BEST PRACTICES IN TRANSMISSION SYSTEM | Electric Power Transmission | Iso 9000

Project Management



1 Purpose: Transmission Planning Studies are carried out for evacuation of power from a Power Station. These studies are carried out keeping in view the long-term power plans of the country framed by CEA. such as CEA. stability and Over voltage studies are the ones need for this purpose. Respective Electricity Boards (SEB)/Electricity Departments (ED). regarding practices followed by them and also from various publications of CBIP. for intra-regional exchange of Power. It is to be noted that these organizations have developed these practices in line with their own organizational structure. These are corresponding to different time frames including present scenario and comprises of: Generation Details Load (both Active and Reactive) Details of Transmission Network at different voltage levels Transformer Capacity Details of Reactive Compensation ii) Long term transmission plans are to be evolved considering the long term power transfer requirement from generation resources to Load Centres. iv) Different Transmission alternatives are to be evolved. iii) Data are to be complied in a format suitable for simulation software. POWERGRID. Regional Electricity Boards (REB). etc. short-circuit. for inter regional connection for exchange of power. Power Utility s own system and operational data etc. Operation & Maintenance. Project Engineering. Quality Assurance & Inspection. Planning Commission. for grid strengthening. Load flow. While developing an alternative following issues are to be considered: Minimization of Transmission Cost and Loss 2 . Transmission System Planning & System Engineering 2. Inputs have been taken from various organizations such as CEA. Procurement. Practices: From the Point of view of power system planning and system engineering following are needed: The data and time schedules for carrying out Planning Studies are to be collected from various Organizations. The report has been divided in sections covering Planning & System Engineering. UPPCL. Regional Load Despatch Centres (RLDC).Project Management The report Covers all the stages of Power transmission system from Concept to construction to Operation and Maintenance. and Safety. which is either newly constructed or where a new generation capacity is added.

etc. are completed. CBIP. Based on the experience the soil categorization has to be done and the guidelines incorporated in the specification for foundation classification for transmission line tower foundation 3 . Power System Planning Criteria issued by CEA in 1985 and modified from time to time may be referred to in this context for further details. System Engineering studies are carried out to decide various equipment rating and parameters. forest clearance. like issue of notifications as per electricity act. Most optimal system is to be evolved by carrying out computer studies based on the input available from above. Project Feasibility Report is prepared for the investment approval from the competent authority. environmental impact. scope of the project. FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) at suitable locations. relevant statutory regulations. While choosing any transmission alternative.Project Management Right. The Feasibility Report consists of details of transmission system. charging instructions. details pertaining to project management. 3. recommendations of various standardization committees of CEA. PTCC (Power Telecom Coordination Committee) clearances. For the preparation of the report: The necessary statutory obligations for the system that emerged. vii) The outputs of these studies are forwarded to various groups for carrying out system design. etc. Estimated cost of the project. Engineering & Specification finalization The feasibility report.way (ROW) Considerations Optimal utilization of energy resources Adoption of new technologies like. The full-scale proto of each type of tower is tested at the test station to validate the design. project completion schedule. justification. Design.0 Feasibility Report Preparation Once a transmission system is finalized. The feasibility report is a base document used in execution of the project. flexibility of development and provision of adequate control features should be kept in view to take care of grid operation under normal and contingent conditions. operational feedback and past experience become the inputs for detailed Design. output from system studies. technical parameters. tariff. Based on the studies the system that emerged and the various cost data.1 Transmission Line Design The design for each type of tower is to be either developed in house or sought from Contractors.of . feasibility report of the project is prepared and submitted to the approving authority. 4. Engineering & Specification finalization.

