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A Report

On
The demand and supply situation of Cannabis in
Bangladesh.

Supervised By

Dr. S. H. Khan

Professor

Department of Marketing

Faculty of Business Studies

University of Dhaka.

Prepared By
Shakil Ahmed
MBA 20th Batch
ID: 657 , Sec: A

Date of Submission:
25th July 2019

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am very much thankful to my Supervisor Dr. S. H. KHAN for his kind cooperation and
suggestions for the improvement of this research project.

Moreover, I am thankful to those persons, specially the officers of Department of Narcotics


Control whose support and cooperation helped me to accomplish this task properly.

Thanks again to all of them.

Shakil Ahmed

ID: 657

Sec: A

Batch: 20th

28/07/2019

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Executive Summary
For well over a hundred years, Cannabis has become the subject of considerable debate and
investigation. Drug use is notoriously hard to measure - even for legal drugs, admission of use
may be perceived as socially undesirable, and consumption rates in particular may be subject to
inaccurate recall. When the substance is illegal consumers may also be unlikely to admit their
own use for fear of negative repercussions or social stigma. The demand for Cannabis is
enormous. Economic markets are essentially divisible into 'supply' and 'demand' - with one of the
basic laws of economics being that where there is demand for something, supply is sure to follow
(where possible). Especially when a profit can be made by suppliers. As I have already
mentioned Cannabis is one of the most popular illegal drugs - and prevalence rates have only
recently begun to level out after many years of continuously rising. Obviously an increase in
demand for Cannabis has an effect on the market in paving the way for an increase in supply -
which in turn relates to the increase in domestic production. Most middlemen and most dealers
will deal with a number of customers and a number of suppliers. They link the different parts of
the market together - essentially hooking up demand with supply wherever there is a need, and a
profit to be made. However those smaller-scale growers who retail their own Cannabis or who
operate maybe with one local dealer who retails it for them may essentially be operating in a
local networks where they are the sole suppliers.

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Contents

Executive Summary.........................................................................................................................ii

Introduction......................................................................................................................................1

Objective of the Study..................................................................................................................1

Methodology of the study............................................................................................................1

Cannabis..........................................................................................................................................2

Different names of Cannabis........................................................................................................2

History of Cannabis cultivation in Bangladesh............................................................................3

Demand of Cannabis in Bangladesh................................................................................................3

Supply..........................................................................................................................................3

Retail price of Cannabis...............................................................................................................4

Different qualities of Cannabis....................................................................................................4

Different Types of Buyers of Cannabis.......................................................................................6

Reasons behind Consuming Cannabis.........................................................................................6

Effects of Consuming Cannabis......................................................................................................6

Other risks of Cannabis................................................................................................................7

Different uses of Cannabis...............................................................................................................7

Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................10

Limitation of the study...............................................................................................................10

References......................................................................................................................................11
Introduction
Drug addiction is becoming a social problem in Bangladesh. Cannabis, also known as hemp and
ganja, may not be in the same stature as illegal substances like Yaba and Phensedyl, but it has a
user base as big as these contraband narcotics in Bangladesh, which means its trade is also as
strong. This study tries to know the demand and supply of Cannabis (ganja) in Bangladesh. The
study also tries to find short time and longtime effect of taking Cannabis. Geographically,
Bangladesh is located in the middle of the world’s largest growing narcotics belt, the golden
triangle (Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand), the golden crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran), and
the golden wedge. Besides this, India, an important Cannabis producer, is also located close to
Bangladesh. So the Bangladeshi people have become addicted easily.

Objective of the Study

The main objective of the present study is to know the demand and supply situation of Cannabis
in Bangladesh. Other specific objectives are

 To know the effects of taking Cannabis.


 To know the medical use of Cannabis.
 To know the history of Cannabis cultivation in Bangladesh.
 To know the reasons of consuming Cannabis as drugs.

Methodology of the study


To conduct the study both primary and secondary data both are used. The selected population
includes narcotics department officer, regular Cannabis takers on different location of Dhaka and
Narayanganj city. In conducting this research convenient sampling technique has been used. The
research is qualitative in nature. Only depth interview approach is used to dig out necessary
information. Primary data are collected through an unstructured questionnaire and secondary
data are collected from online sources. Data are described on the basis of the story found during
the research.

