# 1.

0 INTRODUCTION

Mathematics is a way of organizing our experience of the world. It improves our understanding and enables us to communicate and make sense of our experiences. It also gives us enjoyment. By doing mathematics we can solve a range of practical task and real-life problems. We use it in many areas of our lives. In mathematics we use ordinary language and its own special language and operation. As a teacher, we need to teach students to use both this languages. We can work on problems within mathematics and we can work on problems that use mathematics as a tool. Mathematics not only can describe and explain but also predict what might happen.

In Malaysia, mathematics is perceived as an important subject in general. Therefore, mathematics education has undergone tremendous changes according to the needs of the country in the course of nation building. Learning and teaching skills are important in order to help us to improve the uses of mathematic in our daily life. There are five pillars in teaching and learning mathematics that are problem solving in mathematics, communication in mathematics, mathematical reasoning,

mathematical connections and application of technology. Through this task, we will go deeply for each pillar.

problem arises when pupils who intend to carry out a certain task but are unable to find any known algorithm to work it out. Thirdly try it and lastly look back and see if you've really answered the question. Meanwhile. it helps to have a working procedure. laws. a problem is any task in which you are faced with a situation is not obvious and immediate. Problem-solving in mathematics can be referred as an organized process to achieve the goal of problem. In solving any problems. check the used plan and try the problem again. There are several types of problem-solving models such as Model Process of Problem-Solving: Dewey. there must be a way to solve the problem. There are two types of problems solving. identify a strategy or strategies and use the strategy appropriately. nonroutine problem is a unusual problem situation in which you do not know of any standard procedure for solving it. In order to overcome these obstacles. Secondly plan the problem-solving strategy to look for strategies and tools to answer the question.1 Problem-Solving in Mathematics What is a problem in mathematics? According to Lester (1977). . Sometimes it's easy to overlook something. which are routine problem and non-routine problem. If there are mistake. Based on Polya¶s Model. problem solving in mathematics could be implemented in four stages. read and re-read the problem carefully to find all the clues and determine what the question is asking you to find. The aim of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles set in the problem. including proper strategy and selection of suitable method for implementation. solving mathematics problems often require pupil to be familiar with the problem situation and be able to collect the appropriate information. Firstly understand the problem. Routine problem is a type of mechanical mathematics problems that apply some known procedures involving arithmetic operation. When the problem existed. From the general point of view. The process of problem-solving needs a set of systematic activities with logical planning.1. Polya¶s Model and Lester¶s Model. theorems or equations to get the solutions. formulae.

There are many ways to start a conversation. they reap dual benefits which is they communicate to learn mathematics. write. 2000). When students are challenged to think and reason about mathematics and to communicate the results of their thinking to others orally or in writing. elaborate. listen. and these comments carry a different connotation from those of the teacher. they learn to be clear and convincing. The communication process also helps build meaning and permanence for ideas and makes them public (NCTM. Conversations between peers and teachers will foster deeper understanding of the knowledge of mathematical concepts. Other than that. read. As one student share ideas about a task. It is a way of sharing ideas and clarifying understanding. Open-ended questioning is an important way for teachers to encourage meaningful conversation between teachers and students. . other students are exposed to mathematical thinking from their peer group. listening to others¶ thoughts and explanation about their reasoning gives students the opportunity to develop their own understandings about mathematics. and they learn to communicate mathematically (NCTM. and inquire about mathematical concepts. When children think. respond.2 Communication in Mathematics Communication is an essential part of mathematics. 2000). discuss.1.

students should learn to make effective deductive arguments as well.3 Mathematical Reasoning The traditional view of teaching is that students learn whatever the teacher teaches within a straightforward transmission of knowledge. In short. and like all habits. justifying. Increasingly over the grades. If the class is open to ideas and suggestions. . students should be able to understand and produce some mathematical proofs logically rigorous deductions of conclusions from hypotheses and should appreciate the value of such arguments. Through the use of reasoning. By the end of secondary school. using the mathematical truths they are establishing in class. and using mathematical conjectures are common to all content areas and all grade levels. students reason inductively from patterns and specific cases. it helps them develop their reasoning skills. Exploring. Reasoning mathematically is a habit of mind.1. it must be developed through consistent use in many contexts and from the earliest grades. A teacher¶s explanations were accepted without question and processes were practiced until they became habitual. accepting any rational point from students and allows time for students to try hard to find solution to a problem. students learn that mathematics makes sense. At all levels. the students in the classroom were not involved actively in the lesson.