Some power utilities including POWERGRID have standardized some of the towers and foundation designs. completion schedule etc. Following packaging may be adopted for construction of transmission lines: 4 . Permits usage of tower of one line for other line. River Crossing towers and their foundation designs (Pile/Well) are to also developed in house. Use of multi-circuit and narrow based tower should be attempted wherever ROW constraint exist. standardization may be carried out and followed for future uses. covering procurement policy should be available with the officers dealing with the procurement of equipment and materials. The procurement of steel by the manufacturer/ fabricator of the tower can be done immediately without waiting for design finalization and successful type testing. with due consideration that the design philosophy is maintained. Substations may be packaged for turnkey execution except that transformer/reactors may be procured separately and erected by turn key contractor under supervision of the manufacturer. 5. eliminates repeated type testing of towers. To save the time and cost and to expedite the erection of transmission lines. The line material parameters are to be finalized based on standardization committee report. i) Package list for Procurement: Package list for Procurement is prepared based on cost of the package. the same may be referred to. The benefits derived are: a) Transmission Line: Standardization of Tower Design. reduces spare requirement. Optimization / Techno economic studies are carried out for the selection of parameters for the new system. Foundation design can be done without waiting for design finalization and successful type testing of Tower. which details out all policies and procedures to be followed for procurement of goods and awarding works.0 Procurement Practices A detailed document. This document may be referred by the executives of the power utilities for uniform approach. Standardized design also helps construction staff for ease in construction activities. co-ordination and project management. etc. availability of materials. project gestation period / line construction period considerably. The standardization of tower design makes the data readily available for foundation design. Benefits of Standardization Wherever possible as mentioned earlier too. The equipment are to be type tested to conform to the specification requirement. POWERGRID has developed a detailed work and procurement policy document.Project Management Foundation design for each type of soil category and each type of tower is to be developed. The turnkey concept of substation execution merely ensures single point responsibility for procurement. various Indian and International Standards. The standardization of Towers and foundations reduces engineering time.

Raw material. Project monitoring is to be regularly carried out by a dedicated group through review meetings and status report is to be put up to the management.process stage and final inspection and testing prior to dispatch. timely and consistent inspection at various stages. Approval of unambiguous Manufacturing Quality Plan (MQP) Finalization of Field Quality Plan (FQP) Ensuring regular. The project management starts from the beginning of the project concept itself. UK through NQA. These may be referred to for necessary guidance. The network should incorporate all the activities involved and the time for completion of each activity. In this context. iii) Qualifying Requirements: Qualifying Requirement is an important part of the procurement document. The contractor is also required to prepare a network schedule of activities for completion of work within time frame as per the contract awarded on him. ii) Cost Estimate: Cost Estimate of each package is to be prepared based on the cost data available.Project Management Tower Package with line accessories Supply & Erection Insulator and Conductor Supply to be delivered to main contractor carrying out erection of transmission lines. estimated cost of the package.0 Quality Assurance The Quality Management System to be followed by Power Utilities should be built around a philosophy of "prevention" rather "detection and cure". The monitoring parameters includes financial as well as physical progress parameters. Qualifying requirement for each package is to be prepared based on the technical requirement of the equipment/system to be procured. and it is the first utility in the Power Sector to have ISO 9001 Certification. The stipulation of Qualifying Requirement helps in selecting the competent supplier/contractor for supply /execution of the project on schedule with best quality.0 Project Management & Monitoring Project management and monitoring is one of the most important aspects of project execution on schedule with control on cost over run. during in. The quality Management system is time tested and may have an ISO-9001 certification for an utility like POWERGRID has from EAQA. Completion schedule and the source of finance. In the review meetings various hold points/ needs to be discussed and resolved. POWERGRID has prepared a well-documented manual covering works and procurement policy and procedures that is followed for all contracts activities related to works and procurement across the organization. The cost data are to be regularly updated. A detailed Master Network is to be prepared for each project for completion of the project on schedule.) The Various Steps involved in the Quality System Management are given below: Inclusion of Quality Requirement in the Contract. viz. 5 . 7. Both the schedules are properly coordinated. 6. India. Selection of good quality vendors/sub vendors.