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Cannabis
Cannabis is a drug that comes from Indian hemp plants such as Cannabis sativa and Cannabis
indica. The main active chemical in Cannabis is THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol).

Cannabis is a depressant drug. Depressant drugs do not necessarily make you feel depressed.
Rather, they slow down the activity of the central nervous system and the messages going
between the brain and the body. When large doses of Cannabis are taken it may also produce
hallucinogenic effects.

Different names of Cannabis


Cannabis is also known as Gaja, Ganja,Shiddhi, Pot, Hash, Weed, Podu, Dope, Herb, Mull,
Buddha, Stick, Buckets, Cones, Skunk, Hydro, Yarndi, Smoke, Hooch and Fantu.

What does Cannabis look like?

Leaves from the Cannabis plant are bright green and have a distinctive shape with five or seven
leaflets. The flowering tops and upper leaves are covered in a sticky resin.

Cannabis is used for the psychoactive (mind and mood-altering) effects of THC and other active
ingredients. THC is the chemical in Cannabis that makes you feel “high”. There are three main
forms of psychoactive Cannabis: marijuana, hashish and hash oil.

 Marijuana is the most common and least potent form of Cannabis. Marijuana is the dried
leaves and flowers of the plant.

 Hashish(hash) is dried Cannabis resin, usually in the form of a small block. The
concentration of THC in hashish is higher than in marijuana, producing stronger effects.

 Hash oil is a thick, oily liquid, golden brown to black in color, which is extracted from
Cannabis. Hash oil is the strongest form of Cannabis.

History of Cannabis cultivation in Bangladesh


The cultivation, transport, sale, purchase, and possession of all forms of Cannabis has been
illegal in Bangladesh since the late 1980s, but enforcement efforts are lax and the drug continues
to be popular there.

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The first know use of Cannabis in present day Bangladesh was sometime in 1722 as the plant
began to be cultivated in Naogaon. By 1877, Cannabis cultivation became very popular after the
British Raj gave the East India Company cultivation license in 1876. In 1917, a total 18 Cannabis
cultivators of Naogaon formed a cooperative, the Naogaon Cannabis Cultivators Cooperative
Society Limited and enlisted under the Directorate of Cooperative Society. At one point, there
was over 7,000 members in the cooperative. Before 1947, the Cannabis cooperative was the
largest cooperative society in the sub-continent. From 1918 to 1947, an average of 20.52 hundred
thousand kilograms of Cannabis was exported to India, Nepal, Myanmar, England and other
European countries. Around the same time during the early part of the 20th Century, most
Western countries began to criminalize the use of Cannabis in medicine and for recreational use.
When Bangladesh signed the Geneva Convention in 1974, one of the condition was that the
signatories had to ban Cannabis cultivations by 1990. Bangladesh, criminalized Cannabis use
and cultivation in 1987. The sale of Cannabis was banned 1989. The current Narcotics Control
Act-1990 gives the courts discretionary ability to impose the death sentence for the possession of
Cannabis of over two kilograms. However, even after Cannabis usage was banned the estate and
properties of the Cannabis Cultivators Cooperative Society still exist in Naogaon district.

Demand of Cannabis in Bangladesh


Demand is always there for Cannabis in this country, as it is cheaper than other drugs such as
(Yaba, Phensedyl and Heroine) etc. When other drugs item are not easily found because of
security forces action Cannabis' demand grows high.

Supply
Cannabis is both grown locally and illegally smuggled into the country, according to dealers and
law enforcement officials. Most of the amount comes from our neighbor country India.

Cannabis is cultivated particularly in the districts of Naogaon, Rajshahi, Jamalpur and Netrokona
in then northwestern region, as well as the hilly districts near Cox’s Bazar, Khagrachhari and
Rangamati in the southeast (bordering Myanmar).

