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SUBMITTED BY: NAVIN ROLL NO.B39 SUBMITTED TO: Mr.MANMEET SINGH
Q 1What is the difference between windows server 2003 and Red hat Linux. Ans: Windows Server 2003 has a well-designed graphical user interface (GUI). The entire operating system is built with the GUI as part of the 'selling point' of the operating system. Windows has the built-in Task Scheduler which allows administrators to schedule jobs to run at specifies times or intervals. Security is very granular, with both User-based (using Active Directory administrative GUI interfaces) and file-based security. Windows Server 2003 delivered between 66 and 95 percent better File server throughput in our tests on a HP DL760 server using up to eight processors compared to Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1.
Only one computer in a domain or Network can be running Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server. Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server is limited to 4GB of RAM.
Red Had Enterprise Linux Benefits and Features: Linux is basically an incarantion of UNIX and, as such, has been in use, in some form or fashion, for as long, or longer, than Windows. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server offers the standard Unix-based user and group provisioning capabilities, along with user- and group-based file security. File and folder security can be set on a per-user or per-group basis. Third-party tools such as Vintella allow Linux to utilize Active Directory as the basis for authenticating to the network and to the Linux server; thus the setting and changing of user passwords can be accomplished in the Active Directory realm, alleviating yet another administrative burden from the Linux administrator. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server offers the standard Unix-based user and group provisioning capabilities, along with user- and group-based file security. File and folder security can be set on a per-user or per-group basis. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux servers, postfix and sendmail are the two enterprise email offerings, with sendmail being the long-standing defacto standard. Q2) How can we say that NTFS file system is more secure and reliable than FAT file system. What is the default file system on open Source NOS? Ans: NTFS is also called journaling file system which is a critical function of a file system. The NTFS will not allow the unauthorized users to operate and make any changes. NTFS also prevents them from reading any data from the computer. NTFS can transform the file information effectively and automatically into unreadable form. NTFS is known to be away from corruption. It has the option to implement various security and administrative features in the operating system. It is found to support domain names of active directory. NTFS form is found to be more advanced form of file system compared to FAT.
NTFS is designed to arrange more files per directory. NTFS file system does not need file system checking feature and does not need operating system maintenance. The file cluster size partitioned will be smaller than in FAT32. FAT - the only file permissions FAT has is the ability to make a file read only, however any user may change that flag and therefor anyone with access to the file system has access to any file on that file system NTFS sets read/write/execute file permissions to users and or user groups. Hence, NTFS can be used to recover the data easily, to manually check the file system structure and to clean and scan the malware, when more data has to be stored and hidden; when the application needs the larger size files SO,NTFS also used to check and recover the data in a easy way by manaualy check the file system structure and to clean the unused file and thread. So we can say that NTFS is more secure than FAT.
Q 3) Compare the four flavours of Windows Server 2003. Ans: The Four Edition of Windows server 2003 : Standard edition Enterprise edition Datacenter edition Web edition Standard edition: Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition is designed with the day-to-day needs of the average enterprise in mind and is the progressive replacement for the Windows NT4 Server/Windows 2000 Server line of server operating systems. Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition is aimed towards small to medium sized businesses. Standard Edition supports file and printer sharing, offers secure Internet connectivity, and allows centralized desktop application deployment. The initial release of Windows Server 2003 was available solely for 32-bit processors; a 64-bit version supporting the x86-
64 architecture (AMD64 and EM64T, called collectively x64 by Microsoft) was released in April 2005. The 32-bit version will run on up to 4 processors with up to 4 GB RAM; the 64-bit version is capable of addressing up to 32 GB of RAM and also supports Non-Uniform Memory Access. The 32-bit version is available for students to download free of charge as part of Microsoft's DreamSpark program. Enterprise edition: Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition is designed specifically for the needs of larger customers, as their needs surpass the functional levels of Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition. Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition is the progressive replacement for the Windows NT4 Server Enterprise Edition/Windows 2000 Advanced Server line of server operating systems. Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition is aimed towards medium to large businesses. It is a full-function server operating system that supports up to 8 processors and provides enterprise-class features such as eightnode clustering using Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) software and support for up to 32 GB of memory through PAE (added with the /PAE boot string). Enterprise Edition also comes in 64-bit versions for the Itanium and x64 architectures. The 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition are capable of addressing up to 1 TB of memory. Both 32-bit and 64bit versions support Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA). It also provides the ability to hot-add supported hardware. Enterprise Edition is also required to issue custom certificate templates. Datacenter edition: Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition is designed for infrastructures demanding high security and reliability. Windows Server 2003 is available for x86, Itanium, and x86-64 processors. It supports a maximum of up to 32 processors on 32-bit or 64 processors on 64-bit hardware. 32-bit architecture also limits memory addressability to 64 GB, while the 64-bit versions support up to 1 TB. Windows
Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, also allows limiting processor and memory usage on a per-application basis. Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition also supports Non-Uniform Memory Access. If supported by the system, Windows, with help from the system firmware will make use of NUMA kernel awareness, which is indicated by the presence of a firmware generatel ACPI Static Resource Affinity Table (SRAT) that defines the NUMA topology of the system. Windows then uses this table to optimize memory accesses, and provide NUMA awareness to applications, thereby increasing the efficiency of thread scheduling and memory management. Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition has better support for Storage Area Networks (SAN). It features a service which uses Windows sockets to emulate TCP/IP communication over native SAN service providers, thereby allowing a SAN to be accessed over any TCP/IP channel. With this, any application that can communicate over TCP/IP can use a SAN, without any modification to the application. Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition also supports 8-node clustering. Clustering increases availability and fault tolerance of server installations by distributing and replicating the service among many servers. Windows supports clustering with each cluster having its own dedicated storage, or with all clusters connected to a common storage area network (SAN). The SAN can be running on a Windows or non-Windows operating system and may be connected to other computers as well.
Windows Server 2003, Web Edition is mainly for building and hosting Web applications, Web pages, and XML web services. It is designed to be used primarily as an IIS 6.0 Web server]and provides a platform for rapidly developing and deploying XML Web services and applications that use ASP.NET technology, a key part of the .NET Framework. Terminal Server mode is not included on Web Edition. However, Remote Desktop for Administration is available on Windows Server 2003, Web Edition. Only 10 concurrent file-sharing connections are allowed at any moment. It is not possible to install Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft Exchange software in this edition without installing Service Pack 1. Despite supporting XML Web services and ASP.NET, UDDI cannot be deployed on Windows Server 2003, Web Edition. The .NET Framework version 2.0 is not
included with Windows Server 2003, Web Edition, but can be installed as a separate update from Windows Update. Windows Server 2003 Web Edition supports a maximum of 2 processors with support for a maximum of 2GB of RAM. Additionally, Windows Server 2003, Web Edition cannot act as a domain controller. It is the only edition of Windows Server 2003 that does not require Client Access Licenses when used as the internet facing server front end for Internet Information Services and Windows Server Update Services. When using it for storage or as a backend with another remote server as the frontend, CALs may still be required.
Q4) Write a short note Windows NT and Sun Solaris and what are the system requirements.
Window NT: Windows NT is a Microsoft Windows personal computer operating system designed for users and businesses needing advanced capability. NT's technology is the base for the Microsoft successor operating system, Windows 2000. Windows NT (which may originally have stood for "New Technology," although Microsoft doesn't say) is actually two products: Microsoft NT Workstation and Microsoft NT Server. The Workstation is designed for users, especially business users, who need faster performance and a system a little more fail-safe than Windows 95 and Windows 98. The Server is designed for business machines that need to provide services for network-attached computers. The Server is required, together with an Internet server such as Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS), for a Windows system that plans to serve Web pages. A version of the Windows operating system. Windows NT (New Technology) is a 32-bit operating system that supports preemptive multitasking. There are actually two versions of Windows NT: Windows NT Server, designed to act as a server in networks, and Windows NT Workstation for stand-alone or client workstations. Hardware requirements The minimum hardware specification required to run each release of the professional workstation version of Windows NT has been fairly slow-moving
until the 6.0 Vista releases, which requires a minimum of 15 GB of free disk space, a 10-fold increase in free disk space alone over the previous version.