Implementation of Quality Systems and Procedures as per ISO 9001. which are necessary for release of payment. discussions and approval for each contract. The FQP defines the requirement with regard to proper unloading/receipt of equipment and material at site. sampling and acceptance norms. Executives from the Corporate Center may also be deputed for surveillance and inspection. Manufacturing Quality Plan A standard format (such as developed by POWERGRID) is to be developed for the approval of Manufacturing Quality Plan (MQP) which includes the quality requirements at the raw material stage. Approved data sheets/Drawings etc. etc. In process testing and final inspection and testing requirements as per Technical specifications of the contract. if the material/product/Sub System meets the various requirements specified in the specification. Bill of Quantities and other requirement are checked by the inspection engineer. in-process stage and final stage. The FQP(s) describe the various stages for checks and testing requirements at each stage. regional quality set. Civil Construction. Standards. requirements of test reports and hold point beyond which the work can progress only after clearance from the utillity. However it does not certify the various contractual obligations. Issuance of MICC does not require any inspection of the equipment but it 6 . These MQP(s) may be approved for a period of three years instead of approval on contract-to-contract basis. test report requirements. Field Quality Plan Field Quality Plans (FQP) should be followed for various construction activities such as Transmission Line. This document has to be self-sufficient and it should include sample size. which are ensuring its implementation through Project Managers responsible for should be created to have more surveillance over construction activities. National and International Standards and Manufacturer s internal plant standards and well known good engineering practices of the industry.Project Management Analyze the equipment failures in association with Engineering and Operation services departments and use feedback for improvement of systems. type tests. acceptance norms. surveillance audits and failure reports. The responsibility of implementation FQPs is with the site organizations. Inspection Customer Inspection Points (CIP) are identified in MQPs to be carried out at various stages such as raw material stage. In order to supplement the efforts of project manager. place of testing. with full transparency. etc. testing requirements of erection material. pre commissioning checks. Fire Fighting System. this alone could reduce the project execution time substantially by eliminating the requirements of submission of MQP. The contractors can choose any sub vendor from the list possessing a large number of sub vendors to choose from. storage. A certificate known as CIP is to be issued at each stage. The list is continuously revised based on the feed back obtained from the inspection reports. In other words issuance of CIP certifies the various routine checks and technical features. Material Inspection and Clearance Certificate (MICC) is to be issued for all billable items as per contract after all the CIP stages. By standardizing the various testing requirements and procedures it is to be ensured that it is not biased towards any particular manufacturer. Buildings. System Of Vendor And Sub Vendor Approvals The list of approved sub vendors is maintained for all the sub vendors irrespective of the fact whether the Technical Qualifying Requirements are specified in the contract or not.

Inspection is most critical and important activity in the quality system. In this context manuals prepared by POWERGRID may be referred to. To ensure that professional advice is made available wherever potentially hazardous situations exist or might arise.Project Management requires checking of other contractual documents. To ensure that adequate safety instructions are given to all employees. safety and welfare of employees emanating from relevant legislation such as the Factories Act. To provide appropriate instruction.1 Each Power Utility should recognize and accept its responsibility for establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for all its employees. retraining and supervision in health and safety and first aid and ensure that adequate publicity is given to these matters. To provide appropriate facilities for first aid and prompt treatment of injuries and illness at work. To inform employees about material. This responsibility arises from: Providing the best practicable conditions of work from the point of view of health and safety. 7 .0 Construction Practices Utility has to prepare manuals covering all areass of site construction activities to ensure that uniform approach in various site activities are followed by site staff and the contractors. 8. remedial and preventive action. 10. etc. together with training facilities for personnel involved in this service. Fulfilling statutory requirement in respect of health. equipment or processes used in their work. ii) To take steps to ensure that all known safety factors are taken into account in the design. analysis and presentation of data on accident. These manuals should be well coordinated with the provisions of specification and field quality plans. which are known to be potentially hazardous to health or safety. The Indian Electricity Act. operation and maintenance of machinery and equipment of substation and transmission lines. To ensure proper implementation of fire prevention and appropriate fire fighting services. It is a responsible job as it enables dispatch and payment to the contractor. To provide wherever necessary. training. To keep all operation and methods of work under regular review for making necessary changes from the point of view of safety in the light of experience and up-to-date knowledge.2 POWER UTILITY S RESPONSIBILITY The Power Utility shall take all such steps which are reasonably practicable to ensure best possible conditions of work. construction. safety appliances and clothing and ensure their proper use. and with this end in view the Company shall do the following: i) To allocate sufficient resources to provide and maintain safe and healthy conditions of work. To organize collection. sickness and incidents involving personal injury or injury to health with a view to taking corrective. Obligation to consult with its staff and their representatives to implement policies and procedure developed as a result of discussion. Safety 10. protective equipment.

