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Textile Mill Industry Profile


Cotton\man-made fiber textile industry is the single largest

organized industry in the country employing nearly 12 lakh
workers. Out of the 1837 cotton\man-made mills are in the public
sector, 154 mills in the co-operative sector and 1491 mills are in
private sector. Many people worked as producers of woolen
cotton clothes. They cleaned, spun, dyed and wove the row
materials into cloth and this work was done in their own homes.
This type production has become known by the general term
domestic (cottage) industry. Weaving process was done in the
family itself, clothe merchant would come to the cottage and
brought raw materials and they took away finished goods

As soon as the new wool is arrived, washed to clean out all the
dirt and natural oil, after this it was dyed with color and carded.
This was the process of combing the wool between two parallel
pads of nail, until all the fibers where laying the same way. Next
the spinner took the carded thread was wound on to the bobbin.

The spun yarn was then taken to the loom to be woven. In the
weaver’s cottage, the loom was often to be found on an upper
floor. There were large windows in the room to let plenty of days
light. However with the advent of the industrial revolution all the
process of manufacturing yarn and the subsequent production of
cloth underwent a dramatic change. The industrial revolution
brought about the widespread replacement of manual labor by
machines. Goods that were traditionally been make in the homes
or in the small workshop began to be manufactured in eh
factories. Productivity and technical efficiency grew dramatically,
in part through the systematic and practical knowledge of the
manufacturing process.

The production of yarn too shifted from the household to factories

where a large number of men and women were employed to
produce yarn on large scale. The process was automated and
became more efficient. One process, which underwent a drastic
change, was spinning. Spinning is the process of creating yarn or
thread, rope, cable etc… from various rows of fiber materials.

Present Scenario

Global trade in textile and apparels is expected to increase form

US$ 356 billion to US$ 600 billion by 2010. The way forward for
the textile mill sector is through transforming the sector from a
resource intensive to knowledge, highly innovative sector with
high added value to knowledge, highly innovative sector with high
added value products and services. It can only ensure sustainable
growth and fobs in the future. It would also help to secure a
competitive advantage, which would be based on the be4st new
products and process in the world.
The industry has made tremendous efforts in the last few years to
invest in new productive assets, to streamline operations and to
intensify their innovation activities needed in technological
innovations that could enable the industry to achieve a
transformation investment in this transition from a resource
intensive to knowledge intensive sector. The demand form textile
s in the world is around $18 billion which increased by 6.5%in
2005. China is the leading textile exporter of the world’s total
exports of US$ 400 billion in 2002, followed by India, Hong Kong
and Korea etc…


National textile corporations an Indian government undertaking

CONTROL OF INDIAN MINISTRY OF Textiles. The head office of
NTC is situated in Delhi which has branches all over India. Mr.
Ramachandra Pillai is the present chairman and managing
director of ntc.

Now NIC has 50 working mills in India including 6 in Kerala. These

mills are not directly controlled by Delhi office. There are regional
head offices which controls number of mills in a particular region.
The Cannanore Spinning and Weaving Mills comes under southern
region (Bangalore and Coimbathore). Financial matters are
controlled by Bangalore office an technical and marketing comes
under Coimbatore office. When CS AND WM faced financial crises
the Indian Government referred the company to sick textile

The introduction of NTC led to many developments in Indian

textile industry. The company could start number of mills all over
India. But the NTC could not carry the mills profitability for long
years. When NTC faced huge financial crisis the Indian
Government referred the company to sick textile company

The introduction of NTC led to man developments in Indian textile

industry. The company could start number of mills all over India.
But the NTC could not carry the mills profitability for long years.
When NTC faced he financial crises in 1988, it was referred to the
Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) under the
sick Industrial companies Act. In 2002 BIFR decided to wind up
the NTC mills, but such mills find the financial resources for the
first time. Company sold debentures, around 60,000 workers left
the company by getting attractive benefits.

At last NTC got a new life; the company earned some money by
the way of selling the property of unprofitable mills and decided
to continue 22 mills of 120. Later the company decided to make
2 mills in India a ‘model miss’ which includes the Canannore
Spinning and Weaving Mill. Due to financial loss and unsuitable
industrial situation, private sector and government took steps to
winding up the mills; out of 28, the six mills of NT5C including two
in Cannanore.

With the sincere effort from the part of the chairman and
Managing Director Mr. Ramachandra Pillai. NTC could bring
revolutionary innovations in Indian Textile industry.

