistant over looker Knotter Cleaner Weaver Assistant weaver 2 2 2 2 8 3 1987 2 3 2 2 6 1 • 102 . It should be observed that for a least every four SRWM one connection is available. worldwide. air conditioning as well as suitable vacuum systems. weaving and finishing. ECONOMICAL ASPECTS For some years my experience with denim was based on Rope dyeing double sheet dyeing installations. TEMPERATURE / RELATIVE AIR HUMIDITY IN WEAVE ROOM Ideal temperature and relative air humidity values are: • • Temperature: Humidity: 22 – 24oC 70 – 75% Sulzer will be to assist you in your planning. Dyeing 1 saw in 1986. one weaver looked after 12 machines. I was mush interested in the plant.
influence our costs. Ne 7. WME 10. reduced down time at warp change become even more important. Why do I mention this? By installing new weaving machines as well as spinning and warping machines the production with only 84 weaving machines has been increased by more than 33% with a total of 107 workers including the technical and sales department SOME DETAILS: Quality standard: Weaving: Dyeing and finishing: Colour variations Waste: Warping speed: Sizing: Production weaving: for 14 ¾. Lets remember perfect yarn preparation.5% seconds 1.Total: 19 16 After more then 4 years I had now the opportunity to visit the mill again. 3 shade variation per shade At beam change 15. 103 . good organization.20 kg. The computer print-out which I received shows 91. With the increasing machine speed. averages machine speed 276 picks/min.5) Approx. Ne 5. 14.5% Max. 14. effective warp changes. 12 million m/year WEAVING COST CALCULATION Details of achievable stoppage standard have already been given. Hacoba warper with roller tension. good preventive maintenance. 220 000m 5 days (42 m/min. You may asked yourself are these just figures which have very little to do with your own results because you have far fewer breaks in your mill or they exceed these. 0. 6. 1000 m/min.9% weaver efficiency for the step by step installed 84 PU-153. 41/2 ounce denim and chambrai.5) (35 m/min. 12.
The tendency to larger warper beam diameters of 1016 mm in denim plants is single to increase the running time of a warp and increase productivity. Weaving Cost Structure 104 . The 6 denim qualities have been taken in the same proportion to be produced simultaneously in the mill consisting of 96 weaving machines Type 360 N 1-1 EPR.
pockets. The processors however face the several problems and hence the need to use the right chemical in denim garments processing is very essential. The main part of the globle production of denim garment-that is aroud 800 million pairs of jeans on a yearly bases is passing through finishing laundries all over the world where they are givien the desire fashionable look. In garment washing the seams. fasions. waist bands. over the last 6-8 years India has a probably since the most domestic and the exciting changes in the washing of denim washing. The stone wash effect is most popular abrasion effect on the garments obtained by the locally removing the surface bound indigo dye.DENIM WASHING INTRODUCTION:Denim fabric can be define as a warp faced twill fabric made from 100% cotton containing havey weight indigo dyed warp yarn and undyed weft yarn the coun of yarn used varied between 6’s to 12’s. show wash. One after an other several washes where introduce such as stone wash. 105 . Garments washing place important role to provide fashion and the functionality elements. white wash. acid wash. In today’s fasion a special place is occupied by the denim. cuffs etc can be given different effect. monkey wash. moon wash. This reveals the white interior of the yarn. mud wash etc. Denim garments have also formed a significant part of the apparel export basket from India. The spread of denim culture all over the world brought with it a trend of a fast changing fashions the finish of this denim in the key perameter.
Treat at 80-85C and ph -6. the limitations and drawback of treditionals desizing process can be overcome. there is no adverse effect on cellulose. With the introduction of enzyme based desizing process.5for 30min. the cellulose material gets damage and losses strength. Process time of desizing can be reduce. 107 . STONE WASH:Still the most famous of all washings. The pumice stones are very light with a rough surface. The enzymatic desizing process is performed by the alpha amylase enzyme.5-1%(on weight of garments)lub pro vx (creas inbitor ):0. Due to uncontrolled and non-specific reactions. Saving of energy as desizing takes place at moderate temperature.5-1gm/ltr.DESIZING:Traditional desizing is performed by using detergent and sodha or hydrochloric acid are axidative desizing agents which is associated with many drawbacks and limitations. ADVANTAGES OF ENZYMATIC DESIZING OVER TRADITIONAL DESIZING:• • • • • Due to very specific reactions of enzyme. Neutralization is not required because same processing conditions are required in next process there for zero salt formation in ETP. there for batter strength retention. Sometimes. The jeans are washed with oval or round pumice stones which should all have roughly the same format. RECIPE AND CONDITIONS:Strip SAL 4 (thrmo stable alpha amylase):0. Feel of fabric is much softer and less hairiness on the fabric.