10.PARTICIPATE in safety training courses when called upon to do . Immediate responsibility for safety at work is that of the managers/executives of each department/section who are primarily responsible to prevent accidents involving members of their staff and other persons. They should be made responsible. .4 Responsibility for Implementation i. safety equipment and protective clothing provided by the Company. With this in mind. To prepare separate safety rules for each type of occupation/process involved in a project. must be strictly observed by all concerned contracting agencies executing works. interpreted and carried out in the manner expected. of his fellow employees and of other persons who may be affected by his action at work. procedures and code of practice . procedures and codes of practice. to comply with their legal obligations with regard to the health.USE with all reasonable care the tools. safety and welfare of their employees.Project Management To promote through the established machinery. joint consultation in health and safety matters to ensure effective participation by all employees.MAKE USE of Safety Suggestion Schemes.TAKE an active and personal interest in promoting health and safety at work. employees should be healthy and safety conscious and: -REPORT potential hazards . which are formulated with proper regard to health and safety consideration. these items should be kept in good condition . iii. Accepted rules. before doing so. It is their responsibility to issue clear and explicit working instructions compliance with which will ensure safe working and to require the effective use of approved equipment.OBSERVE Safety Rules. equipment. To publish/notify regulations. To co-ordinate the activities of the Company and of its contractors working on the Company s premises for the implementation and maintenance of safety systems of work. the responsibility of Management. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE EMPLOYEE The establishment and maintenance of best possible condition of work is. no doubt. the Corporate Personnel Division at the corporate level and the concerned Heads at the Regional level. To ensure regular safety inspection by a competent person at suitable intervals of all substation equipment. for discharging their safety obligations. In designated areas of particular hazard the appropriate executives are required to authorize. iv. through various measures including appropriate provisions in the contract. personally to 8 . workplaces and operations. instructions and notices in the common language of employees. He should take reasonable care for the health and safety of himself. ii. The ultimate responsibility for ensuring the implementation of the policy on health and safety at work rests on the Management. in writing the commencement of any work and. The officers in-charge of safety will be functionally responsible to the Corporate headquarter for ensuring that the policy is promulgated. it is also necessary that each employee follows prescribed safe methods of work.

0 Training Each power utility should devise different modules of training for their workers. ii. Senior. Junior. Safety Officers are appointed to advice Management on question of safety at work including advice on the application in particular local situations of the system of work. Most of the departments and activities are covered under ISO ambit. Fire-fighting training and the formation of fire fighting team on a voluntary basis will be encouraged by the Station Management. As for instance. All accidents and dangerous occurrences will be reported immediately to the Officer-in-Charge. major site incident and necessary evacuation procedure. They will be consulted as and when system. iii. POWERGRID has obtained ISO-9000 certification from M/S BVQI the accrediting agency for all its system manuals and procedures. The Officer in.5 Major Site Incidents i. it is highly desirable that power utilities obtained ISO-9000 certification. These plans must be communicated to all staff and rehearsed from time to time. An annual calendar covering various training programme for employees of all levels may be prepared. Such executives must themselves be authorized. who will implement an established procedure to ensure that an investigation takes place and recommendations are made to prevent recurrence 11.Charge in each region is required to ensure that plans are devised for action in the event of fire. In the contract document provision should be kept for deputing Power Utility s technicians and engineers to the manufacturers works for specialized training about the equipment and systems supplied by that manufacturer and accordingly Power utilities should send its employees to the manufacturers works. In addition to above Power utilities should also conduct technical workshops and training programme where experts from manufacturers are to be invited to impart the training and 9 . which is based on the feedback from previous programme. POWERGRID has secured ISO-9000 certification since 1994 and continuance of the same has been consistently confirmed by the accrediting agency as per the recommendation of their surveillance auditors who carry out audit on their behalf. 10. A separate HRD department may maintain the records of each employee for deputing them for the relevant training.0 ISO 9000 Certification In order to carry out activities involved effectively. based on the latest development in the respective fields. Regular internal audit of all departments is carried out and surveillance audit by external auditors is carried out as per the periodicity stipulated in the ISO-9000 standards. and Administrative Executives to update their knowledge. rules and codes are being formulated and shall advise Management in the investigation and analysis of accidents and the circulation of appropriate statistics. in writing as competent persons to perform these duties. Company Safety Rules and relevant code of practice in consultation with area Engineers. 12. The head of each department is responsible for implementation of ISO procedures and head of the organization is responsible for ensuring adherence to ISO systems in the organization. v.Project Management ensure themselves that all necessary safety precautions have been carried out. inputs from various departments. Power Utility should have well defined HRD systems and policy. as well as requirement of individual employee obtained from them every year.