Purchase Procedures in National Textile Corporation

Centralized purchase is made by the entrie mills in NTC, major

functions of purchase section are:

Call for tenders after getting full specifications

Tabulate the tenders placed before the purchase committee

Arrange for purchase committee meeting negotiation will be at

the discretion of the committee

Put up draft proceedings of the purchase committee meeting for

approval by chairman cum Managing Director through the
committee members
Communicate committee decisions to unit mills/suppliers

Surplus is available in any mill, to arrange inter mill transfer.

Objective of the study

• to know the level of worker sat5isfaction

• to find out the problems faced by the workers.
• To give suggestions to solve the problems
• To understand overall functions of the organization
• Worker awareness about company’s policies.

Limitations of the study

• the study is based on secondary data and it has its own

limitatinsm which will be reflected in the st5udy
• Due to short span of time it was difficult to conduct and
extensive study.
• Most of the respondents were very busy. So they could
not co-operate with me for filling questionnaires.
• Some workers were refused to give correct information.

Cannanore spinning and weaving were originally started by the
private ownership of Sri. Keyyath Damodharan in 1948 with about
20,000 spindle capacity the company earned profit during this
time and there were no problem till 1970 thereafter the company
incurred heavy losses due to various reasons and hence the
management was undertaken by the Govt of India

The mill was nationalized under the Nationalization Act with effect
form 1st April 1974 and is placed under National Textile
INCREASED TO 24,000 spindles. The govt again incurred loss for
many years, being a Govt undertaking financial assistance is
received and hence the mill is running without much problems.

The mill is unit of subsidiary of NTC. APKK&M is the subsidiary

under which the mill functions. APKK&M is the abbreviation of
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Mahe. The registered
office of APKK&M IS SITUATED IN Bangalore. All the mills under
APKK$M including CS&WM have to report to his head office
regarding all financial matters, the holding company of CS&WM is
the NTC situated in New Delhi. It has at present nine subsidiary
corporations namely NTC (MP), NTC (TN), NTC (pondichery), NTC
(UP), NTC (West Bengal), NTC (Assam), NTC (Bihar and Orissa),
NTC (APPKK&M) NTC Ltd has an authorized capital of Rs. 600
Crore and paid capital of 54o.16 crore which is fully owned by the
Govt of India.
Land Area Statement

Area of colony compound : 4.21 acre

Area of mill compound : 8.32 acre

Pump house : 0.02 acre

Road : 0.04 acre

Total Area : 12.59 acre


Cannanore Spinning and Weaving

Unit of NTC (APKK&M) Ltd.



Pin 670 005



National Textile Corporation’s Subsidiary

The mill is unit of the subsdidiary of the NTC. APKK&M is the

subsidiary under which these mills function. APKK&M is the
abbreviations of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Mahe.
The registered office of the APDD&M IS LOCATED IN Bangalore
(Karnataka). All the mills under APKK&M, including CS&WM, have
to report ot these head office regarding all official matters. Sri
Ramachandra is the present chairman and Managing Director of
the APPDD&M subsidiary. Sri Jayachandran is the General
Manager of the CS&WM.


The revival package scheme was introduced and the process now
going on. Introduction of new machines and new workload are
included in the revival scheme with and object to make the mill
self sustaining without taking any financial help from the
government. The whole plan is currently going on.

A new building construction work is taking place and most

modern machineries and equipment will be available in the new
factory building, which could enable to bring up the quality and
quantity of products. The management is hopeful that the plan
would be implemented as soon as possible. It also is planning to
become computerized in the near future. After revival this mill too
will be automated and work force will be reduced with most of the
workers being relieved


The mill is a spinning unit and final product is yarn. One cone in
pv/psf counts.

The following counts are produced 45s pv (55 is to 45), 60 psf.

The company using polyester staple fiber (PSF) and viscose staple
fiber (VSF). Their quality is quiet satisfactory. PSF is one of the
raw materials used in production of cone arms. It is a synthetic
fiber and petroleum product also a coal tar derivative’s is natural
polyester may be from pulp. It is regenerated cellulose fiber
which is similar to natural cotton fiber in respect its property.

In India, the production of polyester is the monopoly o two major

companies that is, reliance India Ltd and indroma (Indonesian
company) the main suppliers of PSF FOR CANNANORE SPINING
AND WEAVING MILL IS indroma. PSF is supplied in the unit of one
bale is about 375kg.

Gasim industries Ltd, is only suppliers of VSF in India. VSF is

supplied in the unit of bale and one bale is about 250 Kg.