Some Cannabis peddlers near the Airport railway station in Uttara said they bring in their
product hidden in cotton sacks, fruit baskets and other packages. Train is a popular mode of
transport for the peddlers. Officials have learnt mostly from arrested Cannabis dealers that
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Comilla and Brahmaputra are the two most used entry points through which smugglers bring
Cannabis into the country. Then it is brought to Dhaka via both roadways and railways.
Sometimes, Cannabis has been brought in via airways too. On April 20, 2018, law enforcement
authorities recovered 4kg of Cannabis from a luggage coming in from London. However, it is the
first known incident of Cannabis smuggling by air. Cannabis is grown in several regions in
Bangladesh, especially the hilly and northern districts, according to the detained dealers. During
some anti-drug drives, the DNC and law enforcement agencies found that Cannabis is farmed in
many areas inside Dhaka city as well. On May 5 this year, DNC officials seized three 12 feet
long Cannabis trees from a plot owned by a sweater manufacturing factory in Uttara. Cannabis
plants have been found in different homes, dormitories, and empty plots too.

Retail price of Cannabis


I have collected information from several Cannabis selling points in Dhaka where most dealers
turned out to be women and children. Compared to other illegal substances, Cannabis comes
really cheap, although the prices may vary depending on the area of sale as well as the supply. A
client has to pay only Tk200-500 for 25g of Cannabis in the Tejgaon rail track area, but the same
amount is pricier in posh areas like Gulshan, said Mina (not her real name), a drug peddler. Her
associate Kajal (not her real name) said: We sometimes do home delivery, for which we charge
Tk50-200, depending on the area of delivery. Cannabis is the first illegal substance that all
potential addicts try before they move on to hard drugs perhaps because it is easier and much
cheaper to obtain.

Different qualities of Cannabis


Basically there are three different qualities of Cannabis available in our country.

1. Deshal: This is the best among all of them.


2. Mohini: This criteria of Cannabis comes from Sylhet.
3. Ampol: This is the lowest quality of Cannabis.

Points of entry and routes of smuggling Cannabis from India to Bangladesh

Northern Border (Indian states of Assam and Meghalaya)

Districts Vulnerable Points of Trafficking in Counter Areas at Indian Side


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Bangladesh Side

Kurigram Raumari, Nageshari Gouripur, Simgrimari, Dhubri,


Assam.

Sherpur Jhinaigati, Nalitabari Dalu, Barengapara of South


Garo Hills, Meghalaya.

Mymenshing Haluaghat, Dhobaura Bagmara of South Garo Hills,


Meghalaya.

Netrokona Durgapur,Kamalkanda Bagmara of South Garo Hills,


Meghalaya.

Eastern Border (Indian States of Assam, Tripura and Mizoram)

Districts Vulnerable Points of Trafficking in Counter Areas at Indian Side


Bangladesh Side

Sylhet Zakiganj, Chunarughat, Madhabpur. Hilara, Bilanga, Karimganj,


Bamutia, Pachem, Bhuban of
Karimganj, Assam.

Bramhanbara Karimpur, Kasba, Akhaura, Ramnagar, Narayanpur,


Singarbil, Paharpur, Bijoynogor. Shonapura, Bishalghar, Joynogor,
Agortola, Ranibazar of west
Tripura, Tripura.

Cumilla Jagannathdighi, Chowddogram, Golpasa, Camper Bazar, Bibir Bazar,


Kalikapur, Jagannathpur, Rajapur, khadala, Shonapura of west
Burichong, Bramhanpara, Bibirbazar. Tripura, Tripura.

Feni Sagalniya, Pholgazi, Porshuram Belonia, Rajnagar of South

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Tripura, Tripura.

Different Types of Buyers of Cannabis


As it is cheaper than other drugs available in Bangladesh, the lower income people are the main
buyers of Cannabis. There are some other buyers:

1. Folk singers.
2. University students.
3. Bus drivers.
4. Homeless people.

Reasons behind Consuming Cannabis


1. Peer pressure
2. Depression
3. Curiosity
4. Bad economic condition
5. Availability

Effects of Consuming Cannabis


The effects of Cannabis vary from person to person:

 One may feel chilled out, relaxed and happy.