e. (3) The transmission line shall be designed and constructed to give a life of not less than 35 years. on commissioning. Each power Utility may have to develop their own document. During these programme the site engineers are encouraged to get their doubts clarified and voiced the difficulties faced by them during O&M of the respective equipment. MSEB.A: ELECTRIC LINES (66 kV AND ABOVE) 91. BBMB and CBIP.Project Management explain the O&M procedures of their equipment. construction. The owner connecting his new installation shall abide by the Central Electricity Authority (Technical Standards for Connectivity to the Grid) Regulations. the design and construction features shall be compatible with the system to which the new installation will be connected. the Owner shall ensure that the proposed new installation is compatible with the existing power system and is suitable for becoming. This may help them in improving their overall performance.0 Conclusion The report has been prepared to provide guidelines to the Power Utilities in the country for developing their own system on procedures in order to achieve improved effectiveness in their practices for Planning. (2) The Owner shall ensure tie-up arrangements which are necessitated by the proposed installation and which must be carried out simultaneously by other entities before the new installation is commissioned and connected to the power system. The addresses of the contact persons of these organizations are given at Annexure. Safety. UPPCL. General (1) Whenever a new transmission line is planned and constructed. It is to be noted that other organizations have developed these practices in line with their own existing practices and organizational structure. they may contact these organizations. achieve higher level of system availability and help them in improving the moral and dedication of their work force. PART. which should not contradict their existing systems. The documents prepared by other organization are meant for their internal consumption and if Power Utilities need to refer these for development of their own system & procedures. In order to appreciate the content of the report and to receive the information about the practices of the various other utilities and their feedback on the report a two day work shop of interactive nature may be organized through CBIP. 2007. 13. The documents published by CBIP are the priced document and if required can be procured by Power Utilities from them. and may not be applied as it is for other utilities as each organization has its own existing system and structure. 10 . The overall performance and output as well as detailed operating characteristics and specifications of the installation shall conform to the rest of the power system i. The Documents listed at Annexure-I are prepared by various organizations v.z. HRD etc.II. they can refer the documents mentioned at Annexure-I in preparation of their own system and procedures. POWERGRID. where the utilities and other organizations may participate. Operation & Maintenance. a natural and integral part of the power system. however.i.

Compensation for right of way & way leaves shall be given as per applicable law. requirements of applicable Indian Standards as well as other rules & regulations as per latest amendments. Design and Construction of Transmission Lines (1) General The transmission lines shall be designed and constructed meeting the requirements mentioned in these regulations.03. 93. from the concerned authorities/agencies. (6) Right of way and way leave clearance shall be arranged by the Owner in accordance with the requirements of construction. and for civil aviation. The salient features for the transmission system shall be as summarized below: (1) The transmission system shall be planned in an integrated manner and optimized considering the total network under CTU and STU. winter and monsoon seasons. Care shall also be taken to avoid aircraft landing approaches. (3) Right of way for transmission lines shall be optimized keeping in view the corridor requirement for the future by adopting suitable alternative of multi-circuit or multi-voltage lines as applicable.2009) 92. Routing of a transmission line through National Parks or Wild Life sanctuaries shall also be avoided to the extent possible. In case it is not possible to completely avoid the forests or areas having large trees. (3) The line routing should avoid large habitations. Archeological Survey Act and other Acts/Rules/Laws. guidelines and directives of local administrative and revenue authorities. Also. 94. river. 11 .Project Management 130 Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. and densely populated areas to the extent possible. Routing of Transmission Line The transmission line route shall be selected keeping in view the following: (1) Routing of a transmission line through protected or reserved forest shall be avoided. Wild Life Protection Act. keeping in view the overall economy. canal or power line crossings. Transmission System The objective of system planning is to develop a power system with a level of performance characterized by an acceptable degree of adequacy and security. are complied with. (5) The Owner shall arrange all required consents and approvals including those from Power and Telecommunication Co-ordination Committee (PTCC). 2009 DRAFT (12. the design and construction of the transmission lines shall be such that they perform their intended functions under the License. (2) The adequacy of the transmission system shall be tested for one or more load generation scenarios comprising of peak and off peak conditions in summer. (4) It shall be ensured that all statutory requirements stipulated under Forest Conservation Act. rail. way leaves and environmental & forest clearances etc. The Owner shall follow all the prudent utility practices in the design and construction of the transmission lines. road. rules & regulations. (2) Restricted areas such as civil and military airfields shall be avoided. the route shall be aligned in such a way that cutting of trees is minimum. as may be applicable.