The revived scheme was introduced and the process is going on

introduction of new machines, new uilding with a worth of 90
cores and new workload are included in the revival scheme with
and objective to make the mill self sustaining without taking any
financial help from the Govt. it is also planning to become
computerized in the fourth coming future

Human Resource Management

Human resource management is management functions that help

manager’s recruit, select, train and develop members for an
organization. HRM is concerned with people’s dimension in

“Human resource management is the planning, organizing,
directing and controlling of the procurement, development,
compensation, maintenance and separation of human resources
to the end that individual, organizational and socials objectives
are accomplished.”


Employee means any person who is employed for wages in any

kind of work, manual or otherwise, in or in connection with the
work of an establishment and gets his wages directly or indirectly
form the employer.


Employer means in relation to an establishment which is a

factory, the owner or occupier of the factory including the agency
of such owner or occupier and where a person has been named as
a manager of the factory.

When an employee joins and enterprise and performs his
duties, wants to satisfy his economic, social and psychological
needs. When an employee does not feel satisfy with his job,
negative attitudes towards the work develops in his mind. In this
case he tries to change the job. This way he finds himself unable
in concentrating to his work. On the contrary of an employee is
satisfied with his jo hi will perform his duties with his whole
hearted efforts. A satisfied employee proves to be an asset for the
origin. Many factors affect job satisfaction like salaries,
designation and working condition, the environment, family
problems and efficiency of the employee to do his work, his
interests in th4e work and human relations in the industries etc..
Thus it is clear that job satisfaction of an employee is the result of
many attitudes and factors. The term fob satisfaction refers to an
individual general attitude towards his/her job. A person with a
high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes about the job,
while a person who is dissatisfied with his/her job holds negative
attitudes about the job. When people speak of employee
attitudes, more often than not they mean job satisfaction.


According to E.A Locke “job satisfaction in a pleasurable or

positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job
or job experience”.
According to Dale Yorder “Job satisfaction is regarding as the
composite of attitudes of Indic dual employee towards their jobs
and relationship they create”


A worker is a person who works in an organization with specific

objectives of earning for his lively hood along with improvement
of the organization.

Worker satisfaction is an important factor that influences this

smooth funning of an organization.

Job satisfaction is a composition of psychological and environment

condition providing satisfaction with his present job. So job
satisfaction is a part of life satisfaction. It influences group
behavior and ultimate performance of the worker for achieving
the organizational goals.


Job satisfaction is an integral component of organizational health

and an important element in industrial relations. The level of job
satisfaction seems to have some relation with various aspects of
his work behavior it is generally assumed that satisfied workers
are more productive.

There are number of factors that influence job satisfaction. They


Personnel factors: age sex, seniority, personality

Organizational factors: supervision, work group, working



Two most widely used approaches are “single global rating”, and
a “summation score” make up of a number of job facets. The
single global rating method is nothing more than asking
individuals to respond to one question such as “considering all
things how satisfied are you with your job?” Respondent then
reply by circling a number between one and five that corresponds
to the answer from ‘highly satisfied to highly dissatisfy’. The other
approach ie; summation of job facets is like, it identifies key
elements in a job and asks for the workers feeling about each.
Typically factors that would be includes are the nature of the
work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunity and
relation with co-workers. These factors are rated on a
standardized scale and then added up t create an overall job
satisfaction score.




When satisfaction and productivity data are gathered for the

organization as a whole, rather than at individual, organization
with more satisfied worker tent to be more effective than
organizations with fewer satisfied worker. It may be that the
reason we haven’t got strong support for the satisfaction-causes-
productivity this is that studies have focused on individuals rather
than on the organizations and that individual level measures of
individual productivity don’t take into consideration all the
interactions and complexity in the work process. So while we
might not be able to say that a happy worker is more productive
it might be true that happy organization is more productive.

How Worker can Express Dissatisfaction

1. Exit.

Behavior directed toward leaving the organization, including

looking for a new job as well as resigning.

2. Voice.

Actively and constructively attempt to improve condition,

including suggesting

Improvements, discussing prolmes with superios and some forms

of union activities.

3. Loyalty.

Passively, but optimistically waiting or conditions to improve

including speaking up for the organization and its management to

4. Neglect.

Passively allowing conditions to worsen including chronic

absenteeism or lateness reduced effort and increased error rate.
Advantages of Worker Satisfaction Studies

1. It is an indication of general level of satisfaction in the

2. Communication is multi-directional
3. workers attitude towards management will be improved
4. training needs may be established


Training and development refers to the imparting specific skills,

abilities and knowledge to a worker. Training and development is
any attempt to improve current or future worker performance by
increasing worker’s ability to perform through learning, usually by
changing the worker’s attitudes or increasing his/her skills and
knowledge. The needs for training and development are
determined by the workers performance deficiency computed as
Training and development need = standard performance- actual


Wages represent hourly rates to pay and salary refers to the

monthly rates of pay, irrespective of the number of hours put in
by a worker. Wages and salaries are subjected to annual
increment; they differ from worker to worker and depend upon
the nature of job, seniority and merit.