 Some people get the giggles or become more talkative.
 Hunger pangs are common.
 Colors may look more intense and music may sound better
 Time may feel like it's slowing down

Cannabis can have other effects too:

 If one's not used to it, he may feel faint or sick.


 It can make ones sleepy and lethargic.
 It can affect ones memory.

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 It makes some people feel confused, anxious or paranoid, and some experience panic
attacks and hallucinations this is more common with stronger forms of Cannabis like
skunk or sinsemilla.
 It interferes with one’s ability to drive safely.

Other risks of Cannabis


 Cannabis can be harmful to lungs. People who smoke Cannabis regularly are more likely
to have bronchitis (where the lining of your lungs gets irritated and inflamed).Like
tobacco smoke, Cannabis smoke contains cancer-causing chemicals, but it's not clear
whether this raises your risk of cancer. If one mixes Cannabis with tobacco to smoke it,
he has the risk getting tobacco-related lung diseases, such as lung cancer and chronic
pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD).
 One’s more likely to be injured in a road traffic accident, if anyone drives while under the
influence of Cannabis, he's more likely to be involved in an accident. This is one reason
why drug driving, like drink driving, is illegal.
 Cannabis may affect fertility. Research in animals suggests that Cannabis can interfere
with sperm production in males and ovulation in females. If anyone is pregnant, Cannabis
may harm her unborn baby Research suggests that using Cannabis regularly during
pregnancy could affect baby’s brain development. Regularly smoking Cannabis with
tobacco increases the risk of baby being born small or premature.
 Cannabis increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. If one smokes it
regularly for a long time, Cannabis raises the chances of developing these conditions.
Research suggests it's the Cannabis smoke that increases the risk, not the active
ingredients in the plant itself.

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Different Uses of Cannabis
The different forms of Cannabis are used in different ways:

 Marijuana is smoked in hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), or in a pipe (a bong).

 Hashish is usually added to tobacco and smoked, or baked and eaten in foods such as
hash cookies.

 Hash oil is usually spread on the tip or paper of a cigarette and then smoked.

 Cannabis and hash can also be smoked in a vaporizer. Vaporizers’ heat Cannabis to
temperatures that release its active ingredients while minimizing the toxins associated
with burning.

The THC in Cannabis is absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the lungs (if
smoked), or through the walls of the stomach and intestines (if eaten). The bloodstream carries
the THC to the brain, producing the high effects. Drugs inhaled get into the bloodstream quicker
than those eaten. This means that the effects of Cannabis when smoked occur more rapidly than
when eaten.

Paper and textiles

Some species of Cannabis have few psychoactive effects. These plants are used to produce hemp
fiber for use in paper, textiles and clothing.

Medical uses of Cannabis

Cannabis has been used for medical purposes for many centuries. It has been reported that
Cannabis may be useful to help conditions such as:

 Nausea and Vomiting, particularly when associated with Chemotherapy


 Wasting and severe weight loss, in people with HIV/AIDS, Cancer, Anorexia nervosa, as
it may be used as an appetite stimulant
 Pain relief, for example in people with Cancer and Arthritis

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 Relief from symptoms of some neurological disorders that involve muscle spasms,
including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.
 Glaucoma.
 Epilepsy.
 Asthma.

Conclusion
Cannabis is not entirely safe. Despite its proven folk medicinal qualities, its use can be injurious
to health. There is evidence that for those who smoke it the inhalation of tar and other
compounds can affect the lungs; that users can experience short term memory loss and delayed
reaction time; and that among young people it can retard the learning process. There is also
documented evidence that the substance can produce in some people a mentally disturbed state
of Cannabis psychosis. The view that many, if not most, persons who use Cannabis in
moderation suffer no apparent short or long term debility. Not only must that, but its reputation
among the people as a panacea and a spiritually enhancing substance is so strong that it is be
regarded as culturally entrenched. As a result, the practice of criminalizing the users of small
quantities does far more harm than good to the society as a whole. Such is the case with alcohol
and tobacco.

Limitation of the study


While preparing this report I have faced some tough challenges. Basically at the time of
conducting interviews. Because Cannabis is illegal and the respondents were unwilling to respond.
Time is another constraint for completing the project within two months.

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