For transmission lines of 400 kV or higher voltage class. For the transmission lines at higher altitudes. Ground clearance shall be as per requirements of Central Electricity Authority (Measures relating to Safety and Electricity Supply) Regulations as and when these are notified by the Authority. Other new technology earthwires conforming to international standards and specifications may also be used. (i) Design of towers 12 . shielding angle etc. mid-span clearance. bundle conductors (minimum two conductors per phase for 400 kV AC and four conductors per phase for 500 kV DC & 765 kV AC) shall be used for satisfactory performance of transmission lines from corona and interference aspects. Other new technology conductors conforming to International standards and specifications may also be used depending on system requirements. extension and truncation provisions etc. shall be decided as per prudent utility practices following applicable standards and codes and keeping in view electrical system parameters and requirements. shall be selected by the Owner as per prudent utility practices.Project Management (2) Salient technical particulars and requirements of transmission lines (a) Electrical Design Parameters of the Transmission Lines The above parameters are for transmission lines constructed at altitudes upto 1000m above MSL. impulse & switching surge withstand voltage requirements shall be kept higher as per relevant standards and practices. The earthwire shall be either of galvanized stranded steel (GSS) or alternatively ACSR or AACSR conductor type. in approximately three equal parts. Optical fibre ground wires may also be used as earthwire. Type of towers. The AC transmission lines shall be transposed. (b) Conductor The conductor of appropriate size shall be selected considering power flow requirements and other system considerations in consultation with neighbouring transmission and generation utilities. (c) Earthwire The earthwire of appropriate size to cater to predicted and design fault currents and lightning shall be used. if required depending upon the length of the line. line altitude and other service conditions and factors. wind & weight spans. Generally. (d) Towers The towers shall be self-supporting lattice steel type and shall be a fully galvanised structure. The conductors may be of type ACSR. Live-metal clearances. guyed or pole structure towers may also be used. basic insulation level. one earthwire shall be used for transmission lines upto 220 kV and two earthwires shall be used for transmission lines of 400 kV and higher voltage classes. AAAC or other and shall generally conform to relevant IS or IEC standards. Alternatively. design and ruling span.

conductors per phase upto 400 kV shall be designed corresponding to the reliability level 2 (150 year return period). The Owner may adopt any additional loading or design criteria for ensuring reliability of the line.Project Management The following specify the minimum requirements for design of towers. number plates. For higher voltage level transmission lines. shall be provided conforming to relevant IS. Reliability level 1 corresponding to 50 year return period design loads due to wind as per relevant IS shall be considered for design of towers for transmission lines upto 400 kV. The towers shall be designed to meet all design requirements and design criteria stipulated in latest revision of relevant IS or IEC standards. (iii) Tower fabrication Tower fabrication shall generally conform to relevant IS. Other equivalent grade of structural steel angle sections and plates conforming to International Standards may also be used. Triple and quadruple circuit towers and towers with more than two sub. security conditions (broken wire condition). bird guards etc. (iv) Tower accessories Various tower accessories viz. (vi) Aviation requirements and warning signals 13 . Lower main members and also on Plan bracings in the barrel of the tower at all the cross arm levels to prevent birds from making nests. Remedial measures shall be taken by the Owner to put spike type Bird guards on the Upper (tie members). The loads at conductor and earthwire points under different loading conditions viz. Fasteners. reliability conditions (normal condition). danger plates. (as per relevant IS or IEC Standards) considering various combinations of design temperatures. if so desired and/or deemed necessary. wind and snow loads shall be calculated and tower designs developed accordingly. safety conditions. The towers shall also be designed for appropriate snow or ice loads. considering wind loading corresponding to applicable wind zone for the transmission line as per relevant IS. circuit plates. Pipe type or Counterpoise type earthing shall be provided in accordance with relevant IS. It may not be mandatory to have prototype testing of tall river crossing towers and other special towers designed for reliability level 3 (500 year return period). (ii) Materials Mild steel and high tensile steel sections of tested quality in conformity with relevant IS shall be generally used in towers and their extensions. This measure will also help to improve the performance and availability of the system. (v) Earthing Each tower shall be earthed such that tower footing resistance does not exceed 10 ohms. reliability level 2 corresponding to 150 year return period wind loads shall be considered. anti-cascading condition etc. Normal towers shall be prototype tested as per relevant IS. anticlimbing devices. Tower parts shall be galvanized as per relevant IS. if applicable. phase plates. bolts and nuts shall be generally as per relevant IS.