Data Collection

The reliability of managerial decision depends on the quality of

data. The quality of data can be expressed in terms or its
representative feature of the reality which can be ensured by the
usage of a fitting data collection method. Data can be classified
into primary and secondary data. The data are collected from the
field under the control and supervision of an investigator is known
as primary data. Secondary data are collected from sources which
have been already created.

Research is an art of scientific investigation i.e. it is a systematic
and scientific search for information on a specific topic. The
purpose of research is to discover answer to questions through
the application of scientific procedures, the main aim of research
is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been
discount as get. Research is defined as “careful critical enquiry or
examination in seeking facts or principles diligent investigation in
order to ascertain something”. In simple words research can be
defined as and by investigation in search for truth, for facts, for

Research provides an analytical frame work for the subject matter

for investigation. It establishes relationship between different
variables, especially the relationship of the dependent variables
with the independent variable.

Research involves collection of data from primary and secondary

sources and expresses them in quantitative terms. Research must
be clear in his mind as to what he is looking for. Methodology
refers to the various methods used by the research starting room
data collection and various techniques and tools for a
interpretation an arriving at an inference. Research methodology
is a way to science of study how research is done scientifically.

This project report is related to know the worker satisfaction

among the workers of canannore spinning and weaving miss,
kakkad, was conducted at internal environment of company.
There are several techniques used for data collection. Te main
sources are primary and secondary data. Primary data is that
which collected for the first time for the purpose of t enquiry in
hand. It is done by the investigator himself. Secondary data refers
to data which has been already collected and compiled by other
persons and the investigator uses.


For the study I choose questionnaires as the instrument of

research. It consists set of questions presented to respondent for
their answers.


A many various types of sampling methods, we used is simple

random sampling methods. Sampling is simply the process of
learning about population on the basis of drawn from it. Under
this method a small group of the universe is taken as the
representative of the whole mass and the result are drawn.

A random sample is one where each item in the universe has an
equal opportunity being selected. It also known as probability
sambling. The random sampling can be answered in terms of


The simple random sampling assigns equal probability to each

unit of the population. Thus simple random sampling is based on
the concept of probability. The use of probability is sampling
theory makers it reliable to draw value difference about


Size of the sample referees to the number of items to b4e

selected from the unit to from a sample. The sample size consists
of 50 workers from among all production departments.


The need for primary data requires that a questionnaire be

developed. The quality of questions included and their order can
favor a survey to a large extent. In order to collect a primary data
we use questionnaires.


The collection of data refers to a purposive gathering of

information relevant to the subject matter of the study from the
units under investigation. Data collection process is canalized to
different stages, the first stage consists of data about the industry
and the second stages consist of information about the level of
satisfaction of worker in various department of the industry.


Primary data

Primary data’s are original observation collected by the research

or his agents for the first time for any investigation and used by
to team in the statistical analysis. Primary data has been
collected mainly through

1. Questionnaire
2. Interview: under this I collected data personally by asking
questions pertaining to the enquiry from persons whom
the information is t be obtained (workers).
3. Observation: this method implies the collection of
information by way researchers own observation. The
information obtained relates to what is currently
happening in the organization. This study needed to have
a personal visit to the different departments of the


Secondary data refers to data which has been already

collected and compiled by other persons and the investigator use
it. It has been collected with the hip of company prospect,
journals and websites.


1 Finance Department
2 Marketing Department
3 Personnel department
4 Production department
5 Personnel department

Personnel department is one of the important department s of

every company or business organization. The company value the
potential of its employees as its value most valuable and is fully
committed towards developing them in keeping with
organizational goals, priorities, and individual aspirations

Human resource objectives

The important objective of any organization mainly


1. Human resource planning

2. Job analysis and design.
3. Recruitment and selection
4. Orientation and placement
5. Training and development
6. Performance appraisal and job evaluation
7. employee executive remuneration
8. Health and safety
9. Motivation and communication
10. Industrial relation
Main Areas of Administration


Currently no recruitment is taking place in CS&WM from time

to time training program is conducted. Apprentice training is
held as per the apprentice act. A promotion worker or staff is
on seniority or merit.