For example. An emphasis on mathematical connections helps students recognize how ideas in different areas are related such as. Students should come both to expect and to exploit connections. remember. elementary school students link their knowledge of the subtraction of whole numbers to the subtraction of decimals or fractions. In conclusion. . connection between math and art. between mathematics and other subjects. By making mathematical connections will allow students to better understand. appreciate and use mathematics in their lives. using insights gained in one context to verify conjectures in another. There are many connections between mathematics and other aspect of our lives.1. connection between math and music. As we discover these connections mathematics gains meaning and beauty.4 Mathematical Connections Mathematics is not a set of isolated topics but rather a web of closely connected ideas. they will see and experience the rich interplay among mathematical topics. Teachers are exhorted to teach in ways that will encourage the making of useful mathematical connections by their students. The implied role for teachers is to act in ways that will promote learners¶ making of mathematical connections (Thomas & Santiago. Learners might make connections spontaneously. When student study mathematics. and between mathematics and their own interests. connection between math and architecture and connection between math and nature. 2002). Middle school students might collect and graph data for the circumference (C) and diameter (d) of various circles.

protect process. transmit. These tools can be used in the classroom to promote higher-level thinking and highlight the links between taught concepts and their real-world applications. to the calculators and computers of today. and technological standards of successful math instruction. overwhelming. The range of instructional technology applicable to mathematics is vast. and online offerings can be implemented in both conventional and novel ways to complement the many content.1. and at times. store. . formal methods and data representation are just some computing techniques that require the use of mathematics. software. algorithm analysis. Computational theory. and retrieve information. process. (by Ales. Ragon). Mathematics was one of the earlier subjects to make use of the computer in the classroom.5 Application of Technology Information technology refers to the use of computers and software to convert. A multitude of hardware. an Incan base-10 counting system made of knotted fibers. Mathematical tools have advanced from the abacus and Quipu.

Next pillar is about mathematical connection which tell us mathematics have connections between other area. As we all know. Through this pillar. First pillar is problem-solving in mathematics that tells us about the teaching strategy used to solve mathematics problems. five pillars in mathematics can helps mathematics education to improve teaching and learning skills among teachers and students. computer and calculator. Through the use of reasoning. There are five pillars in learning and teaching mathematics which can help student to understand mathematics better. as example. Third pillar is mathematical reasoning.0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion. There are many types of problem-solving and problem-solving¶s model. Overall. it is important to us to improve our knowledge about mathematics. Communication in mathematics is a way of sharing ideas and clarifying understanding. we can know that communication is an essential part of mathematics.2. there are many successful implementations of technology in mathematics that we use recently. The last pillar is about application in technology. students can learn that mathematics makes sense. This is because we use mathematics in many areas in our lives. . Second pillar is about communication in mathematics.

it must be developed through consistent use in many contexts and from the earliest grades. To improve our knowledge and skills in mathematics. I know about two types of problem-solving and several problem-solving models. Several problem-solving strategies address reasoning and proof such as. Communication in mathematics it is a way of sharing ideas and clarifying understanding. and like all habits. Students and teachers must have good communication to ensure the process of learning become more interesting. remember. breaking a problem up in easier pieces and so on. Problem-solving in mathematics can be referred as an organized process to achieve the goal of a problem. From this fact. appreciate and use mathematics in their lives. Application of mathematic in technology can be used in the classroom to promote higher-level thinking and highlight the links between taught concepts and their real-world applications. there are five pillars in teaching and learning mathematics that can help us to play role in helping the nation to achieve Vision 2020. The ultimate goal of any problem-solving program is to improve students' performance at solving problems correctly.0 REFLECTION Based on the task given.3. it will allow students to better understand. Mathematical reasoning is a habit of mind. accounting for all the possibilities. I¶ve learn that mathematics is a way of organizing our experience of the world. In mathematical connection. finding and using the pattern. It improves our understanding and enables us to communicate and make sense of our experiences. . working a simpler problem.