For voltage levels upto 400kV. (iii) Insulator & insulator string rating shall be selected such that : Under ultimate design wind loading conditions. These shall generally conform to relevant IEC standard. (iv) Insulator strings shall be complete with all required hardware fittings. (e) Foundations (i) Depending upon soil and site conditions. (3) Transmission line construction (a) Construction of a transmission line shall be carried out generally as per relevant IS meeting stipulated requirements and under other latest applicable standards and prudent utility practices. antifog type insulators or polymer insulators may be used for better performance. vibration dampers. Insulators for HVDC lines shall be of anti-fog type having sacrificial zinc sleeve. repair sleeve. economy and feasibility of construction at site. the load on insulator string shall not exceed 70 % of its selected rating. Number of insulators and creepage distance shall be selected based on electrical system parameters and requirements taking into account other factors and conditions viz. For 765kV. well or other alternative types) shall be considered for transmission line towers. Polymer or composite insulators conforming to relevant IEC or other international standards may also be used.1. shall be used as suitable for type and size of conductor and earthwire used for the transmission line. specific creepage distance shall be selected from Table: III-6 at clause 47 based on the site requirement. However. for critical locations with high pollution level. spacer or spacer-dampers. Insulator Strings and Hardware Fittings (i) Requisite type of suspension and tension insulator strings with disc insulators or long rod insulators offering equivalent performance shall be used. 14 . Structural design of foundations shall be done by limit state method with minimum overload factor as 1. (f) Insulators. T-connector. Under everyday temperature and no wind conditions. earthwire clamps etc. pile. The minimum factor of safety for design of pile or well foundations shall be 2. line altitude. (iii) The cement concrete used for the foundations shall be generally as per relevant IS. flexible copper bond. the load on insulator string shall not exceed 25% of its selected rating. appropriate type of foundations (viz.Project Management Day and/or night visual aids and markers for denoting transmission line or structures as per requirements of Directorate of Flight Safety or relevant IS or ICAO shall be provided. The fittings shall generally conform to relevant IS. expected environmental and pollution conditions etc. (ii) Insulators shall generally conform to relevant IS or IEC standards. The accessories shall generally conform to relevant IS.5. mid-span compression joints. open cast. specific creepage distance shall be decided judiciously by the Owner. (g) Accessories for Conductor and Earthwire The accessories required for the conductor and earthwire viz. (ii) The design of foundations shall be as per applicable Indian Standards and Codes.

line diagnostic tools and equipment shall be made. telecommunication lines etc.line tools shall include thermo-vision camera for detection of hot spots. (e) Normal design span for various voltage level transmission lines shall generally be as follows: Service conditions (a) Equipment and material to be used in the transmission line shall be suitable for satisfactory continuous operation under tropical conditions as specified below: For condition assessment of conductors. (6) Applicable standards BIS or IEC or Equivalent. 15 . (d) Clearances from trees. roads. (c) Clearances from ground. power lines. insulators etc.of. the Owner can use high voltage cables for transmission of power. provision for online or off. forest clearance etc.. shall be provided in accordance with Forest Conservation Act and guidelines issued by Ministry of Environment & Forests. connectors.way problems etc. Other necessary diagnostic equipment may be provided at the discretion of the Owner. On. Offline tools shall include insulation resistance measuring instrument and contact resistance measuring instrument. and live line punctured insulator detector. buildings..Project Management (b) Crossing of a transmission line with roads or a railway or a river or a power line or a telecommunication line shall be finalized as per applicable rules & regulations specified by the concerned authorities. clamps. shall be provided in conformity with Central Electricity Authority (Measures Relating to Safety and Electricity Supply) Regulations as and when these are notified by the Authority. (5) Cables Wherever construction of an overhead transmission line is not possible due to space constraints or right.

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