All employees are covered under PF and ESI Act, the employee
contribute 10% of their wages to PF or salary with 10%
contribution by the employer. The employees are eligible for EP
services with a ceiling of RS.6500. Per month.

The pension is worked out as per the following formula.

1/17 personable salary personable service



Medical benefit, accidental ben3efit, sick benefit, leave are

provided if necessary funeral benefit are also provided if any
one dies during the period of the service.

Gratuity is calculated under the formula

Per month salary 15 days

26 days (monthly salary well is calculated only for 26 days)

The present ceiling limit of total amount of gratuity payable is

3050 lakhs.

There are 2 types of wage payment followed in CS&WM
according to the production stages. For mixing, blow room and
carding wages are paid on the basis of piece rate system and
all other production process time rate system is obtained.

At the time of retirement all these benefits are provided


-provident fund

-leave with wage if any


If a worker takes long leave the management does not

terminate him suddenly. There is a procedure in CS&WM. First
the absentee is admitted fro counseling.

Thereafter, notice is sent then even after the continuous show

call notice is sent, then the management spend him and after
further enquiries termination is held as per standing orders.

There are2 categories of workers in CS&WM and they can be

classified into the following


Skilled unskilled

Jobbers spinning

Fitters doting boy



By analyzing the information’s collected trough questionnaire and

interview. The data’s are graphically represented as follows.

Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 6 12
Satisfied 30 60
Dissatisfied 10 20
Highly dissatisfied 4 8
Total 50 100
Table 2


Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 6 12
Satisfied 29 58
Dissatisfied 11 22
Highly dissatisfied 4 8
Total 50 100


Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 8 16
Satisfied 30 60
Dissatisfied 10 20
Highly dissatisfied 2 4
Total 50 100

Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 2 4
Satisfied 20 40
Dissatisfied 18 36
Highly dissatisfied 10 20
Total 50 100


Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 10 20
Satisfied 30 60
Dissatisfied 10 20
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 50 100


Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 2 4
Satisfied 41 82
Dissatisfied 4 8
Highly dissatisfied 3 6
Total 50 100

Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 10 20
Satisfied 34 68
Dissatisfied 6 12
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 50 100


Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 5 10
Satisfied 30 60
Dissatisfied 10 20
Highly dissatisfied 5 10
Total 50 100


Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 8 16
Satisfied 32 64
Dissatisfied 10 20
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 50 100


Level of No. of % of
satisfaction Respondents

Highly satisfied 4 8
Satisfied 26 52
Dissatisfied 12 24
Highly dissatisfied 8 16
Total 50 100
• It is found than more than 80% of the employees are
happy with the remuneration provided by the organization
• Above 60% of the employees are happy with the
promotional measures
• Almost 76% of the employees are happy with the welfare
scheme of the organization
• But only 44% of the employees are happy with the bonus,
incentives and other benefits
• Interestingly it is found that 80% of the employees are
happy with the facilities provided by the company
• The other facts found was that 86% of the employees are
happy with the grievance redresal mechanism of the
• 82% of the employees are happy with the leisure time
provided by the company

1. The company should provide mask for preventing the

presence of cotton particles in the work environment.

2. For maintaining a good relationship between management

and workers, there should have a proper communication so
the authority should take immediate action to reduce the
communication gap between workers and management and
to improve the communication.

3. Management has to encourage participation of the workers

in the decision making process and their by keep them
motivated and keep in touch with them, so they can take
bilateral decision

4. The management should practice measures to improve the

existing welfare facilities.

5. The management should conduct periodical meetings with

the trade3 union and this meeting should be made aware all
the workers.
6. the company should enhance team work and a good

7. The management should motivate the workers to involve

production to achieve the ultimate goals of the organization.

8. The management has to encourage the workers in

extracurricular activities.

9. The management should appreciate the workers for their

performance and also they should conduct counseling for
their workers.

The main strength of any company is a good inter personnel

relationship among its human resource. That is the relationship
between the management and th5e workers, workers and
workers and the relationship between the management and the
trade union. This relationship has been given a sharp edge
because of wide spread labour unrest and union unrest

So it becomes very important to retain and motivate the

workers by providing good working environment without any
conflicts and by providing good welfare facilities, wage etc.. for
maintaining a harmonious relation among workers and for the
stable growth existence of the organization.
So we can say that the management and workers
relationship play a vital role in the success of an organization.

In the case of textile industry where labor are the back born
of the total production function, the company should provide good
work environment, maintain a good industrial peace and
democracy, proper communication, to impart workers
participation, programmes etc.