Windows NT desktop (x86) minimum hardware requirements Free disk NT version CPU RAM space NT 3.1 12 MB 386, 25 MHz 90 MB NT 3.1 Advanced Server 16 MB NT 3.5 Workstation NT 3.5 Server Solaris: It is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1992. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software, then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license, and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010, Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. As a result, the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project, as part of the Illumos Foundation. However, starting with Solaris 11, updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license, after full binary releases are made. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program, called Oracle Technology Network (OTN), to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification. 386, 25 MHz 12 MB 16 MB 90 MB
Q5) How active directory is installed, list two different ways and document the whole procedure.
Ans: To install Active Directory on Windows Server 2003 : Requirements
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An NTFS partition. Correct operating system version. A NIC A properly configured TCP/IP A network connection to a hub/switch or router. A Domain name that you want to use. Windows 2003 Server CD.
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Insert the Windows 2000/2003 CD. Click start > run and type dcpromo and press enter. Active directory installation wizard will be started. Click next and select the “domain controller for a new domain and click next. Select a domain in the new forest. Provide the fully qualified domain name and click next. Enter the NETBIOS name and click next. Select the best options from 1. Permission compatible with Pre Windows 2000 server operating systems and 2. Permission compatible only with Windows 2000 or Windows 2003 operating systems. Set the Active directory restore password. It is not the same as your domain administrator password. Click next. Active directory installation process begins. During the installation process do not click cancel. The installation process will automatically be completed. When the installation is completed click finish and restart the computer.
Active directory provides the benefits such as site scalability, simplified domain logon, management console, enhanced LDAP security, schema enhancements, interoperability, user management and network resources management. AD reduces the burden the management on the IT professionals, increases the productivity of the users, improved fault tolerance and enhanced security features. To install Active directory by using the Windows interface:
1. Click Start, and then click Server Manager. 2. In Roles Summary, click Add Roles. 3. If necessary, review the information on the Before You Begin page, and then click Next. 4. On the Select Server Roles page, select the Active Directory Domain Services check box, and then click Next. 5. If necessary, review the information on the Active Directory Domain Services page, and then click Next. 6. On the Confirm Installation Selections page, click Install. 7. On the Installation Results page, click Close this wizard and launch the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard (dcpromo.exe). 8. On the Welcome to the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard page, click Next. a. If you want to install from media, identify the source domain controller for AD DS replication, or specify the Password Replication Policy (PRP) for an RODC as part of the installation of the additional domain controller, click Use advanced mode installation. 9. On the Operating System Compatibility page, review the warning about the default security settings for Windows Server 2008 domain controllers, and then click Next. 10. On the Choose a Deployment Configuration page, click Existing forest, click Add a domain controller to an existing domain, and then click Next. 11. On the Select a Domain page, select the domain of the new domain controller, and then click Next. 12. On the Select a Site page, select a site from the list or select the option to install the domain controller in the site that corresponds to its IP address, and then click Next.
13. On the Additional Domain Controller Options page, make the following selections, and then click Next:
6) How many partitions we require to install WIN Server 2003.Which type of partition we require while installing Windows Server 2003 and why?
Ans: Only one partition required to install window server 2003.Windows Server 2003 supports the NTFS file system in addition to the file allocation table (FAT) and FAT32 file systems. Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000, and Windows NT are the only Microsoft operating systems that you can use to gain access to data on a local hard disk that is formatted with NTFS. If you plan to gain access to files that are on a local Windows Server 2003 partition with the Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows98 operating systems, you should format the partition with a FAT or FAT32 file system. In case of missing, damaged or deleted Windows partition, Partition Recovery Software can be used to recover all missing information. These are the powerful tools to scan the affected drive. The applications are quite easy to use and are found to successfully recover all lost partition in any case. They are designed as read-only and hence are safe to be used. Users can simply carry out recovery by following the described steps. Stellar Phoenix Windows Data Recovery is the safe and complete Partition Recovery product. The software supports Windows Vista, Server 2003, XP and 2000. It offers advanced recovery features like Create Image, Advanced Scan, RAW File Recovery, File Filter and many similar. The software can be used for any disk based on FAT16, FAT32, VFAT, NTFS and NTFS5 file systems.
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