yelding sloble produce sach as a short-chain polysaccharibes and glucose. During the washing process these stones will scrap off a thin layer of the denim does showing some of the white threads from the part of the cloth where the indigo dyeing stuff was not able to penetrate. The process time varies from 60-12minutes. Due to rings dyeing and heavy abrasions. They are many limitations and drawbacks associated with stone washing process. size of stone. They are two cetagories of the enzyme. Enzyme washing:The cellulose anzymes are used in washing. you may even find some residue of these stones in the pockets of your new jeans. the lighter the jeans. Ergo: The longer the wash. Gernally 12 kg stone is used for 1 kg of garment. The action loosens the indigo lyer. The nature anzyme gives less back staining. acid cellulose and nature cellulose. stone wash process start with the pumice stones addition in rotary drum type garment washer. washing time. Normally after desizing. which are an indication of how long the jeans have been stonewashed. You may also encounter words like deep stone or super stonewash. They act on the cotton yarn and there by facilitate the abrasions of the indigo dyeing from the yarn surface. The latter property is responsible for a more reproducible finish from different wash. The degree of colour fading depends on the garments to stone ratio. fading is more apparent but less uniform. The cellulose hydrolyses cellulose. which can be over come by using anzymes base washing technology. CLASSIFICATION OF CELLULOSE ANZYME:1: Acid cellulose (cellulose 450 AP) 108 .when the final quality inspectors at the jeans factory forget to clean the pockets. material to liquor ration and load of garments. It also creates and effect called brilliance. In traditional washing process volcanic rocks are pumice stones are added to the garments during washing as abradant. which is then more easily to remove by the chemical abrasions. Use of cellulose overcome must of the disadvantages of stone while yelding the desire softening and “worn” look.
5: More re-productible effect can be obtained.5-1% (on weight of garment) Lube PRO VX (crease inhibitor) : 0.5-1gm/ltr White MRC (anti-redepositing agent) : 1-2gm/ltr Treat at 50 Oc and Ph 5 for 30-45 min 2: FOR NATURAL CELLULASE ANZYME:Cellucom 110 OM : 0.It works best in the Ph range of 4. ENZYME AND STONE WASHING:- 109 . 2: Inexpensive. 4: Batter feel to touch and increases bellows and luster. RECIPE AND CONDITIONS:1: FOR ACID CELLULASE ANZYME:Cellucos 450 AP: 0. 3: Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem.5-1%gm/ltr White MRC (anti-redepositing agent) : 1-2gm/ltr Treat at 550 Oc and Ph 6-8 for 30-60 min ADVANTAGES OF ANZYME WASHING:1: Soft handle and attractive clean appearance is obtained without severe damage to the surface of the yarn. low-grade fabric quality can be finish to a top quality product by the removal of the hairiness fluff and pills etc.5-5.5-1%(on weight of garment) Lube pro vx (creases inhibitor) : 0.5 and exhibite optimine activity 50oC 2: Natural cellulose (cellucom 110 OM) It works best at Ph 6 however its activity is not adversely affected in the range of Ph 6-8 and show maximum activity at 550Oc.
pocket. temperature and treatment time. 2: Due to the harshness of chemical. When desire level to bleaching reach the time span available to stop the bleaching is very narrow.The cellulose anzyme can also be combine with the pumice stone. Around 0. This colouration is usually more apparent depending on the strength of the bleach liquor. 4: Problem of yellowing is very frequent due to residual chlorine. quantity. 3: Required antichlor treatment.e. it may case damage to the cellulose resulting in sever strength losses and / or breaks or pinhole at the seam. This is recommendable for heavy stone wash finish. BLEACHING:In this process. as a stone oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hydrochlorite or KMNO4 is added during the washing with or without stone addition. RECIPE AND CONDITIONS:Sodium hypochlorite “1-3kg/ltr” available chlorine Lube PRO VX (crease inhibitor) : 0.5kg pumice stone is used for 1kg garment and 50% of the normal doze age to the enzyme is used.5-10 and treated for 10-30 min depending upon the fading LIMITATION:1: Process is difficult to control i. 110 . The same result can be reach in a shorter time.5-1%gm/ltr Adjust Ph 9. difficult to reach the same level of bleaching in repeated runs. etc.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.